Go to the Table Of Contents

7. Comparison of the 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 State Estimates

Chapters 2 through 6 of this report present combined 2008 and 2009 State estimates for 25 measures associated with substance use and mental health problems based on data collected from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). In addition, statistically significant differences between the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates (at the 5 percent level of significance) are discussed.

In this chapter, statistically significant differences observed over a longer period of time (between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009) are reported for a selected set of prevalence measures. NSDUH data on major depressive episode were first collected in 2004, while data on serious mental illness, any mental illness, and serious thoughts of suicide were first collected in 2008; therefore, comparisons between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 for these four mental health measures are not available. Tables showing comparisons between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 for 21 measures are included in Appendix D of this report.

7.1 Illicit Drugs

Nationally, the rate of past month use of illicit drugs among persons aged 12 or older was 8.4 percent in 2008-2009 and remained unchanged from the 2002-2003 rate (8.3 percent). Between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, 5 States showed significant changes among this age group: Hawaii's and South Carolina's rates increased, while the rates in Iowa, North Dakota, and Virginia decreased (Table D.1). Among persons aged 12 to 17, 17 States had decreases in past month illicit drug use: Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington. No States had increases in this age group. Nationally, past month illicit drug use among persons aged 12 to 17 decreased from 11.4 percent in 2002-2003 to 9.7 percent in 2008-2009 and remained unchanged in the 18 to 25 and 26 or older age groups.

7.2 Marijuana

Between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, past month marijuana use decreased nationally among persons aged 12 to 17 from 8.0 to 7.0 percent, and it increased among persons aged 26 or older from 4.0 to 4.4 percent (Table D.3). Among 12 to 17 year olds, 11 States had declines in the past month use of marijuana between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009: Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia. There were no increases in this age group. Among persons aged 12 or older at the State level, past month marijuana use increased in California and Maine between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 and remained unchanged for the rest of the States over this time period.

7.3 Cocaine

Among persons aged 12 or older, use of cocaine in the past year decreased nationally from 2.5 percent in 2002-2003 to 2.0 percent in 2008-2009 (Table D.7). Decreases also were observed nationally among all three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older). Twenty-two States experienced decreases in the 12 or older age group. In addition, decreases were observed among 12 to 17 year olds in 34 States, among 18 to 25 year olds in 14 States, and among persons aged 26 or older in 3 States. No increases in past year cocaine use were observed in any State or age group.

7.4 Pain Relievers (Nonmedical Use)

Nationally, nonmedical use of pain relievers in the past year among persons aged 12 or older did not change between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 (4.8 percent in 2008-2009 and in 2002-2003) (Table D.8). However, the rates among persons 12 or older increased in Montana, New York, Ohio, and Oklahoma and decreased in Florida and Wyoming between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. Among youths aged 12 to 17, there was a decrease in nonmedical use of pain relievers nationally from 7.6 percent in 2002-2003 to 6.5 percent in 2008-2009. Six States had declines among youths: Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, Tennessee, Texas, and Vermont. No increases were observed in any State in this age group. Among persons aged 18 to 25, increases were noted in Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New York, and Ohio, while Florida's rate decreased.

7.5 Alcohol

Nationwide, past month alcohol use among persons aged 12 or older increased between 2002-2003 (50.5 percent) and 2008-2009 (51.8 percent) (Table D.9). In addition, alcohol use rates increased in 11 States, including 6 from the South (Alabama, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Illinois, Kansas, Mississippi, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee). Rates among the 12 or older age group remained unchanged in all other States over this time period.

However, across the three age groups (i.e., among youths aged 12 to 17, young adults aged 18 to 25, and older adults aged 26 or older), the results were mixed. Among 12 to 17 year olds, past month alcohol use decreased nationally, in all 4 census regions, and in 28 States between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009; there were no increases. For young adults, past month alcohol use increased in 5 States and decreased in 3 States. Among persons aged 26 or older, past month alcohol use increased nationally from 53.2 percent in 2002-2003 to 54.8 percent in 2008-2009; increases occurred in 11 States, with 10 of the 11 corresponding to States with increases among the 12 or older age group. There were no decreases in alcohol use observed in this age group.

7.6 Underage Binge Alcohol Use

Underage (age 12 to 20) binge alcohol use in the past month decreased nationwide from 19.2 percent in 2002-2003 to 17.7 percent in 2008-2009 and in the Midwest and South census regions (Table D.12). Twenty-one States showed declines: Arizona, Arkansas, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia. Rates remained unchanged among the remaining States.

7.7 Cigarettes

Cigarette use in the past month decreased nationally between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 across all age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) (Table D.14). The number of States showing decreases in cigarette use between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 diminished with increasing age (12 to 17 year olds: 42 States; 18 to 25 year olds: 31 States; 26 or older: 6 States). No increases were observed in any State or age group.

7.8 Alcohol or Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse

Among persons aged 12 or older, rates of dependence on or abuse of alcohol or illicit drugs in the past year between 2002-2003 (9.2 percent) and 2008-2009 (8.9 percent) remained unchanged nationally and for each State, except for Arizona, Illinois, and North Dakota, which showed declines (Table D.20). For youths aged 12 to 17, 21 States had declining rates between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009: Arizona, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, and West Virginia. Rates also decreased nationally among this age group (from 8.9 to 7.3 percent) and in the Northeast, Midwest, and South census regions. Looking across all States and age groups, the only increase occurred among young adults aged 18 to 25 in New York (from 20.3 to 22.9 percent). No changes were seen among persons aged 26 or older in any State.

Go to Top of PageGo to the Table of Contents

This page was last updated on .