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Appendix A: State Estimation Methodology

This report includes estimates of 23 substance use and mental health measures (see Section A.1) using the combined data from the 2006 and 2007 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs). Also included in this report are estimates of change between 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 State estimates. As discussed in Chapter 1 (Section 1.1), several changes were introduced to the survey in 2002; thus, estimates for 2001 and prior years are not comparable with estimates from 2002 and later years.

The survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes (SWHB) methodology used in the production of State estimates from the 1999-2006 surveys also was used in the production of the 2006-2007 State estimates. The SWHB methodology is described in Appendix E of the 2001 State report (Wright, 2003b) and by Folsom, Shah, and Vaish (1999). The list of predictors used in the 2006-2007 small area estimation (SAE) modeling is given in Section A.2. No new variable selection was done for the 2006-2007 data (as discussed in Section A.3). The goals of SAE modeling, general model description, and the implementation of SAE modeling remain the same and are described in Appendix E of the 2001 State report (Wright, 2003b). At the end of this appendix, tables showing the 2005, 2006, 2007, pooled 2005-2006, and pooled 2006-2007 survey response rates are included (Tables A.1 to A.12).

Small area estimates obtained using the SWHB methodology are design consistent (i.e., for States with large sample sizes, the small area estimates are close to the robust design-based estimates). The State small area estimates when aggregated by using the appropriate population totals result in national small area estimates that are very close to the national design-based estimates. However, for numerous reasons (including internal consistency), it is desirable to have national small area estimates exactly match the national design-based estimates. Beginning in 2002, exact benchmarking was introduced as described in Section A.4. Tables of estimated numbers of persons associated with each outcome (in thousands) are available on the web in the form of HTML tables (see http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k7State/toc.cfm). An explanation of how these counts and their respective prediction intervals (PIs) are calculated can be found in Section A.5. The definition and explanation of the formula used in estimating the marijuana incidence rate is given in Section A.6.

For all outcomes, the age groups for which estimates are provided in this report are 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older. Estimates for those aged 12 or older also are provided in this report. Because it was determined that States may find estimates for 18 or older useful, estimates for that age group will be available on the web in the form of HTML tables (see http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k7State/toc.cfm).

Also included in this report are estimates of underage (aged 12 to 20) alcohol use and binge alcohol use. Alcohol consumption is expected to differ significantly across the 18 to 25 age group because of the legalization of alcohol at age 21. Therefore, it was decided that it would be useful to produce small area estimates for persons aged 12 to 20. A short description of the methodology used to produce underage drinking estimates is provided in Section A.7.

Section A.8 discusses the criteria used to define dependence on and abuse of illicit drugs and alcohol. Section A.9 discusses how the serious psychological distress (SPD) estimates were produced. Section A.10 discusses the production of major depressive episode (MDE) estimates. The methodology used to produce estimates of change between the 2005-2006 and the 2006-2007 State estimates is described in Section A.11. Section A.12 discusses the method to compare prevalence rates of a particular outcome between two States.

A.1 Variables Modeled

The 2007 NSDUH data were pooled with the 2006 NSDUH data, and age group–specific State prevalence estimates for 23 binary (0, 1) outcome variables were produced and presented in this report in Appendix B. These estimates were produced for the following outcomes:

  1. past month use of illicit drugs,
  2. past year use of marijuana,
  3. past month use of marijuana,
  4. perception of great risk of smoking marijuana once a month,
  5. average annual rate of first use of marijuana,
  6. past month use of illicit drugs other than marijuana,
  7. past year use of cocaine,
  8. past year nonmedical use of pain relievers,
  9. past month use of alcohol,
  10. past month binge alcohol use,
  11. perception of great risk of having five or more drinks of an alcoholic beverage once or twice a week,
  12. past month use of tobacco products,
  13. past month use of cigarettes,
  14. perception of great risk of smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day,
  15. past year alcohol dependence or abuse,
  16. past year alcohol dependence,
  17. past year illicit drug dependence or abuse,
  18. past year illicit drug dependence,
  19. past year dependence on or abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol,
  20. needing but not receiving treatment for illicit drug use in the past year,
  21. needing but not receiving treatment for alcohol use in the past year,
  22. past year serious psychological distress (SPD), and
  23. past year major depressive episode (MDE).

Estimates of change between the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 State estimates were produced for all of these outcomes and are included in this report in Appendix C. Also included at the end of this appendix is a table listing all outcomes and the years for which small area estimates were produced going back to the 2002 NSDUH (Table A.13).

A.2 Predictors Used in Mixed Logistic Regression Models

Local area data used as potential predictor variables in the mixed logistic regression models were obtained from several sources, including Claritas Inc., the U.S. Census Bureau, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (Uniform Crime Reports), Health Resources and Services Administration (Area Resource File), the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services [N-SSATS]), and the National Center for Health Statistics (mortality data). The values of these predictor variables are updated every year (when possible). Major sources and potential data items used in the modeling are provided in the following text and lists.

The following lists provide the specific independent variables that were potential predictors in the models.

Claritas Data (Description) Claritas Data (Level)
% Population aged 0-19 in block group Block group
% Population aged 20-24 in block group Block group
% Population aged 25-34 in block group Block group
% Population aged 35-44 in block group Block group
% Population aged 45-54 in block group Block group
% Population aged 55-64 in block group Block group
% Population aged 65+ in block group Block group
% Blacks in block group Block group
% Hispanics in block group Block group
% Other race in block group Block group
% Whites in block group Block group
% Males in block group Block group
% Females in block group Block group
% American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut in tract Tract
% Asian, Pacific Islander in tract Tract
% Population aged 0-19 in tract Tract
% Population aged 20-24 in tract Tract
% Population aged 25-34 in tract Tract
% Population aged 35-44 in tract Tract
% Population aged 45-54 in tract Tract
% Population aged 55-64 in tract Tract
% Population aged 65+ in tract Tract
% Blacks in tract Tract
% Hispanics in tract Tract
% Other race in tract Tract
% Whites in tract Tract
% Males in tract Tract
% Females in tract Tract
% Population aged 0-19 in county County
% Population aged 20-24 in county County
% Population aged 25-34 in county County
% Population aged 35-44 in county County
% Population aged 45-54 in county County
% Population aged 55-64 in county County
% Population aged 65+ in county County
% Blacks in county County
% Hispanics in county County
% Other race in county County
% Whites in county County
% Males in county County
% Females in county County

2000 Census Data (Description) 2000 Census Data (Level)
% Population who dropped out of high school Tract
% Housing units built in 1940-1949 Tract
% Persons aged 16-64 with a work disability Tract
% Hispanics who are Cuban Tract
% Females 16 years or older in labor force Tract
% Females never married Tract
% Females separated/divorced/widowed/other Tract
% One-person households Tract
% Female head of household, no spouse, child under 18 Tract
% Males 16 years or older in labor force Tract
% Males never married Tract
% Males separated/divorced/widowed/other Tract
% Housing units built in 1939 or earlier Tract
Average persons per room Tract
% Families below poverty level Tract
% Households with public assistance income Tract
% Housing units rented Tract
% Population with 9-12 years of school, no high school diploma Tract
% Population with 0-8 years of school Tract
% Population with associate's degree Tract
% Population with some college and no degree Tract
% Population with bachelor's, graduate, professional degree Tract
Median rents for rental units Tract
Median value of owner-occupied housing units Tract
Median household income Tract

Uniform Crime Report Data (Description) Uniform Crime Report Data (Level)
Drug possession arrest rate County
Drug sale/manufacture arrest rate County
Drug violations' arrest rate County
Marijuana possession arrest rate County
Marijuana sale/manufacture arrest rate County
Opium or cocaine possession arrest rate County
Opium or cocaine sale/manufacture arrest rate County
Other drug possession arrest rate County
Other dangerous non-narcotics arrest rate County
Serious crime arrest rate County
Violent crime arrest rate County
Driving under influence arrest rate County

Other Categorical Data (Description) Other Categorical Data (Source) Other Categorical Data (Level)
=1 if Hispanic, =0 otherwise NSDUH sample Person
=1 if non-Hispanic black, =0 otherwise NSDUH sample Person
=1 if non-Hispanic other, =0 otherwise NSDUH sample Person
=1 if male, =0 if female NSDUH sample Person
=1 if MSA with ≥1 million, =0 otherwise 2000 Census County
=1 if MSA with <1 million, =0 otherwise 2000 Census County
=1 if non-MSA urban, =0 otherwise 2000 Census Tract
=1 if urban area, =0 if rural area 2000 Census Tract
=1 if no Cubans in tract, =0 otherwise 2000 Census Tract
=1 if no arrests for dangerous non-narcotics,
=0 otherwise
UCR County

Miscellaneous Data (Variable Description) Miscellaneous Data (Source) Miscellaneous Data (Level)
Alcohol death rate, underlying cause NCHS-ICD-10 County
Cigarettes death rate, underlying cause NCHS-ICD-10 County
Drug death rate, underlying cause NCHS-ICD-10 County
Alcohol treatment rate N-SSATS (formerly called UFDS) County
Alcohol and drug treatment rate N-SSATS (formerly called UFDS) County
Drug treatment rate N-SSATS (formerly called UFDS) County
% Families below poverty level ARF County
Unemployment rate BLS County
Per capita income (in thousands) BEA County
Average suicide rate (per 10,000) NCHS-ICD-10 County
Food stamp participation rate Census Bureau County
Single State agency maintenance of effort National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors (NASADAD) State
Block grant awards SAMHSA State
Cost of Services Factor Index SAMHSA State
Total Taxable Resources Per Capita Index U.S. Department of Treasury State

A.3 Selection of Independent Variables for the Models

No new variable selection was done for any outcome variables in 2006-2007. The updated versions of fixed-effect predictors that were used in modeling the 2005-2006 data were used to model the 2006-2007 data. Because the interest was to estimate change between the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 State estimates, the same set of fixed-effect predictors was used for producing both sets of estimates.

A.4 Benchmarking the Age Group–Specific Small Area Estimates

The self-calibration built into the SWHB solution ensures that the population-weighted average of the State small area estimates will closely match the national design-based estimates. Given the self-calibration ensured by the SWHB solution, for State reports prior to 2002, the standard Bayes prescription was followed; specifically, the posterior mean was used for the point estimate, and the tail percentiles of the posterior distribution were used for the prediction interval (PI) limits.

Singh and Folsom (2001) extended Ghosh's (1992) results on constrained Bayes estimation to include exact benchmarking to design-based national estimates. In the simplest version of this constrained Bayes solution where only the design-based mean is imposed as a benchmarking constraint, each of the State-by-age group small area estimates (for 2006-2007) is adjusted by adding the common factor Δa = (Da - Pa), where Da is the design-based national prevalence estimate and Pa is the population-weighted mean of the State small area estimates (Psa) for age group-a. The exactly benchmarked State-s and age group-a small area estimates then are given by θsa = Psa+ Δa. Experience with such additive adjustments suggests that the resulting exactly benchmarked State small area estimates will always be between 0 and 100 percent because the SWHB self-calibration ensures that the adjustment factor is small relative to the size of the State-level small area estimates.

Relative to the Bayes posterior mean, these benchmark-constrained State small area estimates are biased by the common additive adjustment factor. Therefore, the posterior mean-squared error for each benchmarked State small area estimate has the square of this adjustment factor added to its posterior variance. To achieve the desirable feature of exact benchmarking, this constrained Bayes adjustment factor was implemented for the State-by-age group small area estimates. The associated credible intervals can be recentered at the benchmarked small area estimates on the logit scale with the symmetric interval end points based on the posterior root mean-squared errors. The adjusted 95 percent PIs (Lowersa , Uppersa) are defined below:

Lowersa = exp(Lsa)/[1 + exp(Lsa)] and Uppersa = exp(Usa)/[1 + exp(Usa)],

where

Lsa = ln[θsa/(1 - θsa)] - 1.96 * Equation A-1a,     D

Usa = ln[θsa/(1 - θsa)] + 1.96 *  and      D

MSEsa = (ln[Psa/(1 - Psa)]- ln[θsa/(1 - θsa)])2 + posterior variance of ln[Psa/(1 - Psa)].     D

The associated posterior coverage probabilities for these benchmarked intervals are very close to the prescribed 0.95 value because the State small area estimates have posterior distributions that can be approximated exceptionally well by a Gaussian distribution.

A.5 Calculation of Estimated Number of Persons Associated with Each Outcome

Tables 1 to 24, available at http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k7State/toc.cfm, show the estimated numbers of persons (in thousands) associated with each of the 23 outcomes of interest. To calculate these estimated numbers of persons, the benchmarked small area estimates and the associated 95 percent PIs are multiplied by the average population (across the 2 years, in this case 2006 and 2007) of the State by age group of interest.

For example, past month use of alcohol among 18 to 25 year olds in Alabama was 52.05 percent (see Table B.9). The corresponding PIs ranged from 48.17 to 55.90 percent. The population count for 18 to 25 year olds averaged across 2006-2007 in Alabama was 500,168 (see Table A.10). Hence, the estimated number of 18 to 25 year olds using alcohol in past month in Alabama was 0.5205 * 500,168, which is 260,337 (see Table 9). The associated PIs ranged from 0.4817 * 500,168 (i.e., 240,931) to 0.5590 * 500,168 (i.e., 279,594). Note that when estimates of the number of persons are calculated for Tables 1 to 24, the unrounded prevalence estimates and population counts are used. Hence, the number obtained by multiplying the published prevalence rate with the published population estimate may not exactly match the counts that are published in these tables due to rounding differences.

A.6 Calculation of Average Annual Incidence of Marijuana Use

Incidence rates typically are calculated as the number of new initiates of a substance during a period of time (such as in the past year) divided by an estimate of the number of person years of exposure (in thousands). The incidence definition used in this report employs a simpler form of the at-risk population based on the model-based methodology. This model-based average annual incidence rate is defined as follows:

Average annual rate = 100*{[X1 ÷ (0.5 * X1 + X2)] ÷ 2},     D

where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of persons who never used marijuana.

In this report, the incidence rate is expressed as a percentage or rate per 100 person years of exposure. Note that this estimate uses a 2-year time period to accumulate incidence cases from each annual survey. By assuming further that the distribution of first use for the incidence cases is uniform across the 2-year interval, the total number of person years of exposure is 1 year on average for the incidence cases plus 2 years for all the "never users" at the end of the time period. This approximation to the person years of exposure permits one to recast the incidence rate as a function of two population prevalence rates, namely, the fraction of persons who first used marijuana in the past 2 years and the fraction who had never used marijuana. Both of these prevalence estimates were estimated using the SWHB estimation approach.

The count of persons who first used marijuana in the past 2 years is based on a "moving" 2-year period that ranges over 3 calendar years. Subjects were asked when they first used marijuana. If a person indicated first use of marijuana between the day of the interview and 2 years prior, the person was included in the count. Thus, it is possible for a person interviewed in the first part of 2007 to indicate first use as early as the first part of 2005 or as late as the first part of 2007. Similarly, a subject interviewed in the last part of 2007 could indicate first use as early as the last part of 2005 or as late as the last part of 2007. Therefore, in the 2007 survey, the reported period of first use ranged from early 2005 to late 2007 and was "centered" in 2006. About half of the 12 to 17 year olds who reported first use in the past 24 months reported first use in 2006, while a quarter each reported first use in 2005 and 2007. Persons who responded in 2007 that they had never used marijuana were included in the count of "never used." Similarly, reports of first use in the past 24 months from the 2006 survey ranged from early 2004 to late 2006 and were centered in 2005. Half of the 12 to 17 year olds who reported first use in the past 24 months reported first use in 2005, while a quarter each reported first use in 2004 and 2006. Note that only incidence rates for marijuana use are provided in this report.

A.7 Underage Drinking

To obtain small area estimates for persons aged 12 to 20 for past month alcohol and binge alcohol use, a separate set of models was fit for these two outcomes for the 12 to 17 age group and the 18 to 20 age group. For the 2006-2007 models, no new variable selection was done. Updated versions of the predictors were used to produce the small area estimates.

Model-based estimates for persons aged 12 to 20 were produced by taking the population-weighted average of the individual age group (12 to 17 and 18 to 20) estimates. Estimates for underage drinking for past month alcohol and binge alcohol use were benchmarked to match national design-based estimates for that age group using the process described in Section A.4. Estimates of change between the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 estimates for underage drinking in the States also are presented in this report.

A.8 Illicit Drug and Alcohol Dependence and Abuse

The NSDUH computer-assisted interviewing (CAI) instrumentation includes questions that are designed to measure dependence on and abuse of illicit drugs and alcohol. For these substances,7 dependence and abuse questions were based on the criteria in the DSM-IV (APA, 1994).

Specifically, for marijuana, hallucinogens, inhalants, and tranquilizers, a respondent was defined as having dependence if he or she met three or more of the following six dependence criteria:

  1. Spent a great deal of time over a period of a month getting, using, or getting over the effects of the substance.

  2. Used the substance more often than intended or was unable to keep set limits on the substance use.

  3. Needed to use the substance more than before to get desired effects or noticed that the same amount of substance use had less effect than before.

  4. Inability to cut down or stop using the substance every time tried or wanted to.

  5. Continued to use the substance even though it was causing problems with emotions, nerves, mental health, or physical problems.

  6. The substance use reduced or eliminated involvement or participation in important activities.

For alcohol, cocaine, heroin, pain relievers, sedatives, and stimulants, a seventh withdrawal criterion was added. A respondent was defined as having dependence if he or she met three or more of seven dependence criteria. The seventh withdrawal criterion is defined by a respondent reporting having experienced a certain number of withdrawal symptoms that vary by substance (e.g., having trouble sleeping, cramps, hands tremble).

For each illicit drug and alcohol, a respondent was defined as having abused that substance if he or she met one or more of the following four abuse criteria and was determined not to be dependent on the respective substance in the past year:

  1. Serious problems at home, work, or school caused by the substance, such as neglecting your children, missing work or school, doing a poor job at work or school, or losing a job or dropping out of school.

  2. Used the substance regularly and then did something that might have put you in physical danger.

  3. Use of the substance caused you to do things that repeatedly got you in trouble with the law.

  4. Had problems with family or friends that were probably caused by using the substance and continued to use the substance even though you thought the substance use caused these problems.

For additional details on how respondents were classified as being dependent on or having abused illicit drugs and alcohol, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2007 NSDUH's national results report (OAS, 2008a, pp. 131-133).

A.9 Serious Psychological Distress

In 2005, 2006, and 2007, serious psychological distress (SPD) was measured using the "short-form" module consisting only of the K6 screening instrument for nonspecific psychological distress (Kessler et al., 2003). This SPD module was only administered to persons 18 or older. For details on the module for SPD, see Section B.4.4 in Appendix B of the 2007 NSDUH's national results report (OAS, 2008a, pp. 133-135).

In the 2004 NSDUH, the sample of respondents aged 18 or older was split evenly between the "long-form" module, which included all items in the mental health module used in the 2003 NSDUH (sample A), and a "short-form" module consisting only of the K6 items (sample B). In order to produce the pooled 2004-2005 SPD estimates, the 2004 sample A "long-form" scores were transformed to match the distributional characteristics of the 2004 sample B "short-form" scores using the cumulative distribution function (CDF) adjustment method described by Wright and Sathe (2006). These adjusted 2004 sample A scores were used in conjunction with the 2004 sample B "short-form" scores and the 2005 "short-form" SPD scores to produce the 2004-2005 SPD estimates. The SPD estimates in the 2003-2004 State report and other prior State reports are, therefore, not comparable with the 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and 2006-2007 SPD State estimates.

To produce the pooled 2006-2007 SPD estimates, data from both years (2006 and 2007) were combined. No transformations were required because both survey years used the same K6 scale for getting information on SPD. Estimates of change between the 2005-2006 and the 2006-2007 prevalence rates also are presented in this report.

A.10 Major Depressive Episode

Beginning in 2004, a module was included in the questionnaire that was related to having a major depressive episode (MDE); it was derived from the criteria specified for major depression in the DSM-IV (APA, 1994). These questions permit estimates to be calculated for lifetime and past year prevalence of MDE, treatment for MDE, and role impairment resulting from MDE. In this report, estimates of having at least one MDE in the past year are reported.

In 2005, 2006, and 2007 all adult and adolescent respondents were administered their respective depression modules. Due to minor wording differences in the questions in the adult and adolescent MDE modules, data from youths aged 12 to 17 were not combined with data from persons aged 18 or older to get an overall estimate for those aged 12 or older. Instead, an estimate for those aged 18 or older was produced. To produce the pooled 2006-2007 MDE estimates, the 2006 MDE data were pooled with the 2007 MDE data. Estimates of change between 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 MDE estimates also are included in this report.

According to DSM-IV, a person is defined as having had MDE in his or her lifetime if he or she has had at least five or more of the following nine symptoms nearly every day in the same 2-week period, where at least one of the symptoms is a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities (APA, 1994): (1) depressed mood most of the day; (2) markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all or almost all activities most of the day; (3) significant weight loss when not sick or dieting, or weight gain when not pregnant or growing, or decrease or increase in appetite; (4) insomnia or hypersomnia; (5) psychomotor agitation or retardation; (6) fatigue or loss of energy; (7) feelings of worthlessness; (8) diminished ability to think or concentrate or indecisiveness; and (9) recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation. Respondents who have had MDE in their lifetime are asked if, during the past 12 months, they had a period of depression lasting 2 weeks or longer while also having some of the other symptoms mentioned. Those reporting that they have are defined as having had MDE in the past year.

For details on the adult and adolescent modules for MDE, see Section B.4.5 in Appendix B of the 2007 NSDUH's national results report (OAS, 2008a, pp. 135-139).

A.11 Measuring Change in State Estimates between 2005-2006 and 2006-2007

The estimates of change between State small area estimates displayed in Appendix C are based on the 2005 through 2007 NSDUHs. The State estimates for 2005-2006 are the previously published model-based small area estimates (Hughes et al., 2008). The State estimates for 2006-2007 are the small area estimates given in Appendix B. The moving average State prevalence estimates for the overlapping 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 time periods were obtained from independent applications of RTI's SWHB methodology; that is, the 2006-2007 models were fit independently of the previously fitted 2005-2006 models. This independent analysis approach was followed because there was no desire to revise the previously published 2005-2006 estimates. Moreover, the same fixed predictor variables were used in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 models, but annual updates were made when more current versions became available. The age group–specific fixed predictor variables were defined at five levels (namely, person-level, census block group-level, tract-level, county-level, and State-level). Also, each age group model had 51 State-level random effects and 300 "within-State" area-level random effects.

To estimate change in State estimates, let πsa(1) and πsa(2) denote 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 prevalence rates, respectively, for State-s and age group-a. The change between πsa(1) and πsa(2) is defined in terms of the log-odds ratio (lorsa) as opposed to the simple difference because the posterior distribution of the lorsa is closer to Gaussian than the posterior distribution of the simple difference (πsa(2) – πsa(1)). The lorsa is defined as

Equation A-2,     D


where ln denotes the natural logarithm. The p value given in the Appendix C tables is computed to test the null hypothesis of no change (i.e., πsa(2) = πsa(1) or equivalently lorsa = 0). An estimate of lorsa is given by

Equation A-3     D


where the psa(1) are previously published 2005-2006 State estimates and the psa(2) are the 2006-2007 State estimates presented in this report (see Appendix B). To compute the variance of The estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a i.e., variance of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a let Theta 1 hat is defined as the ratio of p 1 sub s and a and 1 minus p 1 sub s and a and Theta 2 hat is defined as the ratio of p 2 sub s and a and 1 minus p 2 sub s and a then


Equation A-8     D

where covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between image represents the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and image represents the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation A-10.     D

Note that the variance of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and variance of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat used here to calculate variance of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a are the same variances used in calculating the previously published 2005-2006 PIs and the 2006-2007 PIs given in this report, respectively.

The correlation between image represents the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and image represents the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat was obtained by simultaneously modeling the 2005, 2006, and 2007 NSDUH data. This simultaneous modeling approach was adopted based on the results of the validation study (see Appendix E, Section E.2, of Wright, 2003b) conducted for measuring change in 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 State estimates. For this simultaneous model, four age groups by 3 years (i.e., 12 subpopulation-specific models) were fitted, each with its own set of fixed and random effects. In this case, the general covariance matrices for the State and within-State random effects were 12 by 12 matrices corresponding to the 12 element (age group by year) vectors of random effects. Note that the survey-weighted Bernoulli-type log likelihood employed in SWHB methodology was appropriate for this simultaneous model because the 12 age group by year subpopulations were nonoverlapping. The correlation [image represents the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat, image represents the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat] was approximated by the correlation calculated using the posterior distributions of ln[πsa(1) / (1 – πsa(1))] and ln[πsa(2) / (1 – πsa(2))] from the simultaneous model.

To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference (lor = 0), it is assumed that the posterior distribution of lor is normal with Mean is equal to estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a and Variance is equal to variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a With the null value of lor = 0, the Bayes p value or posterior probability of no difference is p value = 2*P [Zabs(z)], where Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, divided by the square root of the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, and abs(z) denotes the absolute value of z.


A.12 Method for Determining Differences between Two State Estimates for 2006-2007

This section describes a method for determining whether differences between two 2006-2007 State estimates are statistically significant. This procedure can be used for any two State estimates representing the same age group (e.g., young adults aged 18 to 25) and time period (e.g., 2006-2007).

Let π1a and π2a denote the 2006-2007 age group-a specific prevalence rates for two different States, s1 and s2, respectively. The null hypothesis of no difference, i.e., π1a = π2a, is equivalent to the log-odds ratio equal to zero, i.e., lora = 0, where lora is defined as The log-odds ratio, lor sub a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is Pi 2 sub a, divided by 1 minus Pi 2 sub a. The denominator of the ratio is Pi 1 sub a, divided by 1 minus Pi 1 sub a., where ln denotes the natural logarithm. An estimate of lora is given by The estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is p 2 sub a, divided by 1 minus p 2 sub a. The denominator of the ratio is p 1 sub a, divided by 1 minus p 1 sub a, where p 1 sub a is the 2006-2007 State estimate for State s1 and age group a and p 2 sub a is the 2006-2007 State estimate for State s2 and age group a for a particular outcome of interest where p1a and p2a are the 2006-2007 State estimates given in Appendix B. To compute the variance of estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a i.e., variance of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a let Theta 1 hat is defined as the ratio of p 1 sub a and 1 minus p 1 sub a and Theta 2 hat is defined as the ratio of p 2 sub a and 1 minus p 2 sub a. then Variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a, is a function of three quantities: q1, q2, and q3. It is expressed as the sum of q1 and q2 minus q3. Quantity q1 is the variance of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat, quantity q2 is the variance of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat, and quantity q3 is 2 times the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat

where covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between image represents the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and image represents the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation A-22.     D

The quantities variance of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and variance of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat can be obtained by using the 95 percent PIs given in Appendix B. For this purpose, let (lower1,upper1) and (lower2,upper2) denote the 95 percent PIs for the two States, s1 and s2 respectively. Then

Equation A-23     D

where U sub i is the natural logarithm of upper sub i divided by 1 minus upper sub i, and L sub i is the natural logarithm of lower sub i divided by 1 minus lower sub i

For all practical purposes, the correlation between image represents the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and image represents the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat is assumed to be negligible; hence, variance of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a can be approximated by Variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a, is approximated by the sum of the variance of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. The correlation is assumed to be negligible because each State was a stratum in the first level of stratification; therefore, each State sample is selected independently. However, the correlation between the two State estimates is theoretically nonzero because State estimates share common fixed-effect parameters in the SAE models. Hence, the test statistic z (defined below) might result in a different conclusion in a few cases when the correlation between the State estimates is incorporated in calculating variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference (lora = 0), it is assumed that the posterior distribution of lora is normal with Mean is equal to estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a and Variance is equal to variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a With the null value of lora = 0, the Bayes p value or posterior probability of no difference is p value = 2*P [Z ≥abs(z)], where Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a, divided by the square root of the sum of the variance of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat and abs (z) denotes the absolute value of z.


When comparing prevalence rates for two States, it is tempting and often convenient to look at their 95 percent PIs to decide whether the difference in the State prevalence rates is significant. If the two PIs overlap, one would conclude that the difference is not statistically significant. If the two PIs do not overlap, it implies that the State prevalence rates are significantly different from each other. However, the type-I error for the overlapping 95 percent PIs test is 0.6 percent (assuming that the two State estimates are uncorrelated and have the same variances) as compared with the 5 percent type-I error of the test based on the z statistics defined above (Payton, Greenstone, & Schenker, 2003). Thus, using the overlap method with 95 percent PIs implies a type-I error that is much less than the 5 percent level that is typically prescribed for such tests.

As discussed in Schenker and Gentleman (2001), the method of overlapping PIs is more conservative (i.e., it rejects the null hypothesis of no difference less often) than the standard method based on z statistics when the null hypothesis is true. Even if PIs for two States overlap, the two prevalence rates may be declared significantly different by the test based on z statistics. Hence, the method of overlapping PIs is not recommended to test the equivalence of two State prevalence rates. A detailed description of the method of overlapping confidence intervals (CIs) and its comparison with the standard methods for testing of a hypothesis is given in Schenker and Gentleman (2001) and Payton et al. (2003).

Example. The prevalence rates for past month alcohol use among 12 to 17 year olds in Alabama and Montana are shown in the exhibit below and also in Table B.9 in Appendix B. Looking at the two 95 percent PIs, it would appear that the Alabama and Montana prevalence rates for past month alcohol use are not statistically different at the 5 percent level of significance because the two PIs overlap:

State Point Estimate (%) 95% PI (%)
Alabama 14.93 (12.80, 17.35)
Montana 18.81 (16.49, 21.38)

However, as shown below, the test based on the z statistic described earlier concludes that they are significantly different at the 5 percent level of significance.

Let p1a = 0.1493, lower1 = 0.1280, upper1 = 0.1735, p2a = 0.1881, lower2 = 0.1649, upper2 = 0.2138. Then,

Equation A-28     D

Equation A-29     D

Equation A-30     D

Equation A-31     D

Because the computed absolute value of z is greater than or equal to 1.96 (the critical value of the z statistic), then at the 5 percent level of significance, the hypothesis of no difference (Alabama prevalence rate = Montana prevalence rate) is rejected. Thus, the two State prevalence rates are statistically different. The Bayes p value or posterior probability of no difference is p value = 2*P [Z ≥ 2.268] = 0.023.

Table A.1 Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2005
State Total
Selected
DUs
Total
Eligible
DUs
Total
Completed
Screeners
Weighted DU
Screening
Response Rate
Total
Selected
Total
Responded
Population
Estimate
Weighted
Interview
Response Rate
Weighted
Overall
Response Rate
DU = dwelling unit.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005.
Total U.S. 175,958 146,912 134,055 91.33% 83,805 68,308 243220,283 76.19% 69.58%
Northeast 38,755 32,817 28,810 86.72% 16,994 13,711 45630,823 73.66% 63.88%
Midwest 47,200 40,222 36,706 91.59% 23,542 19,154 54524,718 76.42% 69.99%
South 55,686 45,138 41,691 92.62% 25,411 20,818 87601,607 77.16% 71.47%
West 34,317 28,735 26,848 92.91% 17,858 14,625 55463,137 76.42% 71.01%
Alabama 2,320 1,779 1,653 93.00% 1,118 914 3,773,741 77.10% 71.70%
Alaska 2,245 1,717 1,592 92.71% 1,137 921 519,047 75.22% 69.74%
Arizona 1,945 1,609 1,518 94.18% 1,112 908 4,791,433 78.75% 74.16%
Arkansas 2,194 1,854 1,753 94.54% 1,040 851 2,285,001 77.70% 73.45%
California 7,672 6,875 6,297 91.57% 4,633 3,699 29,214,010 75.57% 69.20%
Colorado 2,333 1,951 1,839 94.26% 1,110 895 3,793,427 75.30% 70.97%
Connecticut 2,602 2,250 2,042 90.77% 1,201 978 2,915,935 77.45% 70.31%
Delaware 2,473 1,994 1,824 91.53% 1,160 942 700,649 76.05% 69.61%
District of Columbia 3,628 3,072 2,655 86.34% 1,071 851 461,073 74.67% 64.47%
Florida 10,631 8,280 7,581 91.61% 4,606 3,669 14,828,967 72.57% 66.47%
Georgia 2,328 1,849 1,721 92.99% 1,108 920 7,294,559 78.52% 73.01%
Hawaii 2,404 1,900 1,735 91.06% 1,134 895 1,027,252 71.95% 65.52%
Idaho 2,036 1,745 1,646 94.39% 1,087 915 1,158,701 81.04% 76.50%
Illinois 9,357 8,281 6,864 82.81% 4,731 3,661 10,446,542 71.84% 59.49%
Indiana 2,290 1,944 1,845 94.87% 1,117 900 5,133,632 73.79% 70.01%
Iowa 2,010 1,733 1,636 94.39% 1,088 923 2,486,265 79.03% 74.59%
Kansas 2,383 2,034 1,895 92.97% 1,133 938 2,242,553 79.53% 73.94%
Kentucky 2,403 2,070 1,940 93.74% 1,086 895 3,447,472 74.87% 70.18%
Louisiana 2,273 1,740 1,645 94.56% 1,017 840 3,667,177 76.58% 72.41%
Maine 2,834 2,113 1,940 91.83% 1,041 891 1,133,884 80.22% 73.66%
Maryland 2,315 2,027 1,739 85.78% 1,156 941 4,595,815 76.80% 65.88%
Massachusetts 2,538 2,246 2,009 89.32% 1,187 960 5,368,881 74.44% 66.49%
Michigan 9,190 7,629 6,898 90.37% 4,503 3,655 8,384,776 76.32% 68.97%
Minnesota 1,899 1,641 1,555 94.74% 1,063 904 4,273,652 81.74% 77.44%
Mississippi 2,369 1,780 1,697 95.39% 1,106 930 2,361,852 80.33% 76.63%
Missouri 2,119 1,762 1,666 94.57% 1,073 884 4,802,657 78.08% 73.84%
Montana 2,571 1,976 1,866 94.42% 1,083 914 791,608 79.72% 75.28%
Nebraska 2,377 2,072 1,953 94.24% 1,127 935 1,442,367 77.51% 73.05%
Nevada 2,262 1,907 1,797 94.28% 1,111 917 1,969,076 76.12% 71.77%
New Hampshire 2,500 2,086 1,883 87.02% 1,098 881 1,107,223 77.35% 67.31%
New Jersey 2,466 2,114 1,866 88.21% 1,197 925 7,195,333 70.39% 62.09%
New Mexico 2,176 1,811 1,713 94.56% 1,036 902 1,578,514 83.61% 79.06%
New York 10,878 9,398 7,676 81.75% 4,683 3,622 16,034,185 71.14% 58.15%
North Carolina 2,308 1,789 1,684 94.11% 1,035 861 7,058,554 79.25% 74.59%
North Dakota 2,487 2,059 1,950 94.68% 1,097 933 533,566 81.83% 77.48%
Ohio 8,990 7,750 7,310 94.37% 4,403 3,579 9,513,391 76.84% 72.51%
Oklahoma 2,497 1,989 1,872 94.15% 1,159 946 2,897,287 78.34% 73.76%
Oregon 2,423 2,093 1,962 93.89% 1,142 920 3,049,330 74.93% 70.35%
Pennsylvania 10,195 8,787 7,893 89.74% 4,463 3,684 10,436,338 76.71% 68.84%
Rhode Island 2,332 1,964 1,760 89.63% 1,074 890 902,072 79.22% 71.01%
South Carolina 2,594 2,076 1,970 94.91% 1,086 910 3,493,487 80.56% 76.46%
South Dakota 1,955 1,593 1,522 95.51% 1,104 927 635,910 78.13% 74.62%
Tennessee 2,273 1,934 1,762 91.06% 1,101 921 4,950,513 80.14% 72.97%
Texas 7,790 6,411 6,096 95.10% 4,276 3,562 18,113,028 78.62% 74.77%
Utah 1,622 1,402 1,342 95.61% 1,077 939 1,926,464 81.72% 78.14%
Vermont 2,410 1,859 1,741 93.90% 1,050 880 536,973 78.31% 73.54%
Virginia 2,318 1,999 1,759 88.35% 1,156 941 6,125,856 75.60% 66.79%
Washington 2,061 1,737 1,641 94.54% 1,074 876 5,216,989 76.04% 71.88%
West Virginia 2,972 2,495 2,340 93.84% 1,130 924 1,546,578 76.22% 71.53%
Wisconsin 2,143 1,724 1,612 93.54% 1,103 915 4,629,408 78.18% 73.13%
Wyoming 2,567 2,012 1,900 94.43% 1,122 924 427,287 77.40% 73.09%
Table A.2 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2005
State 12-17
Total
Selected
12-17
Total
Responded
12-17
Population
Estimate
12-17
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
18-25
Total
Selected
18-25
Total
Responded
18-25
Population
Estimate
18-25
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
26+
Total
Selected
26+
Total
Responded
26+
Population
Estimate
26+
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005.
Total U.S. 25,840 22,565 25,354,871 87.10% 27,337 22,764 32,485,929 83.06% 30,628 22,979 185,379,484 73.50%
Northeast 5,266 4,563 4,545,576 85.14% 5,618 4,612 5,709,650 80.84% 6,110 4,536 35,375,597 70.94%
Midwest 7,264 6,348 5,665,730 86.77% 7,654 6,355 7,448,881 82.93% 8,624 6,451 41,410,106 73.90%
South 7,899 6,899 9,065,330 87.79% 8,245 6,960 11,704,787 85.08% 9,267 6,959 66,831,490 74.34%
West 5,411 4,755 6,078,235 87.83% 5,820 4,837 7,622,611 81.78% 6,627 5,033 41,762,291 73.83%
Alabama 344 293 379,863 84.92% 368 312 506,216 85.30% 406 309 2,887,663 74.27%
Alaska 312 272 68,090 88.06% 399 338 75,289 84.35% 426 311 375,668 71.25%
Arizona 314 282 517,262 90.59% 401 314 655,373 78.31% 397 312 3,618,797 77.24%
Arkansas 304 273 231,565 90.65% 370 309 311,085 85.29% 366 269 1,742,351 74.43%
California 1,408 1,211 3,324,479 86.65% 1,492 1,201 3,977,199 80.78% 1,733 1,287 21,912,332 72.98%
Colorado 333 293 393,077 88.81% 334 270 510,901 80.43% 443 332 2,889,449 72.26%
Connecticut 387 335 300,551 82.84% 449 363 347,469 81.66% 365 280 2,267,915 75.90%
Delaware 379 329 67,891 87.13% 375 312 92,587 84.10% 406 301 540,171 73.13%
District of Columbia 319 272 34,763 87.27% 298 252 62,881 84.05% 454 327 363,429 72.10%
Florida 1,410 1,235 1,415,728 88.36% 1,515 1,255 1,748,510 82.80% 1,681 1,179 11,664,728 68.99%
Georgia 332 295 781,517 89.79% 393 336 1,006,662 86.48% 383 289 5,506,380 75.51%
Hawaii 353 304 101,052 87.94% 370 304 124,509 81.19% 411 287 801,691 68.40%
Idaho 322 287 127,463 88.52% 383 324 174,749 84.94% 382 304 856,489 79.17%
Illinois 1,432 1,210 1,103,493 84.21% 1,554 1,227 1,408,349 79.71% 1,745 1,224 7,934,700 68.89%
Indiana 384 328 551,621 85.63% 323 278 706,767 85.97% 410 294 3,875,245 70.02%
Iowa 290 264 238,442 90.97% 369 324 351,935 86.97% 429 335 1,895,889 76.44%
Kansas 353 321 231,709 90.48% 398 330 328,431 83.75% 382 287 1,682,414 77.22%
Kentucky 362 319 336,230 87.54% 299 261 451,706 86.90% 425 315 2,659,536 71.54%
Louisiana 352 316 395,660 90.78% 278 227 545,613 81.74% 387 297 2,725,905 73.35%
Maine 301 269 107,503 88.89% 353 310 138,219 87.59% 387 312 888,162 78.18%
Maryland 323 274 495,159 85.29% 402 341 579,316 85.62% 431 326 3,521,340 74.32%
Massachusetts 367 322 511,495 86.65% 406 334 675,654 82.46% 414 304 4,181,733 71.39%
Michigan 1,429 1,250 909,522 87.93% 1,350 1,126 1,110,576 83.36% 1,724 1,279 6,364,678 73.43%
Minnesota 331 295 434,873 87.99% 354 296 600,717 84.16% 378 313 3,238,062 80.49%
Mississippi 350 310 255,325 88.84% 352 301 346,717 84.90% 404 319 1,759,810 78.22%
Missouri 336 291 485,626 86.27% 366 305 657,106 83.59% 371 288 3,659,926 76.07%
Montana 345 306 76,652 89.55% 372 317 109,736 84.94% 366 291 605,220 77.34%
Nebraska 379 340 147,168 88.70% 339 282 211,479 82.97% 409 313 1,083,720 75.09%
Nevada 340 307 204,889 90.42% 356 300 245,352 85.01% 415 310 1,518,835 73.07%
New Hampshire 339 286 115,310 85.39% 308 246 137,700 79.86% 451 349 854,213 76.03%
New Jersey 376 314 750,618 82.74% 432 343 839,549 78.48% 389 268 5,605,166 67.55%
New Mexico 342 304 172,592 89.77% 309 281 227,065 90.40% 385 317 1,178,857 81.40%
New York 1,470 1,243 1,585,930 83.82% 1,468 1,144 2,051,613 77.25% 1,745 1,235 12,396,642 68.43%
North Carolina 304 265 720,859 87.48% 365 307 902,050 85.79% 366 289 5,435,645 77.00%
North Dakota 345 314 49,616 88.86% 364 311 82,221 85.65% 388 308 401,730 80.10%
Ohio 1,334 1,152 978,132 85.59% 1,482 1,228 1,257,664 82.00% 1,587 1,199 7,277,595 74.71%
Oklahoma 346 286 290,467 82.87% 417 350 419,860 84.15% 396 310 2,186,961 76.53%
Oregon 345 286 297,895 83.40% 359 306 399,067 83.71% 438 328 2,352,368 72.35%
Pennsylvania 1,382 1,212 1,033,652 87.83% 1,517 1,298 1,323,979 85.59% 1,564 1,174 8,078,706 73.65%
Rhode Island 308 276 88,361 89.12% 343 285 123,642 85.12% 423 329 690,069 76.83%
South Carolina 368 325 359,960 88.75% 286 238 464,920 83.73% 432 347 2,668,607 79.10%
South Dakota 335 304 65,673 90.65% 353 311 94,482 88.77% 416 312 475,755 74.64%
Tennessee 358 314 477,589 87.94% 376 316 644,486 85.99% 367 291 3,828,438 78.28%
Texas 1,334 1,177 2,061,525 88.43% 1,347 1,166 2,648,680 86.30% 1,595 1,219 13,402,822 75.73%
Utah 357 328 225,945 91.47% 320 284 361,368 88.24% 400 327 1,339,150 78.56%
Vermont 336 306 52,156 90.26% 342 289 71,825 84.96% 372 285 412,992 75.51%
Virginia 355 306 624,849 84.60% 427 355 782,453 84.93% 374 280 4,718,555 72.59%
Washington 309 279 527,294 90.61% 329 269 699,984 81.83% 436 328 3,989,712 73.35%
West Virginia 359 310 136,382 86.68% 377 322 191,047 84.99% 394 292 1,219,150 73.68%
Wisconsin 316 279 469,857 88.28% 402 337 639,157 82.11% 385 299 3,520,393 76.16%
Wyoming 331 296 41,544 90.39% 396 329 62,018 83.34% 395 299 323,724 74.47%
Table A.3 Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2006
State Total
Selected
DUs
Total
Eligible
DUs
Total
Completed
Screeners
Weighted DU
Screening
Response Rate
Total
Selected
Total
Responded
Population
Estimate
Weighted
Interview
Response Rate
Weighted
Overall
Response Rate
DU = dwelling unit.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006.
Total U.S. 182,459 151,288 137,057 90.55% 85,034 67,802 246,021,656 74.24% 67.23%
Northeast 39,736 33,247 28,846 85.62% 17,201 13,499 45,851,360 71.96% 61.61%
Midwest 49,110 41,548 37,705 90.73% 23,766 18,988 54,699,857 75.39% 68.40%
South 57,646 46,460 42,682 92.21% 25,848 20,841 88,990,723 75.13% 69.27%
West 35,967 30,033 27,824 91.93% 18,219 14,474 56,479,716 73.60% 67.66%
Alabama 2,246 1,784 1,633 91.49% 1,130 912 3,801,084 73.90% 67.61%
Alaska 2,248 1,696 1,522 89.74% 1,131 910 527,233 76.21% 68.39%
Arizona 2,300 1,761 1,663 94.43% 1,105 880 4,984,110 73.31% 69.23%
Arkansas 2,378 1,904 1,793 94.04% 1,042 862 2,305,283 80.15% 75.37%
California 8,239 7,385 6,670 90.35% 4,753 3,657 29,636,814 71.87% 64.93%
Colorado 2,508 2,070 1,894 91.48% 1,101 899 3,889,399 78.63% 71.93%
Connecticut 2,347 2,004 1,791 89.26% 1,133 891 2,926,648 73.70% 65.79%
Delaware 2,413 1,930 1,716 88.96% 1,109 897 705,945 77.29% 68.76%
District of Columbia 3,804 3,161 2,735 86.54% 1,083 880 493,946 77.31% 66.91%
Florida 10,538 8,351 7,544 90.29% 4,627 3,671 15,151,767 72.71% 65.65%
Georgia 2,277 1,830 1,686 92.20% 1,146 925 7,529,337 72.96% 67.27%
Hawaii 2,399 2,024 1,845 91.04% 1,190 889 1,037,510 68.48% 62.34%
Idaho 2,252 1,883 1,777 94.37% 1,113 901 1,181,617 77.42% 73.06%
Illinois 9,769 8,514 7,002 82.14% 4,679 3,512 10,533,040 68.44% 56.21%
Indiana 2,337 1,951 1,775 90.97% 1,197 970 5,191,139 79.02% 71.89%
Iowa 2,288 1,975 1,825 92.71% 1,091 893 2,474,784 79.65% 73.84%
Kansas 2,202 1,872 1,765 94.27% 1,129 900 2,246,155 78.55% 74.05%
Kentucky 2,441 2,061 1,939 94.05% 1,141 913 3,469,472 73.33% 68.97%
Louisiana 2,438 1,691 1,599 94.69% 1,086 869 3,478,296 72.91% 69.04%
Maine 3,204 2,234 2,059 92.16% 1,087 903 1,130,632 80.38% 74.08%
Maryland 2,326 2,022 1,749 86.61% 1,154 927 4,638,342 77.05% 66.73%
Massachusetts 2,605 2,248 1,944 86.52% 1,169 910 5,415,211 75.56% 65.38%
Michigan 8,665 7,274 6,580 90.48% 4,463 3,625 8,389,088 76.56% 69.28%
Minnesota 2,242 1,921 1,751 91.20% 1,057 872 4,286,476 80.23% 73.17%
Mississippi 2,391 1,795 1,714 95.46% 1,086 887 2,349,616 74.33% 70.96%
Missouri 2,265 1,855 1,751 94.41% 1,133 924 4,819,013 75.20% 70.99%
Montana 2,474 2,053 1,935 94.26% 1,122 909 790,600 77.58% 73.12%
Nebraska 2,367 2,054 1,933 94.12% 1,096 890 1,442,619 78.21% 73.61%
Nevada 2,280 1,862 1,756 94.30% 1,100 876 2,039,509 74.25% 70.02%
New Hampshire 2,730 2,224 2,008 90.17% 1,104 903 1,114,761 77.94% 70.28%
New Jersey 2,692 2,336 2,009 85.99% 1,251 899 7,254,664 67.07% 57.67%
New Mexico 2,208 1,818 1,716 94.37% 1,065 884 1,589,217 77.04% 72.71%
New York 11,412 9,696 7,825 80.73% 4,871 3,584 16,122,190 68.59% 55.37%
North Carolina 3,004 2,413 2,275 94.31% 1,218 1,000 7,218,540 78.71% 74.23%
North Dakota 2,572 2,074 1,962 94.54% 1,123 934 526,510 79.51% 75.17%
Ohio 9,607 8,178 7,711 94.24% 4,549 3,627 9,518,947 74.67% 70.36%
Oklahoma 2,915 2,305 2,088 90.20% 1,160 925 2,899,366 76.11% 68.66%
Oregon 2,545 2,122 1,985 93.56% 1,101 882 3,103,344 73.51% 68.78%
Pennsylvania 9,946 8,540 7,659 89.70% 4,374 3,574 10,451,936 75.67% 67.88%
Rhode Island 2,417 2,095 1,837 87.53% 1,130 919 899,026 77.77% 68.08%
South Carolina 2,653 2,076 1,968 94.76% 1,127 921 3,551,269 76.20% 72.20%
South Dakota 2,367 1,902 1,802 94.74% 1,104 926 637,001 80.79% 76.54%
Tennessee 2,211 1,875 1,746 92.96% 1,071 904 4,994,197 80.24% 74.59%
Texas 8,291 6,761 6,367 94.14% 4,383 3,537 18,644,278 75.48% 71.05%
Utah 1,559 1,340 1,272 94.89% 1,074 912 1,975,874 81.08% 76.94%
Vermont 2,383 1,870 1,714 91.60% 1,082 916 536,292 83.30% 76.30%
Virginia 2,630 2,223 1,972 88.62% 1,157 906 6,216,707 73.39% 65.04%
Washington 2,432 2,011 1,892 94.10% 1,183 929 5,297,005 75.07% 70.64%
West Virginia 2,690 2,278 2,158 94.72% 1,128 905 1,543,277 74.23% 70.31%
Wisconsin 2,429 1,978 1,848 93.25% 1,145 915 4,635,085 76.48% 71.31%
Wyoming 2,523 2,008 1,897 94.47% 1,181 946 427,484 77.01% 72.75%
Table A.4 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2006
State 12-17
Total
Selected
12-17
Total
Responded
12-17
Population
Estimate
12-17
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
18-25
Total
Selected
18-25
Total
Responded
18-25
Population
Estimate
18-25
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
26+
Total
Selected
26+
Total
Responded
26+
Population
Estimate
26+
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006.
Total U.S. 26,702 22,912 25,391,932 85.46% 27,303 22,152 32,739,870 80.96% 31,029 22,738 187,889,854 71.54%
Northeast 5,428 4,613 4,513,132 83.38% 5,505 4,365 5,862,816 78.29% 6,268 4,521 35,475,412 69.47%
Midwest 7,453 6,383 5,670,639 85.90% 7,543 6,106 7,383,772 80.18% 8,770 6,499 41,645,446 73.12%
South 8,261 7,155 9,151,832 86.29% 8,267 6,836 11,681,799 82.94% 9,320 6,850 68,157,092 72.23%
West 5,560 4,761 6,056,330 85.33% 5,988 4,845 7,811,483 80.74% 6,671 4,868 42,611,904 70.65%
Alabama 342 301 388,190 88.02% 377 318 502,446 83.46% 411 293 2,910,448 70.56%
Alaska 342 293 64,608 84.11% 383 310 73,165 81.05% 406 307 389,461 74.24%
Arizona 315 279 528,141 87.82% 386 307 666,453 80.26% 404 294 3,789,516 70.18%
Arkansas 330 285 235,092 86.02% 339 284 301,916 85.42% 373 293 1,768,276 78.43%
California 1,462 1,226 3,262,489 84.06% 1,504 1,196 4,193,216 80.41% 1,787 1,235 22,181,109 68.53%
Colorado 326 281 386,045 84.43% 363 300 515,619 83.75% 412 318 2,987,735 77.04%
Connecticut 386 332 298,079 86.83% 312 245 350,601 80.33% 435 314 2,277,969 70.92%
Delaware 342 304 70,313 90.08% 324 259 92,101 79.78% 443 334 543,531 75.22%
District of Columbia 332 279 38,255 85.09% 303 270 79,730 88.36% 448 331 375,961 74.51%
Florida 1,459 1,272 1,395,023 86.59% 1,519 1,239 1,782,136 81.74% 1,649 1,160 11,974,608 69.68%
Georgia 422 354 819,555 84.12% 360 304 1,007,678 83.87% 364 267 5,702,105 69.24%
Hawaii 357 281 101,375 76.37% 380 300 124,757 80.54% 453 308 811,378 65.46%
Idaho 353 296 132,682 85.06% 377 313 167,260 83.76% 383 292 881,675 75.05%
Illinois 1,426 1,205 1,098,090 84.31% 1,431 1,081 1,437,196 74.29% 1,822 1,226 7,997,754 65.25%
Indiana 372 309 541,262 83.88% 408 330 698,732 82.18% 417 331 3,951,146 77.79%
Iowa 334 291 249,631 87.29% 355 283 345,578 80.00% 402 319 1,879,576 78.59%
Kansas 391 318 236,905 79.95% 319 256 321,520 79.97% 419 326 1,687,729 78.10%
Kentucky 374 320 342,465 85.48% 354 292 435,107 83.95% 413 301 2,691,900 70.03%
Louisiana 321 289 375,058 89.85% 367 304 502,102 83.34% 398 276 2,601,136 68.39%
Maine 371 323 106,794 86.33% 358 297 129,749 82.70% 358 283 894,089 79.24%
Maryland 374 313 481,655 83.37% 329 272 586,086 83.45% 451 342 3,570,602 75.38%
Massachusetts 349 286 510,401 80.94% 386 303 711,915 81.01% 434 321 4,192,896 73.94%
Michigan 1,384 1,210 893,293 87.84% 1,368 1,132 1,100,817 82.82% 1,711 1,283 6,394,978 74.01%
Minnesota 294 265 439,635 91.20% 395 322 586,082 82.52% 368 285 3,260,759 78.21%
Mississippi 367 325 260,500 89.49% 316 273 332,010 86.91% 403 289 1,757,106 69.46%
Missouri 342 298 495,519 86.51% 377 317 640,870 83.30% 414 309 3,682,625 72.30%
Montana 353 305 79,182 86.38% 354 280 105,427 79.46% 415 324 605,992 76.04%
Nebraska 362 297 150,353 82.68% 371 323 208,596 87.29% 363 270 1,083,670 75.65%
Nevada 334 297 208,358 87.57% 352 286 246,826 81.66% 414 293 1,584,326 71.32%
New Hampshire 352 314 111,999 88.93% 386 308 135,850 81.12% 366 281 866,912 76.19%
New Jersey 384 311 732,339 81.49% 381 274 848,461 73.38% 486 314 5,673,865 64.25%
New Mexico 333 287 175,349 84.76% 357 308 226,384 86.93% 375 289 1,187,485 73.96%
New York 1,498 1,208 1,589,881 79.72% 1,574 1,164 2,161,472 73.93% 1,799 1,212 12,370,837 66.28%
North Carolina 372 320 725,554 86.48% 442 378 898,015 85.45% 404 302 5,594,971 76.37%
North Dakota 338 292 51,433 86.06% 374 319 86,938 85.62% 411 323 388,139 77.42%
Ohio 1,479 1,258 977,863 85.70% 1,482 1,206 1,241,401 81.47% 1,588 1,163 7,299,683 71.98%
Oklahoma 382 323 301,174 85.10% 380 303 410,515 79.86% 398 299 2,187,677 74.02%
Oregon 350 311 297,252 88.86% 344 275 391,117 78.86% 407 296 2,414,975 70.76%
Pennsylvania 1,410 1,252 1,026,320 89.06% 1,329 1,121 1,327,163 84.86% 1,635 1,201 8,098,453 72.46%
Rhode Island 340 296 85,962 88.97% 399 325 128,023 81.31% 391 298 685,041 75.77%
South Carolina 332 294 363,760 86.88% 415 345 458,602 83.68% 380 282 2,728,907 73.45%
South Dakota 358 318 66,755 88.92% 326 277 91,245 86.76% 420 331 479,000 78.48%
Tennessee 343 309 494,906 89.65% 368 307 624,639 83.20% 360 288 3,874,652 78.43%
Texas 1,421 1,224 2,105,384 86.54% 1,331 1,101 2,700,676 82.99% 1,631 1,212 13,838,219 72.31%
Utah 283 259 240,594 92.82% 395 338 367,883 83.36% 396 315 1,367,397 78.40%
Vermont 338 291 51,357 85.02% 380 328 69,584 87.19% 364 297 415,351 82.43%
Virginia 383 324 617,449 82.64% 374 292 782,870 78.98% 400 290 4,816,388 71.25%
Washington 379 330 537,185 86.79% 397 309 673,599 77.70% 407 290 4,086,221 72.89%
West Virginia 365 319 137,499 87.61% 369 295 185,171 79.30% 394 291 1,220,607 71.86%
Wisconsin 373 322 469,901 85.72% 337 260 624,798 75.17% 435 333 3,540,386 75.54%
Wyoming 373 316 43,070 85.88% 396 323 59,780 81.42% 412 307 324,634 75.09%
Table A.5 Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2007
State Total
Selected
DUs
Total
Eligible
DUs
Total
Completed
Screeners
Weighted DU
Screening
Response Rate
Total
Selected
Total
Responded
Population
Estimate
Weighted
Interview
Response Rate
Weighted
Overall
Response Rate
DU = dwelling unit.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007.
Total U.S. 192,092 158,411 141,487 89.45% 85,774 67,870 247,845,207 73.94% 66.14%
Northeast 42,071 35,148 29,843 83.68% 17,486 13,642 45,877,579 71.65% 59.96%
Midwest 52,386 44,279 39,697 90.07% 24,150 19,110 54,799,063 74.34% 66.96%
South 58,260 46,564 42,423 91.72% 25,737 20,683 89,939,563 75.75% 69.47%
West 39,375 32,420 29,524 90.01% 18,401 14,435 57,229,003 72.52% 65.27%
Alabama 2,375 1,914 1,794 93.71% 1,152 899 3,811,968 71.76% 67.25%
Alaska 2,419 1,682 1,520 90.41% 1,066 852 541,042 77.92% 70.45%
Arizona 2,745 2,059 1,828 88.61% 1,157 885 5,120,090 70.49% 62.46%
Arkansas 2,556 2,001 1,875 93.72% 1,115 912 2,316,670 79.93% 74.91%
California 8,737 7,799 6,888 88.34% 4,835 3,652 29,849,097 70.68% 62.44%
Colorado 2,648 2,176 1,989 91.29% 1,121 889 3,976,785 74.46% 67.97%
Connecticut 2,903 2,594 2,292 88.24% 1,166 920 2,917,789 76.99% 67.94%
Delaware 2,335 1,929 1,729 89.74% 1,102 883 714,649 77.05% 69.15%
District of Columbia 4,265 3,339 2,782 83.14% 1,044 824 501,857 75.29% 62.60%
Florida 10,898 8,452 7,543 89.21% 4,576 3,585 15,266,862 71.81% 64.06%
Georgia 2,201 1,720 1,608 93.55% 1,083 891 7,642,504 78.31% 73.26%
Hawaii 2,912 2,406 2,021 82.95% 1,179 849 1,053,117 64.34% 53.37%
Idaho 2,420 2,015 1,901 94.35% 1,160 943 1,200,903 78.11% 73.70%
Illinois 11,061 9,611 7,472 77.47% 4,984 3,634 10,545,802 67.57% 52.34%
Indiana 2,412 2,018 1,885 93.37% 1,160 921 5,201,443 74.01% 69.11%
Iowa 2,449 2,098 1,960 93.32% 1,110 920 2,475,077 77.20% 72.04%
Kansas 2,184 1,849 1,745 94.39% 1,107 890 2,255,504 79.65% 75.18%
Kentucky 2,335 1,970 1,855 94.13% 1,107 888 3,496,061 77.47% 72.92%
Louisiana 2,521 1,765 1,662 94.20% 1,094 901 3,484,871 74.17% 69.86%
Maine 3,196 2,350 2,144 91.28% 1,119 917 1,126,007 76.43% 69.77%
Maryland 2,346 2,017 1,681 83.23% 1,119 888 4,639,855 76.47% 63.65%
Massachusetts 2,818 2,382 2,078 87.07% 1,143 899 5,441,203 72.84% 63.42%
Michigan 9,220 7,622 6,826 89.55% 4,439 3,566 8,380,042 74.36% 66.59%
Minnesota 2,465 2,107 1,977 93.75% 1,132 925 4,305,593 78.89% 73.96%
Mississippi 2,279 1,692 1,599 94.19% 1,081 899 2,343,924 78.12% 73.58%
Missouri 2,490 2,072 1,953 94.26% 1,129 916 4,837,421 73.73% 69.49%
Montana 2,823 2,195 2,071 94.34% 1,080 891 801,167 78.25% 73.82%
Nebraska 2,391 2,013 1,899 94.34% 1,123 917 1,445,813 77.32% 72.94%
Nevada 2,413 1,996 1,883 94.54% 1,100 890 2,088,962 76.83% 72.64%
New Hampshire 2,626 2,067 1,866 90.08% 1,105 876 1,112,661 76.93% 69.30%
New Jersey 2,568 2,227 1,942 87.15% 1,153 898 7,227,870 74.93% 65.30%
New Mexico 2,701 2,037 1,923 94.43% 1,151 956 1,606,155 76.31% 72.06%
New York 12,392 10,631 8,106 75.87% 5,130 3,699 16,191,334 65.11% 49.40%
North Carolina 2,942 2,434 2,251 92.46% 1,206 974 7,381,205 74.56% 68.94%
North Dakota 2,649 2,145 2,022 94.27% 1,106 905 530,226 79.91% 75.33%
Ohio 10,168 8,632 8,124 94.10% 4,530 3,626 9,508,750 75.26% 70.82%
Oklahoma 2,802 2,279 2,070 90.77% 1,204 952 2,927,119 75.67% 68.69%
Oregon 2,482 2,130 1,968 92.17% 1,160 916 3,138,875 73.88% 68.10%
Pennsylvania 10,437 8,853 7,765 87.48% 4,525 3,649 10,433,605 75.65% 66.18%
Rhode Island 2,535 2,165 1,933 89.31% 1,118 914 892,599 75.72% 67.62%
South Carolina 2,792 2,188 2,053 93.83% 1,129 925 3,607,724 78.53% 73.69%
South Dakota 2,201 1,783 1,693 94.94% 1,122 922 649,052 79.35% 75.34%
Tennessee 2,306 1,887 1,765 93.57% 1,101 896 5,082,082 75.51% 70.66%
Texas 7,818 6,413 6,054 94.35% 4,324 3,557 18,904,425 77.52% 73.15%
Utah 1,924 1,611 1,531 95.04% 1,083 900 2,049,189 79.63% 75.67%
Vermont 2,596 1,879 1,717 91.39% 1,027 870 534,511 81.75% 74.71%
Virginia 2,579 2,134 1,864 87.24% 1,187 924 6,282,584 76.23% 66.51%
Washington 2,476 2,129 1,963 92.08% 1,150 909 5,372,199 75.66% 69.66%
West Virginia 2,910 2,430 2,238 91.99% 1,113 885 1,535,205 76.20% 70.10%
Wisconsin 2,696 2,329 2,141 92.14% 1,208 968 4,664,339 78.09% 71.96%
Wyoming 2,675 2,185 2,038 93.30% 1,159 903 431,423 74.79% 69.78%
Table A.6 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2007
State 12-17
Total
Selected
12-17
Total
Responded
12-17
Population
Estimate
12-17
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
18-25
Total
Selected
18-25
Total
Responded
18-25
Population
Estimate
18-25
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
26+
Total
Selected
26+
Total
Responded
26+
Population
Estimate
26+
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007.
Total U.S. 26,191 22,475 25,241,088 85.35% 28,085 22,409 32,730,853 79.76% 31,498 22,986 189,873,266 71.42%
Northeast 5,317 4,496 4,458,471 82.32% 5,763 4,530 5,902,786 76.60% 6,406 4,616 35,516,321 69.50%
Midwest 7,415 6,364 5,614,954 85.94% 7,920 6,341 7,287,805 80.20% 8,815 6,405 41,896,304 71.79%
South 7,873 6,809 9,129,195 86.77% 8,322 6,765 11,686,936 81.75% 9,542 7,109 69,123,431 73.28%
West 5,586 4,806 6,038,467 84.85% 6,080 4,773 7,853,326 78.74% 6,735 4,856 43,337,209 69.62%
Alabama 333 276 385,087 82.86% 357 304 497,891 85.65% 462 319 2,928,991 68.12%
Alaska 366 318 64,158 88.19% 331 250 75,478 76.22% 369 284 401,406 76.40%
Arizona 332 288 535,271 85.60% 386 287 668,649 73.71% 439 310 3,916,169 67.83%
Arkansas 370 313 233,624 84.88% 325 259 294,086 81.27% 420 340 1,788,961 79.17%
California 1,461 1,221 3,239,651 83.14% 1,561 1,200 4,239,933 78.12% 1,813 1,231 22,369,512 67.39%
Colorado 364 315 388,527 88.00% 375 294 518,151 78.81% 382 280 3,070,107 71.99%
Connecticut 330 289 294,751 86.97% 411 310 354,623 75.78% 425 321 2,268,416 75.93%
Delaware 320 277 70,353 86.46% 404 324 91,857 82.64% 378 282 552,439 74.95%
District of Columbia 343 299 37,676 86.85% 324 256 84,330 78.90% 377 269 379,851 73.35%
Florida 1,285 1,101 1,383,657 85.40% 1,480 1,206 1,775,518 81.63% 1,811 1,278 12,107,687 68.84%
Georgia 328 290 825,764 88.73% 336 279 996,074 83.18% 419 322 5,820,666 75.88%
Hawaii 360 295 97,554 80.48% 375 272 127,524 73.01% 444 282 828,039 60.93%
Idaho 375 326 133,051 84.98% 379 305 163,370 80.51% 406 312 904,482 76.63%
Illinois 1,540 1,252 1,090,441 81.60% 1,591 1,172 1,430,266 73.58% 1,853 1,210 8,025,095 64.56%
Indiana 321 270 537,600 85.29% 439 361 680,319 81.32% 400 290 3,983,524 71.28%
Iowa 378 336 246,542 88.81% 327 279 342,411 85.30% 405 305 1,886,125 74.27%
Kansas 352 316 233,910 89.59% 339 254 322,756 74.27% 416 320 1,698,838 79.32%
Kentucky 337 286 341,080 85.06% 368 301 425,259 81.73% 402 301 2,729,722 75.71%
Louisiana 339 304 369,218 89.00% 351 299 508,682 85.81% 404 298 2,606,970 69.87%
Maine 342 301 104,509 87.63% 393 330 125,774 85.33% 384 286 895,724 73.67%
Maryland 316 271 475,278 85.07% 410 327 592,747 79.44% 393 290 3,571,831 75.05%
Massachusetts 364 303 511,379 79.34% 377 300 721,029 77.49% 402 296 4,208,794 71.11%
Michigan 1,317 1,132 882,825 85.67% 1,495 1,226 1,089,259 81.76% 1,627 1,208 6,407,959 71.52%
Minnesota 388 333 434,170 86.38% 344 282 579,707 82.49% 400 310 3,291,716 77.21%
Mississippi 325 288 258,825 88.59% 347 299 329,531 85.63% 409 312 1,755,568 75.06%
Missouri 348 305 492,534 87.89% 356 300 625,471 84.89% 425 311 3,719,416 70.31%
Montana 324 287 78,824 88.05% 357 292 105,687 80.10% 399 312 616,657 76.73%
Nebraska 378 330 148,560 88.07% 336 279 209,608 82.85% 409 308 1,087,646 74.48%
Nevada 301 267 213,775 90.01% 379 302 240,941 79.67% 420 321 1,634,245 74.87%
New Hampshire 339 282 110,622 82.17% 353 284 132,472 81.50% 413 310 869,567 75.67%
New Jersey 363 303 721,841 80.79% 358 276 855,683 75.53% 432 319 5,650,345 74.10%
New Mexico 373 340 169,013 91.93% 375 316 226,689 85.58% 403 300 1,210,452 72.06%
New York 1,541 1,240 1,569,950 79.78% 1,679 1,222 2,196,813 72.45% 1,910 1,237 12,424,572 62.09%
North Carolina 407 351 731,643 87.47% 385 312 916,505 82.26% 414 311 5,733,057 71.43%
North Dakota 372 313 50,461 84.21% 359 297 90,221 83.32% 375 295 389,544 78.44%
Ohio 1,343 1,173 965,669 87.49% 1,509 1,234 1,212,277 82.72% 1,678 1,219 7,330,804 72.44%
Oklahoma 429 360 298,069 84.23% 365 286 411,003 78.88% 410 306 2,218,047 73.84%
Oregon 319 274 297,399 85.62% 420 335 383,128 79.08% 421 307 2,458,349 71.81%
Pennsylvania 1,375 1,193 1,010,168 86.16% 1,521 1,231 1,322,592 80.95% 1,629 1,225 8,100,845 73.45%
Rhode Island 355 311 84,715 87.08% 336 288 126,010 87.70% 427 315 681,873 72.24%
South Carolina 319 281 362,012 88.01% 408 330 455,872 79.12% 402 314 2,789,840 77.27%
South Dakota 324 295 66,689 91.67% 355 294 91,410 84.11% 443 333 490,953 77.06%
Tennessee 360 316 498,268 88.15% 335 281 616,230 85.95% 406 299 3,967,584 72.28%
Texas 1,388 1,224 2,106,251 88.23% 1,398 1,151 2,698,089 82.21% 1,538 1,182 14,100,085 74.96%
Utah 349 311 245,792 90.52% 343 290 373,846 85.05% 391 299 1,429,552 76.08%
Vermont 308 274 50,535 89.07% 335 289 67,790 86.26% 384 307 416,186 80.25%
Virginia 347 294 617,259 84.79% 385 282 815,120 74.23% 455 348 4,850,205 75.53%
Washington 316 267 532,673 84.63% 401 324 670,845 82.14% 433 318 4,168,681 73.38%
West Virginia 327 278 135,134 83.98% 344 269 178,142 77.99% 442 338 1,221,929 75.12%
Wisconsin 354 309 465,555 87.02% 470 363 614,100 77.96% 384 296 3,584,684 76.95%
Wyoming 346 297 42,779 86.29% 398 306 59,086 77.75% 415 300 329,558 72.47%
Table A.7 Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older:
2005 and 2006
State Total
Selected
DUs
Total
Eligible
DUs
Total
Completed
Screeners
Weighted DU
Screening
Response Rate
Total
Selected
Total
Responded
Population
Estimate
Weighted
Interview
Response Rate
Weighted
Overall
Response Rate
DU = dwelling unit.
Note: To compute the pooled 2005-2006 weighted response rates, the two samples were combined, and the individual-year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the 2005 and 2006 individual response rates.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005 and 2006.
Total U.S. 358,417 298,200 271,112 90.95% 168,839 136,110 244,620,970 75.21% 68.40%
Northeast 78,491 66,064 57,656 86.17% 34,195 27,210 45,741,091 72.80% 62.73%
Midwest 96,310 81,770 74,411 91.16% 47,308 38,142 54,612,287 75.90% 69.20%
South 113,332 91,598 84,373 92.41% 51,259 41,659 88,296,165 76.15% 70.37%
West 70,284 58,768 54,672 92.42% 36,077 29,099 55,971,426 75.01% 69.32%
Alabama 4,566 3,563 3,286 92.24% 2,248 1,826 3,787,412 75.39% 69.54%
Alaska 4,493 3,413 3,114 91.20% 2,268 1,831 523,140 75.73% 69.07%
Arizona 4,245 3,370 3,181 94.30% 2,217 1,788 4,887,772 76.00% 71.67%
Arkansas 4,572 3,758 3,546 94.30% 2,082 1,713 2,295,142 78.94% 74.43%
California 15,911 14,260 12,967 90.95% 9,386 7,356 29,425,412 73.70% 67.03%
Colorado 4,841 4,021 3,733 92.89% 2,211 1,794 3,841,413 77.04% 71.57%
Connecticut 4,949 4,254 3,833 90.02% 2,334 1,869 2,921,292 75.48% 67.95%
Delaware 4,886 3,924 3,540 90.25% 2,269 1,839 703,297 76.69% 69.22%
District of Columbia 7,432 6,233 5,390 86.44% 2,154 1,731 477,509 76.04% 65.73%
Florida 21,169 16,631 15,125 90.96% 9,233 7,340 14,990,367 72.64% 66.07%
Georgia 4,605 3,679 3,407 92.60% 2,254 1,845 7,411,948 75.81% 70.20%
Hawaii 4,803 3,924 3,580 91.05% 2,324 1,784 1,032,381 70.24% 63.95%
Idaho 4,288 3,628 3,423 94.38% 2,200 1,816 1,170,159 79.24% 74.78%
Illinois 19,126 16,795 13,866 82.48% 9,410 7,173 10,489,791 70.15% 57.86%
Indiana 4,627 3,895 3,620 92.97% 2,314 1,870 5,162,386 76.42% 71.04%
Iowa 4,298 3,708 3,461 93.54% 2,179 1,816 2,480,524 79.33% 74.20%
Kansas 4,585 3,906 3,660 93.58% 2,262 1,838 2,244,354 79.03% 73.96%
Kentucky 4,844 4,131 3,879 93.90% 2,227 1,808 3,458,472 74.12% 69.60%
Louisiana 4,711 3,431 3,244 94.62% 2,103 1,709 3,572,736 74.78% 70.76%
Maine 6,038 4,347 3,999 91.99% 2,128 1,794 1,132,258 80.30% 73.87%
Maryland 4,641 4,049 3,488 86.19% 2,310 1,868 4,617,078 76.93% 66.30%
Massachusetts 5,143 4,494 3,953 87.91% 2,356 1,870 5,392,046 75.02% 65.94%
Michigan 17,855 14,903 13,478 90.43% 8,966 7,280 8,386,932 76.45% 69.13%
Minnesota 4,141 3,562 3,306 92.95% 2,120 1,776 4,280,064 81.01% 75.30%
Mississippi 4,760 3,575 3,411 95.43% 2,192 1,817 2,355,734 77.45% 73.90%
Missouri 4,384 3,617 3,417 94.49% 2,206 1,808 4,810,835 76.62% 72.40%
Montana 5,045 4,029 3,801 94.34% 2,205 1,823 791,104 78.64% 74.19%
Nebraska 4,744 4,126 3,886 94.18% 2,223 1,825 1,442,493 77.83% 73.30%
Nevada 4,542 3,769 3,553 94.29% 2,211 1,793 2,004,293 75.19% 70.90%
New Hampshire 5,230 4,310 3,891 88.52% 2,202 1,784 1,110,992 77.64% 68.73%
New Jersey 5,158 4,450 3,875 87.05% 2,448 1,824 7,224,999 68.73% 59.83%
New Mexico 4,384 3,629 3,429 94.47% 2,101 1,786 1,583,865 80.36% 75.91%
New York 22,290 19,094 15,501 81.24% 9,554 7,206 16,078,188 69.84% 56.74%
North Carolina 5,312 4,202 3,959 94.21% 2,253 1,861 7,138,547 78.98% 74.41%
North Dakota 5,059 4,133 3,912 94.61% 2,220 1,867 530,038 80.66% 76.32%
Ohio 18,597 15,928 15,021 94.30% 8,952 7,206 9,516,169 75.75% 71.44%
Oklahoma 5,412 4,294 3,960 92.11% 2,319 1,871 2,898,327 77.25% 71.15%
Oregon 4,968 4,215 3,947 93.72% 2,243 1,802 3,076,337 74.22% 69.56%
Pennsylvania 20,141 17,327 15,552 89.72% 8,837 7,258 10,444,137 76.18% 68.35%
Rhode Island 4,749 4,059 3,597 88.57% 2,204 1,809 900,549 78.49% 69.52%
South Carolina 5,247 4,152 3,938 94.84% 2,213 1,831 3,522,378 78.47% 74.42%
South Dakota 4,322 3,495 3,324 95.11% 2,208 1,853 636,455 79.38% 75.50%
Tennessee 4,484 3,809 3,508 91.99% 2,172 1,825 4,972,355 80.19% 73.76%
Texas 16,081 13,172 12,463 94.62% 8,659 7,099 18,378,653 77.04% 72.89%
Utah 3,181 2,742 2,614 95.23% 2,151 1,851 1,951,169 81.40% 77.52%
Vermont 4,793 3,729 3,455 92.75% 2,132 1,796 536,633 80.86% 75.00%
Virginia 4,948 4,222 3,731 88.47% 2,313 1,847 6,171,281 74.48% 65.89%
Washington 4,493 3,748 3,533 94.32% 2,257 1,805 5,256,997 75.58% 71.29%
West Virginia 5,662 4,773 4,498 94.29% 2,258 1,829 1,544,928 75.24% 70.95%
Wisconsin 4,572 3,702 3,460 93.39% 2,248 1,830 4,632,246 77.32% 72.21%
Wyoming 5,090 4,020 3,797 94.45% 2,303 1,870 427,385 77.19% 72.91%
Table A.8 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2005 and 2006
State 12-17
Total
Selected
12-17
Total
Responded
12-17
Population
Estimate
12-17
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
18-25
Total
Selected
18-25
Total
Responded
18-25
Population
Estimate
18-25
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
26+
Total
Selected
26+
Total
Responded
26+
Population
Estimate
26+
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Note: To compute the pooled 2005-2006 weighted response rates, the two samples were combined, and the individual-year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the 2005 and 2006 individual response rates.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005 and 2006.
Total U.S. 52,542 45,477 25,373,402 86.28% 54,640 44,916 32,612,899 82.00% 61,657 45,717 186,634,669 72.52%
Northeast 10,694 9,176 4,529,354 84.27% 11,123 8,977 5,786,233 79.54% 12,378 9,057 35,425,504 70.19%
Midwest 14,717 12,731 5,668,185 86.33% 15,197 12,461 7,416,327 81.56% 17,394 12,950 41,527,776 73.51%
South 16,160 14,054 9,108,581 87.04% 16,512 13,796 11,693,293 84.01% 18,587 13,809 67,494,291 73.29%
West 10,971 9,516 6,067,282 86.59% 11,808 9,682 7,717,047 81.25% 13,298 9,901 42,187,097 72.23%
Alabama 686 594 384,026 86.45% 745 630 504,331 84.37% 817 602 2,899,055 72.24%
Alaska 654 565 66,349 86.15% 782 648 74,227 82.75% 832 618 382,565 72.82%
Arizona 629 561 522,702 89.19% 787 621 660,913 79.29% 801 606 3,704,157 73.67%
Arkansas 634 558 233,328 88.33% 709 593 306,500 85.35% 739 562 1,755,313 76.47%
California 2,870 2,437 3,293,484 85.38% 2,996 2,397 4,085,207 80.59% 3,520 2,522 22,046,720 70.73%
Colorado 659 574 389,561 86.62% 697 570 513,260 82.03% 855 650 2,938,592 74.81%
Connecticut 773 667 299,315 84.83% 761 608 349,035 80.99% 800 594 2,272,942 73.25%
Delaware 721 633 69,102 88.63% 699 571 92,344 81.89% 849 635 541,851 74.22%
District of Columbia 651 551 36,509 86.13% 601 522 71,305 86.46% 902 658 369,695 73.33%
Florida 2,869 2,507 1,405,376 87.48% 3,034 2,494 1,765,323 82.26% 3,330 2,339 11,819,668 69.34%
Georgia 754 649 800,536 86.91% 753 640 1,007,170 85.20% 747 556 5,604,242 72.47%
Hawaii 710 585 101,214 82.13% 750 604 124,633 80.87% 864 595 806,534 66.95%
Idaho 675 583 130,072 86.73% 760 637 171,005 84.38% 765 596 869,082 77.12%
Illinois 2,858 2,415 1,100,792 84.26% 2,985 2,308 1,422,772 76.97% 3,567 2,450 7,966,227 67.10%
Indiana 756 637 546,441 84.75% 731 608 702,749 84.05% 827 625 3,913,195 73.91%
Iowa 624 555 244,036 89.04% 724 607 348,756 83.53% 831 654 1,887,732 77.46%
Kansas 744 639 234,307 85.23% 717 586 324,975 81.87% 801 613 1,685,072 77.67%
Kentucky 736 639 339,347 86.50% 653 553 443,407 85.44% 838 616 2,675,718 70.81%
Louisiana 673 605 385,359 90.33% 645 531 523,857 82.51% 785 573 2,663,520 70.91%
Maine 672 592 107,149 87.63% 711 607 133,984 85.18% 745 595 891,125 78.67%
Maryland 697 587 488,407 84.35% 731 613 582,701 84.54% 882 668 3,545,971 74.87%
Massachusetts 716 608 510,948 83.86% 792 637 693,784 81.70% 848 625 4,187,314 72.71%
Michigan 2,813 2,460 901,407 87.88% 2,718 2,258 1,105,696 83.10% 3,435 2,562 6,379,828 73.72%
Minnesota 625 560 437,254 89.63% 749 618 593,399 83.36% 746 598 3,249,410 79.40%
Mississippi 717 635 257,913 89.17% 668 574 339,363 85.86% 807 608 1,758,458 74.04%
Missouri 678 589 490,572 86.39% 743 622 648,988 83.44% 785 597 3,671,275 74.17%
Montana 698 611 77,917 87.96% 726 597 107,581 82.24% 781 615 605,606 76.68%
Nebraska 741 637 148,761 85.68% 710 605 210,037 85.06% 772 583 1,083,695 75.34%
Nevada 674 604 206,623 88.94% 708 586 246,089 83.33% 829 603 1,551,580 72.20%
New Hampshire 691 600 113,655 87.13% 694 554 136,775 80.49% 817 630 860,562 76.11%
New Jersey 760 625 741,478 82.12% 813 617 844,005 75.94% 875 582 5,639,515 65.91%
New Mexico 675 591 173,970 87.26% 666 589 226,724 88.68% 760 606 1,183,171 77.73%
New York 2,968 2,451 1,587,906 81.80% 3,042 2,308 2,106,543 75.54% 3,544 2,447 12,383,739 67.34%
North Carolina 676 585 723,206 86.97% 807 685 900,033 85.62% 770 591 5,515,308 76.69%
North Dakota 683 606 50,524 87.45% 738 630 84,579 85.64% 799 631 394,935 78.74%
Ohio 2,813 2,410 977,997 85.65% 2,964 2,434 1,249,533 81.74% 3,175 2,362 7,288,639 73.35%
Oklahoma 728 609 295,821 83.98% 797 653 415,188 82.03% 794 609 2,187,319 75.30%
Oregon 695 597 297,574 86.14% 703 581 395,092 81.32% 845 624 2,383,671 71.54%
Pennsylvania 2,792 2,464 1,029,986 88.45% 2,846 2,419 1,325,571 85.22% 3,199 2,375 8,088,580 73.04%
Rhode Island 648 572 87,162 89.05% 742 610 125,832 83.20% 814 627 687,555 76.29%
South Carolina 700 619 361,860 87.81% 701 583 461,761 83.70% 812 629 2,698,757 76.43%
South Dakota 693 622 66,214 89.80% 679 588 92,864 87.79% 836 643 477,378 76.43%
Tennessee 701 623 486,247 88.82% 744 623 634,563 84.64% 727 579 3,851,545 78.35%
Texas 2,755 2,401 2,083,455 87.48% 2,678 2,267 2,674,678 84.58% 3,226 2,431 13,620,520 74.02%
Utah 640 587 233,270 92.17% 715 622 364,626 85.69% 796 642 1,353,274 78.48%
Vermont 674 597 51,757 87.61% 722 617 70,705 86.05% 736 582 414,171 79.06%
Virginia 738 630 621,149 83.63% 801 647 782,661 82.04% 774 570 4,767,472 71.90%
Washington 688 609 532,240 88.69% 726 578 686,791 79.78% 843 618 4,037,966 73.14%
West Virginia 724 629 136,941 87.15% 746 617 188,109 82.23% 788 583 1,219,878 72.78%
Wisconsin 689 601 469,879 87.02% 739 597 631,978 78.59% 820 632 3,530,390 75.85%
Wyoming 704 612 42,307 87.97% 792 652 60,899 82.42% 807 606 324,179 74.80%
Table A.9 Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2006 and 2007
State Total
Selected
DUs
Total
Eligible
DUs
Total
Completed
Screeners
Weighted DU
Screening
Response Rate
Total
Selected
Total
Responded
Population
Estimate
Weighted
Interview
Response Rate
Weighted
Overall
Response Rate
DU = dwelling unit.
Note: To compute the pooled 2006-2007 weighted response rates, the two samples were combined, and the individual-year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the 2006 and 2007 individual response rates.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006 and 2007.
Total U.S. 374,551 309,699 278,544 90.00% 170,808 135,672 246,933,431 74.09% 66.68%
Northeast 81,807 68,395 58,689 84.65% 34,687 27,141 45,864,469 71.80% 60.78%
Midwest 101,496 85,827 77,402 90.40% 47,916 38,098 54,749,460 74.87% 67.68%
South 115,906 93,024 85,105 91.96% 51,585 41,524 89,465,143 75.44% 69.38%
West 75,342 62,453 57,348 90.97% 36,620 28,909 56,854,360 73.06% 66.46%
Alabama 4,621 3,698 3,427 92.61% 2,282 1,811 3,806,526 72.84% 67.45%
Alaska 4,667 3,378 3,042 90.05% 2,197 1,762 534,137 77.02% 69.36%
Arizona 5,045 3,820 3,491 91.47% 2,262 1,765 5,052,100 71.90% 65.76%
Arkansas 4,934 3,905 3,668 93.89% 2,157 1,774 2,310,977 80.03% 75.14%
California 16,976 15,184 13,558 89.34% 9,588 7,309 29,742,955 71.28% 63.68%
Colorado 5,156 4,246 3,883 91.39% 2,222 1,788 3,933,092 76.56% 69.96%
Connecticut 5,250 4,598 4,083 88.73% 2,299 1,811 2,922,219 75.38% 66.88%
Delaware 4,748 3,859 3,445 89.35% 2,211 1,780 710,297 77.17% 68.95%
District of Columbia 8,069 6,500 5,517 84.90% 2,127 1,704 497,902 76.34% 64.81%
Florida 21,436 16,803 15,087 89.73% 9,203 7,256 15,209,315 72.25% 64.83%
Georgia 4,478 3,550 3,294 92.88% 2,229 1,816 7,585,920 75.64% 70.26%
Hawaii 5,311 4,430 3,866 86.83% 2,369 1,738 1,045,314 66.37% 57.63%
Idaho 4,672 3,898 3,678 94.36% 2,273 1,844 1,191,260 77.77% 73.38%
Illinois 20,830 18,125 14,474 79.80% 9,663 7,146 10,539,421 68.01% 54.27%
Indiana 4,749 3,969 3,660 92.15% 2,357 1,891 5,196,291 76.51% 70.50%
Iowa 4,737 4,073 3,785 93.02% 2,201 1,813 2,474,931 78.43% 72.95%
Kansas 4,386 3,721 3,510 94.33% 2,236 1,790 2,250,830 79.10% 74.62%
Kentucky 4,776 4,031 3,794 94.09% 2,248 1,801 3,482,766 75.36% 70.90%
Louisiana 4,959 3,456 3,261 94.45% 2,180 1,770 3,481,583 73.55% 69.47%
Maine 6,400 4,584 4,203 91.72% 2,206 1,820 1,128,319 78.38% 71.89%
Maryland 4,672 4,039 3,430 84.97% 2,273 1,815 4,639,099 76.76% 65.22%
Massachusetts 5,423 4,630 4,022 86.79% 2,312 1,809 5,428,207 74.23% 64.42%
Michigan 17,885 14,896 13,406 90.01% 8,902 7,191 8,384,565 75.48% 67.94%
Minnesota 4,707 4,028 3,728 92.47% 2,189 1,797 4,296,034 79.55% 73.57%
Mississippi 4,670 3,487 3,313 94.82% 2,167 1,786 2,346,770 76.28% 72.32%
Missouri 4,755 3,927 3,704 94.33% 2,262 1,840 4,828,217 74.46% 70.23%
Montana 5,297 4,248 4,006 94.30% 2,202 1,800 795,884 77.92% 73.48%
Nebraska 4,758 4,067 3,832 94.23% 2,219 1,807 1,444,216 77.76% 73.27%
Nevada 4,693 3,858 3,639 94.43% 2,200 1,766 2,064,235 75.60% 71.39%
New Hampshire 5,356 4,291 3,874 90.12% 2,209 1,779 1,113,711 77.43% 69.79%
New Jersey 5,260 4,563 3,951 86.58% 2,404 1,797 7,241,267 70.94% 61.42%
New Mexico 4,909 3,855 3,639 94.40% 2,216 1,840 1,597,686 76.68% 72.38%
New York 23,804 20,327 15,931 78.33% 10,001 7,283 16,156,762 66.84% 52.36%
North Carolina 5,946 4,847 4,526 93.37% 2,424 1,974 7,299,873 76.60% 71.52%
North Dakota 5,221 4,219 3,984 94.41% 2,229 1,839 528,368 79.70% 75.25%
Ohio 19,775 16,810 15,835 94.17% 9,079 7,253 9,513,849 74.97% 70.60%
Oklahoma 5,717 4,584 4,158 90.50% 2,364 1,877 2,913,243 75.89% 68.68%
Oregon 5,027 4,252 3,953 92.88% 2,261 1,798 3,121,110 73.70% 68.46%
Pennsylvania 20,383 17,393 15,424 88.60% 8,899 7,223 10,442,770 75.66% 67.03%
Rhode Island 4,952 4,260 3,770 88.43% 2,248 1,833 895,812 76.74% 67.86%
South Carolina 5,445 4,264 4,021 94.31% 2,256 1,846 3,579,496 77.40% 73.00%
South Dakota 4,568 3,685 3,495 94.84% 2,226 1,848 643,027 80.01% 75.89%
Tennessee 4,517 3,762 3,511 93.26% 2,172 1,800 5,038,139 77.76% 72.52%
Texas 16,109 13,174 12,421 94.25% 8,707 7,094 18,774,352 76.50% 72.10%
Utah 3,483 2,951 2,803 94.96% 2,157 1,812 2,012,531 80.36% 76.31%
Vermont 4,979 3,749 3,431 91.50% 2,109 1,786 535,402 82.50% 75.49%
Virginia 5,209 4,357 3,836 87.92% 2,344 1,830 6,249,645 74.88% 65.83%
Washington 4,908 4,140 3,855 93.08% 2,333 1,838 5,334,602 75.37% 70.15%
West Virginia 5,600 4,708 4,396 93.35% 2,241 1,790 1,539,241 75.24% 70.23%
Wisconsin 5,125 4,307 3,989 92.67% 2,353 1,883 4,649,712 77.27% 71.61%
Wyoming 5,198 4,193 3,935 93.87% 2,340 1,849 429,454 75.97% 71.31%
Table A.10 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2006 and 2007
State 12-17
Total
Selected
12-17
Total
Responded
12-17
Population
Estimate
12-17
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
18-25
Total
Selected
18-25
Total
Responded
18-25
Population
Estimate
18-25
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
26+
Total
Selected
26+
Total
Responded
26+
Population
Estimate
26+
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Note: To compute the pooled 2006-2007 weighted response rates, the two samples were combined, and the individual-year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the 2006 and 2007 individual response rates.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006 and 2007.
Total U.S. 52,893 45,387 25,316,510 85.40% 55,388 44,561 32,735,362 80.36% 62,527 45,724 188,881,560 71.48%
Northeast 10,745 9,109 4,485,801 82.85% 11,268 8,895 5,882,801 77.45% 12,674 9,137 35,495,867 69.48%
Midwest 14,868 12,747 5,642,796 85.92% 15,463 12,447 7,335,788 80.19% 17,585 12,904 41,770,875 72.45%
South 16,134 13,964 9,140,514 86.53% 16,589 13,601 11,684,367 82.34% 18,862 13,959 68,640,262 72.77%
West 11,146 9,567 6,047,398 85.09% 12,068 9,618 7,832,405 79.74% 13,406 9,724 42,974,556 70.13%
Alabama 675 577 386,639 85.40% 734 622 500,168 84.53% 873 612 2,919,719 69.34%
Alaska 708 611 64,383 86.18% 714 560 74,321 78.56% 775 591 395,433 75.24%
Arizona 647 567 531,706 86.70% 772 594 667,551 76.91% 843 604 3,852,843 69.01%
Arkansas 700 598 234,358 85.46% 664 543 298,001 83.34% 793 633 1,778,618 78.84%
California 2,923 2,447 3,251,070 83.60% 3,065 2,396 4,216,574 79.26% 3,600 2,466 22,275,311 67.97%
Colorado 690 596 387,286 86.20% 738 594 516,885 81.27% 794 598 3,028,921 74.53%
Connecticut 716 621 296,415 86.90% 723 555 352,612 78.03% 860 635 2,273,192 73.49%
Delaware 662 581 70,333 88.25% 728 583 91,979 81.20% 821 616 547,985 75.08%
District of Columbia 675 578 37,965 85.95% 627 526 82,030 83.48% 825 600 377,906 73.96%
Florida 2,744 2,373 1,389,340 86.00% 2,999 2,445 1,778,827 81.68% 3,460 2,438 12,041,147 69.25%
Georgia 750 644 822,659 86.45% 696 583 1,001,876 83.54% 783 589 5,761,385 72.58%
Hawaii 717 576 99,465 78.42% 755 572 126,140 76.75% 897 590 819,708 63.15%
Idaho 728 622 132,866 85.02% 756 618 165,315 82.16% 789 604 893,079 75.84%
Illinois 2,966 2,457 1,094,265 82.97% 3,022 2,253 1,433,731 73.93% 3,675 2,436 8,011,425 64.91%
Indiana 693 579 539,431 84.57% 847 691 689,525 81.76% 817 621 3,967,335 74.50%
Iowa 712 627 248,086 88.04% 682 562 343,994 82.68% 807 624 1,882,850 76.44%
Kansas 743 634 235,408 84.72% 658 510 322,138 77.17% 835 646 1,693,284 78.72%
Kentucky 711 606 341,772 85.27% 722 593 430,183 82.84% 815 602 2,710,811 72.80%
Louisiana 660 593 372,138 89.43% 718 603 505,392 84.61% 802 574 2,604,053 69.15%
Maine 713 624 105,652 86.98% 751 627 127,761 83.98% 742 569 894,906 76.40%
Maryland 690 584 478,466 84.21% 739 599 589,416 81.41% 844 632 3,571,216 75.22%
Massachusetts 713 589 510,890 80.12% 763 603 716,472 79.28% 836 617 4,200,845 72.56%
Michigan 2,701 2,342 888,059 86.76% 2,863 2,358 1,095,038 82.29% 3,338 2,491 6,401,469 72.79%
Minnesota 682 598 436,903 88.84% 739 604 582,894 82.51% 768 595 3,276,237 77.70%
Mississippi 692 613 259,663 89.04% 663 572 330,771 86.24% 812 601 1,756,337 72.34%
Missouri 690 603 494,026 87.20% 733 617 633,170 84.05% 839 620 3,701,021 71.28%
Montana 677 592 79,003 87.20% 711 572 105,557 79.78% 814 636 611,324 76.40%
Nebraska 740 627 149,456 85.41% 707 602 209,102 85.01% 772 578 1,085,658 75.06%
Nevada 635 564 211,067 88.78% 731 588 243,884 80.67% 834 614 1,609,285 73.19%
New Hampshire 691 596 111,310 85.49% 739 592 134,161 81.30% 779 591 868,239 75.93%
New Jersey 747 614 727,090 81.15% 739 550 852,072 74.47% 918 633 5,662,105 69.09%
New Mexico 706 627 172,181 88.27% 732 624 226,537 86.24% 778 589 1,198,968 73.02%
New York 3,039 2,448 1,579,916 79.75% 3,253 2,386 2,179,143 73.19% 3,709 2,449 12,397,704 64.17%
North Carolina 779 671 728,599 86.97% 827 690 907,260 83.84% 818 613 5,664,014 73.85%
North Dakota 710 605 50,947 85.12% 733 616 88,579 84.40% 786 618 388,842 77.91%
Ohio 2,822 2,431 971,766 86.58% 2,991 2,440 1,226,839 82.10% 3,266 2,382 7,315,244 72.22%
Oklahoma 811 683 299,621 84.65% 745 589 410,759 79.39% 808 605 2,202,862 73.93%
Oregon 669 585 297,325 87.23% 764 610 387,123 78.96% 828 603 2,436,662 71.31%
Pennsylvania 2,785 2,445 1,018,244 87.62% 2,850 2,352 1,324,878 82.93% 3,264 2,426 8,099,649 72.95%
Rhode Island 695 607 85,339 88.03% 735 613 127,016 84.47% 818 613 683,457 73.99%
South Carolina 651 575 362,886 87.44% 823 675 457,237 81.39% 782 596 2,759,373 75.44%
South Dakota 682 613 66,722 90.31% 681 571 91,328 85.40% 863 664 484,977 77.71%
Tennessee 703 625 496,587 88.89% 703 588 620,435 84.59% 766 587 3,921,118 75.17%
Texas 2,809 2,448 2,105,817 87.38% 2,729 2,252 2,699,382 82.61% 3,169 2,394 13,969,152 73.63%
Utah 632 570 243,193 91.64% 738 628 370,864 84.20% 787 614 1,398,474 77.25%
Vermont 646 565 50,946 86.99% 715 617 68,687 86.73% 748 604 415,768 81.29%
Virginia 730 618 617,354 83.71% 759 574 798,995 76.55% 855 638 4,833,297 73.50%
Washington 695 597 534,929 85.73% 798 633 672,222 79.93% 840 608 4,127,451 73.14%
West Virginia 692 597 136,317 85.82% 713 564 181,656 78.66% 836 629 1,221,268 73.55%
Wisconsin 727 631 467,728 86.37% 807 623 619,449 76.54% 819 629 3,562,535 76.23%
Wyoming 719 613 42,925 86.08% 794 629 59,433 79.60% 827 607 327,096 73.88%
Table A.11 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: 2005, 2006, and 2007
State 2005
Total
Selected
2005
Total
Responded
2005
Population
Estimate
2005
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
2006
Total
Selected
2006
Total
Responded
2006
Population
Estimate
2006
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
2007
Total
Selected
2007
Total
Responded
2007
Population
Estimate
2007
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, and 2007.
Total U.S. 35,962 31,276 38,322,622 86.79 36,754 31,342 38,184,777 84.92 36,653 31,132 38,475,786 84.40
Northeast 7,367 6,362 6,862,873 85.12 7,559 6,357 6,808,407 82.53 7,615 6,380 6,927,594 81.31
Midwest 10,115 8,791 8,673,459 86.43 10,179 8,666 8,488,925 85.03 10,332 8,793 8,530,144 85.00
South 11,005 9,610 13,759,151 87.71 11,329 9,764 13,770,324 85.84 10,913 9,344 13,726,139 85.74
West 7,475 6,513 9,027,139 87.00 7,687 6,555 9,117,121 85.21 7,793 6,615 9,291,909 84.13
Alabama 476 406 561,692 84.90 499 439 612,196 87.37 464 396 592,470 85.95
Alaska 471 399 99,010 85.69 499 416 95,199 82.41 471 402 94,412 86.48
Arizona 452 390 751,497 86.68 465 399 801,413 85.79 485 402 831,600 81.32
Arkansas 446 397 359,907 89.87 474 411 378,803 87.39 491 415 355,964 85.69
California 1,933 1,661 4,922,871 86.48 2,007 1,681 4,883,362 84.24 2,027 1,690 4,954,430 83.32
Colorado 454 396 591,421 87.50 436 375 562,030 85.25 488 415 573,755 85.11
Connecticut 531 456 421,226 83.41 510 429 421,119 84.66 490 413 435,326 84.09
Delaware 512 442 104,549 86.77 449 391 104,557 87.08 481 407 108,201 84.53
District of Columbia 404 347 52,853 87.53 439 378 66,559 87.92 449 393 72,337 88.36
Florida 2,024 1,766 2,195,868 87.59 2,034 1,757 2,127,307 85.94 1,798 1,535 2,079,077 85.28
Georgia 511 456 1,218,322 89.69 572 490 1,254,765 85.97 457 401 1,220,703 88.30
Hawaii 494 427 154,805 87.81 490 393 140,236 78.61 475 379 136,591 78.91
Idaho 439 390 189,293 88.49 482 410 206,568 86.24 496 418 186,618 82.46
Illinois 1,977 1,655 1,647,182 83.85 1,923 1,609 1,644,639 82.95 2,097 1,691 1,668,918 80.25
Indiana 516 448 870,085 87.47 527 437 810,463 83.97 482 403 802,712 83.83
Iowa 412 377 369,113 91.12 471 395 369,185 83.32 510 450 385,713 87.80
Kansas 491 444 359,239 90.12 512 414 372,583 79.75 463 406 349,573 86.16
Kentucky 473 415 497,495 87.23 506 429 509,169 85.20 475 403 510,132 84.81
Louisiana 454 405 613,485 89.44 438 389 541,357 88.47 477 420 565,529 87.27
Maine 440 394 165,943 88.96 526 455 165,874 85.39 506 437 159,826 86.86
Maryland 448 389 702,671 87.16 492 411 704,270 82.90 482 411 729,464 85.16
Massachusetts 524 459 814,048 86.43 492 400 797,860 81.53 507 416 790,129 78.14
Michigan 1,940 1,678 1,339,651 86.40 1,868 1,629 1,304,963 87.43 1,873 1,596 1,322,124 84.60
Minnesota 451 396 639,420 87.19 405 359 633,052 90.02 485 418 621,993 86.66
Mississippi 519 465 429,346 89.98 502 448 416,500 90.49 457 405 397,984 88.94
Missouri 476 407 741,962 85.34 481 419 753,996 86.35 508 446 779,438 88.13
Montana 481 422 117,723 88.34 470 403 117,066 85.58 453 392 119,194 84.79
Nebraska 497 442 221,475 87.62 497 418 233,340 85.09 510 441 232,321 87.70
Nevada 459 409 297,203 88.97 441 384 296,994 86.24 431 374 305,708 87.49
New Hampshire 439 368 164,861 84.76 508 439 172,530 86.47 480 396 165,706 82.26
New Jersey 537 455 1,122,017 84.15 497 398 1,004,017 80.56 480 397 1,053,380 79.84
New Mexico 449 400 257,534 89.82 463 407 262,895 87.53 512 460 258,604 90.87
New York 2,005 1,672 2,362,022 82.49 2,058 1,624 2,426,076 78.10 2,204 1,749 2,512,654 78.46
North Carolina 423 364 1,044,818 86.53 548 476 1,119,962 87.00 588 493 1,178,490 84.57
North Dakota 487 438 81,775 88.54 496 427 90,517 86.25 510 431 85,278 84.71
Ohio 1,898 1,633 1,483,411 85.15 2,035 1,725 1,475,834 85.27 1,932 1,670 1,476,889 86.70
Oklahoma 499 419 459,199 84.19 520 432 450,592 83.44 553 449 433,136 80.15
Oregon 467 392 440,687 83.47 480 422 445,510 87.89 528 452 502,263 85.88
Pennsylvania 1,975 1,744 1,590,700 88.67 1,934 1,715 1,595,641 88.93 1,987 1,712 1,586,861 85.71
Rhode Island 444 392 140,652 88.77 492 427 136,938 88.09 488 432 138,232 88.96
South Carolina 470 412 536,423 87.93 474 416 535,586 86.48 444 385 532,386 86.10
South Dakota 472 429 105,554 91.18 464 408 100,335 88.12 435 391 98,754 90.55
Tennessee 496 432 727,398 88.03 485 425 735,982 86.63 478 421 721,190 88.71
Texas 1,868 1,648 3,139,614 88.30 1,871 1,602 3,067,870 85.80 1,861 1,619 3,108,430 86.89
Utah 473 436 372,515 91.82 410 375 380,898 91.75 471 415 399,647 88.79
Vermont 472 422 81,405 88.39 542 470 88,350 86.19 473 428 85,480 90.65
Virginia 487 418 904,092 85.64 522 432 930,209 81.32 485 394 906,519 80.33
Washington 425 374 768,080 87.74 546 469 861,788 85.86 494 420 864,704 85.28
West Virginia 495 429 211,418 87.11 504 438 214,640 86.71 473 397 214,128 83.09
Wisconsin 498 444 814,592 88.49 500 426 700,020 83.19 527 450 706,430 85.91
Wyoming 478 417 64,500 86.86 498 421 63,161 85.71 462 396 64,382 86.06
Table A.12 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: 2005-2006 and 2006-2007
State 2005-2006
Total
Selected
2005-2006
Total
Responded
2005-2006
Population
Estimate
2005-2006
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
2006-2007
Total
Selected
2006-2007
Total
Responded
2006-2007
Population
Estimate
2006-2007
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
NOTE: To compute the pooled weighted response rates, the two samples were combined, and the individual-year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the individual response rates.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, and 2007.
Total U.S. 72,716 62,618 38,253,699 85.86 73,407 62,474 38,330,281 84.66
Northeast 14,926 12,719 6,835,640 83.84 15,174 12,737 6,868,000 81.92
Midwest 20,294 17,457 8,581,192 85.73 20,511 17,459 8,509,535 85.01
South 22,334 19,374 13,764,737 86.78 22,242 19,108 13,748,232 85.79
West 15,162 13,068 9,072,130 86.10 15,480 13,170 9,204,515 84.67
Alabama 975 845 586,944 86.14 963 835 602,333 86.66
Alaska 970 815 97,105 84.09 970 818 94,806 84.43
Arizona 917 789 776,455 86.22 950 801 816,507 83.49
Arkansas 920 808 369,355 88.60 965 826 367,383 86.58
California 3,940 3,342 4,903,116 85.36 4,034 3,371 4,918,896 83.77
Colorado 890 771 576,725 86.42 924 790 567,893 85.18
Connecticut 1,041 885 421,173 84.05 1,000 842 428,223 84.38
Delaware 961 833 104,553 86.92 930 798 106,379 85.76
District of Columbia 843 725 59,706 87.75 888 771 69,448 88.14
Florida 4,058 3,523 2,161,587 86.78 3,832 3,292 2,103,192 85.61
Georgia 1,083 946 1,236,544 87.86 1,029 891 1,237,734 87.12
Hawaii 984 820 147,521 83.38 965 772 138,414 78.76
Idaho 921 800 197,931 87.33 978 828 196,593 84.42
Illinois 3,900 3,264 1,645,911 83.40 4,020 3,300 1,656,778 81.59
Indiana 1,043 885 840,274 85.75 1,009 840 806,588 83.90
Iowa 883 772 369,149 87.04 981 845 377,449 85.58
Kansas 1,003 858 365,911 84.85 975 820 361,078 82.81
Kentucky 979 844 503,332 86.21 981 832 509,651 85.01
Louisiana 892 794 577,421 88.98 915 809 553,443 87.84
Maine 966 849 165,908 87.19 1,032 892 162,850 86.12
Maryland 940 800 703,471 85.01 974 822 716,867 84.04
Massachusetts 1,016 859 805,954 84.02 999 816 793,995 79.82
Michigan 3,808 3,307 1,322,307 86.91 3,741 3,225 1,313,543 86.00
Minnesota 856 755 636,236 88.59 890 777 627,522 88.38
Mississippi 1,021 913 422,923 90.23 959 853 407,242 89.71
Missouri 957 826 747,979 85.85 989 865 766,717 87.25
Montana 951 825 117,395 86.98 923 795 118,130 85.18
Nebraska 994 860 227,407 86.35 1,007 859 232,831 86.43
Nevada 900 793 297,099 87.57 872 758 301,351 86.87
New Hampshire 947 807 168,696 85.62 988 835 169,118 84.34
New Jersey 1,034 853 1,063,017 82.44 977 795 1,028,699 80.20
New Mexico 912 807 260,214 88.68 975 867 260,749 89.19
New York 4,063 3,296 2,394,049 80.29 4,262 3,373 2,469,365 78.28
North Carolina 971 840 1,082,390 86.77 1,136 969 1,149,226 85.75
North Dakota 983 865 86,146 87.38 1,006 858 87,898 85.48
Ohio 3,933 3,358 1,479,622 85.21 3,967 3,395 1,476,361 85.98
Oklahoma 1,019 851 454,896 83.82 1,073 881 441,864 81.83
Oregon 947 814 443,099 85.70 1,008 874 473,887 86.84
Pennsylvania 3,909 3,459 1,593,171 88.80 3,921 3,427 1,591,251 87.33
Rhode Island 936 819 138,795 88.44 980 859 137,585 88.53
South Carolina 944 828 536,004 87.19 918 801 533,986 86.29
South Dakota 936 837 102,945 89.72 899 799 99,545 89.36
Tennessee 981 857 731,690 87.33 963 846 728,586 87.67
Texas 3,739 3,250 3,103,742 87.07 3,732 3,221 3,088,150 86.35
Utah 883 811 376,707 91.79 881 790 390,273 90.23
Vermont 1,014 892 84,877 87.25 1,015 898 86,915 88.33
Virginia 1,009 850 917,151 83.48 1,007 826 918,364 80.82
Washington 971 843 814,934 86.76 1,040 889 863,246 85.57
West Virginia 999 867 213,029 86.91 977 835 214,384 84.90
Wisconsin 998 870 757,306 86.01 1,027 876 703,225 84.54
Wyoming 976 838 63,830 86.28 960 817 63,771 85.88
Table A.13 Outcomes, by Survey Year, for Which Small Area Estimates Are Available
Measure 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007
1 Estimates for these outcomes were not included in the 2002-2003 State report (Wright & Sathe, 2005), but the 2002-2003 estimates are included in the 2003-2004 State report as part of estimates of change tables (see Wright & Sathe, 2006). However the prediction intervals associated with these were not published.
2 Estimates for serious psychological distress (SPD) in the years 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 are not comparable with the 2004-2005 and subsequent SPD estimates. For more details, see Section A.8, 2005-2006 State report (see Hughes et al., 2008).
3 Questions used to determine a major depressive episode (MDE) were added in 2004.
image representing check mark = available, image representing x = not available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007.
Illicit Drug Use in Past Month image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Marijuana Use in Past Year image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Marijuana Use in Past Month image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
First Use of Marijuana image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Cocaine Use in Past Year image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year image representing x1 image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Alcohol Use in Past Month image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Underage Past Month Use of Alcohol image representing x1 image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Underage Past Month Binge Alcohol Use image representing x1 image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Tobacco Product Use in Past Month image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Cigarette Use in Past Month image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Alcohol Dependence in Past Year image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Dependence on or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Serious Psychological Distress in Past Year2 image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark
Having at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year3 image representing x image representing x image representing check mark image representing check mark image representing check mark


End Notes

7 Substances include alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives.

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