Go to the Table Of Contents

Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Drug Use:
Findings from the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

Appendix A: Directory of Prevention Domains, Constructs, and Items Used from the 1999 NHSDA Questionnaire

Table A.1 List of Items in the Community Domain from the 1999 NHSDA

Construct Factor Item # Item
Community Disorganization and Crime Risk   How Much Do You Agree or Disagree That...
YE-2a ...there is a lot of crime in your neighborhood?
  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree
YE-2b ...there is a lot of drug selling in your neighborhood?
(see previous response categories)
YE-2g ...there are a lot of street fights in your neighborhood?
(see previous response categories)
YE-2h ...there are many empty or abandoned buildings in your neighborhood?
(see previous response categories)
YE-2j ...there is a lot of graffiti in your neighborhood?
(see previous response categories)
YE-2l ...people move in and out of your neighborhood often?
(see previous response categories)
Neighborhood Cohesiveness Protective   How Much Do You Agree or Disagree That...
YE-2c ...people in your neighborhood often help each other out?
  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree
YE-2i ...people in your neighborhood often visit each other's homes?
(see previous response categories)
Community Attitudes Toward Substance Use Risk   How Do You Think That Most Adults in Your Neighborhood Would Feel About...
YE-3b ...you trying marijuana or hashish once or twice?
  • Neither approve nor disapprove
  • Somewhat disapprove
  • Strongly disapprove
YE-3a ...you smoking one or two packs of cigarettes per day?
(see previous response categories)
YE-3d ...you having one or more drinks of an alcoholic beverage nearly every day?
(see previous response categories)
Community Norms Toward Substance Use Risk   How Many Adults That You Know Personally Would You Say....
YE-5b ...use marijuana or hashish?
  • None of them
  • A few of them
  • Most of them
  • All of them
YE-5a ...smoke cigarettes?
(see previous response categories)
YE-5c ...drink alcoholic beverages?
(see previous response categories)
YE-5d ... get drunk at least once a week?
(see previous response categories)
Availability of Drugs Risk   How Difficult or Easy Would it Be for You to Get Some [Name of Substance], if You Wanted Some?
R-2a Marijuana
  • Probably impossible
  • Very difficult
  • Fairly difficult
  • Fairly easy
  • Very easy
R-2b LSD
(see previous response categories)
R-2c Cocaine
(see previous response categories)
R-2d Crack

(see previous response categories)

R-2e Heroin
(see previous response categories)
Exposure to Prevention Messages in the Media Protective YE-25 During the past 12 Months, Have You Seen or Heard Any Alcohol or Drug Prevention Messages from Sources Outside School, Such as in Posters, Pamphlets, and Radio or TV Ads?
  • Yes
  • No

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Table A.2 List of Items in the Family Domain from the 1999 NHSDA

Construct Factor Item # Item
Parental Monitoring Risk   How Often During the Past 12 Months Did Your Parents...
YE-6a ...check on whether you had done your homework?
  • Always
  • Sometimes
  • Seldom
  • Never
YE-6b ...provide help with your homework when you needed it?

(see previous response categories)

YE-6c ...make you do work or chores around the house?
(see previous response categories)
YE-6d ...limit the amount of time you watched TV?
(see previous response categories)
YE-6e ...limit the amount of time you went out with friends on school nights?
(see previous response categories)
Parental Encouragement Protective   How Often During the Past 12 Months Did Your Parents...
YE-6f ...let you know when you'd done a good job?
  • Always
  • Sometimes
  • Seldom
  • Never
YE-6g ...tell you they're proud of you for something you'd done?
(see previous response categories)
Parent's Attitude Toward Substance Use Risk   How Do You Think Your Parents Would Feel about You...
YE-7b ...trying marijuana or hashish once or twice?
  • Neither approve nor disapprove
  • Somewhat disapprove
  • Strongly disapprove
YE-7a ...smoking one or two packs of cigarettes per day?
(see previous response categories)
YE-7d ...having one or more drinks of an alcoholic beverage nearly every day?
(see previous response categories)
Parents Communicate About Substance Use Protective YE-8 During the Past 12 Months, Have You Talked with at Least One of Your Parents about the Dangers of Tobacco, Alcohol, or Drug Use?
  • Yes
  • No
Parents Are Source of Social Support Protective YE-22 If You Wanted to Talk to Someone about a Serious Problem, Which of the Following People Would You Turn To? Please Mark All That Apply.
  • Nobody
  • Your mother
  • Your father
  • Your grandmother or grandfather
  • Your boyfriend or girlfriend
  • Your brother or sister
  • Some other relative
  • A friend
  • A neighbor
  • A teacher, principal, coach, or school counselor
  • A therapist, psychiatrist, or other private counselor
  • A pastor, clergy or church group
  • Other

(Scored as parents (mother or father) vs. other responses)

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Table A.3 List of Items in the Peer/Individual Domain from the 1999 NHSDA

Construct Factor Item # Item
Antisocial Behavior Risk   During the Past 12 Months, How Many Times Have You...
YE-18b ...gotten into a serious fight at school or at work?
  • 0
  • 1 or 2 times
  • 3 to 5 times
  • 6 to 9 times
  • 10 or more times
YE-18c ...taken part in a fight where a group of your friends fought against another group?
(see previous response categories)
YE-18d ...carried a handgun?
(see previous response categories)
YE-18e ...sold illegal drugs?
(see previous response categories)
YE-18f ...stolen or tried to steal anything worth more than $50?
(see previous response categories)
YE-18g ...attacked someone with the intent to seriously hurt them?
(see previous response categories)
Individual Attitudes Toward Substance Use Risk   How Do You Feel about Someone Your Age...
YE-19b ....trying marijuana or hashish once or twice?
  • Neither approve nor disapprove
  • Somewhat disapprove
  • Strongly disapprove
YE-19a ...smoking one or two packs of cigarettes per day?
(see previous response categories)
YE-19d ...having one or more drinks of an alcoholic beverage nearly every day?

(see previous response categories)

Friends' Attitudes Toward Substance Use Risk   How Do You Think Your Close Friends Would Feel about You...
YE-20b ...trying marijuana or hashish once or twice?
  • Neither approve nor disapprove
  • Somewhat disapprove
  • Strongly disapprove
YE-20a ...smoking one or two packs of cigarettes per day?
(see previous response categories)
YE-20d ...having one or more drinks of an alcoholic beverage nearly every day?

(see previous response categories)

Friends' Substance Use Risk   How Many of Your Friends Would You Say...
YE-21b ...use marijuana or hashish?
  • None of them
  • A few of them
  • Most of them
  • All of them
YE-21a ...smoke cigarettes?
(see previous response categories)
YE-21c ...drink alcoholic beverages?
(see previous response categories)
YE-21d ...get drunk at least once a week?
(see previous response categories)

Perceived Risk of Substance Use

Risk   How Much Do You Think People Risk Harming Themselves Physically and in Other Ways When They...
R-1b ...smoke marijuana once a month?
  • No risk
  • Slight risk
  • Moderate risk
  • Great risk
R-1c ...smoke marijuana once or twice a week?
(see previous response categories)
R-1a ...smoke one or more packs of cigarettes per day?
(see previous response categories)
R-1j ...have four or five drinks nearly every day?
(see previous response categories)
R-1k ...have five or more drinks once or twice a week?
(see previous response categories)
Risk-Taking Proclivity Risk R-4a How Often Do You Get a Real Kick out of Doing Things That Are a Little Dangerous?
  • Never
  • Seldom
  • Sometimes
  • Always
R-4b How Often Do You Test Yourself by Doing Something a Little Risky?
(see previous response categories)
R-4c How Often Do You Wear a Seatbelt When You Are Riding in the Front Passenger Seat of a Car?
(see previous response categories)
Participation in Extracurricular Activities Protective YE-23 In the Past 12 Months, Have You Participated in...
  • ...Big Brother/Big Sister/Big Buddy program or peer mentoring or tutoring program?
  • ...a problem solving, communication skills or self-esteem group?
  • ...a violence prevention program, where you learn ways to avoid fights and control anger?
  • ...youth center activities, at the YMCA, YWCA, or other similar community center?
  • ...the Boy Scouts or Girl Scouts?
  • ...private lessons, such as piano, dance, tennis, karate, horseback riding, etc?
  • ...an alcohol, tobacco, or drug prevention program outside of school, where you learn about the dangers of using, and how to resist using, alcohol, tobacco, or drugs?
  • ...team sports, such as football, basketball, swimming, gymnastics, etc.?
  • ...a 4–H club?
  • ...a program or meeting to help you deal with drug or alcohol use by you or another member of your family, such as AA, Alateen, or individual or group counseling?
  • ...a school band, orchestra, or choir?
  • ...school-related clubs?
  • ...volunteer or community work, such as recycling or clean-up projects?
  • ...student government?
  • ...pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease prevention programs?
  • ...job skills or job training?
  • ...a church choir?

(Scored as two or more activities vs. less than two activities)

Religiosity Protective D-41 During the Past 12 Months, How Many Times Did You Attend Religious Services? Please Do Not Include Special Occasions Such as Weddings, Christenings, Funerals, or Other Special Events in Your Answer.
  • 0 to 5 times
  • 6 to 24 times
  • 25 to 52 times
  • More than 52 times
D-42a My Religious Beliefs Are a Very Important Part of My Life.
  • Strongly disagree
  • Disagree
  • Agree
  • Strongly agree
D-42b My Religious Beliefs Influence How I Make Decisions in My Life.
(see previous response categories)
D-42c It Is Important That My Friends Share My Religious Beliefs.
(see previous response categories)

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Table A.4 List of Items in the School Domain from the 1999 NHSDA

Construct Factor Item # Item
Commitment to School Protective YE-10 Please Choose the Option That Best Describes How You Felt Overall about Going to School During the Past 12 Months.
  • You liked going to school
  • You kind of liked going to school
  • You didn't like going to school
  • You hated going to school
YE-11 During the Past 12 Months, How Often Did You Feel That the School Work You Were Assigned to Do Was Meaningful and Important?
  • You always felt this way
  • You sometimes felt this way
  • You seldom felt this way
  • You never felt this way
YE-12 How Important Do You Think the Things You Have Learned in School During the Past 12 Months Are Going to Be to You Later in Life?
  • Very important
  • Somewhat important
  • Somewhat unimportant
  • Very unimportant
YE-13 How Interesting Do You Think Most of Your Courses at School During the Past 12 Months Have Been?
  • Very interesting
  • Somewhat interesting
  • Somewhat boring
  • Very boring
Sanctions Against Substance Use Protective   How Much Trouble Do You Think a Student in Your Grade Would Be in If He or She Got Caught at School...
YE-17f ...using an illegal drug?
  • A lot of trouble
  • A little trouble
  • No trouble at all
YE-17b ...smoking a cigarette?
(see previous response categories)
YE-17d ...drinking an alcoholic beverage?
(see previous response categories)
Perceived Prevalence of Substance Use Risk   How Many of the Students in Your Grade at School Would You Say...
YE-16b ...use marijuana or hashish?
  • None
  • A few
  • Most
  • All
YE-16a ...smoke cigarettes?
(see previous response categories)
YE-16c ...drink alcoholic beverages?
(see previous response categories)
YE-16d ...get drunk at least once a week?
(see previous response categories)
Academic Performance Risk YE-15 What Were Your Grades for the Last Semester or Grading Period That You Completed?
  • A+, A, or A-minus average
  • B+, B, or B-minus average
  • C+, C, or C-minus average
  • D or less than a D average
Exposure to Prevention Messages in School Protective YE-24 In the Past 12 Months, Have You Had...
  • ...a special class about drugs or alcohol? (Yes or No)
  • ...films, lectures, discussions, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in one of your regular classes, such as health, physical education, etc.? (Yes or No)
  • ...films, lectures, discussions, or printed information about drugs or alcohol outside one of your regular classes, such as in special assemblies? (Yes or No)

(Scored as "Yes" to at least one of the above vs. "No" to all of the above)

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Table A.5 Distribution of Items in the Community Domain from the 1999 NHSDA

Construct Percent Construct Percent
Community Disorganization and Crime
A Lot of Crime in Neighborhood Many Empty / Abandoned Buildings in Neighborhood
Strongly disagree 51.6 Strongly disagree 75.5
Somewhat disagree 26.2 Somewhat disagree 13.4
Somewhat agree 17.0 Somewhat agree 7.3
Strongly agree 5.1 Strongly agree 3.8
A Lot of Drug Selling in Neighborhood A Lot of Graffiti in Neighborhood
Strongly disagree 56.9 Strongly disagree 69.9
Somewhat disagree 18.3 Somewhat disagree 14.7
Somewhat agree 15.6 Somewhat agree 10.3
Strongly agree 9.1 Strongly agree 5.0
A Lot of Street Fights in Neighborhood People Move In and Out of Neighborhood Often
Strongly disagree 69.7 Strongly disagree 38.1
Somewhat disagree 16.2 Somewhat disagree 31.5
Somewhat agree 9.6 Somewhat agree 22.3
Strongly agree 4.5 Strongly agree 8.2
Neighborhood Cohesiveness
People in Neighborhood Often Help Each Other Out People in Neighborhood Often Visit Each Other's Homes
Strongly disagree 7.5 Strongly disagree 10.2
Somewhat disagree 14.1 Somewhat disagree 16.8
Somewhat agree 45.1 Somewhat agree 41.5
Strongly agree 33.4 Strongly agree 31.4
Community Attitudes Toward Substance Use
Marijuana (Trying Once or Twice) Alcohol (1 or More Drinks Nearly Every Day)
Strongly disapprove 78.8 Strongly disapprove 70.3
Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 21.1 Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 29.8
Cigarettes (1 or 2 Packs a Day)    
Strongly disapprove 65.1    
Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 34.8    
Community Norms Toward Substance Use
How many adults that you know personally would you say use the following substances?
Marijuana Alcohol
None of them 71.2 None of them 12.6
A few of them 25.0 A few of them 42.2
Most / All of them 3.8 Most / All of them 45.2
Cigarettes Get Drunk at Least Once a Week
None of them 10.9 None of them 55.0
A few of them 60.8 A few of them 37.6
Most of them / All of them 28.3 Most / All of them 7.5
Availability of Drugs
Marijuana   Crack  
Probably impossible / Very difficult /Fairly difficult 43.5 Probably impossible / Very difficult /Fairly difficult 71.6
Fairly easy / Very easy 56.5 Fairly easy / Very easy 28.4
LSD   Heroin  
Probably impossible / Very difficult /Fairly difficult 75.1 Probably impossible / Very difficult /Fairly difficult 81.9
Fairly easy / Very easy 24.9 Fairly easy / Very easy 18.1
Cocaine      
Probably impossible / Very difficult /Fairly difficult 82.5    
Fairly easy / Very easy 27.5    
Exposure to Prevention Messages in the Media
No 17.7    
Yes 82.3    

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Table A.6 Distribution of Items in the Family Domain from the 1999 NHSDA

Construct Percent Construct Percent
Parental Monitoring
Parents Check on Whether Done Homework Parents Limit the Amount of Time You Watch TV
Never 8.4 Never 38.7
Seldom 13.7 Seldom 22.1
Sometimes 32.6 Sometimes 27.9
Always 45.3 Always 11.3
Parents Provide Help With Homework if Needed Parents Limit Amount of Time Out with Friends on School Nights
Never 81.1 Never 12.6
Seldom 10.8 Seldom 15.6
Sometimes 23.7 Sometimes 30.0
Always 57.3 Always 41.9
Parents Make You Do Work Chores Around the House  
Never 3.1    
Seldom 8.9    
Sometimes 36.7    
Always 51.3    
Parental Encouragement
Parents Let You Know You Have Done a Good Job Parents Tell You They Are Proud of You for Something You Have Done
Never 4.1 Never 4.2
Seldom 10.2 Seldom 10.5
Sometimes 33.7 Sometimes 32.2
Always 52.0 Always 53.1
Parents' Attitudes Toward Substance Use
Marijuana (Trying Once or Twice) Alcohol (1 or More Drinks Nearly Every Day)
Strongly disapprove 90.7 Strongly disapprove 89.5
Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 9.2 Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 10.5
Cigarettes (1 or 2 Packs a Day)    
Strongly disapprove 87.4    
Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 12.6    
Parents Communicate About Substance Use
No 42.6    
Yes 57.4    
Parents as Source of Social Support
Selected mother or father 71.7    
Did not select mother or father 28.3    

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Table A.7 Distribution of Items in the Peer/Individual Domain from the 1999 NHSDA

Construct Percent Construct Percent
Antisocial Behavior
Got into a Serious Fight at School or Work Sold Illegal Drugs
0 times 78.1 0 times 96.2
1 or more times 21.9 1 or more times 3.8
Taken Part in Group on Group Fight Stole / Tried to Steal Anything Worth More than $50
0 times 82.9 0 times 95.2
1 or more times 17.1 1 or more times 4.7
Carried a Handgun Attacked Someone with Intent to Seriously Hurt Them
0 times 96.4 0 times 91.6
1 or more times 3.6 1 or more times 8.4
Individual Attitudes Toward Substance Use
Marijuana (Trying once or twice) Alcohol (1 or More Drinks Nearly Every Day)
Strongly disapprove 63.5 Strongly disapprove 63.4
Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 36.4 Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 36.6
Cigarettes (1 or 2 Packs a Day)    
Strongly disapprove 63.7    
Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 36.3    
Friends' Attitudes Toward Substance Use
Marijuana Alcohol (1 or More Drinks Nearly Every Day)
Strongly disapprove 63.2 Strongly disapprove 59.6
Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 36.8 Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 40.4
Cigarettes (1 or 2 Packs a Day)    
Strongly disapprove 57.5    
Somewhat disapprove / Neither approve nor disapprove 42.6    
Friends' Substance Use
Marijuana Alcohol
None of them 58.0 None of them 39.4
A few of them 30.3 A few of them 37.7
Most / All of them 11.7 Most / All of them 23.0
Cigarettes Get Drunk at Least Once a Week
None of them 37.9 None of them 63.4
A few of them 43.4 A few of them 27.8
Most of them / All of them 18.7 Most / All of them 8.8
Risk-Taking Proclivity
How often do you get a real kick out of doing things that are a little dangerous? How often do you wear a seatbelt when you are riding in the front passenger seat of a car?
Never 28.7 Never 4.9
Seldom 30.9 Seldom 9.3
Sometimes 33.1 Sometimes 23.1
Always 7.4 Always 62.7
How often do you test yourself by doing something a little risky?  
Never 29.8    
Seldom 36.7    
Sometimes 28.1    
Always 5.4    
Perceived Risk of Substance Use
Marijuana (Once a Month) Alcohol (4 or 5 Drinks Nearly Every day)
Great risk 37.2 Great risk 63.6
No risk / Slight risk / Moderate risk 62.8 No risk / Slight risk / Moderate risk 36.4
Marijuana (1 or 2 Times a Week) Alcohol (5 or More Drinks 1 or 2 Times a Week)
Great risk 56.5 Great risk 42.0
No risk / Slight risk / Moderate risk 43.5 No risk / Slight risk / Moderate risk 58.0
Cigarettes (1 or more packs a day)      
Great risk 60.7    
No risk / Slight risk / Moderate risk 39.3    
Involvement in Extracurricular Activities
Participated in 0 or 1 activities 30.9    
Participated in 2 or more activities 69.1    
Religiosity
Number of Times Attended Religious Services in Past 12 Months Religious Beliefs Influence How Make Decisions in Life
0 to 5 40.8 Strongly disagree 7.5
6 to 24 17.4 Somewhat disagree 19.9
25 to 52 20.2 Somewhat agree 44.8
More than 52 21.7 Strongly agree 27.9
Religious Beliefs a Very Important Part of Life It is Important That Friends Share My Religious Beliefs
Strongly disagree 7.2 Strongly disagree 19.0
Somewhat disagree 12.6 Somewhat disagree 44.3
Somewhat agree 44.3 Somewhat agree 27.2
Strongly agree 36.0 Strongly agree 9.4

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Table A.8 Distribution of Items in the School Domain from the 1999 NHSDA

Construct Percent Construct Percent
Commitment to School
During the past 12 months...  
How did you feel overall about going to school? How important do you think the things you have learned in school are going to be to you later in life?
Hated going to school 6.1 Very unimportant 3.2
Didn't like going to school 13.7 Somewhat unimportant 10.6
Kind of liked going to school 48.4 Somewhat important 41.4
Liked going to school 31.8 Very important 44.8
How often did you feel that the school work you were assigned to do was meaningful and important? How interesting do you think most of your courses at school have been?
Never 4.7 Very boring 6.3
Seldom 17.3 Somewhat boring 18.8
Sometimes 52.5 Somewhat interesting 53.0
Always 25.5 Very interesting 21.9
Sanctions Against Substance Use at School
How much trouble if caught using an illegal drug? How much trouble if caught drinking alcohol?
No trouble at all 1.0 No trouble at all 1.3
A little trouble 3.9 A little trouble 12.9
A lot of trouble 95.1 A lot of trouble 85.7
How much trouble if caught smoking a cigarette?    
No trouble at all 4.4    
A little trouble 32.8    
A lot of trouble 62.8    
Perceived Prevalence of Substance Use
How many students in your grade at school would you say use the following substances?
Marijuana Alcohol
None of them 26.1 None of them 18.0
A few of them 50.6 A few of them 40.8
Most / All of them 23.4 Most / All of them 41.2
Cigarettes Get Drunk at Least Once a Week
None of them 13.3 None of them 35.5
A few of them 46.7 A few of them 47.2
Most of them / All of them 40.0 Most / All of them 17.3
Academic Performance
What were your grades in last completed semester/grading period?
A+ / A / A- 28.5    
B+ / B / B- 41.5    
C+ / C / C- 22.2    
D or below 5.9    
School does not give letter grades 2.0    
Exposure to Prevention Messages in School  
No 77.4    
Yes 22.6    

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Table A.9 Correlations among Risk Factor Scales for Youths Aged 12 to 17: 1999

Risk Factor Scale Community Disorganization and Crime Community Attitudes Community Norms Perceived Availability of Marijuana Parental Monitoring Parental Attitudes Anti-social Behavior Individ-ual Attitudes Friends' Attitudes Friends' Use Perceived Risk of Use Risk-Taking Proclivity Perceived Prevalence in School Academic Performance
Community
Disorganization
and Crime
0.28 0.24 0.14 0.08 0.15 0.22 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.10 0.09 0.13 0.17
Community Attitudes 0.26 0.22 0.21 0.34 0.20 0.35 0.35 0.29 0.25 0.16 0.25 0.18
Community Norms 0.34 0.26 0.23 0.29 0.34 0.37 0.50 0.29 0.31 0.44 0.22
Perceived Availability of Marijuana 0.25 0.11 0.19 0.34 0.37 0.51 0.23 0.32 0.55 0.12
Parental Monitoring 0.17 0.18 0.27 0.29 0.32 0.22 0.25 0.30 0.14
Parental Attitudes 0.24 0.41 0.37 0.25 0.26 0.15 0.15 0.16
Antisocial Behavior 0.29 0.28 0.35 0.27 0.33 0.23 0.25
Individual Attitudes 0.70 0.50 0.45 0.38 0.36 0.25
Friends' Attitudes 0.57 0.42 0.36 0.41 0.26
Friends' Use 0.36 0.39 0.67 0.25
Perceived Risk of Use 0.30 0.23 0.21
Risk-Taking Proclivity 0.29 0.19
Perceived Prevalence 0.18
Academic Performance

Note: All correlations are significant at p < .0001.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Table A.10 Correlations among Protective Factor Scales for Youths Aged 12 to 17: 1999

Protective Factor Scale Neighborhood Cohesiveness Exposed to Prevention Messages in Media Parental Encouragement Parents Communicate About Substance Abuse Parents Are Source of Social Support Participation in Two or More Extracurricular Activities Religiosity Commitment to School School Has Sanctions Against Substance Use Exposed to Prevention Messages in School
Neighborhood Cohesiveness 0.06 0.16 0.10 0.08 0.16 0.12 0.13 0.10 0.09
Exposed to Prevention Messages in Media 0.07 0.12 0.05 0.15 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.25
Parental Encouragement 0.24 0.33 0.15 0.17 0.29 0.16 0.10
Parents Communicate About Substance Abuse 0.20 0.14 0.08 0.14 0.07 0.16
Parents Are Source of Social Support 0.07 0.10 0.21 0.13 0.07
Participation in Two or More Extracurricular Activities 0.19 0.16 0.07 0.21
Religiosity 0.20 0.11 0.06
Commitment to School   0.21 0.09
School Has Sanctions Against Substance Use 0.10
Exposed to Prevention Messages in School

Note: All correlations are significant at p < .0001.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Table A.11 Correlations Between Risk Factor Scales and Protective Factor Scales for Youths Aged 12 to 17: 1999

Protective Factor Scale Community Disorganization and Crime Community Attitudes Community Norms Perceived Availability of Marijuana Parental Monitoring Parental Attitudes Antisocial Behavior Individual Attitudes Friends' Attitudes Friends' Use Perceived Risk of Use Risk-Taking Proclivity Perceived Prevalence in School Academic Performance
Neighborhood Cohesiveness -0.16 -0.25 -0.11 -0.09 -0.16 -0.08 -0.07 -0.12 -0.14 -0.10 -0.09 -0.05 -0.10 -0.14
Exposed to Prevention Messages in Media -0.07 -0.09 -0.05 0.01 -0.07 -0.14 -0.10 -0.09 -0.08 -0.07 -0.08 -0.05 -0.03 -0.12
Parental Encouragement -0.11 -0.16 -0.22 -0.17 -0.43 -0.13 -0.18 -0.23 -0.24 -0.24 -0.17 -0.21 -0.22 -0.20
Parents Communicate About Substance Abuse -0.06 -0.08 -0.07 -0.02 -0.24 -0.07 -0.06 -0.10 -0.10 -0.07 -0.09 -0.09 -0.06 -0.12
Parents Are Source of Social Support -0.08 -0.12 -0.16 -0.17 -0.24 -0.10 -0.16 -0.22 -0.20 -0.22 -0.15 -0.20 -0.19 -0.13
Participation in Two or More Extracurricular Activities -0.11 -0.17 -0.14 -0.07 -0.16 -0.14 -0.11 -0.19 -0.21 -0.16 -0.16 -0.09 -0.10 -0.28
Religiosity -0.06 -0.15 -0.23 -0.17 -0.23 -0.16 -0.13 -0.28 -0.25 -0.23 -0.23 -0.17 -0.17 -0.16
Commitment to School -0.04 -0.15 -0.24 -0.24 -0.31 -0.10 -0.24 -0.33 -0.32 -0.31 -0.26 -0.37 -0.27 -0.27
School Has Sanctions Against Substance Use -0.11 -0.20 -0.18 -0.28 -0.23 -0.16 -0.20 -0.22 -0.24 -0.30 -0.18 -0.17 -0.35 -0.08
Exposed to Prevention Messages in School -0.06 -0.11 -0.05 -0.04 -0.11 -0.13 -0.08 -0.10 -0.11 -0.09 -0.10 -0.05 -0.06 -0.14

Note: All correlations are significant at p < .0001, except Perceived Easy Availability of Marijuana and Exposed to Prevention Messages in Media (p = .4861), Perceived Easy Availability of Marijuana and Parents Communicate About Substance Abuse (p = .0015).

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.

Go to the Table of Contents

This page was last updated on July 17, 2008.