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State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Health from the
2005-2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health

bulletNational data      bulletState level data       bulletMetropolitan and other subState area data

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Table 1. Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 7.76b   8.00   0.072
Northeast 8.42 (7.91 - 8.95) 8.64 (8.13 - 9.18) 0.370
Midwest 7.37 (6.99 - 7.77) 7.54 (7.15 - 7.96) 0.320
South 7.20 (6.86 - 7.56) 7.35 (6.98 - 7.74) 0.377
West 8.47b (7.95 - 9.03) 8.95 (8.40 - 9.53) 0.075
 
Alabama 6.92 (5.76 - 8.29) 6.98 (5.82 - 8.33) 0.925
Alaska 12.04 (10.03 - 14.38) 11.10 (9.36 - 13.11) 0.282
Arizona 6.87 (5.67 - 8.30) 7.74 (6.42 - 9.30) 0.194
Arkansas 7.22 (6.00 - 8.67) 7.92 (6.61 - 9.46) 0.261
California 8.63 (7.80 - 9.53) 9.01 (8.18 - 9.92) 0.366
Colorado 9.70 (8.23 - 11.41) 9.96 (8.48 - 11.66) 0.723
Connecticut 8.77 (7.30 - 10.51) 9.05 (7.57 - 10.79) 0.694
Delaware 8.03 (6.80 - 9.47) 7.81 (6.59 - 9.25) 0.725
District of Columbia 9.43b (7.78 - 11.38) 11.06 (9.42 - 12.95) 0.062
Florida 8.07 (7.30 - 8.92) 7.92 (7.14 - 8.78) 0.687
Georgia 7.36 (6.10 - 8.85) 7.69 (6.32 - 9.32) 0.643
Hawaii 8.11 (6.53 - 10.03) 7.75 (6.21 - 9.62) 0.609
Idaho 6.69 (5.51 - 8.10) 7.01 (5.80 - 8.45) 0.592
Illinois 7.26 (6.54 - 8.06) 7.05 (6.34 - 7.84) 0.559
Indiana 7.07 (5.89 - 8.45) 7.89 (6.69 - 9.28) 0.157
Iowa 5.50 (4.46 - 6.77) 5.93 (4.83 - 7.24) 0.413
Kansas 6.87 (5.64 - 8.35) 7.76 (6.44 - 9.31) 0.149
Kentucky 8.07a (6.69 - 9.71) 6.65 (5.51 - 7.99) 0.028
Louisiana 8.08 (6.74 - 9.67) 8.25 (6.91 - 9.83) 0.796
Maine 8.92 (7.46 - 10.63) 9.63 (8.14 - 11.34) 0.326
Maryland 6.26 (5.07 - 7.71) 6.00 (4.90 - 7.33) 0.630
Massachusetts 9.06 (7.68 - 10.66) 9.80 (8.36 - 11.46) 0.302
Michigan 8.49 (7.70 - 9.35) 8.56 (7.80 - 9.40) 0.860
Minnesota 7.94 (6.60 - 9.51) 7.91 (6.58 - 9.48) 0.969
Mississippi 6.39 (5.24 - 7.77) 7.35 (6.06 - 8.89) 0.131
Missouri 7.29 (6.05 - 8.76) 7.78 (6.48 - 9.30) 0.447
Montana 9.46 (7.94 - 11.24) 10.34 (8.74 - 12.19) 0.254
Nebraska 6.11 (4.98 - 7.48) 6.83 (5.69 - 8.19) 0.230
Nevada 8.10 (6.72 - 9.72) 9.27 (7.75 - 11.06) 0.130
New Hampshire 8.63 (7.26 - 10.24) 8.65 (7.32 - 10.20) 0.976
New Jersey 6.92 (5.73 - 8.34) 7.24 (5.99 - 8.72) 0.590
New Mexico 8.35 (6.89 - 10.10) 7.94 (6.55 - 9.59) 0.575
New York 9.04 (8.19 - 9.97) 9.27 (8.38 - 10.24) 0.599
North Carolina 6.91 (5.74 - 8.29) 7.38 (6.15 - 8.83) 0.398
North Dakota 5.91 (4.73 - 7.37) 5.55 (4.37 - 7.02) 0.503
Ohio 7.54 (6.82 - 8.34) 7.70 (6.95 - 8.52) 0.675
Oklahoma 7.70 (6.34 - 9.32) 8.23 (6.69 - 10.08) 0.498
Oregon 9.35 (7.92 - 11.00) 9.40 (7.96 - 11.07) 0.933
Pennsylvania 7.70 (6.94 - 8.53) 7.50 (6.75 - 8.33) 0.577
Rhode Island 10.38 (8.84 - 12.17) 11.06 (9.46 - 12.88) 0.409
South Carolina 7.01 (5.83 - 8.41) 6.98 (5.81 - 8.37) 0.954
South Dakota 6.10 (4.90 - 7.58) 6.53 (5.36 - 7.93) 0.473
Tennessee 7.77 (6.49 - 9.29) 8.75 (7.42 - 10.30) 0.124
Texas 6.49 (5.84 - 7.20) 6.54 (5.89 - 7.26) 0.871
Utah 7.36 (6.06 - 8.90) 6.65 (5.45 - 8.09) 0.224
Vermont 10.37 (8.79 - 12.20) 10.83 (9.25 - 12.65) 0.552
Virginia 6.59 (5.42 - 7.99) 7.06 (5.84 - 8.52) 0.443
Washington 8.31a (6.91 - 9.97) 10.01 (8.46 - 11.81) 0.024
West Virginia 7.42 (6.24 - 8.82) 7.74 (6.56 - 9.11) 0.613
Wisconsin 7.13 (5.89 - 8.62) 6.92 (5.81 - 8.23) 0.719
Wyoming 7.35b (6.07 - 8.88) 8.49 (7.16 - 10.03) 0.096

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Table 2. Marijuana Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 10.11   10.04   0.635
Northeast 11.25 (10.68 - 11.85) 11.32 (10.77 - 11.89) 0.796
Midwest 9.99 (9.56 - 10.43) 9.91 (9.48 - 10.36) 0.700
South 9.05 (8.67 - 9.45) 8.88 (8.49 - 9.28) 0.364
West 10.95 (10.34 - 11.60) 10.95 (10.34 - 11.59) 0.987
 
Alabama 8.31 (7.03 - 9.80) 7.65 (6.37 - 9.15) 0.288
Alaska 15.94b (13.80 - 18.33) 14.24 (12.39 - 16.32) 0.067
Arizona 9.13 (7.66 - 10.86) 8.29 (6.94 - 9.87) 0.217
Arkansas 9.14 (7.84 - 10.64) 9.52 (8.08 - 11.19) 0.554
California 11.09 (10.13 - 12.14) 11.11 (10.17 - 12.14) 0.965
Colorado 11.90 (10.18 - 13.86) 12.36 (10.62 - 14.34) 0.569
Connecticut 13.10 (11.15 - 15.33) 12.87 (10.99 - 15.01) 0.780
Delaware 10.41 (8.90 - 12.14) 10.13 (8.64 - 11.84) 0.702
District of Columbia 14.80 (12.79 - 17.07) 15.17 (13.31 - 17.23) 0.719
Florida 9.61 (8.79 - 10.50) 9.28 (8.47 - 10.16) 0.406
Georgia 9.30 (7.88 - 10.95) 9.57 (8.06 - 11.34) 0.725
Hawaii 10.62 (8.73 - 12.86) 9.74 (8.02 - 11.76) 0.208
Idaho 9.02 (7.68 - 10.57) 8.89 (7.54 - 10.46) 0.838
Illinois 9.59 (8.79 - 10.47) 9.00 (8.21 - 9.86) 0.143
Indiana 9.17 (7.79 - 10.76) 9.01 (7.69 - 10.54) 0.806
Iowa 7.70 (6.43 - 9.18) 7.63 (6.35 - 9.15) 0.908
Kansas 9.68 (8.23 - 11.35) 10.56 (9.02 - 12.32) 0.199
Kentucky 9.47 (8.03 - 11.14) 8.37 (7.05 - 9.92) 0.122
Louisiana 9.06 (7.63 - 10.72) 9.31 (7.84 - 11.02) 0.724
Maine 12.00 (10.30 - 13.94) 12.86 (11.09 - 14.86) 0.275
Maryland 9.64 (8.12 - 11.39) 8.82 (7.51 - 10.32) 0.226
Massachusetts 12.10 (10.47 - 13.93) 12.55 (10.88 - 14.45) 0.588
Michigan 11.68 (10.73 - 12.69) 11.70 (10.79 - 12.67) 0.961
Minnesota 11.19 (9.54 - 13.08) 11.00 (9.35 - 12.91) 0.810
Mississippi 7.93 (6.61 - 9.49) 8.18 (6.88 - 9.71) 0.686
Missouri 10.10 (8.66 - 11.76) 9.71 (8.28 - 11.35) 0.576
Montana 13.02 (11.30 - 14.96) 13.77 (11.90 - 15.89) 0.312
Nebraska 8.76 (7.37 - 10.38) 9.20 (7.81 - 10.80) 0.453
Nevada 9.93 (8.39 - 11.72) 10.36 (8.68 - 12.32) 0.597
New Hampshire 12.36 (10.59 - 14.36) 12.14 (10.44 - 14.08) 0.787
New Jersey 8.96 (7.53 - 10.62) 9.19 (7.77 - 10.85) 0.721
New Mexico 10.28 (8.68 - 12.13) 9.61 (8.11 - 11.34) 0.376
New York 11.69 (10.76 - 12.69) 11.87 (10.93 - 12.89) 0.664
North Carolina 9.58 (8.10 - 11.30) 9.57 (8.06 - 11.32) 0.987
North Dakota 8.14b (6.80 - 9.71) 7.16 (5.93 - 8.62) 0.070
Ohio 9.70 (8.91 - 10.55) 10.29 (9.40 - 11.26) 0.146
Oklahoma 8.31 (7.03 - 9.79) 8.24 (6.87 - 9.85) 0.910
Oregon 13.11 (11.35 - 15.11) 12.74 (11.05 - 14.65) 0.620
Pennsylvania 10.61 (9.71 - 11.59) 10.11 (9.21 - 11.09) 0.249
Rhode Island 14.15 (12.41 - 16.10) 14.63 (12.74 - 16.74) 0.570
South Carolina 9.02 (7.61 - 10.66) 8.47 (7.19 - 9.95) 0.406
South Dakota 8.10 (6.78 - 9.65) 8.20 (6.93 - 9.68) 0.869
Tennessee 9.90 (8.36 - 11.69) 10.30 (8.75 - 12.09) 0.585
Texas 8.09 (7.38 - 8.86) 7.99 (7.26 - 8.79) 0.784
Utah 8.28 (6.94 - 9.85) 8.04 (6.70 - 9.63) 0.667
Vermont 14.12 (12.27 - 16.21) 15.25 (13.21 - 17.54) 0.159
Virginia 8.78 (7.42 - 10.36) 8.56 (7.28 - 10.04) 0.738
Washington 11.18 (9.46 - 13.17) 12.04 (10.37 - 13.94) 0.285
West Virginia 9.23 (7.92 - 10.73) 8.68 (7.42 - 10.13) 0.420
Wisconsin 10.32 (8.82 - 12.03) 9.86 (8.50 - 11.41) 0.498
Wyoming 9.89 (8.40 - 11.62) 10.82 (9.26 - 12.61) 0.236

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Table 3. Marijuana Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 5.90   5.93  0.777
Northeast 6.67 (6.28 - 7.10) 6.69 (6.25 - 7.14) 0.958
Midwest 5.67 (5.37 - 5.99) 5.70 (5.39 - 6.03) 0.840
South 5.23 (4.93 - 5.54) 5.19 (4.87 - 5.52) 0.757
West 6.55 (6.08 - 7.05) 6.73 (6.24 - 7.25) 0.454
 
Alabama 4.69 (3.79 - 5.78) 4.59 (3.64 - 5.77) 0.817
Alaska 10.18b (8.44 - 12.24) 8.91 (7.42 - 10.67) 0.099
Arizona 4.98 (4.01 - 6.18) 4.93 (3.97 - 6.11) 0.917
Arkansas 5.25 (4.27 - 6.45) 5.48 (4.44 - 6.73) 0.657
California 6.60 (5.89 - 7.40) 6.72 (5.97 - 7.55) 0.750
Colorado 7.33 (6.09 - 8.81) 7.70 (6.40 - 9.24) 0.513
Connecticut 7.44 (6.16 - 8.95) 7.51 (6.21 - 9.06) 0.893
Delaware 6.07 (5.07 - 7.27) 5.78 (4.76 - 7.00) 0.530
District of Columbia 7.30a (5.95 - 8.93) 8.58 (7.16 - 10.24) 0.038
Florida 5.75 (5.12 - 6.45) 5.55 (4.94 - 6.24) 0.511
Georgia 5.58 (4.50 - 6.89) 5.88 (4.74 - 7.26) 0.612
Hawaii 6.01 (4.72 - 7.61) 5.37 (4.23 - 6.80) 0.248
Idaho 4.90 (3.99 - 6.02) 5.24 (4.27 - 6.42) 0.437
Illinois 5.50 (4.92 - 6.14) 5.20 (4.62 - 5.85) 0.292
Indiana 4.96 (4.02 - 6.09) 5.46 (4.48 - 6.64) 0.289
Iowa 4.05 (3.24 - 5.06) 4.46 (3.62 - 5.48) 0.281
Kansas 5.09 (4.12 - 6.28) 5.72 (4.67 - 7.00) 0.195
Kentucky 5.94a (4.86 - 7.25) 4.75 (3.82 - 5.89) 0.021
Louisiana 5.52 (4.53 - 6.71) 5.54 (4.50 - 6.81) 0.959
Maine 8.16 (6.76 - 9.82) 8.76 (7.30 - 10.48) 0.352
Maryland 4.88 (3.89 - 6.11) 4.69 (3.75 - 5.84) 0.628
Massachusetts 7.37 (6.21 - 8.71) 7.85 (6.62 - 9.29) 0.424
Michigan 6.61 (5.94 - 7.36) 6.33 (5.68 - 7.04) 0.411
Minnesota 6.86 (5.64 - 8.32) 7.13 (5.88 - 8.62) 0.611
Mississippi 4.66 (3.71 - 5.85) 5.07 (4.10 - 6.27) 0.369
Missouri 5.32 (4.32 - 6.53) 5.30 (4.29 - 6.54) 0.976
Montana 8.03 (6.65 - 9.66) 9.07 (7.59 - 10.80) 0.104
Nebraska 4.92 (3.98 - 6.09) 5.18 (4.18 - 6.39) 0.563
Nevada 5.99 (4.89 - 7.32) 6.69 (5.43 - 8.20) 0.246
New Hampshire 7.48 (6.23 - 8.96) 7.56 (6.29 - 9.08) 0.884
New Jersey 4.97 (4.01 - 6.14) 5.13 (4.14 - 6.35) 0.695
New Mexico 6.33 (5.18 - 7.71) 5.87 (4.79 - 7.16) 0.410
New York 7.14 (6.45 - 7.90) 7.00 (6.29 - 7.80) 0.700
North Carolina 5.40 (4.39 - 6.63) 5.43 (4.41 - 6.66) 0.952
North Dakota 4.59 (3.61 - 5.82) 4.35 (3.37 - 5.60) 0.580
Ohio 5.83 (5.21 - 6.53) 6.04 (5.41 - 6.75) 0.528
Oklahoma 4.96 (4.01 - 6.13) 5.15 (4.10 - 6.44) 0.720
Oregon 8.26 (6.92 - 9.84) 7.81 (6.49 - 9.37) 0.435
Pennsylvania 6.02 (5.39 - 6.72) 5.74 (5.12 - 6.42) 0.337
Rhode Island 8.71 (7.37 - 10.28) 9.15 (7.73 - 10.80) 0.512
South Carolina 5.34 (4.32 - 6.59) 5.36 (4.38 - 6.55) 0.969
South Dakota 4.77 (3.86 - 5.88) 5.06 (4.09 - 6.25) 0.527
Tennessee 5.84 (4.73 - 7.18) 6.13 (5.01 - 7.47) 0.558
Texas 4.50 (3.98 - 5.09) 4.20 (3.69 - 4.76) 0.182
Utah 4.68 (3.73 - 5.86) 4.23 (3.33 - 5.37) 0.266
Vermont 8.88 (7.47 - 10.53) 9.70 (8.17 - 11.49) 0.226
Virginia 4.84 (3.92 - 5.97) 5.44 (4.44 - 6.65) 0.224
Washington 7.03a (5.78 - 8.54) 8.31 (6.83 - 10.07) 0.050
West Virginia 5.72 (4.71 - 6.93) 5.87 (4.88 - 7.06) 0.756
Wisconsin 5.77 (4.76 - 6.97) 5.47 (4.50 - 6.64) 0.523
Wyoming 5.52a (4.49 - 6.78) 6.75 (5.57 - 8.17) 0.019

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Table 4. Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 39.58   39.38  0.466
Northeast 37.16 (36.00 - 38.33) 37.34 (36.20 - 38.49) 0.739
Midwest 37.69 (36.81 - 38.58) 37.67 (36.83 - 38.51) 0.952
South 43.69 (42.78 - 44.60) 43.59 (42.75 - 44.44) 0.814
West 36.95 (35.81 - 38.12) 36.04 (34.89 - 37.20) 0.106
 
Alabama 51.09 (47.36 - 54.81) 50.08 (46.46 - 53.70) 0.517
Alaska 27.03 (23.77 - 30.55) 28.57 (25.60 - 31.73) 0.298
Arizona 40.42 (36.90 - 44.04) 39.64 (36.14 - 43.26) 0.623
Arkansas 46.08 (42.34 - 49.87) 46.68 (43.22 - 50.18) 0.731
California 39.08 (37.27 - 40.91) 37.75 (35.95 - 39.58) 0.152
Colorado 32.35 (29.03 - 35.85) 30.81 (27.71 - 34.09) 0.335
Connecticut 34.28 (30.75 - 38.00) 36.20 (32.58 - 39.99) 0.239
Delaware 40.58 (37.14 - 44.12) 38.71 (35.37 - 42.16) 0.237
District of Columbia 33.48 (30.18 - 36.94) 32.20 (29.15 - 35.41) 0.413
Florida 43.70 (41.83 - 45.58) 43.61 (41.75 - 45.49) 0.924
Georgia 43.65 (40.32 - 47.04) 43.98 (40.47 - 47.54) 0.833
Hawaii 37.70 (33.85 - 41.70) 38.36 (34.61 - 42.25) 0.711
Idaho 38.04 (34.87 - 41.31) 38.02 (34.72 - 41.44) 0.993
Illinois 39.07 (37.25 - 40.93) 39.22 (37.39 - 41.08) 0.877
Indiana 40.21 (36.78 - 43.73) 39.62 (36.34 - 43.00) 0.709
Iowa 39.42 (36.03 - 42.91) 40.14 (37.01 - 43.35) 0.655
Kansas 40.17b (36.67 - 43.77) 37.31 (34.12 - 40.61) 0.088
Kentucky 42.81b (39.39 - 46.30) 45.61 (42.21 - 49.06) 0.091
Louisiana 42.98 (39.57 - 46.47) 45.31 (41.69 - 48.99) 0.168
Maine 32.66 (29.25 - 36.25) 32.66 (29.52 - 35.98) 0.997
Maryland 39.48 (35.77 - 43.31) 39.88 (36.62 - 43.23) 0.815
Massachusetts 31.73b (28.57 - 35.06) 29.24 (26.19 - 32.48) 0.090
Michigan 37.00a (35.17 - 38.87) 35.22 (33.58 - 36.88) 0.049
Minnesota 30.92 (27.70 - 34.34) 31.88 (28.78 - 35.14) 0.525
Mississippi 51.72 (48.07 - 55.36) 52.89 (49.36 - 56.39) 0.467
Missouri 41.23 (37.84 - 44.71) 40.52 (37.16 - 43.97) 0.657
Montana 36.26a (32.78 - 39.89) 32.03 (28.82 - 35.42) 0.007
Nebraska 39.85 (36.51 - 43.28) 41.53 (38.27 - 44.86) 0.302
Nevada 36.20 (32.84 - 39.69) 35.46 (32.08 - 39.00) 0.671
New Hampshire 26.95 (23.88 - 30.26) 27.07 (23.90 - 30.48) 0.933
New Jersey 38.99 (35.34 - 42.76) 39.93 (36.47 - 43.49) 0.573
New Mexico 39.97 (36.36 - 43.70) 40.82 (37.27 - 44.47) 0.616
New York 38.28 (36.33 - 40.26) 39.12 (37.20 - 41.08) 0.361
North Carolina 42.32 (38.79 - 45.93) 41.75 (38.28 - 45.30) 0.721
North Dakota 39.46 (35.96 - 43.08) 39.97 (36.62 - 43.41) 0.746
Ohio 37.78 (35.99 - 39.60) 38.43 (36.63 - 40.27) 0.465
Oklahoma 42.41 (38.80 - 46.11) 41.55 (38.00 - 45.19) 0.621
Oregon 29.99 (26.90 - 33.27) 29.08 (26.00 - 32.35) 0.541
Pennsylvania 39.97 (38.07 - 41.90) 39.88 (38.03 - 41.76) 0.916
Rhode Island 35.74a (32.27 - 39.36) 31.19 (28.01 - 34.57) 0.004
South Carolina 43.33 (40.01 - 46.71) 42.08 (38.79 - 45.43) 0.440
South Dakota 41.47 (38.14 - 44.87) 40.34 (37.12 - 43.64) 0.466
Tennessee 40.19 (36.60 - 43.88) 42.40 (38.85 - 46.02) 0.212
Texas 45.08 (43.27 - 46.91) 44.40 (42.69 - 46.11) 0.452
Utah 42.56 (38.93 - 46.28) 42.40 (39.03 - 45.85) 0.909
Vermont 28.02 (24.61 - 31.71) 29.08 (25.95 - 32.42) 0.460
Virginia 41.04 (37.63 - 44.54) 38.57 (35.27 - 41.98) 0.138
Washington 27.62 (24.54 - 30.92) 28.10 (25.11 - 31.29) 0.730
West Virginia 45.68 (42.05 - 49.35) 45.42 (42.02 - 48.87) 0.880
Wisconsin 32.05 (28.93 - 35.33) 34.24 (31.18 - 37.45) 0.144
Wyoming 37.00 (33.63 - 40.51) 36.45 (33.25 - 39.76) 0.718

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Table 5. First Use of Marijuana among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Average annual rate = 100*{[ X1 ÷ (0.5 * X1 + X2)]÷2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in past 24 months and X2 is the number of persons who never used marijuana. Both of the computation components, X1 and X2, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach. Note that the age group is based on a respondent's age at the time of the interview, not his or her age at first use.
NOTE: The prediction intervals presented above use a simultaneous solution for the First Use of Marijuana and Never Used Marijuana outcomes, which had age group–specific random effects that were allowed to be correlated across the two outcomes. The associated Markov Chain Monte Carlo chains were used to calculate the posterior variance.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 0.96   0.93  0.240
Northeast 0.98 (0.89 - 1.08) 0.96 (0.87 - 1.05) 0.630
Midwest 1.05 (0.97 - 1.14) 1.02 (0.93 - 1.11) 0.307
South 0.89 (0.82 - 0.96) 0.86 (0.78 - 0.94) 0.362
West 0.98 (0.89 - 1.09) 0.94 (0.84 - 1.04) 0.355
 
Alabama 0.78 (0.61 - 1.00) 0.77 (0.61 - 0.96) 0.860
Alaska 1.29 (1.00 - 1.68) 1.32 (1.04 - 1.68) 0.869
Arizona 0.87 (0.67 - 1.12) 0.85 (0.66 - 1.10) 0.883
Arkansas 0.74 (0.58 - 0.93) 0.81 (0.64 - 1.02) 0.375
California 0.96 (0.83 - 1.11) 0.88 (0.76 - 1.02) 0.213
Colorado 1.02 (0.79 - 1.32) 0.98 (0.75 - 1.27) 0.725
Connecticut 1.10 (0.86 - 1.39) 1.06 (0.83 - 1.35) 0.753
Delaware 1.09 (0.86 - 1.37) 1.11 (0.88 - 1.42) 0.811
District of Columbia 1.26b (1.00 - 1.59) 1.56 (1.22 - 1.99) 0.065
Florida 0.75 (0.65 - 0.87) 0.77 (0.67 - 0.88) 0.752
Georgia 1.02 (0.82 - 1.28) 1.00 (0.78 - 1.26) 0.811
Hawaii 0.94 (0.68 - 1.30) 1.04 (0.76 - 1.42) 0.497
Idaho 1.17 (0.92 - 1.47) 0.98 (0.76 - 1.26) 0.125
Illinois 1.03 (0.90 - 1.18) 0.97 (0.84 - 1.11) 0.360
Indiana 0.97 (0.78 - 1.20) 0.89 (0.71 - 1.12) 0.417
Iowa 0.98 (0.77 - 1.24) 0.93 (0.73 - 1.19) 0.699
Kansas 1.16 (0.92 - 1.45) 1.07 (0.84 - 1.36) 0.472
Kentucky 0.85 (0.68 - 1.06) 0.87 (0.69 - 1.10) 0.854
Louisiana 1.05 (0.84 - 1.31) 0.93 (0.74 - 1.17) 0.228
Maine 1.11 (0.88 - 1.39) 1.13 (0.90 - 1.40) 0.878
Maryland 0.99 (0.79 - 1.24) 0.99 (0.78 - 1.25) 0.979
Massachusetts 1.16 (0.93 - 1.45) 1.20 (0.96 - 1.49) 0.737
Michigan 1.13 (0.99 - 1.30) 1.16 (1.01 - 1.33) 0.755
Minnesota 1.14 (0.92 - 1.42) 1.05 (0.83 - 1.32) 0.391
Mississippi 0.90 (0.72 - 1.14) 0.79 (0.61 - 1.02) 0.225
Missouri 1.04 (0.83 - 1.29) 0.97 (0.77 - 1.22) 0.517
Montana 1.22 (0.97 - 1.53) 1.20 (0.95 - 1.51) 0.890
Nebraska 1.03 (0.81 - 1.30) 1.07 (0.84 - 1.35) 0.711
Nevada 0.75 (0.58 - 0.96) 0.80 (0.61 - 1.04) 0.573
New Hampshire 1.34 (1.06 - 1.70) 1.32 (1.04 - 1.67) 0.874
New Jersey 0.87 (0.69 - 1.09) 0.79 (0.62 - 0.99) 0.344
New Mexico 0.95 (0.70 - 1.27) 0.94 (0.71 - 1.23) 0.924
New York 0.96 (0.83 - 1.10) 0.93 (0.80 - 1.07) 0.653
North Carolina 0.86 (0.67 - 1.10) 0.82 (0.64 - 1.05) 0.662
North Dakota 1.07 (0.85 - 1.36) 0.92 (0.72 - 1.18) 0.198
Ohio 0.97 (0.84 - 1.11) 0.97 (0.85 - 1.12) 0.957
Oklahoma 0.90 (0.71 - 1.14) 0.90 (0.71 - 1.14) 0.989
Oregon 1.07 (0.84 - 1.36) 1.09 (0.85 - 1.41) 0.831
Pennsylvania 0.91 (0.79 - 1.05) 0.92 (0.80 - 1.06) 0.908
Rhode Island 1.11 (0.87 - 1.41) 1.14 (0.89 - 1.45) 0.792
South Carolina 0.94 (0.75 - 1.18) 0.92 (0.73 - 1.16) 0.829
South Dakota 1.06 (0.84 - 1.33) 0.93 (0.73 - 1.18) 0.228
Tennessee 0.87 (0.69 - 1.09) 0.91 (0.73 - 1.14) 0.605
Texas 0.90 (0.78 - 1.05) 0.84 (0.73 - 0.98) 0.293
Utah 1.14 (0.86 - 1.51) 1.03 (0.76 - 1.39) 0.476
Vermont 1.32 (1.04 - 1.67) 1.42 (1.12 - 1.79) 0.494
Virginia 0.96 (0.76 - 1.21) 0.83 (0.66 - 1.05) 0.165
Washington 1.07 (0.84 - 1.35) 1.16 (0.92 - 1.46) 0.396
West Virginia 0.84 (0.67 - 1.04) 0.71 (0.57 - 0.89) 0.111
Wisconsin 1.20 (0.96 - 1.50) 1.18 (0.95 - 1.47) 0.866
Wyoming 1.23 (0.97 - 1.54) 1.27 (1.01 - 1.58) 0.746

71221

Table 6. Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 3.38a   3.67  0.001
Northeast 3.30b (3.02 - 3.62) 3.60 (3.28 - 3.95) 0.054
Midwest 3.18b (2.94 - 3.44) 3.41 (3.16 - 3.68) 0.054
South 3.50a (3.26 - 3.75) 3.75 (3.50 - 4.02) 0.046
West 3.44a (3.14 - 3.77) 3.84 (3.50 - 4.21) 0.017
 
Alabama 3.75 (2.95 - 4.75) 3.80 (2.97 - 4.85) 0.902
Alaska 4.00 (3.11 - 5.13) 4.11 (3.17 - 5.32) 0.799
Arizona 3.26a (2.52 - 4.22) 4.34 (3.36 - 5.59) 0.019
Arkansas 3.98 (3.17 - 4.98) 4.24 (3.31 - 5.41) 0.550
California 3.27a (2.82 - 3.78) 3.81 (3.27 - 4.42) 0.038
Colorado 4.37 (3.46 - 5.51) 4.10 (3.22 - 5.20) 0.530
Connecticut 3.64 (2.84 - 4.65) 3.79 (2.91 - 4.92) 0.725
Delaware 3.66 (2.89 - 4.64) 3.45 (2.65 - 4.47) 0.601
District of Columbia 3.63b (2.79 - 4.71) 4.48 (3.43 - 5.82) 0.097
Florida 3.80 (3.25 - 4.45) 3.98 (3.43 - 4.61) 0.479
Georgia 3.03 (2.34 - 3.92) 3.14 (2.38 - 4.14) 0.790
Hawaii 2.94 (2.12 - 4.05) 3.12 (2.29 - 4.25) 0.622
Idaho 3.29 (2.55 - 4.24) 3.31 (2.54 - 4.32) 0.950
Illinois 2.96 (2.52 - 3.47) 3.15 (2.68 - 3.70) 0.421
Indiana 3.70 (2.95 - 4.63) 4.06 (3.23 - 5.09) 0.370
Iowa 2.69 (2.06 - 3.51) 2.84 (2.16 - 3.71) 0.660
Kansas 3.43 (2.67 - 4.39) 3.98 (3.07 - 5.14) 0.135
Kentucky 3.74 (2.95 - 4.74) 3.24 (2.51 - 4.18) 0.212
Louisiana 3.90 (3.11 - 4.87) 4.51 (3.57 - 5.69) 0.149
Maine 2.99 (2.35 - 3.80) 2.81 (2.16 - 3.65) 0.613
Maryland 2.87 (2.19 - 3.75) 2.93 (2.20 - 3.89) 0.875
Massachusetts 3.78b (3.03 - 4.70) 4.60 (3.66 - 5.76) 0.061
Michigan 3.50a (3.06 - 4.00) 4.06 (3.55 - 4.64) 0.024
Minnesota 2.92 (2.27 - 3.76) 2.92 (2.21 - 3.85) 0.999
Mississippi 3.01b (2.37 - 3.83) 3.64 (2.83 - 4.67) 0.091
Missouri 3.43 (2.73 - 4.30) 3.59 (2.84 - 4.53) 0.658
Montana 3.47 (2.74 - 4.40) 3.25 (2.51 - 4.21) 0.555
Nebraska 2.70 (2.03 - 3.60) 3.09 (2.35 - 4.06) 0.309
Nevada 3.82 (2.95 - 4.93) 4.15 (3.21 - 5.36) 0.464
New Hampshire 2.99 (2.33 - 3.83) 2.90 (2.20 - 3.81) 0.790
New Jersey 3.04 (2.37 - 3.90) 3.30 (2.51 - 4.34) 0.479
New Mexico 3.66 (2.87 - 4.65) 3.63 (2.83 - 4.64) 0.948
New York 3.34 (2.85 - 3.91) 3.77 (3.19 - 4.45) 0.135
North Carolina 3.42 (2.67 - 4.37) 3.86 (3.00 - 4.94) 0.293
North Dakota 2.61 (1.90 - 3.58) 2.36 (1.66 - 3.34) 0.456
Ohio 3.09 (2.68 - 3.58) 3.28 (2.81 - 3.84) 0.399
Oklahoma 3.71 (2.94 - 4.68) 3.90 (3.05 - 4.97) 0.637
Oregon 3.63 (2.90 - 4.53) 3.64 (2.83 - 4.66) 0.978
Pennsylvania 3.08 (2.65 - 3.57) 3.05 (2.61 - 3.57) 0.908
Rhode Island 3.98 (3.20 - 4.93) 4.40 (3.52 - 5.49) 0.320
South Carolina 3.31 (2.63 - 4.15) 3.28 (2.55 - 4.22) 0.949
South Dakota 2.46 (1.79 - 3.38) 2.51 (1.83 - 3.43) 0.882
Tennessee 3.76b (2.99 - 4.73) 4.59 (3.58 - 5.85) 0.056
Texas 3.43 (3.00 - 3.92) 3.83 (3.33 - 4.41) 0.120
Utah 4.01 (3.21 - 5.00) 3.66 (2.83 - 4.72) 0.398
Vermont 3.67 (2.92 - 4.59) 3.84 (3.06 - 4.81) 0.673
Virginia 3.27 (2.58 - 4.15) 3.26 (2.53 - 4.19) 0.963
Washington 3.43 (2.67 - 4.39) 3.84 (2.99 - 4.93) 0.343
West Virginia 3.76 (3.00 - 4.69) 4.07 (3.24 - 5.12) 0.453
Wisconsin 3.14 (2.47 - 3.98) 2.99 (2.28 - 3.92) 0.700
Wyoming 3.42 (2.71 - 4.32) 3.47 (2.72 - 4.42) 0.901

71221

Table 7. Cocaine Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 2.39   2.45  0.380
Northeast 2.57 (2.34 - 2.82) 2.74 (2.45 - 3.05) 0.218
Midwest 2.33 (2.14 - 2.54) 2.32 (2.11 - 2.55) 0.917
South 2.37 (2.18 - 2.57) 2.44 (2.23 - 2.67) 0.476
West 2.33 (2.10 - 2.58) 2.37 (2.13 - 2.65) 0.728
 
Alabama 2.19 (1.65 - 2.91) 2.30 (1.68 - 3.15) 0.725
Alaska 2.65 (1.98 - 3.53) 2.67 (1.93 - 3.66) 0.967
Arizona 2.73 (2.08 - 3.57) 2.77 (2.09 - 3.66) 0.907
Arkansas 2.07 (1.59 - 2.70) 2.21 (1.65 - 2.94) 0.612
California 2.22 (1.88 - 2.62) 2.30 (1.93 - 2.74) 0.705
Colorado 2.91 (2.25 - 3.75) 2.87 (2.15 - 3.82) 0.913
Connecticut 2.61 (2.01 - 3.39) 2.80 (2.10 - 3.72) 0.562
Delaware 2.58 (2.00 - 3.33) 2.50 (1.85 - 3.36) 0.803
District of Columbia 3.62a (2.63 - 4.96) 5.26 (3.92 - 7.01) 0.023
Florida 2.73 (2.28 - 3.27) 2.70 (2.26 - 3.23) 0.896
Georgia 1.89 (1.39 - 2.57) 2.12 (1.52 - 2.94) 0.478
Hawaii 1.97 (1.41 - 2.75) 1.86 (1.30 - 2.65) 0.729
Idaho 2.04 (1.56 - 2.65) 2.05 (1.54 - 2.71) 0.968
Illinois 2.43 (2.03 - 2.92) 2.42 (2.02 - 2.90) 0.964
Indiana 2.43 (1.89 - 3.12) 2.33 (1.76 - 3.07) 0.711
Iowa 1.86 (1.39 - 2.48) 1.81 (1.30 - 2.51) 0.850
Kansas 2.61 (1.96 - 3.47) 3.07 (2.26 - 4.17) 0.171
Kentucky 2.54 (1.97 - 3.26) 2.20 (1.63 - 2.97) 0.262
Louisiana 2.12 (1.56 - 2.88) 2.24 (1.62 - 3.10) 0.717
Maine 2.55 (2.00 - 3.24) 2.23 (1.67 - 2.96) 0.263
Maryland 2.39 (1.80 - 3.18) 2.18 (1.60 - 2.96) 0.522
Massachusetts 3.06 (2.38 - 3.91) 3.58 (2.76 - 4.62) 0.186
Michigan 2.48 (2.10 - 2.92) 2.27 (1.90 - 2.70) 0.305
Minnesota 2.33 (1.83 - 2.97) 2.35 (1.76 - 3.13) 0.960
Mississippi 2.11 (1.56 - 2.84) 2.04 (1.43 - 2.90) 0.839
Missouri 2.54 (1.97 - 3.27) 2.27 (1.72 - 2.99) 0.357
Montana 2.41 (1.89 - 3.07) 2.63 (2.04 - 3.38) 0.426
Nebraska 2.28 (1.76 - 2.93) 2.46 (1.87 - 3.24) 0.540
Nevada 1.95 (1.45 - 2.60) 2.09 (1.53 - 2.84) 0.622
New Hampshire 2.36 (1.84 - 3.03) 2.52 (1.93 - 3.28) 0.606
New Jersey 2.07 (1.56 - 2.75) 2.16 (1.59 - 2.94) 0.765
New Mexico 2.37 (1.83 - 3.07) 2.34 (1.75 - 3.12) 0.934
New York 2.60 (2.21 - 3.04) 2.96 (2.45 - 3.57) 0.149
North Carolina 2.11 (1.59 - 2.78) 2.43 (1.82 - 3.25) 0.271
North Dakota 1.73 (1.24 - 2.41) 1.59 (1.10 - 2.29) 0.598
Ohio 2.09b (1.72 - 2.54) 2.51 (2.09 - 3.02) 0.051
Oklahoma 1.99 (1.52 - 2.60) 1.97 (1.45 - 2.68) 0.942
Oregon 2.12 (1.63 - 2.77) 1.90 (1.36 - 2.64) 0.381
Pennsylvania 2.56 (2.19 - 2.99) 2.31 (1.91 - 2.80) 0.202
Rhode Island 3.17 (2.50 - 4.01) 3.68 (2.78 - 4.86) 0.227
South Carolina 2.43 (1.84 - 3.19) 2.33 (1.73 - 3.14) 0.764
South Dakota 1.77 (1.32 - 2.37) 1.81 (1.30 - 2.52) 0.885
Tennessee 2.33 (1.76 - 3.08) 2.88 (2.12 - 3.89) 0.104
Texas 2.40 (2.01 - 2.85) 2.47 (2.08 - 2.94) 0.719
Utah 2.46 (1.88 - 3.21) 2.47 (1.85 - 3.30) 0.972
Vermont 2.96 (2.36 - 3.69) 2.97 (2.32 - 3.80) 0.959
Virginia 2.53 (1.92 - 3.31) 2.47 (1.87 - 3.26) 0.871
Washington 2.45 (1.89 - 3.17) 2.55 (1.94 - 3.33) 0.765
West Virginia 2.86 (2.27 - 3.61) 2.65 (2.04 - 3.42) 0.462
Wisconsin 2.30 (1.78 - 2.98) 1.85 (1.35 - 2.55) 0.144
Wyoming 2.15 (1.66 - 2.78) 2.33 (1.79 - 3.02) 0.516

71221

Table 8. Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 4.49a   4.77  0.004
Northeast 4.21 (3.91 - 4.53) 4.28 (3.94 - 4.64) 0.664
Midwest 4.41a (4.15 - 4.69) 4.75 (4.48 - 5.04) 0.007
South 4.52a (4.27 - 4.79) 4.82 (4.55 - 5.10) 0.027
West 4.77b (4.39 - 5.17) 5.11 (4.71 - 5.55) 0.080
 
Alabama 4.64 (3.80 - 5.67) 4.89 (4.01 - 5.96) 0.602
Alaska 5.23 (4.23 - 6.44) 5.11 (4.12 - 6.32) 0.813
Arizona 4.36a (3.48 - 5.45) 5.35 (4.32 - 6.60) 0.050
Arkansas 5.13b (4.24 - 6.20) 5.96 (4.90 - 7.23) 0.098
California 4.36 (3.82 - 4.98) 4.85 (4.26 - 5.53) 0.106
Colorado 5.61 (4.60 - 6.83) 5.19 (4.23 - 6.36) 0.427
Connecticut 4.90 (3.98 - 6.02) 5.10 (4.13 - 6.28) 0.687
Delaware 4.88 (3.96 - 6.00) 4.81 (3.93 - 5.88) 0.882
District of Columbia 3.66 (2.84 - 4.71) 4.07 (3.24 - 5.10) 0.314
Florida 4.85 (4.25 - 5.52) 4.99 (4.40 - 5.64) 0.617
Georgia 4.06 (3.31 - 4.97) 4.52 (3.67 - 5.57) 0.293
Hawaii 3.31 (2.51 - 4.35) 3.64 (2.80 - 4.72) 0.430
Idaho 5.14 (4.25 - 6.21) 5.59 (4.66 - 6.70) 0.360
Illinois 3.73b (3.24 - 4.29) 4.21 (3.68 - 4.81) 0.059
Indiana 5.06 (4.18 - 6.12) 5.68 (4.73 - 6.80) 0.196
Iowa 3.59 (2.86 - 4.50) 4.17 (3.38 - 5.14) 0.124
Kansas 4.48 (3.60 - 5.55) 5.05 (4.10 - 6.21) 0.217
Kentucky 5.61 (4.62 - 6.80) 5.24 (4.32 - 6.35) 0.481
Louisiana 5.02 (4.14 - 6.07) 5.32 (4.35 - 6.49) 0.521
Maine 4.56 (3.72 - 5.58) 4.39 (3.56 - 5.40) 0.708
Maryland 3.36 (2.65 - 4.25) 3.71 (2.98 - 4.59) 0.336
Massachusetts 4.47a (3.68 - 5.41) 5.47 (4.50 - 6.64) 0.034
Michigan 4.89 (4.38 - 5.46) 5.32 (4.77 - 5.92) 0.144
Minnesota 4.04 (3.25 - 5.02) 4.17 (3.34 - 5.19) 0.739
Mississippi 3.74 (3.01 - 4.64) 4.03 (3.26 - 4.98) 0.448
Missouri 4.62 (3.82 - 5.58) 4.94 (4.09 - 5.94) 0.465
Montana 4.98 (4.06 - 6.09) 4.94 (4.04 - 6.03) 0.925
Nebraska 3.70b (2.93 - 4.66) 4.44 (3.57 - 5.52) 0.093
Nevada 5.48 (4.45 - 6.73) 5.89 (4.81 - 7.18) 0.459
New Hampshire 4.35 (3.53 - 5.36) 4.36 (3.48 - 5.44) 0.985
New Jersey 3.87 (3.10 - 4.83) 3.72 (2.94 - 4.68) 0.689
New Mexico 4.89 (3.97 - 6.02) 5.08 (4.12 - 6.26) 0.694
New York 4.11 (3.60 - 4.69) 4.13 (3.58 - 4.75) 0.967
North Carolina 4.15 (3.32 - 5.18) 4.54 (3.69 - 5.58) 0.348
North Dakota 4.17 (3.30 - 5.25) 4.00 (3.18 - 5.02) 0.676
Ohio 4.74 (4.23 - 5.30) 4.83 (4.31 - 5.42) 0.708
Oklahoma 5.47b (4.49 - 6.65) 6.38 (5.20 - 7.82) 0.063
Oregon 5.28 (4.34 - 6.41) 5.06 (4.11 - 6.22) 0.651
Pennsylvania 4.07 (3.59 - 4.61) 3.91 (3.39 - 4.49) 0.517
Rhode Island 5.69 (4.71 - 6.87) 5.39 (4.45 - 6.52) 0.545
South Carolina 4.62 (3.77 - 5.65) 4.64 (3.82 - 5.62) 0.973
South Dakota 3.15 (2.36 - 4.19) 3.70 (2.93 - 4.67) 0.165
Tennessee 5.12 (4.24 - 6.18) 5.94 (4.89 - 7.20) 0.104
Texas 4.30 (3.80 - 4.86) 4.55 (4.03 - 5.12) 0.340
Utah 6.31 (5.20 - 7.65) 6.00 (4.97 - 7.22) 0.528
Vermont 4.59 (3.67 - 5.71) 4.90 (4.03 - 5.95) 0.481
Virginia 4.19 (3.42 - 5.13) 4.34 (3.51 - 5.37) 0.695
Washington 5.71 (4.65 - 6.99) 5.92 (4.84 - 7.22) 0.699
West Virginia 5.10 (4.23 - 6.14) 5.38 (4.46 - 6.47) 0.570
Wisconsin 4.64 (3.79 - 5.67) 4.56 (3.69 - 5.62) 0.858
Wyoming 4.96 (4.04 - 6.08) 4.87 (3.97 - 5.96) 0.843

71221

Table 9. Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 55.02   55.40  0.393
Northeast 59.22 (57.81 - 60.62) 59.62 (58.37 - 60.86) 0.497
Midwest 58.52 (57.35 - 59.68) 58.51 (57.50 - 59.51) 0.980
South 50.23b (49.06 - 51.41) 51.22 (50.16 - 52.27) 0.055
West 55.63 (54.20 - 57.05) 55.51 (54.21 - 56.80) 0.854
 
Alabama 45.04 (41.31 - 48.82) 45.43 (41.84 - 49.06) 0.808
Alaska 56.00 (52.21 - 59.71) 58.19 (54.69 - 61.61) 0.167
Arizona 59.97 (56.10 - 63.72) 58.78 (55.09 - 62.37) 0.428
Arkansas 42.27a (38.73 - 45.89) 45.41 (41.77 - 49.10) 0.046
California 54.47 (52.45 - 56.48) 54.83 (52.89 - 56.75) 0.704
Colorado 63.94 (60.37 - 67.36) 63.12 (59.68 - 66.43) 0.568
Connecticut 65.91 (61.97 - 69.64) 65.40 (61.47 - 69.14) 0.754
Delaware 53.30 (49.53 - 57.03) 55.36 (51.90 - 58.77) 0.177
District of Columbia 62.12 (58.44 - 65.67) 64.15 (60.76 - 67.39) 0.198
Florida 55.77b (53.81 - 57.71) 57.25 (55.31 - 59.16) 0.095
Georgia 47.70 (44.20 - 51.22) 48.52 (44.81 - 52.24) 0.610
Hawaii 50.71 (46.65 - 54.77) 50.38 (46.38 - 54.37) 0.851
Idaho 50.26 (46.70 - 53.82) 50.31 (46.70 - 53.92) 0.974
Illinois 58.54a (56.59 - 60.47) 56.62 (54.77 - 58.45) 0.035
Indiana 53.86 (50.33 - 57.36) 53.50 (50.01 - 56.96) 0.817
Iowa 58.30 (54.84 - 61.68) 56.88 (53.56 - 60.14) 0.320
Kansas 55.58 (51.86 - 59.23) 57.10 (53.66 - 60.47) 0.327
Kentucky 45.39 (41.95 - 48.88) 45.34 (41.97 - 48.76) 0.975
Louisiana 50.33b (46.81 - 53.84) 52.88 (49.09 - 56.64) 0.097
Maine 54.92a (51.19 - 58.58) 58.49 (54.90 - 62.00) 0.034
Maryland 57.55 (53.48 - 61.52) 57.62 (54.09 - 61.07) 0.969
Massachusetts 63.81 (60.24 - 67.23) 62.08 (58.52 - 65.51) 0.255
Michigan 58.69a (56.72 - 60.63) 61.01 (59.14 - 62.85) 0.013
Minnesota 65.72 (62.21 - 69.06) 66.65 (63.28 - 69.86) 0.511
Mississippi 40.55 (37.18 - 44.02) 39.69 (36.32 - 43.16) 0.571
Missouri 52.13 (48.48 - 55.76) 53.62 (50.01 - 57.19) 0.347
Montana 61.13 (57.32 - 64.82) 60.49 (56.94 - 63.93) 0.683
Nebraska 59.84 (56.14 - 63.44) 58.04 (54.47 - 61.54) 0.253
Nevada 51.83a (47.93 - 55.70) 56.13 (52.39 - 59.80) 0.011
New Hampshire 63.82 (60.30 - 67.21) 65.62 (62.13 - 68.95) 0.259
New Jersey 58.62 (54.65 - 62.48) 60.68 (56.95 - 64.29) 0.215
New Mexico 51.94 (48.28 - 55.58) 49.35 (45.55 - 53.16) 0.131
New York 57.80 (55.75 - 59.82) 58.63 (56.71 - 60.53) 0.352
North Carolina 46.91 (42.98 - 50.89) 46.89 (43.27 - 50.55) 0.988
North Dakota 63.45 (59.79 - 66.95) 62.30 (58.58 - 65.89) 0.442
Ohio 55.00 (53.03 - 56.95) 55.51 (53.62 - 57.38) 0.575
Oklahoma 45.19 (41.51 - 48.92) 44.80 (41.11 - 48.53) 0.820
Oregon 60.79 (57.18 - 64.28) 58.54 (55.13 - 61.88) 0.155
Pennsylvania 56.86 (54.87 - 58.84) 56.24 (54.35 - 58.12) 0.496
Rhode Island 64.75 (61.10 - 68.24) 65.62 (62.10 - 68.98) 0.550
South Carolina 46.38 (42.90 - 49.88) 48.81 (45.29 - 52.35) 0.119
South Dakota 64.10 (60.44 - 67.59) 63.35 (59.85 - 66.72) 0.617
Tennessee 43.68 (40.10 - 47.33) 45.52 (41.70 - 49.39) 0.257
Texas 52.72 (50.80 - 54.62) 53.71 (51.85 - 55.55) 0.281
Utah 32.50a (28.99 - 36.22) 35.23 (31.81 - 38.82) 0.044
Vermont 63.60 (59.97 - 67.08) 64.71 (61.02 - 68.23) 0.480
Virginia 55.51 (51.64 - 59.31) 55.99 (52.31 - 59.60) 0.780
Washington 61.06 (57.34 - 64.65) 58.63 (55.04 - 62.14) 0.141
West Virginia 37.83 (34.42 - 41.37) 38.31 (34.87 - 41.87) 0.757
Wisconsin 70.11 (66.58 - 73.42) 68.04 (64.61 - 71.29) 0.133
Wyoming 56.74a (52.97 - 60.44) 60.30 (56.71 - 63.78) 0.017

71221

Table 10. Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 24.13   24.30  0.418
Northeast 25.15 (24.22 - 26.10) 24.93 (24.04 - 25.84) 0.594
Midwest 27.15 (26.44 - 27.87) 27.12 (26.41 - 27.84) 0.935
South 22.78 (22.14 - 23.43) 22.99 (22.35 - 23.64) 0.458
West 22.41b (21.55 - 23.29) 23.08 (22.20 - 23.97) 0.094
 
Alabama 20.15 (17.75 - 22.78) 19.83 (17.41 - 22.50) 0.766
Alaska 23.65 (21.01 - 26.50) 23.27 (20.73 - 26.03) 0.743
Arizona 25.64 (23.01 - 28.45) 24.32 (21.76 - 27.07) 0.268
Arkansas 20.26 (17.85 - 22.90) 21.71 (19.24 - 24.40) 0.215
California 21.30 (19.97 - 22.70) 22.28 (20.89 - 23.72) 0.129
Colorado 25.63 (22.89 - 28.57) 26.21 (23.56 - 29.03) 0.644
Connecticut 27.40 (24.40 - 30.62) 26.65 (23.93 - 29.56) 0.574
Delaware 21.76 (19.23 - 24.52) 22.56 (20.20 - 25.11) 0.483
District of Columbia 29.11 (26.16 - 32.25) 30.06 (27.24 - 33.04) 0.471
Florida 22.83 (21.41 - 24.30) 23.69 (22.26 - 25.18) 0.209
Georgia 20.90 (18.43 - 23.61) 21.04 (18.52 - 23.80) 0.908
Hawaii 23.00 (20.08 - 26.20) 22.76 (20.09 - 25.66) 0.840
Idaho 23.55 (20.99 - 26.32) 23.28 (20.78 - 25.99) 0.810
Illinois 28.14 (26.65 - 29.68) 27.22 (25.67 - 28.83) 0.190
Indiana 23.33 (20.86 - 25.99) 22.53 (20.18 - 25.06) 0.484
Iowa 29.45 (26.70 - 32.35) 28.86 (26.26 - 31.60) 0.625
Kansas 27.60 (24.76 - 30.63) 26.83 (24.23 - 29.60) 0.536
Kentucky 23.07 (20.65 - 25.68) 23.05 (20.70 - 25.58) 0.986
Louisiana 25.72 (22.96 - 28.69) 25.11 (22.43 - 28.01) 0.625
Maine 21.99 (19.51 - 24.69) 23.61 (21.09 - 26.33) 0.175
Maryland 21.26 (18.78 - 23.98) 21.53 (19.25 - 24.01) 0.814
Massachusetts 27.63 (24.90 - 30.54) 26.45 (23.92 - 29.13) 0.330
Michigan 26.31 (24.83 - 27.85) 27.23 (25.82 - 28.70) 0.204
Minnesota 29.06 (26.15 - 32.15) 29.58 (26.83 - 32.47) 0.681
Mississippi 21.10 (18.71 - 23.71) 19.67 (17.37 - 22.19) 0.197
Missouri 25.66 (23.10 - 28.40) 25.36 (22.77 - 28.14) 0.809
Montana 29.88 (26.87 - 33.08) 30.01 (27.21 - 32.98) 0.914
Nebraska 28.79 (25.97 - 31.79) 28.33 (25.66 - 31.17) 0.709
Nevada 23.88 (21.09 - 26.92) 25.30 (22.59 - 28.22) 0.280
New Hampshire 25.14 (22.54 - 27.93) 25.27 (22.75 - 27.96) 0.914
New Jersey 22.61 (19.94 - 25.53) 23.50 (20.89 - 26.32) 0.483
New Mexico 22.39 (19.80 - 25.22) 21.57 (19.09 - 24.27) 0.509
New York 24.30 (22.76 - 25.90) 24.77 (23.25 - 26.36) 0.516
North Carolina 22.02 (19.33 - 24.96) 20.70 (18.29 - 23.33) 0.228
North Dakota 33.33 (30.39 - 36.41) 32.17 (29.40 - 35.08) 0.308
Ohio 24.27a (22.92 - 25.67) 26.05 (24.64 - 27.51) 0.009
Oklahoma 22.50 (19.96 - 25.26) 22.38 (19.96 - 25.00) 0.921
Oregon 21.70 (19.29 - 24.32) 22.70 (20.38 - 25.20) 0.345
Pennsylvania 26.25a (24.73 - 27.83) 24.52 (23.10 - 26.00) 0.017
Rhode Island 29.60 (26.75 - 32.61) 28.84 (26.07 - 31.77) 0.541
South Carolina 21.55 (19.20 - 24.09) 22.36 (19.94 - 24.97) 0.478
South Dakota 28.76 (25.98 - 31.70) 30.07 (27.35 - 32.92) 0.282
Tennessee 18.87a (16.58 - 21.40) 21.91 (19.40 - 24.65) 0.002
Texas 25.78 (24.36 - 27.24) 25.87 (24.46 - 27.33) 0.889
Utah 17.38 (15.16 - 19.84) 18.66 (16.25 - 21.33) 0.107
Vermont 24.84a (22.21 - 27.68) 27.40 (24.86 - 30.09) 0.032
Virginia 24.01 (21.49 - 26.73) 23.22 (20.80 - 25.84) 0.500
Washington 23.12 (20.42 - 26.06) 24.13 (21.59 - 26.87) 0.419
West Virginia 19.44 (17.12 - 21.99) 19.76 (17.56 - 22.15) 0.758
Wisconsin 33.30 (30.28 - 36.47) 31.36 (28.54 - 34.33) 0.115
Wyoming 25.09 (22.45 - 27.92) 26.54 (23.92 - 29.34) 0.255

71221

Table 11. Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 41.53b   42.02  0.080
Northeast 39.83 (38.73 - 40.94) 40.26 (39.17 - 41.37) 0.412
Midwest 37.18 (36.33 - 38.04) 37.63 (36.79 - 38.48) 0.264
South 44.34 (43.45 - 45.23) 44.72 (43.84 - 45.60) 0.389
West 42.82 (41.62 - 44.02) 43.47 (42.32 - 44.63) 0.287
 
Alabama 46.88 (43.36 - 50.42) 45.25 (41.71 - 48.83) 0.342
Alaska 38.57 (35.12 - 42.15) 37.26 (34.01 - 40.64) 0.459
Arizona 41.87 (38.54 - 45.29) 41.00 (37.45 - 44.65) 0.604
Arkansas 44.33 (40.82 - 47.90) 43.44 (40.11 - 46.83) 0.613
California 44.98 (43.10 - 46.86) 46.20 (44.39 - 48.02) 0.205
Colorado 38.16 (34.83 - 41.59) 38.45 (35.14 - 41.87) 0.860
Connecticut 40.31 (36.78 - 43.95) 40.48 (36.91 - 44.16) 0.922
Delaware 42.69 (39.29 - 46.16) 41.61 (38.34 - 44.96) 0.493
District of Columbia 42.19 (38.81 - 45.65) 42.64 (39.53 - 45.81) 0.791
Florida 45.19 (43.34 - 47.05) 44.64 (42.72 - 46.58) 0.566
Georgia 45.65 (42.25 - 49.08) 47.80 (44.15 - 51.47) 0.213
Hawaii 39.27 (35.36 - 43.31) 42.12 (38.40 - 45.92) 0.123
Idaho 39.70 (36.49 - 43.00) 40.23 (36.91 - 43.64) 0.738
Illinois 38.20 (36.39 - 40.05) 38.98 (37.22 - 40.77) 0.397
Indiana 40.37 (37.22 - 43.59) 40.36 (37.19 - 43.62) 1.000
Iowa 36.13 (33.02 - 39.37) 35.20 (32.19 - 38.34) 0.522
Kansas 38.31 (34.98 - 41.75) 39.84 (36.56 - 43.21) 0.344
Kentucky 41.11 (37.91 - 44.39) 42.66 (39.33 - 46.05) 0.346
Louisiana 42.45 (39.13 - 45.84) 44.02 (40.54 - 47.55) 0.358
Maine 37.72 (34.27 - 41.30) 38.81 (35.48 - 42.25) 0.522
Maryland 44.52 (40.82 - 48.28) 45.03 (41.69 - 48.41) 0.776
Massachusetts 34.46 (31.15 - 37.94) 34.70 (31.50 - 38.04) 0.881
Michigan 37.99 (36.25 - 39.77) 38.24 (36.51 - 40.00) 0.778
Minnesota 35.44 (32.39 - 38.61) 33.54 (30.47 - 36.75) 0.226
Mississippi 47.99 (44.61 - 51.40) 47.58 (44.20 - 50.99) 0.809
Missouri 39.95 (36.62 - 43.39) 40.15 (36.75 - 43.65) 0.906
Montana 35.04 (31.77 - 38.45) 36.34 (33.09 - 39.72) 0.394
Nebraska 35.73 (32.67 - 38.90) 37.11 (33.91 - 40.44) 0.380
Nevada 43.09 (39.54 - 46.71) 42.10 (38.68 - 45.59) 0.574
New Hampshire 33.91 (30.85 - 37.11) 34.22 (31.09 - 37.49) 0.838
New Jersey 43.47 (39.82 - 47.18) 43.58 (40.11 - 47.12) 0.948
New Mexico 48.02 (44.70 - 51.36) 48.56 (45.18 - 51.95) 0.748
New York 43.12 (41.24 - 45.02) 42.98 (41.13 - 44.86) 0.886
North Carolina 44.87 (41.03 - 48.77) 46.11 (42.33 - 49.94) 0.490
North Dakota 33.81 (30.56 - 37.22) 33.84 (30.71 - 37.12) 0.984
Ohio 37.41 (35.67 - 39.19) 37.79 (36.08 - 39.53) 0.663
Oklahoma 41.74 (38.38 - 45.17) 43.19 (39.76 - 46.69) 0.393
Oregon 39.99 (36.78 - 43.28) 39.42 (36.23 - 42.70) 0.724
Pennsylvania 36.16b (34.35 - 38.01) 37.77 (35.99 - 39.57) 0.073
Rhode Island 38.77 (35.48 - 42.17) 39.32 (35.92 - 42.83) 0.732
South Carolina 42.39 (39.21 - 45.64) 44.43 (41.01 - 47.91) 0.233
South Dakota 34.11 (30.97 - 37.39) 33.99 (30.89 - 37.23) 0.939
Tennessee 43.54 (40.13 - 47.02) 42.08 (38.58 - 45.67) 0.390
Texas 44.51 (42.80 - 46.23) 44.82 (43.04 - 46.62) 0.729
Utah 45.74 (42.29 - 49.23) 46.81 (43.17 - 50.49) 0.514
Vermont 34.12 (30.93 - 37.45) 35.16 (31.98 - 38.48) 0.479
Virginia 43.36 (39.84 - 46.94) 43.11 (39.76 - 46.52) 0.883
Washington 37.42 (34.15 - 40.81) 37.71 (34.54 - 41.00) 0.864
West Virginia 42.34b (38.86 - 45.91) 45.19 (41.67 - 48.75) 0.088
Wisconsin 29.59a (26.46 - 32.93) 32.70 (29.57 - 36.00) 0.029
Wyoming 38.58 (35.24 - 42.04) 37.53 (34.18 - 41.00) 0.521

71221

Table 12. Tobacco Product Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 31.12   31.42  0.349
Northeast 29.95 (28.89 - 31.03) 29.74 (28.72 - 30.78) 0.685
Midwest 34.39 (33.50 - 35.29) 34.38 (33.50 - 35.27) 0.987
South 33.17 (32.30 - 34.04) 33.49 (32.62 - 34.37) 0.465
West 25.62b (24.58 - 26.69) 26.64 (25.62 - 27.68) 0.056
 
Alabama 34.62 (31.65 - 37.72) 35.64 (32.55 - 38.86) 0.509
Alaska 31.95 (28.90 - 35.16) 31.98 (29.27 - 34.83) 0.980
Arizona 28.29 (25.52 - 31.22) 29.75 (26.80 - 32.88) 0.306
Arkansas 37.00 (33.95 - 40.16) 37.86 (34.58 - 41.27) 0.593
California 22.51a (20.98 - 24.11) 24.29 (22.77 - 25.87) 0.026
Colorado 28.32 (25.56 - 31.24) 27.84 (25.10 - 30.75) 0.749
Connecticut 27.83 (24.77 - 31.11) 26.81 (23.92 - 29.91) 0.507
Delaware 31.53 (28.53 - 34.68) 29.97 (27.15 - 32.95) 0.277
District of Columbia 29.91 (27.02 - 32.96) 30.33 (27.62 - 33.18) 0.771
Florida 30.48 (28.84 - 32.17) 29.86 (28.17 - 31.62) 0.482
Georgia 31.76 (28.84 - 34.83) 31.34 (28.37 - 34.47) 0.793
Hawaii 23.73 (20.85 - 26.88) 23.65 (20.85 - 26.70) 0.949
Idaho 29.25 (26.62 - 32.03) 29.73 (26.91 - 32.70) 0.724
Illinois 33.53b (31.83 - 35.27) 32.14 (30.49 - 33.82) 0.094
Indiana 34.94 (31.92 - 38.08) 35.64 (32.75 - 38.64) 0.627
Iowa 33.05 (30.11 - 36.14) 33.14 (30.46 - 35.93) 0.953
Kansas 34.93 (31.89 - 38.09) 34.88 (32.01 - 37.87) 0.976
Kentucky 40.19 (37.09 - 43.38) 40.05 (37.03 - 43.14) 0.926
Louisiana 34.80 (31.78 - 37.96) 35.48 (32.31 - 38.78) 0.661
Maine 32.71 (29.63 - 35.95) 32.56 (29.72 - 35.54) 0.922
Maryland 27.99 (24.99 - 31.20) 27.29 (24.66 - 30.08) 0.647
Massachusetts 29.23 (26.35 - 32.28) 29.88 (27.10 - 32.82) 0.631
Michigan 34.93 (33.21 - 36.68) 34.85 (33.24 - 36.50) 0.933
Minnesota 31.37 (28.58 - 34.30) 31.81 (29.03 - 34.73) 0.757
Mississippi 34.72 (31.74 - 37.82) 35.68 (32.68 - 38.78) 0.532
Missouri 37.93 (34.82 - 41.14) 37.70 (34.53 - 40.97) 0.884
Montana 36.27 (32.91 - 39.76) 35.98 (32.91 - 39.18) 0.857
Nebraska 30.39 (27.44 - 33.52) 32.20 (29.25 - 35.30) 0.226
Nevada 32.86 (29.78 - 36.09) 33.21 (30.08 - 36.50) 0.818
New Hampshire 29.47 (26.68 - 32.42) 28.61 (25.86 - 31.52) 0.541
New Jersey 26.90 (23.87 - 30.17) 26.83 (24.05 - 29.82) 0.963
New Mexico 29.51 (26.73 - 32.46) 30.25 (27.37 - 33.29) 0.618
New York 29.29 (27.63 - 31.01) 29.13 (27.51 - 30.81) 0.847
North Carolina 34.34 (31.20 - 37.63) 33.27 (30.19 - 36.49) 0.491
North Dakota 33.95 (30.93 - 37.10) 32.50 (29.55 - 35.59) 0.324
Ohio 35.39 (33.69 - 37.14) 35.68 (34.00 - 37.40) 0.741
Oklahoma 35.55a (32.52 - 38.70) 39.20 (35.94 - 42.57) 0.029
Oregon 30.91b (28.12 - 33.85) 28.50 (25.84 - 31.32) 0.090
Pennsylvania 33.63 (31.95 - 35.35) 33.06 (31.40 - 34.76) 0.494
Rhode Island 30.37 (27.49 - 33.41) 30.69 (27.78 - 33.77) 0.832
South Carolina 35.06 (32.12 - 38.11) 36.03 (33.04 - 39.13) 0.548
South Dakota 33.68 (30.81 - 36.67) 34.35 (31.49 - 37.34) 0.650
Tennessee 37.49b (34.44 - 40.65) 40.40 (37.08 - 43.81) 0.058
Texas 32.08 (30.44 - 33.78) 33.05 (31.38 - 34.77) 0.268
Utah 22.79 (20.03 - 25.82) 23.75 (21.00 - 26.73) 0.486
Vermont 31.45 (28.49 - 34.57) 31.33 (28.40 - 34.41) 0.930
Virginia 31.19 (28.12 - 34.44) 30.95 (28.04 - 34.02) 0.872
Washington 29.16 (26.41 - 32.08) 29.41 (26.61 - 32.38) 0.867
West Virginia 42.99 (39.62 - 46.43) 42.76 (39.33 - 46.27) 0.892
Wisconsin 33.68 (30.86 - 36.61) 34.77 (31.85 - 37.81) 0.448
Wyoming 33.86b (30.87 - 36.99) 36.43 (33.31 - 39.68) 0.080

71221

Table 13. Cigarette Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 26.48   26.62  0.678
Northeast 25.88 (24.84 - 26.95) 25.48 (24.49 - 26.49) 0.430
Midwest 29.19 (28.31 - 30.09) 29.10 (28.23 - 29.98) 0.831
South 27.87 (27.00 - 28.75) 27.97 (27.14 - 28.82) 0.819
West 22.07b (21.05 - 23.13) 22.99 (22.00 - 24.02) 0.083
 
Alabama 28.73 (25.85 - 31.80) 29.37 (26.52 - 32.38) 0.678
Alaska 26.70 (23.86 - 29.73) 26.27 (23.77 - 28.94) 0.766
Arizona 24.14 (21.60 - 26.88) 25.18 (22.61 - 27.93) 0.445
Arkansas 29.69 (26.84 - 32.71) 30.82 (27.88 - 33.93) 0.461
California 19.47a (17.98 - 21.05) 21.39 (19.94 - 22.91) 0.014
Colorado 23.79 (21.24 - 26.54) 23.40 (20.97 - 26.02) 0.768
Connecticut 24.22 (21.45 - 27.22) 22.62 (20.05 - 25.40) 0.232
Delaware 27.10 (24.42 - 29.95) 25.97 (23.32 - 28.81) 0.386
District of Columbia 26.90 (24.15 - 29.85) 27.14 (24.60 - 29.84) 0.865
Florida 25.80 (24.25 - 27.42) 25.20 (23.59 - 26.89) 0.449
Georgia 26.37 (23.70 - 29.22) 24.86 (22.13 - 27.81) 0.318
Hawaii 20.72 (18.12 - 23.59) 21.01 (18.34 - 23.97) 0.821
Idaho 25.06 (22.58 - 27.71) 25.13 (22.54 - 27.92) 0.948
Illinois 28.97b (27.35 - 30.65) 27.67 (26.11 - 29.28) 0.100
Indiana 29.84 (26.98 - 32.87) 30.15 (27.40 - 33.04) 0.824
Iowa 27.17 (24.46 - 30.06) 26.72 (24.16 - 29.45) 0.740
Kansas 29.29 (26.47 - 32.27) 28.28 (25.53 - 31.19) 0.492
Kentucky 33.02 (30.01 - 36.18) 32.37 (29.34 - 35.56) 0.673
Louisiana 30.08 (27.21 - 33.11) 29.10 (26.21 - 32.17) 0.503
Maine 27.78 (24.98 - 30.78) 28.49 (25.72 - 31.42) 0.632
Maryland 24.00 (21.24 - 27.00) 23.49 (21.04 - 26.12) 0.720
Massachusetts 24.43 (21.88 - 27.18) 25.06 (22.50 - 27.82) 0.626
Michigan 30.07 (28.42 - 31.76) 30.00 (28.39 - 31.65) 0.935
Minnesota 26.35 (23.78 - 29.10) 26.43 (23.87 - 29.17) 0.953
Mississippi 28.49 (25.66 - 31.50) 29.17 (26.32 - 32.18) 0.655
Missouri 31.50 (28.56 - 34.60) 31.52 (28.67 - 34.52) 0.989
Montana 28.48 (25.63 - 31.52) 29.08 (26.31 - 32.02) 0.649
Nebraska 25.84 (23.11 - 28.78) 27.34 (24.56 - 30.31) 0.302
Nevada 28.41 (25.42 - 31.62) 28.81 (25.85 - 31.96) 0.784
New Hampshire 24.42 (21.89 - 27.14) 24.27 (21.71 - 27.02) 0.912
New Jersey 23.37 (20.59 - 26.40) 22.21 (19.64 - 25.00) 0.399
New Mexico 25.11 (22.42 - 28.00) 25.79 (22.99 - 28.82) 0.609
New York 26.05 (24.42 - 27.75) 25.83 (24.25 - 27.47) 0.789
North Carolina 28.40 (25.31 - 31.71) 28.02 (25.30 - 30.91) 0.787
North Dakota 27.38 (24.75 - 30.17) 26.58 (23.94 - 29.41) 0.563
Ohio 29.91 (28.31 - 31.58) 30.30 (28.69 - 31.97) 0.643
Oklahoma 30.55b (27.52 - 33.75) 33.41 (30.24 - 36.73) 0.077
Oregon 26.71a (24.05 - 29.54) 24.01 (21.49 - 26.73) 0.046
Pennsylvania 28.43 (26.83 - 30.09) 27.89 (26.26 - 29.58) 0.522
Rhode Island 26.18 (23.41 - 29.15) 26.17 (23.57 - 28.95) 0.995
South Carolina 30.62 (27.94 - 33.44) 31.85 (28.92 - 34.93) 0.404
South Dakota 27.49 (24.86 - 30.29) 27.82 (25.10 - 30.72) 0.815
Tennessee 31.37 (28.41 - 34.48) 33.85 (30.67 - 37.18) 0.117
Texas 27.08 (25.54 - 28.69) 27.60 (26.02 - 29.24) 0.530
Utah 20.54 (18.10 - 23.22) 20.83 (18.29 - 23.63) 0.815
Vermont 26.63 (23.77 - 29.70) 26.33 (23.63 - 29.22) 0.830
Virginia 26.35 (23.62 - 29.28) 26.44 (23.77 - 29.30) 0.948
Washington 25.69 (23.02 - 28.55) 24.83 (22.27 - 27.58) 0.544
West Virginia 33.95 (30.83 - 37.21) 34.20 (30.96 - 37.59) 0.874
Wisconsin 28.72 (25.99 - 31.62) 29.71 (26.93 - 32.66) 0.474
Wyoming 26.77b (24.10 - 29.63) 29.24 (26.43 - 32.22) 0.072

71221

Table 14. Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 75.09   74.79  0.294
Northeast 76.21 (75.25 - 77.15) 76.62 (75.69 - 77.53) 0.384
Midwest 72.60 (71.76 - 73.42) 72.01 (71.17 - 72.83) 0.144
South 74.27 (73.46 - 75.06) 73.89 (73.09 - 74.67) 0.345
West 77.95 (76.93 - 78.94) 77.47 (76.42 - 78.48) 0.334
 
Alabama 72.97 (69.89 - 75.84) 72.03 (68.98 - 74.89) 0.502
Alaska 71.86 (68.77 - 74.76) 72.71 (69.81 - 75.43) 0.556
Arizona 78.18 (75.35 - 80.76) 76.10 (73.20 - 78.79) 0.125
Arkansas 72.80 (69.79 - 75.60) 71.85 (68.79 - 74.72) 0.522
California 79.17 (77.62 - 80.63) 79.03 (77.47 - 80.51) 0.859
Colorado 76.20 (73.32 - 78.86) 76.63 (73.83 - 79.22) 0.753
Connecticut 76.23 (73.11 - 79.09) 78.41 (75.49 - 81.07) 0.132
Delaware 76.72 (73.85 - 79.38) 74.77 (71.84 - 77.48) 0.148
District of Columbia 79.14 (76.47 - 81.57) 78.94 (76.18 - 81.45) 0.886
Florida 77.18 (75.55 - 78.72) 76.76 (75.11 - 78.33) 0.602
Georgia 76.53 (73.69 - 79.16) 75.70 (72.63 - 78.53) 0.572
Hawaii 74.80 (71.30 - 78.02) 75.48 (72.24 - 78.45) 0.677
Idaho 74.69 (71.90 - 77.29) 74.18 (71.25 - 76.90) 0.724
Illinois 75.48 (73.87 - 77.01) 75.54 (73.93 - 77.08) 0.940
Indiana 71.72 (68.74 - 74.52) 69.68 (66.62 - 72.57) 0.167
Iowa 68.84 (65.75 - 71.76) 70.42 (67.50 - 73.17) 0.267
Kansas 72.29 (69.25 - 75.13) 71.36 (68.37 - 74.17) 0.518
Kentucky 66.09 (62.86 - 69.18) 68.30 (65.28 - 71.18) 0.146
Louisiana 73.51 (70.54 - 76.27) 73.40 (70.40 - 76.20) 0.940
Maine 71.59 (68.54 - 74.45) 71.86 (68.89 - 74.65) 0.859
Maryland 76.64 (73.49 - 79.51) 75.29 (72.40 - 77.96) 0.346
Massachusetts 77.04 (74.14 - 79.70) 75.64 (72.73 - 78.33) 0.307
Michigan 72.98 (71.35 - 74.56) 73.45 (71.85 - 74.99) 0.585
Minnesota 72.85 (69.93 - 75.58) 72.43 (69.51 - 75.18) 0.771
Mississippi 73.56 (70.58 - 76.33) 73.34 (70.47 - 76.02) 0.881
Missouri 70.18 (67.07 - 73.11) 70.02 (66.85 - 73.00) 0.914
Montana 72.30 (69.07 - 75.31) 71.80 (68.72 - 74.69) 0.730
Nebraska 71.14 (68.04 - 74.06) 71.36 (68.37 - 74.17) 0.889
Nevada 74.85b (71.80 - 77.68) 72.26 (69.13 - 75.19) 0.077
New Hampshire 73.36 (70.55 - 75.99) 73.90 (71.03 - 76.59) 0.700
New Jersey 75.83 (72.74 - 78.66) 77.93 (75.21 - 80.43) 0.126
New Mexico 76.92 (74.05 - 79.57) 76.01 (73.09 - 78.72) 0.517
New York 77.44 (75.86 - 78.94) 78.14 (76.51 - 79.67) 0.365
North Carolina 71.29 (67.98 - 74.39) 73.31 (70.12 - 76.27) 0.202
North Dakota 69.21 (65.87 - 72.36) 67.38 (64.03 - 70.56) 0.242
Ohio 72.26 (70.61 - 73.86) 70.93 (69.29 - 72.53) 0.112
Oklahoma 70.65 (67.55 - 73.57) 69.19 (65.87 - 72.32) 0.377
Oregon 77.22 (74.41 - 79.80) 77.46 (74.73 - 79.97) 0.860
Pennsylvania 74.92 (73.28 - 76.49) 74.21 (72.62 - 75.74) 0.376
Rhode Island 77.18 (74.29 - 79.83) 77.01 (74.25 - 79.55) 0.898
South Carolina 71.21 (68.19 - 74.06) 70.69 (67.62 - 73.58) 0.714
South Dakota 72.90 (70.01 - 75.60) 72.91 (70.11 - 75.53) 0.994
Tennessee 72.07 (69.09 - 74.87) 71.32 (68.21 - 74.24) 0.623
Texas 75.46 (73.87 - 76.98) 74.73 (73.11 - 76.29) 0.376
Utah 79.01 (76.09 - 81.66) 78.67 (75.64 - 81.42) 0.803
Vermont 75.53 (72.58 - 78.27) 75.76 (72.84 - 78.45) 0.873
Virginia 75.50 (72.46 - 78.30) 74.53 (71.62 - 77.24) 0.496
Washington 77.04 (74.15 - 79.70) 75.62 (72.88 - 78.18) 0.325
West Virginia 69.09 (65.89 - 72.11) 67.99 (64.76 - 71.05) 0.494
Wisconsin 72.40b (69.41 - 75.20) 69.72 (66.56 - 72.71) 0.062
Wyoming 72.74 (69.74 - 75.55) 71.41 (68.38 - 74.26) 0.344

71221

Table 15. Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 7.94   7.91  0.827
Northeast 7.48 (7.02 - 7.98) 7.34 (6.89 - 7.82) 0.555
Midwest 8.63 (8.24 - 9.04) 8.55 (8.16 - 8.96) 0.686
South 7.52 (7.15 - 7.92) 7.48 (7.10 - 7.89) 0.825
West 8.29 (7.77 - 8.84) 8.43 (7.91 - 8.98) 0.583
 
Alabama 6.67 (5.43 - 8.18) 6.64 (5.43 - 8.10) 0.958
Alaska 7.74 (6.48 - 9.23) 8.03 (6.74 - 9.53) 0.666
Arizona 9.24 (7.72 - 11.02) 8.44 (7.08 - 10.03) 0.245
Arkansas 6.81b (5.66 - 8.17) 8.02 (6.74 - 9.51) 0.061
California 7.98 (7.19 - 8.85) 8.58 (7.74 - 9.49) 0.157
Colorado 9.44 (7.91 - 11.22) 9.35 (7.84 - 11.12) 0.914
Connecticut 8.74 (7.26 - 10.48) 8.77 (7.34 - 10.44) 0.962
Delaware 7.24 (6.04 - 8.66) 6.90 (5.72 - 8.30) 0.579
District of Columbia 10.30 (8.58 - 12.32) 10.39 (8.89 - 12.10) 0.926
Florida 8.26 (7.42 - 9.18) 7.76 (6.94 - 8.67) 0.190
Georgia 6.18 (5.01 - 7.59) 7.07 (5.83 - 8.56) 0.167
Hawaii 7.00 (5.71 - 8.55) 7.32 (5.99 - 8.92) 0.644
Idaho 7.91 (6.63 - 9.43) 8.23 (6.93 - 9.74) 0.614
Illinois 8.70b (7.89 - 9.60) 7.92 (7.12 - 8.81) 0.075
Indiana 8.11 (6.82 - 9.62) 8.01 (6.82 - 9.37) 0.882
Iowa 8.89 (7.59 - 10.38) 9.11 (7.77 - 10.64) 0.759
Kansas 9.01 (7.57 - 10.69) 8.58 (7.29 - 10.08) 0.550
Kentucky 6.86 (5.72 - 8.20) 6.34 (5.20 - 7.71) 0.392
Louisiana 7.91 (6.61 - 9.45) 7.58 (6.29 - 9.12) 0.647
Maine 7.37 (6.12 - 8.86) 7.67 (6.38 - 9.19) 0.671
Maryland 7.05 (5.81 - 8.54) 7.15 (5.96 - 8.54) 0.886
Massachusetts 8.24 (6.88 - 9.84) 8.48 (7.14 - 10.03) 0.737
Michigan 8.16 (7.39 - 9.01) 8.69 (7.92 - 9.54) 0.180
Minnesota 9.06 (7.67 - 10.67) 9.54 (8.09 - 11.23) 0.519
Mississippi 6.88 (5.69 - 8.29) 6.72 (5.53 - 8.14) 0.799
Missouri 9.15 (7.78 - 10.73) 9.05 (7.72 - 10.58) 0.887
Montana 10.04 (8.51 - 11.82) 10.80 (9.10 - 12.77) 0.343
Nebraska 9.70 (8.30 - 11.31) 9.97 (8.52 - 11.63) 0.708
Nevada 8.64 (7.27 - 10.24) 8.35 (6.99 - 9.95) 0.692
New Hampshire 7.96 (6.66 - 9.47) 8.37 (6.96 - 10.03) 0.552
New Jersey 6.62 (5.41 - 8.07) 6.40 (5.22 - 7.83) 0.736
New Mexico 8.81 (7.39 - 10.47) 8.35 (6.97 - 9.97) 0.536
New York 7.06 (6.32 - 7.89) 7.15 (6.38 - 8.01) 0.831
North Carolina 7.12 (5.87 - 8.63) 6.80 (5.59 - 8.25) 0.590
North Dakota 9.96 (8.49 - 11.65) 9.48 (8.10 - 11.07) 0.517
Ohio 7.48 (6.79 - 8.22) 8.05 (7.28 - 8.89) 0.129
Oklahoma 8.06 (6.82 - 9.51) 7.68 (6.35 - 9.25) 0.559
Oregon 7.90 (6.63 - 9.38) 6.85 (5.68 - 8.24) 0.102
Pennsylvania 7.78a (7.01 - 8.62) 6.93 (6.20 - 7.73) 0.034
Rhode Island 8.51 (7.22 - 10.01) 9.00 (7.55 - 10.69) 0.542
South Carolina 8.16 (6.72 - 9.88) 7.60 (6.31 - 9.13) 0.409
South Dakota 9.49 (8.01 - 11.22) 10.42 (8.86 - 12.22) 0.224
Tennessee 6.87 (5.70 - 8.27) 6.97 (5.75 - 8.42) 0.877
Texas 8.04 (7.25 - 8.92) 8.34 (7.54 - 9.21) 0.490
Utah 7.54 (6.28 - 9.02) 7.73 (6.51 - 9.16) 0.760
Vermont 8.91 (7.57 - 10.47) 9.02 (7.69 - 10.55) 0.876
Virginia 7.66 (6.43 - 9.09) 7.38 (6.17 - 8.81) 0.670
Washington 8.54 (7.17 - 10.15) 8.05 (6.78 - 9.53) 0.487
West Virginia 7.03 (5.88 - 8.40) 6.50 (5.37 - 7.85) 0.395
Wisconsin 10.37b (8.83 - 12.15) 8.79 (7.47 - 10.30) 0.052
Wyoming 9.49 (8.01 - 11.22) 9.42 (8.01 - 11.05) 0.924

71221

Table 16. Alcohol Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 3.52   3.50  0.860
Northeast 3.35 (3.04 - 3.69) 3.32 (3.02 - 3.66) 0.867
Midwest 3.69 (3.44 - 3.96) 3.62 (3.36 - 3.89) 0.583
South 3.31 (3.08 - 3.57) 3.26 (3.01 - 3.53) 0.686
West 3.81 (3.46 - 4.21) 3.92 (3.55 - 4.31) 0.596
 
Alabama 3.19 (2.46 - 4.13) 3.05 (2.30 - 4.02) 0.720
Alaska 3.80 (2.95 - 4.86) 4.41 (3.43 - 5.64) 0.210
Arizona 4.29 (3.34 - 5.48) 4.16 (3.21 - 5.39) 0.808
Arkansas 3.14 (2.47 - 3.98) 3.53 (2.73 - 4.54) 0.328
California 3.76 (3.23 - 4.36) 4.06 (3.51 - 4.68) 0.307
Colorado 4.08 (3.22 - 5.17) 3.91 (3.09 - 4.95) 0.740
Connecticut 3.65 (2.84 - 4.67) 3.48 (2.70 - 4.46) 0.709
Delaware 2.86 (2.17 - 3.76) 3.00 (2.28 - 3.93) 0.741
District of Columbia 5.61 (4.40 - 7.13) 4.89 (3.88 - 6.14) 0.270
Florida 3.41 (2.93 - 3.97) 3.17 (2.69 - 3.73) 0.362
Georgia 2.91 (2.21 - 3.81) 3.21 (2.43 - 4.23) 0.488
Hawaii 3.44 (2.58 - 4.57) 3.67 (2.74 - 4.88) 0.649
Idaho 3.41 (2.71 - 4.28) 3.45 (2.74 - 4.34) 0.919
Illinois 3.92 (3.41 - 4.50) 3.69 (3.16 - 4.30) 0.399
Indiana 3.53 (2.78 - 4.46) 3.41 (2.73 - 4.27) 0.793
Iowa 3.83 (3.07 - 4.76) 3.96 (3.13 - 5.00) 0.774
Kansas 3.81 (3.03 - 4.78) 3.87 (3.10 - 4.83) 0.885
Kentucky 3.12 (2.43 - 3.99) 2.88 (2.21 - 3.76) 0.556
Louisiana 3.33 (2.60 - 4.25) 3.33 (2.55 - 4.34) 0.993
Maine 3.25 (2.55 - 4.14) 3.34 (2.58 - 4.30) 0.840
Maryland 3.14 (2.42 - 4.05) 2.74 (2.08 - 3.62) 0.364
Massachusetts 3.93 (3.09 - 4.98) 3.91 (3.04 - 5.01) 0.973
Michigan 3.52 (3.04 - 4.08) 3.87 (3.36 - 4.46) 0.211
Minnesota 3.75 (3.00 - 4.67) 3.83 (3.01 - 4.87) 0.850
Mississippi 3.60 (2.82 - 4.59) 3.25 (2.55 - 4.13) 0.413
Missouri 3.68 (2.92 - 4.62) 3.73 (2.96 - 4.69) 0.910
Montana 4.12 (3.24 - 5.22) 4.56 (3.48 - 5.95) 0.385
Nebraska 3.80 (3.06 - 4.70) 3.85 (3.10 - 4.78) 0.903
Nevada 3.80 (3.01 - 4.78) 3.59 (2.80 - 4.59) 0.638
New Hampshire 3.33 (2.65 - 4.19) 3.52 (2.77 - 4.47) 0.646
New Jersey 2.92 (2.22 - 3.84) 3.03 (2.33 - 3.94) 0.789
New Mexico 4.02 (3.11 - 5.16) 4.07 (3.11 - 5.31) 0.917
New York 3.25 (2.76 - 3.84) 3.36 (2.85 - 3.97) 0.700
North Carolina 3.58 (2.80 - 4.57) 3.18 (2.45 - 4.11) 0.310
North Dakota 4.09 (3.30 - 5.05) 3.62 (2.87 - 4.56) 0.298
Ohio 3.25 (2.82 - 3.75) 3.23 (2.77 - 3.76) 0.926
Oklahoma 3.53 (2.80 - 4.45) 3.22 (2.48 - 4.17) 0.476
Oregon 3.76 (3.02 - 4.69) 3.11 (2.47 - 3.91) 0.117
Pennsylvania 3.34 (2.88 - 3.87) 3.02 (2.56 - 3.56) 0.198
Rhode Island 3.89 (3.12 - 4.85) 4.10 (3.24 - 5.18) 0.650
South Carolina 3.56 (2.78 - 4.55) 3.34 (2.61 - 4.26) 0.612
South Dakota 4.06 (3.24 - 5.08) 3.69 (2.94 - 4.61) 0.393
Tennessee 2.99 (2.31 - 3.87) 2.98 (2.31 - 3.84) 0.972
Texas 3.31 (2.85 - 3.84) 3.65 (3.15 - 4.23) 0.223
Utah 3.78 (3.01 - 4.74) 3.88 (3.08 - 4.89) 0.815
Vermont 3.94 (3.12 - 4.97) 3.35 (2.63 - 4.25) 0.199
Virginia 3.45 (2.72 - 4.38) 3.33 (2.61 - 4.25) 0.769
Washington 3.66 (2.88 - 4.64) 3.52 (2.75 - 4.48) 0.747
West Virginia 3.14 (2.49 - 3.95) 2.90 (2.30 - 3.65) 0.520
Wisconsin 4.28b (3.39 - 5.39) 3.32 (2.63 - 4.20) 0.061
Wyoming 3.41 (2.70 - 4.30) 3.62 (2.89 - 4.53) 0.633

71221

Table 17. Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 2.68   2.62  0.423
Northeast 2.69 (2.47 - 2.93) 2.62 (2.40 - 2.86) 0.530
Midwest 2.61 (2.42 - 2.82) 2.55 (2.36 - 2.75) 0.504
South 2.67 (2.49 - 2.87) 2.65 (2.46 - 2.86) 0.836
West 2.74 (2.49 - 3.01) 2.65 (2.40 - 2.93) 0.504
 
Alabama 2.77 (2.19 - 3.50) 2.64 (2.04 - 3.42) 0.695
Alaska 3.08 (2.42 - 3.91) 3.09 (2.36 - 4.05) 0.972
Arizona 2.38 (1.88 - 3.03) 2.50 (1.92 - 3.26) 0.706
Arkansas 2.96 (2.38 - 3.67) 2.93 (2.30 - 3.72) 0.930
California 2.74 (2.36 - 3.17) 2.67 (2.27 - 3.13) 0.745
Colorado 3.09 (2.48 - 3.86) 2.95 (2.30 - 3.77) 0.657
Connecticut 3.07 (2.46 - 3.83) 2.86 (2.25 - 3.63) 0.516
Delaware 2.89 (2.33 - 3.58) 2.91 (2.30 - 3.68) 0.951
District of Columbia 3.75 (2.95 - 4.75) 4.26 (3.27 - 5.51) 0.305
Florida 2.63 (2.26 - 3.05) 2.68 (2.29 - 3.14) 0.784
Georgia 2.55 (1.99 - 3.27) 2.74 (2.10 - 3.56) 0.575
Hawaii 2.49 (1.80 - 3.44) 2.19 (1.59 - 3.01) 0.406
Idaho 2.57 (2.07 - 3.19) 2.73 (2.16 - 3.44) 0.575
Illinois 2.66 (2.29 - 3.09) 2.66 (2.27 - 3.11) 0.990
Indiana 2.62 (2.09 - 3.28) 2.63 (2.08 - 3.31) 0.982
Iowa 2.12 (1.62 - 2.77) 1.90 (1.40 - 2.58) 0.470
Kansas 2.62 (2.07 - 3.33) 2.62 (2.03 - 3.38) 0.998
Kentucky 2.79 (2.16 - 3.60) 2.27 (1.74 - 2.97) 0.153
Louisiana 2.87 (2.26 - 3.63) 2.69 (2.06 - 3.50) 0.599
Maine 2.97 (2.39 - 3.69) 2.74 (2.18 - 3.44) 0.470
Maryland 2.49 (1.94 - 3.19) 2.40 (1.83 - 3.15) 0.778
Massachusetts 2.91 (2.36 - 3.59) 2.66 (2.11 - 3.33) 0.404
Michigan 2.92 (2.55 - 3.34) 2.73 (2.36 - 3.16) 0.369
Minnesota 2.63 (2.09 - 3.31) 2.39 (1.85 - 3.08) 0.417
Mississippi 2.74 (2.18 - 3.44) 2.94 (2.30 - 3.74) 0.565
Missouri 2.70 (2.16 - 3.36) 2.49 (1.94 - 3.20) 0.511
Montana 2.67 (2.14 - 3.31) 2.81 (2.22 - 3.54) 0.647
Nebraska 2.33 (1.82 - 2.97) 2.19 (1.67 - 2.86) 0.626
Nevada 2.41 (1.89 - 3.07) 2.46 (1.88 - 3.20) 0.894
New Hampshire 2.54 (2.02 - 3.19) 2.47 (1.92 - 3.17) 0.812
New Jersey 2.31 (1.79 - 2.97) 2.06 (1.56 - 2.70) 0.397
New Mexico 2.70 (2.13 - 3.42) 2.39 (1.84 - 3.09) 0.347
New York 2.79 (2.41 - 3.24) 2.96 (2.52 - 3.47) 0.477
North Carolina 2.75 (2.17 - 3.48) 2.83 (2.19 - 3.65) 0.818
North Dakota 2.13 (1.62 - 2.78) 2.05 (1.55 - 2.72) 0.798
Ohio 2.48 (2.14 - 2.89) 2.73 (2.33 - 3.20) 0.245
Oklahoma 2.68 (2.13 - 3.35) 2.55 (1.94 - 3.35) 0.705
Oregon 2.60 (2.09 - 3.23) 2.35 (1.82 - 3.02) 0.410
Pennsylvania 2.50 (2.17 - 2.88) 2.30 (1.96 - 2.70) 0.281
Rhode Island 3.28 (2.64 - 4.08) 3.47 (2.78 - 4.32) 0.618
South Carolina 2.78 (2.19 - 3.51) 2.80 (2.19 - 3.58) 0.938
South Dakota 2.20 (1.72 - 2.81) 2.06 (1.57 - 2.69) 0.600
Tennessee 2.94 (2.35 - 3.68) 2.84 (2.23 - 3.60) 0.752
Texas 2.55 (2.20 - 2.96) 2.58 (2.20 - 3.02) 0.906
Utah 3.27 (2.65 - 4.04) 2.83 (2.22 - 3.60) 0.200
Vermont 2.80 (2.25 - 3.47) 2.94 (2.39 - 3.62) 0.617
Virginia 2.57 (2.02 - 3.26) 2.31 (1.79 - 2.98) 0.411
Washington 2.92 (2.30 - 3.71) 2.74 (2.15 - 3.49) 0.599
West Virginia 2.61 (2.11 - 3.23) 2.70 (2.15 - 3.38) 0.784
Wisconsin 2.56 (2.00 - 3.26) 2.25 (1.72 - 2.95) 0.328
Wyoming 2.65 (2.12 - 3.32) 2.59 (2.04 - 3.28) 0.831

71221

Table 18. Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 1.88   1.88  0.958
Northeast 1.91 (1.71 - 2.12) 1.95 (1.75 - 2.18) 0.683
Midwest 1.83 (1.66 - 2.01) 1.83 (1.66 - 2.01) 0.992
South 1.84 (1.68 - 2.01) 1.86 (1.70 - 2.03) 0.828
West 1.98 (1.77 - 2.23) 1.91 (1.69 - 2.15) 0.500
 
Alabama 1.85 (1.41 - 2.42) 1.93 (1.46 - 2.55) 0.732
Alaska 2.29 (1.75 - 3.00) 2.38 (1.75 - 3.23) 0.786
Arizona 1.62 (1.21 - 2.15) 1.73 (1.28 - 2.33) 0.645
Arkansas 2.11 (1.63 - 2.72) 2.06 (1.58 - 2.68) 0.857
California 1.98 (1.67 - 2.34) 1.93 (1.60 - 2.31) 0.776
Colorado 2.28 (1.76 - 2.96) 2.18 (1.65 - 2.89) 0.704
Connecticut 2.21 (1.70 - 2.86) 2.19 (1.69 - 2.84) 0.938
Delaware 2.10 (1.65 - 2.68) 2.08 (1.59 - 2.71) 0.922
District of Columbia 2.84 (2.12 - 3.78) 3.46 (2.51 - 4.76) 0.170
Florida 1.77 (1.49 - 2.11) 1.84 (1.53 - 2.22) 0.644
Georgia 1.81 (1.37 - 2.40) 1.83 (1.38 - 2.43) 0.936
Hawaii 1.76 (1.23 - 2.51) 1.42 (1.00 - 2.02) 0.203
Idaho 1.69 (1.30 - 2.19) 1.77 (1.35 - 2.32) 0.703
Illinois 1.88 (1.56 - 2.26) 1.92 (1.58 - 2.33) 0.832
Indiana 1.88 (1.45 - 2.44) 1.86 (1.44 - 2.38) 0.894
Iowa 1.41 (1.03 - 1.94) 1.33 (0.92 - 1.92) 0.752
Kansas 1.89 (1.43 - 2.50) 1.90 (1.43 - 2.53) 0.956
Kentucky 1.99 (1.48 - 2.67) 1.74 (1.28 - 2.36) 0.399
Louisiana 2.03 (1.54 - 2.68) 1.97 (1.44 - 2.69) 0.837
Maine 2.02 (1.57 - 2.59) 1.97 (1.51 - 2.56) 0.844
Maryland 1.84 (1.41 - 2.41) 1.79 (1.32 - 2.40) 0.822
Massachusetts 2.14 (1.68 - 2.73) 2.12 (1.63 - 2.74) 0.906
Michigan 2.14 (1.83 - 2.49) 2.03 (1.71 - 2.40) 0.529
Minnesota 1.80 (1.38 - 2.34) 1.67 (1.25 - 2.23) 0.570
Mississippi 1.94 (1.51 - 2.48) 1.96 (1.49 - 2.59) 0.914
Missouri 1.70 (1.30 - 2.23) 1.57 (1.16 - 2.12) 0.561
Montana 1.84 (1.42 - 2.38) 1.96 (1.50 - 2.57) 0.601
Nebraska 1.77 (1.36 - 2.30) 1.72 (1.31 - 2.27) 0.847
Nevada 1.79 (1.33 - 2.40) 1.76 (1.30 - 2.37) 0.913
New Hampshire 1.74 (1.32 - 2.28) 1.67 (1.26 - 2.22) 0.779
New Jersey 1.64 (1.24 - 2.17) 1.60 (1.19 - 2.14) 0.864
New Mexico 1.94 (1.46 - 2.57) 1.70 (1.28 - 2.27) 0.372
New York 1.99 (1.66 - 2.39) 2.16 (1.79 - 2.61) 0.396
North Carolina 1.86 (1.40 - 2.45) 1.97 (1.46 - 2.66) 0.670
North Dakota 1.54 (1.11 - 2.11) 1.52 (1.11 - 2.09) 0.953
Ohio 1.76 (1.47 - 2.11) 1.99 (1.66 - 2.39) 0.181
Oklahoma 1.94 (1.49 - 2.52) 1.97 (1.46 - 2.67) 0.907
Oregon 1.94 (1.51 - 2.47) 1.67 (1.26 - 2.21) 0.246
Pennsylvania 1.71 (1.43 - 2.03) 1.69 (1.41 - 2.02) 0.910
Rhode Island 2.43 (1.90 - 3.10) 2.38 (1.85 - 3.06) 0.872
South Carolina 1.79 (1.36 - 2.34) 1.80 (1.34 - 2.42) 0.953
South Dakota 1.50 (1.09 - 2.06) 1.32 (0.94 - 1.84) 0.425
Tennessee 1.98 (1.52 - 2.58) 1.95 (1.47 - 2.57) 0.882
Texas 1.70 (1.43 - 2.02) 1.75 (1.46 - 2.11) 0.741
Utah 2.25 (1.76 - 2.87) 2.05 (1.58 - 2.65) 0.417
Vermont 2.15 (1.68 - 2.75) 2.21 (1.74 - 2.81) 0.792
Virginia 1.85 (1.40 - 2.43) 1.74 (1.32 - 2.28) 0.640
Washington 2.27 (1.72 - 2.99) 2.06 (1.54 - 2.74) 0.459
West Virginia 1.77 (1.37 - 2.26) 1.84 (1.40 - 2.41) 0.762
Wisconsin 1.68 (1.28 - 2.21) 1.68 (1.23 - 2.27) 0.983
Wyoming 1.83 (1.40 - 2.39) 1.82 (1.41 - 2.36) 0.980

71221

Table 19. Dependence on or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 9.34   9.29  0.739
Northeast 8.99 (8.51 - 9.49) 8.80 (8.28 - 9.35) 0.463
Midwest 9.89 (9.48 - 10.32) 9.85 (9.44 - 10.28) 0.855
South 8.94 (8.55 - 9.35) 8.86 (8.46 - 9.28) 0.689
West 9.71 (9.16 - 10.30) 9.84 (9.26 - 10.44) 0.673
 
Alabama 7.96 (6.64 - 9.53) 7.93 (6.59 - 9.50) 0.956
Alaska 9.91 (8.45 - 11.59) 10.00 (8.58 - 11.62) 0.906
Arizona 10.29 (8.74 - 12.07) 9.84 (8.30 - 11.64) 0.582
Arkansas 8.44b (7.26 - 9.79) 9.68 (8.25 - 11.32) 0.085
California 9.41 (8.57 - 10.32) 9.95 (9.06 - 10.92) 0.240
Colorado 11.07 (9.50 - 12.85) 10.98 (9.36 - 12.84) 0.920
Connecticut 10.33 (8.76 - 12.14) 10.21 (8.70 - 11.95) 0.884
Delaware 8.82 (7.56 - 10.27) 8.56 (7.32 - 9.98) 0.710
District of Columbia 11.97 (10.25 - 13.92) 12.76 (11.03 - 14.72) 0.393
Florida 9.54 (8.67 - 10.49) 9.14 (8.26 - 10.11) 0.370
Georgia 7.83 (6.55 - 9.35) 8.59 (7.19 - 10.23) 0.305
Hawaii 8.09 (6.69 - 9.74) 8.46 (6.97 - 10.24) 0.623
Idaho 9.07 (7.73 - 10.62) 9.53 (8.16 - 11.10) 0.512
Illinois 9.92 (9.08 - 10.83) 9.18 (8.33 - 10.10) 0.113
Indiana 9.40 (8.07 - 10.91) 9.23 (7.92 - 10.73) 0.814
Iowa 9.61 (8.35 - 11.04) 9.99 (8.56 - 11.62) 0.621
Kansas 10.18 (8.80 - 11.76) 10.01 (8.64 - 11.58) 0.817
Kentucky 8.60 (7.28 - 10.12) 7.60 (6.38 - 9.04) 0.182
Louisiana 9.72 (8.34 - 11.30) 9.35 (7.87 - 11.07) 0.617
Maine 9.24 (7.89 - 10.80) 9.71 (8.22 - 11.43) 0.561
Maryland 8.39 (7.09 - 9.91) 8.25 (6.99 - 9.70) 0.830
Massachusetts 9.89 (8.51 - 11.47) 10.10 (8.64 - 11.76) 0.771
Michigan 9.85 (9.02 - 10.74) 10.12 (9.28 - 11.02) 0.549
Minnesota 10.33 (8.88 - 11.99) 10.79 (9.22 - 12.58) 0.574
Mississippi 8.14 (6.89 - 9.59) 8.12 (6.85 - 9.60) 0.981
Missouri 10.18 (8.75 - 11.81) 10.05 (8.66 - 11.64) 0.876
Montana 11.04 (9.53 - 12.76) 12.08 (10.39 - 14.01) 0.206
Nebraska 10.57 (9.13 - 12.21) 10.77 (9.31 - 12.43) 0.795
Nevada 9.82 (8.38 - 11.48) 9.62 (8.14 - 11.33) 0.795
New Hampshire 9.48 (8.14 - 11.01) 9.52 (8.11 - 11.13) 0.960
New Jersey 7.86 (6.63 - 9.30) 7.49 (6.27 - 8.93) 0.601
New Mexico 10.14 (8.65 - 11.86) 9.65 (8.20 - 11.31) 0.538
New York 8.75 (7.93 - 9.64) 8.76 (7.89 - 9.73) 0.971
North Carolina 8.70 (7.29 - 10.35) 8.52 (7.20 - 10.06) 0.803
North Dakota 10.89 (9.49 - 12.48) 10.44 (9.06 - 12.01) 0.524
Ohio 8.89a (8.13 - 9.73) 9.73 (8.90 - 10.63) 0.050
Oklahoma 9.33 (8.04 - 10.81) 8.91 (7.58 - 10.44) 0.545
Oregon 9.13 (7.85 - 10.59) 8.16 (6.90 - 9.64) 0.162
Pennsylvania 9.02b (8.21 - 9.90) 8.22 (7.45 - 9.06) 0.052
Rhode Island 10.32 (8.90 - 11.94) 11.20 (9.62 - 13.01) 0.289
South Carolina 9.43 (7.94 - 11.17) 9.14 (7.79 - 10.70) 0.699
South Dakota 10.30 (8.89 - 11.90) 11.16 (9.71 - 12.80) 0.228
Tennessee 8.48 (7.26 - 9.89) 8.69 (7.39 - 10.19) 0.771
Texas 9.39 (8.57 - 10.27) 9.48 (8.61 - 10.43) 0.834
Utah 9.67 (8.32 - 11.20) 9.14 (7.78 - 10.72) 0.452
Vermont 10.43 (9.00 - 12.05) 10.48 (8.99 - 12.19) 0.942
Virginia 8.90 (7.61 - 10.38) 8.47 (7.14 - 10.02) 0.528
Washington 10.22 (8.79 - 11.86) 9.65 (8.22 - 11.30) 0.464
West Virginia 8.29 (7.02 - 9.77) 7.91 (6.71 - 9.30) 0.591
Wisconsin 11.41 (9.85 - 13.18) 10.08 (8.66 - 11.72) 0.127
Wyoming 11.04 (9.49 - 12.80) 10.82 (9.33 - 12.51) 0.788

71221

Table 20. Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for illicit drugs, but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 2.43   2.34  0.196
Northeast 2.35 (2.15 - 2.56) 2.27 (2.08 - 2.48) 0.470
Midwest 2.31 (2.13 - 2.51) 2.23 (2.05 - 2.42) 0.353
South 2.43 (2.25 - 2.62) 2.36 (2.19 - 2.54) 0.459
West 2.62 (2.36 - 2.90) 2.47 (2.23 - 2.74) 0.274
 
Alabama 2.23 (1.75 - 2.82) 2.09 (1.61 - 2.70) 0.617
Alaska 3.28 (2.53 - 4.23) 2.87 (2.23 - 3.68) 0.320
Arizona 2.22 (1.73 - 2.86) 2.23 (1.72 - 2.89) 0.977
Arkansas 2.68 (2.17 - 3.32) 2.65 (2.08 - 3.36) 0.898
California 2.64 (2.27 - 3.06) 2.52 (2.16 - 2.94) 0.576
Colorado 2.91 (2.31 - 3.65) 2.61 (2.08 - 3.27) 0.295
Connecticut 2.78 (2.23 - 3.45) 2.52 (2.00 - 3.18) 0.364
Delaware 2.57 (2.02 - 3.26) 2.64 (2.10 - 3.31) 0.809
District of Columbia 3.11 (2.39 - 4.04) 3.20 (2.44 - 4.19) 0.797
Florida 2.45 (2.09 - 2.87) 2.40 (2.05 - 2.80) 0.788
Georgia 2.27 (1.75 - 2.93) 2.50 (1.95 - 3.19) 0.456
Hawaii 2.25 (1.62 - 3.11) 2.26 (1.62 - 3.16) 0.959
Idaho 2.40 (1.93 - 3.00) 2.53 (2.03 - 3.17) 0.608
Illinois 2.38 (2.04 - 2.78) 2.27 (1.94 - 2.66) 0.563
Indiana 2.31 (1.83 - 2.92) 2.35 (1.89 - 2.93) 0.882
Iowa 1.91 (1.45 - 2.51) 1.83 (1.37 - 2.44) 0.768
Kansas 2.18 (1.71 - 2.78) 2.15 (1.69 - 2.72) 0.870
Kentucky 2.68b (2.07 - 3.46) 2.12 (1.62 - 2.77) 0.074
Louisiana 2.80 (2.18 - 3.58) 2.54 (1.97 - 3.27) 0.435
Maine 2.73 (2.18 - 3.43) 2.66 (2.08 - 3.39) 0.815
Maryland 2.15 (1.64 - 2.82) 2.06 (1.58 - 2.68) 0.737
Massachusetts 2.53 (2.01 - 3.18) 2.37 (1.88 - 2.99) 0.545
Michigan 2.54 (2.22 - 2.91) 2.42 (2.08 - 2.81) 0.500
Minnesota 2.24 (1.78 - 2.81) 2.13 (1.68 - 2.71) 0.675
Mississippi 2.52 (1.99 - 3.20) 2.68 (2.10 - 3.41) 0.626
Missouri 2.57 (2.03 - 3.25) 2.26 (1.81 - 2.84) 0.266
Montana 2.34 (1.87 - 2.92) 2.51 (1.97 - 3.21) 0.533
Nebraska 2.05 (1.59 - 2.64) 2.04 (1.57 - 2.65) 0.964
Nevada 2.29 (1.75 - 3.00) 2.17 (1.67 - 2.80) 0.669
New Hampshire 2.16 (1.70 - 2.73) 2.23 (1.76 - 2.82) 0.766
New Jersey 1.94 (1.52 - 2.48) 1.72 (1.31 - 2.27) 0.382
New Mexico 2.56 (2.00 - 3.27) 2.21 (1.72 - 2.84) 0.250
New York 2.42 (2.09 - 2.81) 2.53 (2.18 - 2.94) 0.523
North Carolina 2.58 (2.01 - 3.31) 2.47 (1.96 - 3.12) 0.729
North Dakota 1.82 (1.39 - 2.38) 1.85 (1.40 - 2.45) 0.877
Ohio 2.16 (1.84 - 2.54) 2.29 (1.96 - 2.68) 0.484
Oklahoma 2.55 (2.00 - 3.24) 2.43 (1.87 - 3.16) 0.703
Oregon 2.49 (1.98 - 3.13) 2.21 (1.73 - 2.82) 0.316
Pennsylvania 2.22 (1.91 - 2.57) 2.01 (1.72 - 2.34) 0.188
Rhode Island 2.95 (2.38 - 3.65) 3.04 (2.42 - 3.80) 0.762
South Carolina 2.56 (2.00 - 3.28) 2.53 (2.01 - 3.19) 0.910
South Dakota 1.91 (1.49 - 2.45) 1.96 (1.52 - 2.52) 0.842
Tennessee 2.76 (2.20 - 3.45) 2.58 (2.06 - 3.23) 0.513
Texas 2.32 (1.99 - 2.70) 2.26 (1.94 - 2.62) 0.739
Utah 2.99 (2.40 - 3.71) 2.67 (2.12 - 3.37) 0.279
Vermont 2.45 (1.96 - 3.05) 2.69 (2.17 - 3.33) 0.360
Virginia 2.04 (1.61 - 2.59) 2.01 (1.57 - 2.57) 0.898
Washington 2.89 (2.24 - 3.72) 2.61 (2.07 - 3.29) 0.400
West Virginia 2.37 (1.90 - 2.96) 2.51 (2.01 - 3.13) 0.621
Wisconsin 2.33 (1.80 - 3.01) 1.95 (1.53 - 2.49) 0.185
Wyoming 2.31 (1.81 - 2.93) 2.20 (1.75 - 2.76) 0.692

71221

Table 21. Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005, and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for alcohol, but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers).
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 7.57   7.54  0.819
Northeast 7.11 (6.67 - 7.58) 6.95 (6.48 - 7.45) 0.476
Midwest 8.18 (7.81 - 8.58) 8.08 (7.69 - 8.49) 0.598
South 7.17 (6.80 - 7.56) 7.19 (6.83 - 7.58) 0.893
West 7.98 (7.46 - 8.53) 8.05 (7.55 - 8.57) 0.785
 
Alabama 6.21 (5.04 - 7.64) 6.24 (5.01 - 7.74) 0.964
Alaska 7.43 (6.21 - 8.86) 7.51 (6.29 - 8.94) 0.900
Arizona 8.79 (7.38 - 10.43) 7.99 (6.65 - 9.56) 0.253
Arkansas 6.29b (5.23 - 7.54) 7.43 (6.16 - 8.94) 0.068
California 7.79 (6.99 - 8.68) 8.27 (7.47 - 9.13) 0.258
Colorado 9.04 (7.60 - 10.72) 8.77 (7.36 - 10.42) 0.747
Connecticut 8.27 (6.81 - 10.02) 8.17 (6.83 - 9.74) 0.891
Delaware 6.81 (5.66 - 8.17) 6.48 (5.33 - 7.88) 0.587
District of Columbia 9.70 (8.06 - 11.62) 9.90 (8.38 - 11.66) 0.819
Florida 7.92 (7.09 - 8.83) 7.52 (6.73 - 8.40) 0.299
Georgia 5.90 (4.79 - 7.26) 6.84 (5.54 - 8.41) 0.162
Hawaii 6.60 (5.38 - 8.06) 7.08 (5.71 - 8.75) 0.485
Idaho 7.63 (6.41 - 9.06) 8.04 (6.72 - 9.60) 0.502
Illinois 8.45a (7.67 - 9.31) 7.47 (6.71 - 8.31) 0.016
Indiana 7.72 (6.54 - 9.10) 7.61 (6.43 - 9.00) 0.859
Iowa 8.57 (7.33 - 9.99) 8.70 (7.33 - 10.30) 0.847
Kansas 8.46 (7.15 - 9.99) 8.16 (6.85 - 9.69) 0.673
Kentucky 6.67 (5.54 - 8.01) 6.12 (5.03 - 7.42) 0.357
Louisiana 7.76 (6.44 - 9.32) 7.27 (6.00 - 8.78) 0.495
Maine 7.18 (5.97 - 8.61) 7.37 (6.03 - 8.99) 0.785
Maryland 6.67 (5.47 - 8.10) 6.88 (5.70 - 8.27) 0.734
Massachusetts 7.85 (6.57 - 9.35) 8.14 (6.86 - 9.63) 0.665
Michigan 7.67 (6.91 - 8.50) 8.24 (7.46 - 9.09) 0.163
Minnesota 8.58 (7.24 - 10.14) 9.16 (7.67 - 10.91) 0.440
Mississippi 6.51 (5.37 - 7.86) 6.35 (5.23 - 7.69) 0.803
Missouri 8.43 (7.14 - 9.94) 8.44 (7.12 - 9.99) 0.989
Montana 9.13 (7.76 - 10.71) 10.02 (8.46 - 11.82) 0.225
Nebraska 9.17 (7.81 - 10.74) 9.36 (8.00 - 10.92) 0.798
Nevada 8.28 (6.98 - 9.80) 7.95 (6.58 - 9.58) 0.652
New Hampshire 7.73 (6.48 - 9.21) 7.85 (6.56 - 9.38) 0.867
New Jersey 6.32 (5.16 - 7.73) 6.00 (4.86 - 7.39) 0.614
New Mexico 8.08 (6.81 - 9.57) 7.75 (6.39 - 9.36) 0.657
New York 6.67 (5.95 - 7.48) 6.71 (5.95 - 7.55) 0.928
North Carolina 6.61 (5.40 - 8.09) 6.44 (5.27 - 7.84) 0.765
North Dakota 9.65 (8.23 - 11.29) 9.21 (7.91 - 10.69) 0.526
Ohio 7.08 (6.39 - 7.82) 7.55 (6.81 - 8.37) 0.198
Oklahoma 7.58 (6.40 - 8.96) 7.30 (6.03 - 8.81) 0.670
Oregon 7.63 (6.47 - 8.98) 6.67 (5.50 - 8.06) 0.129
Pennsylvania 7.39a (6.68 - 8.18) 6.65 (5.95 - 7.43) 0.045
Rhode Island 8.00 (6.79 - 9.41) 8.57 (7.13 - 10.27) 0.468
South Carolina 7.70 (6.38 - 9.28) 7.40 (6.14 - 8.89) 0.643
South Dakota 8.81 (7.48 - 10.35) 9.82 (8.37 - 11.49) 0.147
Tennessee 6.62 (5.44 - 8.02) 6.65 (5.45 - 8.10) 0.958
Texas 7.76 (7.00 - 8.58) 8.09 (7.30 - 8.95) 0.425
Utah 7.19 (5.96 - 8.65) 7.12 (5.87 - 8.61) 0.907
Vermont 8.62 (7.30 - 10.16) 8.55 (7.23 - 10.09) 0.920
Virginia 7.19 (6.01 - 8.57) 7.09 (5.86 - 8.56) 0.884
Washington 7.95 (6.65 - 9.48) 7.53 (6.31 - 8.97) 0.537
West Virginia 6.66 (5.56 - 7.95) 6.25 (5.16 - 7.56) 0.500
Wisconsin 9.74b (8.22 - 11.50) 8.26 (7.02 - 9.69) 0.056
Wyoming 9.18 (7.75 - 10.84) 8.86 (7.46 - 10.50) 0.659

71221

Table 22. Serious Psychological Distress in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005 and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Serious psychological distress (SPD) is defined as having a score of 13 or higher on the K6 scale. Because of questionnaire changes, these estimates are not comparable with estimates from the 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 State reports, the 2002-2004 substate report, and the 2004 and earlier national results reports. For details, see Section A.8 in Appendix A of the report on State estimates of substance use from the 2005-2006 NSDUHs.
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 11.63b  11.29   0.077
Northeast 11.22 (10.62 - 11.86) 10.83 (10.23 - 11.47) 0.217
Midwest 12.00 (11.48 - 12.55) 11.80 (11.30 - 12.32) 0.429
South 11.76 (11.24 - 12.30) 11.48 (10.98 - 12.01) 0.303
West 11.40 (10.70 - 12.14) 10.87 (10.24 - 11.54) 0.152
          
Alabama 10.61 (9.03 - 12.43) 11.24 (9.71 - 12.98) 0.446
Alaska 11.93 (10.10 - 14.04) 11.34 (9.74 - 13.17) 0.531
Arizona 11.65 (9.91 - 13.64) 11.66 (10.02 - 13.54) 0.984
Arkansas 12.84 (11.04 - 14.90) 13.30 (11.51 - 15.32) 0.615
California 10.69 (9.63 - 11.86) 10.23 (9.29 - 11.24) 0.395
Colorado 11.40 (9.75 - 13.29) 11.32 (9.78 - 13.08) 0.926
Connecticut 11.46 (9.66 - 13.55) 10.61 (9.04 - 12.41) 0.308
Delaware 11.60 (9.89 - 13.56) 10.66 (9.12 - 12.44) 0.255
District of Columbia 12.12 (10.38 - 14.11) 11.23 (9.68 - 12.99) 0.318
Florida 11.12 (10.04 - 12.31) 10.30 (9.37 - 11.32) 0.116
Georgia 11.51 (9.81 - 13.47) 11.81 (10.11 - 13.76) 0.761
Hawaii 9.81 (8.16 - 11.76) 8.84 (7.42 - 10.50) 0.243
Idaho 11.98 (10.36 - 13.81) 12.01 (10.48 - 13.74) 0.967
Illinois 11.01 (10.00 - 12.12) 10.32 (9.39 - 11.34) 0.188
Indiana 12.52 (10.77 - 14.51) 12.73 (11.02 - 14.65) 0.826
Iowa 11.75 (10.04 - 13.71) 11.34 (9.75 - 13.16) 0.639
Kansas 13.64 (11.71 - 15.84) 13.76 (11.89 - 15.87) 0.899
Kentucky 14.68 (12.67 - 16.94) 13.43 (11.62 - 15.48) 0.209
Louisiana 12.21 (10.50 - 14.15) 12.52 (10.72 - 14.56) 0.734
Maine 11.84 (10.14 - 13.78) 12.15 (10.43 - 14.10) 0.741
Maryland 10.43 (8.79 - 12.33) 9.99 (8.64 - 11.52) 0.592
Massachusetts 10.92 (9.40 - 12.65) 10.71 (9.20 - 12.45) 0.799
Michigan 11.11 (10.11 - 12.20) 11.65 (10.72 - 12.65) 0.299
Minnesota 11.41 (9.82 - 13.23) 11.26 (9.72 - 13.01) 0.839
Mississippi 12.04 (10.38 - 13.93) 12.40 (10.72 - 14.31) 0.719
Missouri 14.06 (12.15 - 16.22) 13.81 (12.01 - 15.83) 0.792
Montana 12.46 (10.64 - 14.55) 12.45 (10.77 - 14.35) 0.988
Nebraska 11.24b (9.61 - 13.10) 12.86 (11.13 - 14.82) 0.089
Nevada 12.00 (10.19 - 14.07) 11.78 (10.16 - 13.63) 0.820
New Hampshire 11.56 (9.96 - 13.39) 11.20 (9.61 - 13.02) 0.678
New Jersey 10.31 (8.71 - 12.17) 10.06 (8.57 - 11.78) 0.784
New Mexico 12.75 (10.91 - 14.85) 12.21 (10.46 - 14.22) 0.555
New York 11.46 (10.39 - 12.61) 10.87 (9.89 - 11.94) 0.277
North Carolina 11.93 (10.09 - 14.05) 11.58 (9.86 - 13.55) 0.714
North Dakota 11.82 (10.16 - 13.70) 11.58 (9.98 - 13.38) 0.767
Ohio 12.81b (11.75 - 13.94) 11.94 (10.96 - 12.99) 0.094
Oklahoma 13.26 (11.51 - 15.23) 13.31 (11.53 - 15.31) 0.960
Oregon 12.30 (10.55 - 14.29) 11.24 (9.71 - 12.97) 0.223
Pennsylvania 11.21 (10.17 - 12.34) 10.94 (9.93 - 12.03) 0.608
Rhode Island 14.21 (12.15 - 16.54) 13.47 (11.69 - 15.48) 0.457
South Carolina 12.91 (11.17 - 14.88) 12.31 (10.61 - 14.24) 0.521
South Dakota 11.16 (9.48 - 13.09) 10.73 (9.16 - 12.53) 0.597
Tennessee 12.43 (10.61 - 14.50) 13.32 (11.51 - 15.37) 0.340
Texas 11.43 (10.44 - 12.51) 10.96 (9.98 - 12.03) 0.373
Utah 14.58 (12.71 - 16.66) 14.40 (12.56 - 16.45) 0.835
Vermont 11.50 (9.80 - 13.46) 12.41 (10.74 - 14.31) 0.302
Virginia 10.77 (9.19 - 12.59) 10.56 (9.06 - 12.28) 0.805
Washington 12.59a (10.84 - 14.58) 10.83 (9.33 - 12.53) 0.050
West Virginia 15.29 (13.17 - 17.68) 14.04 (12.15 - 16.17) 0.243
Wisconsin 11.77 (10.13 - 13.63) 11.60 (10.00 - 13.42) 0.830
Wyoming 13.33 (11.52 - 15.37) 13.22 (11.47 - 15.18) 0.903

71221

Table 23. Having at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2004, 2005 and 2006 NSDUHs
State 18 or Older
2004-2005 2005-2006 p value
Estimate 95% Prediction Interval Estimate 95% Prediction Interval
NOTE: p value: Bayes posterior probability of no change.
NOTE: Major Depressive Episode (MDE) is defined as a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of the symptoms for depression as described in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: Estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, and the 95 percent prediction (credible) intervals are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques.
a Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2005-2006 estimate and the 2004-2005 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Total U.S. 7.65a   7.25  0.047
Northeast 7.51 (6.84 - 8.24) 7.06 (6.56 - 7.60) 0.179
Midwest 7.98 (7.44 - 8.57) 7.77 (7.34 - 8.21) 0.422
South 7.49 (6.95 - 8.07) 7.26 (6.86 - 7.69) 0.387
West 7.68a (7.00 - 8.42) 6.89 (6.38 - 7.44) 0.023
 
Alabama 7.39 (5.79 - 9.38) 7.20 (5.90 - 8.75) 0.830
Alaska 7.22 (5.67 - 9.15) 6.82 (5.56 - 8.35) 0.638
Arizona 7.38 (5.88 - 9.22) 7.20 (5.87 - 8.81) 0.835
Arkansas 8.39 (6.60 - 10.61) 9.20 (7.57 - 11.14) 0.409
California 6.88 (5.93 - 7.96) 6.14 (5.40 - 6.97) 0.144
Colorado 9.42 (7.57 - 11.67) 8.21 (6.77 - 9.93) 0.204
Connecticut 9.17a (7.18 - 11.64) 6.59 (5.32 - 8.13) 0.009
Delaware 7.55 (6.02 - 9.44) 7.64 (6.30 - 9.25) 0.915
District of Columbia 9.01 (7.10 - 11.38) 8.26 (6.76 - 10.05) 0.454
Florida 6.98 (6.04 - 8.05) 6.36 (5.57 - 7.25) 0.197
Georgia 7.96 (6.28 - 10.04) 7.15 (5.86 - 8.69) 0.360
Hawaii 6.74a (5.09 - 8.87) 5.02 (3.93 - 6.40) 0.047
Idaho 8.47 (6.84 - 10.46) 8.16 (6.79 - 9.77) 0.725
Illinois 7.13 (6.18 - 8.20) 6.52 (5.75 - 7.39) 0.225
Indiana 8.90 (7.23 - 10.90) 8.67 (7.24 - 10.35) 0.789
Iowa 7.35 (5.83 - 9.23) 6.99 (5.75 - 8.47) 0.670
Kansas 8.22 (6.57 - 10.23) 8.07 (6.67 - 9.74) 0.859
Kentucky 8.53 (6.82 - 10.61) 8.67 (7.22 - 10.38) 0.874
Louisiana 7.03 (5.64 - 8.74) 7.57 (6.24 - 9.16) 0.517
Maine 8.98 (7.03 - 11.40) 8.80 (7.31 - 10.55) 0.869
Maryland 6.99 (5.46 - 8.90) 6.43 (5.30 - 7.78) 0.486
Massachusetts 7.75 (6.09 - 9.81) 7.86 (6.53 - 9.42) 0.909
Michigan 7.40 (6.46 - 8.48) 8.20 (7.34 - 9.14) 0.145
Minnesota 7.16 (5.75 - 8.89) 7.10 (5.86 - 8.59) 0.937
Mississippi 7.76 (6.19 - 9.69) 7.79 (6.46 - 9.38) 0.967
Missouri 8.60 (6.90 - 10.67) 8.65 (7.21 - 10.36) 0.950
Montana 9.28 (7.33 - 11.68) 8.84 (7.32 - 10.63) 0.651
Nebraska 7.92 (6.30 - 9.91) 8.10 (6.70 - 9.75) 0.842
Nevada 9.80 (7.66 - 12.47) 9.38 (7.71 - 11.37) 0.721
New Hampshire 7.18 (5.65 - 9.07) 8.49 (7.08 - 10.14) 0.171
New Jersey 6.81 (5.30 - 8.71) 6.60 (5.36 - 8.10) 0.797
New Mexico 8.37 (6.68 - 10.44) 7.39 (6.01 - 9.07) 0.238
New York 7.34 (6.29 - 8.55) 7.05 (6.23 - 7.97) 0.583
North Carolina 7.65 (6.01 - 9.69) 7.39 (6.03 - 9.03) 0.769
North Dakota 7.32 (5.87 - 9.10) 7.88 (6.61 - 9.37) 0.500
Ohio 9.00 (7.89 - 10.24) 8.18 (7.31 - 9.14) 0.143
Oklahoma 7.98 (6.38 - 9.93) 8.42 (7.00 - 10.10) 0.621
Oregon 9.52b (7.66 - 11.77) 7.76 (6.41 - 9.36) 0.055
Pennsylvania 7.30 (6.27 - 8.49) 6.50 (5.69 - 7.41) 0.148
Rhode Island 9.88 (7.70 - 12.58) 9.13 (7.58 - 10.96) 0.483
South Carolina 7.70 (6.14 - 9.63) 7.61 (6.28 - 9.20) 0.919
South Dakota 7.31 (5.76 - 9.25) 6.64 (5.35 - 8.23) 0.388
Tennessee 8.25 (6.60 - 10.27) 8.78 (7.22 - 10.63) 0.594
Texas 7.04 (6.08 - 8.15) 6.76 (5.99 - 7.61) 0.573
Utah 10.14 (8.23 - 12.43) 9.04 (7.63 - 10.68) 0.257
Vermont 8.00 (6.37 - 10.00) 8.75 (7.24 - 10.54) 0.417
Virginia 7.39 (5.84 - 9.32) 7.12 (5.82 - 8.68) 0.730
Washington 7.86 (6.25 - 9.85) 7.04 (5.77 - 8.57) 0.341
West Virginia 9.48 (7.63 - 11.73) 9.08 (7.46 - 11.01) 0.681
Wisconsin 8.41 (6.78 - 10.38) 7.95 (6.57 - 9.58) 0.591
Wyoming 9.30 (7.51 - 11.46) 8.52 (7.01 - 10.32) 0.432

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