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Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Drug Use:
Findings from the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

Table of Contents (TOC)

CITATION:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies (2004).  Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Drug Use: Findings from the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (Analytic Series A–19, DHHS Publication No. SMA 04–3874). Rockville, MD.

Cover

Acknowledgments

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Exhibits

Highlights

1. Introduction
     1.1 Overview
          1.1.1 Related Prevention Literature
          1.1.2 Relation to Earlier Report on Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Drug
          Use: Findings from the 1997 NHSDA
          1.1.3 Organization of the Report
     1.2 Overview of the NHSDA Methodology
          1.2.1 Redesign of the NHSDA
          1.2.2 1999 CAI and 1999 PAPI

2. Distributions of Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Use
     2.1 Introduction
     2.2 Community Domain
          2.2.1 Community Disorganization and Crime
          2.2.2 Neighborhood Cohesiveness
          2.2.3 Community Attitudes Toward Substance Use
          2.2.4 Community Norms Toward Substance Use
          2.2.5 Availability of Illicit Drugs
          2.2.6 Exposure to Prevention Messages in the Media
          2.2.7 Community Factors, by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age
     2.3 Family Domain
          2.3.1 Parental Monitoring
          2.3.2 Parental Encouragement
          2.3.3 Parental Attitudes Toward Substance Use
          2.3.4 Parental Communication about Substance Use
          2.3.5 Parents as Source of Social Support
          2.3.6 Family Factors, by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age
     2.4 Peer/Individual Domain
          2.4.1 Antisocial Behavior
          2.4.2 Individual Attitudes Toward Substance Use
          2.4.3 Friends' Attitudes Toward Substance Use
          2.4.4 Friends' Substance Use
          2.4.5 Perceived Risk of Substance Use
          2.4.6 Risk-Taking Proclivity
          2.4.7 Participation in Extracurricular Activities
          2.4.8 Religiosity
          2.4.9 Peer/Individual Factors, by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age
     2.5 School Domain
          2.5.1 Commitment to School
          2.5.2 Sanctions Against Substance Use
          2.5.3 Perceived Prevalence of Substance Use
          2.5.4 Academic Performance
          2.5.5 Exposure to Prevention Messages in School
          2.5.6 School Factors, by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

3. Associations Between Risk and Protective Factors and Past Year Marijuana Use
     3.1 Introduction
     3.2 Prevalence of Past Year Marijuana Use
     3.3 Community Domain
          3.3.1 Community Domain Risk Factors
          3.3.2 Community Domain Protective Factors
     3.4 Family Domain
          3.4.1 Family Domain Risk Factors
          3.4.2 Family Domain Protective Factors
     3.5 Peer/Individual Domain
          3.5.1 Peer/Individual Domain Risk Factors
          3.5.2 Peer/Individual Domain Protective Factors
     3.6 School Domain
          3.6.1 School Domain Risk Factors
          3.6.2 School Domain Protective Factors
     3.7 Significance Tests for Associations with Past Year Marijuana Use
     3.8 Demographic Variables
     3.9 Associations of Factors with Marijuana Use, by Race/Ethnicity and Gender
     3.10 Associations of Factors with Marijuana Use, Adjusting for Demographic Variables

4. Prediction of Past Year Substance Use Using Multiple Regression Models
     4.1 Introduction
     4.2 Past Year Use of Marijuana
          4.2.1 Comparisons Between Domains
          4.2.2 Full Model, Across Domains
     4.3 Past Year Use of Cigarettes and Alcohol
     4.4 Hierarchical Models
          4.4.1 Background
          4.4.2 Models
          4.4.3 Comments

5. Changes in Risk and Protective Factors Between 1997 and 1999
     5.1 Introduction
     5.2 Comparison of Estimates of Marijuana Use for 1997 and 1999
     5.3 Risk and Protective Factors Common to Both the 1997 and 1999 NHSDAs
     5.4 Comparison of Risk and Protective Factors Between 1997 and 1999
          5.4.1 Distributions of Factors Between 1997 and 1999
          5.4.2 Associations with Marijuana Use in 1997 and 1999
          5.4.3 Comparisons of the Predictiveness of the Final Models from 1997 and 1999
          5.4.4 Comparison of the Predictiveness of the Items Included in Both 1997 and 1999
     5.5 Disaggregating the Change in the Prevalence of Past Year Marijuana Use Between
     1997 and 1999
          5.5.1 A Standard Methodology for Measuring Change
          5.5.2 A New Methodology for Measuring Change
               5.5.2.1 Methodology
               5.5.2.2 Caveats
               5.5.2.3 Results

6. Discussion

References

List of Appendices

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This page was last updated on July 17, 2008.