OFFICE OF APPLIED STUDIES


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
http://dawninfo.samhsa.gov/

DRUG ABUSE WARNING NETWORK, 2005: SELECTED TABLES OF NATIONAL ESTIMATES OF DRUG-RELATED EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT VISITS

In August 2008, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) released Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2006: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits. This annual report included estimates for 2006 and comparisons of the emergency department estimates for 2004, 2005, and 2006. This report may be accessed on the Web at http://dawninfo.samhsa.gov/files/ED2006/DAWN2k6ED.pdf.

The 2006 estimates reflect several improvements made to the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) sampling and estimation methodology. To ensure comparability between estimates for 2004, 2005, and 2006, the improvements were applied retrospectively to 2004 and 2005 data, resulting in small changes as compared with early published estimates.

Tables for 2005 that have not already been published in the 2006 ED report are now available online. The 2005 tables and charts follow the same title and numbering system as the 2006 ED report. Links to the revised 2005 tables are provided below.

General information about DAWN is at http://dawninfo.samhsa.gov/. Information on other sources of data on substance abuse and mental health from SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies (OAS) is located at http://samhsa.gov/data/.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Drug misuse and abuse in ED visits in the U.S., by type of drug involvement: 2005

Table 2 Illicit drugs in ED visits: 2005

Table 3 Illicit drugs, by patient characteristics: 2005

Table 4 Alcohol in drug-related ED visits: 2005

Table 5 Alcohol in combination, by patient and visit characteristics: 2005

Table 6 Drugs most frequently reported with alcohol: 2005

Table 7 Alcohol in drug-related ED visits in patients under age 21: 2005

Table 8 Alcohol only (age < 21), by patient and visit characteristics: 2005

Table 9 Nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals: 2005

Table 10 Nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals, by patient and visit characteristics: 2005

Table 16 Suicide attempts: 2005

Table 17 Suicide attempts, by patient and visit characteristics: 2005

Table 19 Seeking detox: 2005

Table 20 Seeking detox, by patient and visit characteristics: 2005

Table C2 Drug-related ED visits, by type of case: 2005

Table C5 Population by age and gender: 2005

PUBLIC DOMAIN NOTICE

All material appearing in these tables is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from SAMHSA. However, this publication may not be reproduced or distributed for a fee without the specific, written authorization of the Office of Communications, SAMHSA. Citation of the source is appreciated. Suggested citation:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005: Selected Tables of National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits. Rockville, MD, 2009.

This publication was prepared by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, and by RTI International under Contract No. 280-03-2602.

ORIGINATING OFFICE

Office of Applied Studies
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 7-1044, Rockville, MD 20857
June 2009

Table 1
Drug misuse and abuse in ED visits in the U.S., by type of drug involvement: 2005
Drug involvement1 Estimated
visits2
Percent
of visits
Relative
standard
error (RSE)
95% Confidence interval
Lower
bound
- Upper
bound
1 The classification of drugs used in DAWN is derived from the Multum Lexicon, 2007, Multum Information Services, Inc. The classification was modified to meet DAWN's unique requirements (2007). The Multum Licensing Agreement governing use of the Lexicon can be found on the Internet at http://www.multum.com.
2 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
3 DAWN excludes alcohol-only visits for adults. Alcohol, when present with other drugs, is included for all ages.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
All types of drug misuse/abuse 1,616,311 100% 9.1 1,329,073 - 1,903,548
Illicit drugs only    517,558  32% 17.5    339,699 -    695,417
Alcohol only (age < 21)    110,599    7% 11.3      86,147 -    135,052
Pharmaceuticals only    444,309  27%   7.2    381,282 -    507,337
Combinations            
Illicit drugs with alcohol3    221,823  14% 19.2    138,406 -    305,240
Illicit drugs with pharmaceuticals    127,245    8% 13.6      93,304 -    161,186
Alcohol with pharmaceuticals    140,275    9%   6.7    121,764 -    158,787
Illicit drugs with alcohol and pharmaceuticals      54,500    3% 13.9      39,601 -      69,400
Table 2
Illicit drugs in ED visits: 2005
Drug category and selected drugs1 Estimated
visits2,3,4
Relative
standard
error (RSE)
95% Confidence interval
Lower
bound
- Upper
bound
1 The classification of drugs used in DAWN is derived from the Multum Lexicon, 2007, Multum Information Services, Inc. The classification was modified to meet DAWN's unique requirements (2007). The Multum Licensing Agreement governing use of the Lexicon can be found on the Internet at http://www.multum.com.
These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
3 ED visits often involve multiple drugs. Such visits will appear multiple times in this table (e.g., a visit involving both cocaine and heroin will appear twice in this table). Summing ED visits as reported will produce incorrect and inflated counts of ED visits.
4 Three dots (…) indicate that an estimate with an RSE greater than 50% or an estimate less than 30 has been suppressed.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
Drug-related ED visits
Total drug misuse/abuse ED visits 1,616,311   9.1 1,329,073 - 1,903,548
ED visits, illicit drugs    921,127 15.2    647,030 - 1,195,224
Cocaine    483,865 16.5    327,426 -    640,304
Heroin    187,493 19.5    115,953 -    259,034
Marijuana    279,664 12.4    211,755 -    347,572
Stimulants    137,650 24.7      71,051 -    204,248
Amphetamines      34,928 15.8      24,102 -      45,753
Methamphetamine    109,655 28.9      47,540 -    171,770
MDMA (Ecstasy)      11,287 16.2        7,695 -      14,879
GHB        1,036 19.5           640 -        1,431
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)            …    …            … -            …
Ketamine           303 32.1           112 -           494
LSD        2,001 19.6        1,231 -        2,771
PCP      14,825 33.0        5,224 -      24,427
Miscellaneous hallucinogens        3,194 19.2        1,991 -        4,398
Inhalants        5,156 21.6        2,968 -        7,344
Combinations not tabulated above (NTA)        3,201 39.3           732 -        5,669
ED visits per 100,000 population
Total drug misuse/abuse ED visits         545.3   9.1         448.0 -         642.6
ED visits, illicit drugs         310.8 15.2         218.2 -         403.3
Cocaine         163.2 16.5         110.4 -         216.0
Heroin           63.3 19.5           39.1 -           87.4
Marijuana           94.4 12.4           71.4 -         117.3
Stimulants           46.4 24.7           24.0 -           68.9
Amphetamines           11.8 15.8            8.1 -           15.4
Methamphetamine           37.0 28.9           16.0 -           57.9
MDMA (Ecstasy)             3.8 16.2            2.6 -            5.0
GHB             0.3 19.5            0.2 -            0.5
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)             …    …           … -             …
Ketamine             0.1 32.1           … -             …
LSD             0.7 19.6            0.4 -            0.9
PCP             5.0 33.0            1.8 -            8.2
Miscellaneous hallucinogens             1.1 19.2            0.7 -            1.5
Inhalants             1.7 21.6            1.0 -            2.5
Combinations not tabulated above (NTA)             1.1 39.3           … -             …
Table 3
Illicit drugs, by patient characteristics: 2005
Patient
characteristics
Selected drugs1
All illicits Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Stimulants MDMA (Ecstasy) GHB LSD PCP
1 The classification of drugs used in DAWN is derived from the Multum Lexicon, 2007, Multum Information Services, Inc. The classification was modified to meet DAWN's unique requirements (2007). The Multum Licensing Agreement governing use of the Lexicon can be found on the Internet at http://www.multum.com.
2 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
3 Three dots (…) indicate that an estimate with an RSE greater than 50% or an estimate less than 30 has been suppressed.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
Drug-related ED visits2,3
ED visits, illicit drugs 921,127 483,865 187,493 279,664 137,650 11,287 1,036 2,001 14,825
Gender                  
Male 606,714 308,559 131,665 187,440   89,015   7,009    796 1,716 10,721
Female 314,037 175,191   55,787   92,081   48,515   4,274    240    285   4,007
Unknown        375        116         …         …         …        …      …      …        …
Age                  
0-5 years     1,102        106         …         …         …        …      …      …        …
6-11 years        557         …         …         …         …        …      …      …        …
12-17 years   53,400     7,848     1,033   38,607   12,028   1,929      …      …      691
18-20 years   70,746   21,112     9,360   38,254   14,055   2,528      …    343        …
21-24 years 105,420   39,468   19,546   44,597   23,751   2,206      …    488   2,288
25-29 years 113,258   53,136   22,570   41,480   23,186   2,512    277    250   3,384
30-34 years 114,255   62,640   24,053   31,574   18,880      947    119      …        …
35-44 years 261,943 174,023   54,218   50,131   31,071      877    283      …   3,651
45-54 years 161,962 105,165   43,301   28,107   11,712        …      …      …      946
55-64 years   31,914   16,348   11,504     5,498     1,999        …      …      …        …
65 years and older     5,320     2,834         …        714         …        …      …      …        …
Unknown     1,250         …          71         …         …        …      …      …        …
Race/ethnicity                  
White 402,160 177,820   80,522 147,087   79,085   5,053    633 1,194   5,851
Black 283,519 203,124   47,537   66,877    8,413   2,298      …      …   6,218
Hispanic   99,126   38,881   26,719   26,220         …   1,017      …      …   1,074
Race/ethnicity not tabulated above (NTA)     9,117     4,016     1,119     2,688         …      468      …      …        …
Unknown 127,206   60,025   31,596   36,792   21,796   2,451    187    468   1,589
ED visits per 100,000 population2,3
ED visits, illicit drugs     310.8     163.2       63.3       94.4       46.4       3.8      0.3      0.7       5.0
Gender                  
Male     415.6     211.3       90.2     128.4       61.0       4.8      0.5      1.2       7.3
Female     208.8     116.5       37.1       61.2       32.3       2.8      0.2      0.2       2.7
Age                  
0-5 years         4.6         0.4         …         …         …        …      …      …        …
6-11 years         2.3         …         …         …         …        …      …      …        …
12-17 years     209.5       30.8         4.1     151.5       47.2       7.6      …      …        2.7
18-20 years     568.2     169.6       75.2     307.3     112.9     20.3      …      2.8        …
21-24 years     625.4     234.1     116.0     264.6     140.9     13.1      …      2.9      13.6
25-29 years     564.4     264.8     112.5     206.7     115.6     12.5       1.4      1.2      16.9
30-34 years     569.1     312.0     119.8     157.3       94.0       4.7       0.6      …        …
35-44 years     597.2     396.7     123.6     114.3       70.8       2.0       0.6      …        8.3
45-54 years     381.2     247.6     101.9       66.2       27.6        …      …      …        2.2
55-64 years     105.1       53.9       37.9       18.1         6.6        …      …      …        …
65 years and older       14.5         7.7         …         1.9          …        …      …      …        …
Table 4
Alcohol in drug-related ED visits: 2005
Drug category and selected drugs1 Estimated visits2,3 Relative standard error (RSE) 95% Confidence interval
Lower
bound
- Upper
bound
1 The classification of drugs used in DAWN is derived from the Multum Lexicon, 2007, Multum Information Services, Inc. The classification was modified to meet DAWN's unique requirements (2007). The Multum Licensing Agreement governing use of the Lexicon can be found on the Internet at http://www.multum.com.
2 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
3 Estimates are all expressed in visits.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
Total drug misuse/abuse ED visits 1,616,311   9.1 1,329,073 - 1,903,548
ED visits, alcohol    527,198 10.0    424,343 -    630,052
Alcohol in combination    416,599 11.1    325,805 -    507,392
Alcohol alone    110,599 11.3      86,147 -    135,052
Table 5
Alcohol in combination, by patient and visit characteristics: 2005
Patient characteristics Estimated visits1,2 Visit characteristics Estimated visits1,2
1 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
2 Three dots (…) indicate that an estimate with an RSE greater than 50% or an estimate less than 30 has been suppressed.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
ED visits, alcohol in combination 416,599  
Gender   Number of drugs involved  
Male 261,482 Single drug  
Female 155,042 Multiple drugs 416,599
Unknown          … Alcohol involved 416,599
Age   Disposition  
0-5 years          … Treated and released 217,029
6-11 years          … Discharged home 176,516
12-17 years   19,720 Released to police/jail   12,250
18-20 years   27,784 Referred to detox/treatment   28,263
21-24 years   45,688 Admitted to this hospital 136,951
25-29 years   49,962 ICU/critical care   26,310
30-34 years   45,275 Surgery        267
35-44 years 122,860 Chemical dependency/detox   15,506
45-54 years   82,520 Psychiatric unit   48,065
55-64 years   15,460 Other inpatient unit   46,803
65 years and older     6,412 Other disposition   62,619
Unknown          … Transferred   38,987
Race/ethnicity   Left against medical advice     8,598
White 223,734 Died          …
Black   94,620 Other          …
Hispanic   40,413 Not documented     4,042
Race/ethnicity not tabulated above (NTA)     3,428    
Unknown   54,403    
Table 6
Drugs most frequently reported with alcohol: 2005
Drugs reported with alcohol1 Estimated visits2
1 The classification of drugs used in DAWN is derived from the Multum Lexicon, 2007, Multum Information Services, Inc. The classification was modified to meet DAWN's unique requirements (2007). The Multum Licensing Agreement governing use of the Lexicon can be found on the Internet at http://www.multum.com.
2 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
No other drug 110,559
Cocaine only   95,557
Marijuana only   40,483
Cocaine and marijuana only   19,552
Heroin only   17,123
Stimulants only   15,415
Alprazolam only     8,005
Cocaine and heroin only     9,306
Table 7
Alcohol in drug-related ED visits in patients under age 21: 2005
Drug category and selected drugs1 Estimated visits2 Relative
standard
error (RSE)
95% Confidence interval
Lower
bound
- Upper
bound
1 The classification of drugs used in DAWN is derived from the Multum Lexicon, 2007, Multum Information Services, Inc. The classification was modified to meet DAWN's unique requirements (2007). The Multum Licensing Agreement governing use of the Lexicon can be found on the Internet at http://www.multum.com.
2 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
Patients aged 12-17
ED visits, alcohol           62,459   9.7   50,578 -   74,339
Alcohol in combination           19,720   9.5   16,066 -   23,373
Alcohol alone           42,739 11.6   32,983 -   52,495
Patients aged 18-20
ED visits, alcohol           95,166 11.7   73,382 - 116,949
Alcohol in combination           27,784 12.2   21,146 -   34,422
Alcohol alone           67,382 13.0   50,154 -   84,610
Table 8
Alcohol only (age < 21), by patient and visit characteristics: 2005
Patient characteristics Estimated
visits1,2
Visit characteristics Estimated
visits1,2
1 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
2 Three dots (…) indicate that an estimate with an RSE greater than 50% or an estimate less than 30 has been suppressed.
3 This table is limited to ED visits classified as "alcohol only (age < 21)" and excludes visits classified as either "suicide attempt" or "seeking detox." Therefore, the estimate of total visits is slightly lower than reported in Table 4.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
ED visits, alcohol only (age < 21)3 109,174  
Gender   Number of drugs involved  
Male   61,973 Single drug 109,174
Female   47,194 Multiple drugs  
Unknown         … Alcohol involved 109,174
Age   Disposition  
0-5 years         … Treated and released   97,942
6-11 years         … Discharged home   90,025
12-17 years   42,259 Released to police/jail     6,455
18-20 years   66,437 Referred to detox/treatment     1,463
21-24 years         … Admitted to this hospital     5,569
25-29 years         … ICU/critical care     1,209
30-34 years         … Surgery        174
35-44 years         … Chemical dependency/detox         …
45-54 years         … Psychiatric unit        788
55-64 years         … Other inpatient unit     3,162
65 years and older         … Other disposition     5,663
Unknown         … Transferred     3,014
Race/ethnicity   Left against medical advice     1,063
White   62,911 Died         …
Black     7,860 Other         …
Hispanic   18,689 Not documented        746
Race/ethnicity not tabulated above (NTA)     1,632    
Unknown   18,083    
Table 9
Nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals: 2005
Selected drug categories and selected drugs1 Estimated
visits2,3,4
Relative
standard
error (RSE)
95% Confidence interval
Lower
bound
- Upper
bound
1 The classification of drugs used in DAWN is derived from the Multum Lexicon, 2007, Multum Information Services, Inc. The classification was modified to meet DAWN's unique requirements (2007). The Multum Licensing Agreement governing use of the Lexicon can be found on the Internet at http://www.multum.com.
2 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
3 ED visits often involve multiple drugs. Such visits will appear multiple times in this table (e.g., a visit involving both oxycodone and hydrocodone will appear twice in this table). Summing ED visits as reported will produce incorrect and inflated counts of ED visits.
4 Three dots (…) indicate that an estimate with an RSE greater than 50% or an estimate less than 30 has been suppressed.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
ED visits, nonmedical use 669,214   7.0 577,800 - 760,628
PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS 308,655   8.3 258,552 - 358,758
Antidepressants   67,051   8.2   56,287 -   77,816
MAO inhibitors         …    …         … -         …
SSRI antidepressants   30,374 11.6   23,467 -   37,280
Tricyclic antidepressants   14,515 21.2     8,482 -   20,548
Miscellaneous antidepressants     7,452 18.9     4,697 -   10,206
Antipsychotics   44,393   9.7   35,922 -   52,864
Anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics 227,486 10.6 180,381 - 274,590
Barbiturates   14,693 27.6     6,735 -   22,652
Benzodiazepines 189,704 11.6 146,433 - 232,974
Alprazolam   57,419 11.0   45,033 -   69,806
Clonazepam   30,648 10.9   24,111 -   37,185
Diazepam   18,433 14.1   13,350 -   23,516
Lorazepam   23,210 13.4   17,132 -   29,288
Benzodiazepines NOS   61,486 29.1   26,461 -   96,510
Misc. anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics   35,561 12.0   27,214 -   43,908
Diphenhydramine   10,294 13.7    7,534 -   13,055
Hydroxyzine     2,179 25.8     1,078 -     3,279
Zolpidem   14,730 16.2   10,050 -   19,410
Anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics NOS     4,421 19.3     2,751 -     6,091
CNS stimulants   10,965 12.4     8,307 -   13,623
Amphetamine-dextroamphetamine     2,669 23.9     1,417 -     3,920
Caffeine     4,567 16.6     3,080 -     6,054
Dextroamphetamine         …    …         … -         …
Methylphenidate     2,519 21.1     1,478 -     3,560
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGENTS 336,900   8.2 282,659 - 391,142
Analgesics 294,251   8.5 245,312 - 343,191
Antimigraine agents     1,018 26.1        497 -     1,539
Cox-2 inhibitors        765 34.2        253 -     1,276
Opiates/opioids 217,594 10.4 173,143 - 262,045
Opiates/opioids, unspecified   52,670 19.3   32,702 -   72,638
Narcotic analgesics 168,376 10.5 133,645 - 203,108
Buprenorphine/combinations         … 52.3         … -         …
Codeine/combinations     6,180 11.9    4,737 -    7,622
Fentanyl/combinations   11,211 24.2     5,904 -   16,519
Hydrocodone/combinations   47,192 15.0   33,335 -   61,048
Hydromorphone/combinations     4,714 22.9     2,595 -     6,834
Meperidine/combinations        383 39.0          90 -        676
Methadone   42,684 14.5   30,520 -   54,847
Morphine/combinations   15,762 26.5     7,563 -   23,961
Oxycodone/combinations   52,943 13.3   39,157 -   66,729
Propoxyphene/combinations     7,648 15.4     5,335 -     9,962
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents   28,837   9.4   23,541 -   34,132
Ibuprofen   22,268 11.1   17,428 -   27,108
Naproxen     5,190 12.2     3,951 -     6,428
Salicylates/combinations   12,123 10.7     9,569 -   14,678
Miscellaneous analgesics/combinations   51,881   8.0   43,699 -   60,064
Acetaminophen/combinations   43,558   8.3   36,434 -   50,682
Tramadol/combinations     5,918 23.6     3,178 -     8,659
Tramadol     5,427 26.9     2,569 -     8,284
Acetaminophen-tramadol         … 61.0         … -         …
Analgesic combinations not tabulated above (NTA)        653 29.7        273 -     1,032
Anorexiants     1,757 20.9     1,038 -     2,476
Anticonvulsants   27,641   8.8   22,897 -   32,385
Antiemetic/antivertigo agents     1,771 38.6        432 -     3,109
Anti-Parkinson agents     1,692 27.4        785 -     2,599
General anesthetics         …    …         … -         …
Muscle relaxants   33,695 14.3   24,235 -   43,154
Carisoprodol   20,082 18.5   12,791 -   27,374
Cyclobenzaprine     7,629 16.0     5,230 -   10,028
Miscellaneous CNS agents        900 32.0        336 -     1,464
RESPIRATORY AGENTS   28,017 12.1   21,383 -   34,651
Antihistamines     4,429 14.1     3,206 -     5,652
Bronchodilators     3,043 27.1     1,427 -     4,659
Decongestants     1,309 39.0        308 -     2,310
Expectorants     1,960 25.7        971 -     2,949
Upper respiratory combinations   15,837 14.9   11,209 -   20,465
Respiratory agents NTA     3,692 14.4     2,651 -     4,733
CARDIOVASCULAR AGENTS   37,095   9.5   30,224 -   43,966
Antiadrenergic agents, centrally acting     5,125 19.9     3,124 -     7,127
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents     9,824 13.3     7,260 -   12,388
Calcium channel blocking agents     5,434 16.8     3,642 -     7,226
Diuretics     5,332 15.2     3,739 -     6,924
Cardiovascular agents NTA   18,881 12.0   14,443 -   23,320
Table 10
Nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals, by patient and visit characteristics: 2005
Patient characteristics Estimated
visits1,2
Visit characteristics Estimated
visits1,2
1 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
2 Three dots (…) indicate that an estimate with an RSE greater than 50% or an estimate less than 30 has been suppressed.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
ED visits, nonmedical use 669,214  
Gender   Number of drugs involved  
Male 308,072 Single drug 305,688
Female 360,975 Multiple drugs 363,526
Unknown        167    
Age   Disposition  
0-5 years     8,840 Treated and released 381,881
6-11 years     4,753 Discharged home 343,810
12-17 years   62,174 Released to police/jail   14,097
18-20 years   46,674 Referred to detox/treatment   23,973
21-24 years   65,239 Admitted to this hospital 196,314
25-29 years   66,936 ICU/critical care   58,733
30-34 years   58,483 Surgery        371
35-44 years 144,758 Chemical dependency/detox         …
45-54 years 110,565 Psychiatric unit   33,909
55-64 years   50,646 Other inpatient unit 101,280
65 years and older   49,443 Other disposition   91,018
Unknown          … Transferred   54,384
Race/ethnicity   Left against medical advice   11,479
White 442,305 Died     1,827
Black   73,380 Other         …
Hispanic   38,173 Not documented     6,960
Race/ethnicity not tabulated above (NTA)     7,044    
Unknown 108,312    
Table 16
Suicide attempts: 2005
Drug category and selected drugs1 Estimated
visits2,3,4
Relative
standard
error (RSE)
95% Confidence interval
Lower
bound
- Upper
bound
1 The classification of drugs used in DAWN is derived from the Multum Lexicon, 2007, Multum Information Services, Inc. The classification was modified to meet DAWN's unique requirements (2007). The Multum Licensing Agreement governing use of the Lexicon can be found on the Internet at http://www.multum.com.
2 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
3 Three dots (…) indicate that an estimate with an RSE greater than 50% or an estimate less than 30 has been suppressed.
4 This column denotes statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases or decreases between estimates for the periods shown.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
Total drug-related ED visits, suicide attempts 151,568   8.0 127,715 - 175,421
Major substances of abuse
Alcohol   47,891   8.4   39,981 -   55,800
Alcohol in combination   46,806   8.3   39,204 -   54,408
Alcohol alone   1,085 35.4        332 -     1,838
Non-alcohol illicits   33,784 17.8   21,979 -   45,588
Cocaine   19,628 20.4   11,765 -   27,492
Heroin     3,167 37.0        870 -     5,463
Marijuana   11,955 17.6    7,842 -   16,068
Stimulants     5,410 31.9     2,031 -     8,789
Amphetamines     1,646 28.2        735 -     2,557
Methamphetamine     3,853 36.6     1,092 -     6,614
MDMA (Ecstasy)        529 36.7        148 -        909
GHB         …    …         … -         …
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)         …    …         … -         …
Ketamine         …    …         … -         …
LSD         …    …         … -         …
PCP         … 68.1         … -         …
Miscellaneous hallucinogens         …    …         … -         …
Inhalants        794 40.0        171 -     1,416
Combinations not tabulated above (NTA)         …    …         … -         …
Other substances
PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS   82,144   7.4   70,250 -   94,038
Antidepressants   27,086   7.7   22,976 -   31,196
MAO inhibitors         …    …         … -         …
SSRI antidepressants   13,377   9.9   10,779 -   15,975
Tricyclic antidepressants     3,008 18.0     1,950 -     4,067
Miscellaneous antidepressants     2,681 22.1     1,520 -     3,842
Antipsychotics   17,129 11.6   13,235 -   21,024
Anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics   52,022   8.8   43,090 -   60,953
Barbiturates     1,219 23.7        654 -     1,784
Benzodiazepines   35,676 10.3   28,439 -   42,912
Alprazolam   14,530 16.2     9,915 -   19,145
Clonazepam     9,064 12.8     6,789 -   11,339
Diazepam     3,968 16.4     2,694 -     5,242
Lorazepam     5,182 18.6     3,296 -     7,067
Benzodiazepines NOS     3,343 33.0     1,179 -     5,508
Misc. anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics   17,522   9.8   14,161 -   20,883
Diphenhydramine     6,583 18.5     4,200 -     8,967
Hydroxyzine     1,795 24.2        944 -     2,647
Zolpidem     4,972 14.4     3,572 -     6,373
Anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics NOS     2,147 27.8        975 -     3,319
CNS stimulants     1,782 17.8     1,160 -     2,404
Amphetamine-dextroamphetamine         …    …         … -         …
Caffeine        450 42.4          76 -        823
Dextroamphetamine         …    …         … -         …
Methylphenidate        818 33.5        280 -     1,356
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGENTS   66,321   7.4   56,726 -   75,916
Analgesics   54,858   7.1   47,250 -   62,466
Antimigraine agents         …    …         … -         …
Cox-2 inhibitors        514 48.2          28 -        999
Opiates/opioids   20,359   9.0   16,770 -   23,948
Opiates/opioids, unspecified     2,819 26.7     1,343 -     4,296
Narcotic analgesics   17,801 10.6   14,117 -   21,485
Buprenorphine/combinations         …    …         … -         …
Codeine/combinations     2,656 28.0     1,199 -     4,113
Fentanyl/combinations         …    …         … -         …
Hydrocodone/combinations     7,035 15.1     4,955 -     9,115
Hydromorphone/combinations         …    …         … -         …
Meperidine/combinations         …    …         … -         …
Methadone     1,596 33.2        557 -     2,636
Morphine/combinations     1,210 27.3        564 -     1,856
Oxycodone/combinations     4,229 15.6     2,933 -     5,524
Propoxyphene/combinations     2,129 24.7     1,099 -     3,159
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents   14,117   9.2   11,572 -   16,662
Ibuprofen   10,917 10.0     8,771 -   13,064
Naproxen     3,224 18.7     2,042 -     4,406
Salicylates/combinations     4,645 16.2     3,173 -     6,118
Miscellaneous analgesics/combinations   22,692   9.3   18,576 -   26,808
Acetaminophen/combinations   21,017   9.3   17,167 -   24,866
Tramadol/combinations     1,515 29.8        631 -     2,399
Tramadol     1,079 37.9        278 -     1,879
Acetaminophen-tramadol         …    …         … -         …
Analgesic combinations not tabulated above (NTA)         …    …         … -         …
Anorexiants         …    …         … -         …
Anticonvulsants     9,389 16.8     6,299 -   12,480
Antiemetic/antivertigo agents         …    …         … -         …
Anti-Parkinson agents        543 46.2          51 -     1,035
General anesthetics         …    …         … -         …
Muscle relaxants     5,785 14.8     4,112 -     7,458
Carisoprodol     2,038 21.1     1,197 -     2,879
Cyclobenzaprine     2,784 22.7     1,545 -     4,022
Miscellaneous CNS agents         …    …         … -         …
RESPIRATORY AGENTS     7,662 15.4     5,345 -     9,979
Antihistamines     1,650 20.7        980 -     2,320
Bronchodilators         …    …         … -         …
Decongestants         … 58.6         … -         …
Expectorants        474 42.6          79 -        869
Upper respiratory combinations     4,207 22.4     2,359 -     6,056
Respiratory agents NTA     1,244 35.1        388 -     2,100
CARDIOVASCULAR AGENTS     5,814 17.8     3,788 -     7,840
Antiadrenergic agents, centrally acting        912 28.2        408 -    1,416
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents     1,916 27.4        885 -     2,947
Calcium channel blocking agents        193 38.9          46 -        341
Diuretics        539 41.4        102 -        976
Cardiovascular agents NTA     3,024 18.6     1,922 -     4,126
Table 17
Suicide attempts, by patient and visit characteristics: 2005
Patient characteristics Estimated
visits1,2
Visit characteristics Estimated
visits1,2
1 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
2 Three dots (…) indicate that an estimate with an RSE greater than 50% or an estimate less than 30 has been suppressed.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
Total drug-related ED visits, suicide attempts 151,568  
Gender   Number of drugs involved  
Male   58,775 Single drug 58,541
Female   92,682 Multiple drugs 93,027
Unknown          …    
Age   Disposition  
0-5 years          … Treated and released 28,662
6-11 years          … Discharged home 21,950
12-17 years   17,869 Released to police/jail   3,377
18-20 years   13,763 Referred to detox/treatment   3,335
21-24 years   14,989 Admitted to this hospital 74,595
25-29 years   18,761 ICU/critical care 28,297
30-34 years   14,074 Surgery        …
35-44 years   39,140 Chemical dependency/detox      105
45-54 years   22,057 Psychiatric unit 24,395
55-64 years     6,745 Other inpatient unit 21,691
65 years and older     4,079 Other disposition 48,311
Unknown          … Transferred 41,846
Race/ethnicity   Left against medical advice        …
White   89,172 Died        …
Black   26,229 Other        …
Hispanic   13,353 Not documented   1,842
Race/ethnicity not tabulated above (NTA)     2,132    
Unknown   20,682    
Table 19
Seeking Detox: 2005
Drug category and selected drugs1 Estimated
visits2,3,4
Relative
standard
error (RSE)
95% Confidence interval
Lower
bound
- Upper
bound
1 The classification of drugs used in DAWN is derived from the Multum Lexicon, 2006, Multum Information Services, Inc. The classification was modified to meet DAWN's unique requirements (2007). The Multum Licensing Agreement governing use of the Lexicon can be found on the Internet at http://www.multum.com.
2 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
3 Estimates are all expressed in visits. Visits cannot be summed across drugs because drug-related visits often involve multiple drugs.
4 Three dots (…) indicate that an estimate with an RSE greater than 50% or an estimate less than 30 has been suppressed.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
Total drug-related ED visits, seeking detox 126,226 12.0 96,495 - 155,957
Major substance of abuse
Alcohol   47,494 14.0   34,502 -   60,485
Alcohol in combination   47,154 14.0   34,194 -   60,114
Alcohol alone          …    …         … -          …
Non-alcohol illicits 101,244 13.1   75,203 - 127,286
Cocaine   56,061 11.3   43,647 -   68,475
Heroin   40,895 14.3   29,451 -   52,340
Marijuana   22,486 25.0   11,462 -   33,511
Stimulants   15,402 47.2     1,149 -   29,656
Amphetamines          … 63.1         … -          …
Methamphetamine          … 50.7         … -          …
MDMA (Ecstasy)        511 34.1        170 -        853
GHB          …    …         … -          …
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)          …    …         … -          …
Ketamine          …    …         … -          …
LSD          …    …         … -          …
PCP        729 45.1          85 -     1,373
Miscellaneous hallucinogens          …    …         … -          …
Inhalants          …    …         … -          …
Combinations not tabulated above (NTA)        191 40.0          41 -        340
Table 20
Seeking detox, by patient and visit characteristics: 2005
Patient characteristics Estimated
visits1,2
Visit characteristics Estimated
visits1,2
1 These are estimates of ED visits based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
2 Three dots (…) indicate that an estimate with an RSE greater than 50% or an estimate less than 30 has been suppressed.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
Total drug-related ED visits, seeking detox 126,226  
Gender   Number of drugs involved  
Male   82,539 Single drug 46,006
Female   43,643 Multiple drugs 80,220
Unknown         …    
Age   Disposition  
0-5 years         … Treated and released 64,598
6-11 years         … Discharged home 28,247
12-17 years     1,776 Released to police/jail      907
18-20 years     9,500 Referred to detox/treatment 35,444
21-24 years   16,073 Admitted to this hospital 42,582
25-29 years   17,345 ICU/critical care      185
30-34 years   16,421 Surgery        …
35-44 years   38,291 Chemical dependency/detox 27,664
45-54 years   22,584 Psychiatric unit   7,877
55-64 years     2,989 Other inpatient unit   6,852
65 years and older     1,176 Other disposition 19,046
Unknown         … Transferred 12,752
Race/ethnicity   Left against medical advice   2,364
White   71,147 Died        …
Black   27,105 Other   2,328
Hispanic     9,399 Not documented   1,602
Race/ethnicity not tabulated above (NTA)        790    
Unknown   17,786    
Table C2
Drug-related ED visits, by type of case: 2005
Type of case Unweighted sample data Weighted estimates1 Relative standard error (RSE) 95% Confidence interval
Lower
bound
- Upper
bound
1 These are estimates based on a representative sample of non-Federal, short-stay hospitals with 24-hour EDs in the United States.
2 These are estimates of drugs. A single ED visit may involve multiple drugs.
SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2005 (03/2008 update).
Drug-related ED visits
Suicide attempt   11,523    151,568   8.0    127,715 -    175,421
Seeking detox   22,166    126,226 12.0      96,495 -    155,957
Alcohol only (age < 21)     9,636    109,174 11.2      85,281 -    133,068
Adverse reaction   88,278 1,250,377 11.5    969,563 - 1,531,191
Overmedication   23,279    290,627   7.6    247,216 -    334,039
Malicious poisoning        697        6,527 16.7        4,392 -        8,662
Accidental ingestion     3,866      56,517   9.2      46,285 -      66,750
Other 108,683 1,018,009 13.4    750,423 - 1,285,594
Total drug-related ED visits 268,128 3,009,025   7.6 2,560,019 - 3,458,031
Drugs2
Suicide attempt   24,391    318,526   7.5    271,423 -    365,629
Seeking detox   45,057    253,213 13.8    184,611 -    321,815
Alcohol only (age < 21)     9,636    109,174 11.2      85,281 -    133,068
Adverse reaction 111,218 1,597,947 12.3 1,214,031 - 1,981,863
Overmedication   40,048    504,041   8.3    422,223 -    585,860
Malicious poisoning     1,239      12,998 17.6        8,502 -      17,494
Accidental ingestion     4,997      77,042 10.1      61,762 -      92,322
Other 183,834 1,751,514 12.4 1,326,667 - 2,176,360
Drugs in all drug-related ED visits 420,420 4,624,455   7.7 3,922,142 - 5,326,768
Table C5
Population by age and gender: 20051
Gender and age Total United States Males Females
1 Population estimates for 2005, as of July 2006, from U.S. Census Bureau County Population Dataset NC-EST2005-ALLDATA (see http://www.census.gov/popest/national/files/NST_EST2005_ALLDATA.csv)
TOTAL 296,410,404 145,999,746 150,410,658
0-5 years   24,211,671   12,381,683   11,829,988
6-11 years   23,767,612   12,160,248   11,607,364
12-17 years   25,490,701   13,059,495   12,431,206
18-20 years   12,450,315     6,400,184     6,050,131
21-24 years   16,856,810     8,702,127     8,154,683
25-29 years   20,065,702   10,268,169     9,797,533
30-34 years   20,077,210   10,153,091     9,924,119
35-44 years   43,862,464   21,940,039   21,922,425
45-54 years   42,482,265   20,895,355   21,586,910
55-64 years   30,355,541   14,626,718   15,728,823
65 years and older   36,790,113   15,412,637   21,377,476

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