This report presents results from the Treatment
Episode Data Set (TEDS) for 2001, and
trend data for 1992-2001. The report provides
information on the demographic and substance abuse characteristics of the 1.7 million annual
admissions to treatment for abuse of alcohol and drugs in
facilities that report to individual State administrative
TEDS is an admission-based system, and TEDS admissions do not represent individuals. Thus,
for example, an individual admitted to treatment
twice within a calendar year would be counted as
TEDS does not include all admissions to
substance abuse treatment. It includes facilities that are
licensed or certified by the State substance abuse agency
to provide substance abuse treatment (or are administratively tracked for other reasons). In
general, facilities reporting TEDS data are those that
receive State alcohol and/or drug agency funds
(including Federal Block Grant funds) for the provision of
alcohol and/or drug treatment services.
Major Substances of Abuse
- Five substances accounted for 96 percent
of all TEDS admissions in 2001: alcohol (44 percent), opiates (18 percent; primarily
heroin), marijuana/hashish (15 percent), cocaine
(13 percent), and stimulants (6 percent; primarily methamphetamine).
- In 2001, use of more than one drug was
reported by 54 percent of all TEDS admissions. Alcohol, marijuana/hashish, and cocaine
were the most commonly reported secondary substances. Alcohol and opiates were
reported more often as primary substances than as secondary substances. However, the
reverse was true for marijuana/hashish and
cocaine; more admissions reported these drugs as
secondary substances than as primary substances.
Adolescent Substance Abuse
- Adolescent admissions for substance abuse
increased from 1992 to 2001. The increase was attributable to both increased admissions
involving marijuana and increased referral to
treatment through the criminal justice system.
- Alcohol accounted for nearly half (44
percent) of all TEDS admissions in 2001, down from
59 percent in 1992. However, 45 percent of primary alcohol admissions reported
secondary drug abuse as well.
- Alcohol admission rates generally were
highest in the Pacific Northwest, North Central,
and Northeast. For the United States as a whole, alcohol admission rates declined by 23
percent between 1992 and 2001, from 443 per 100,000 population aged 12 and over to
342 per 100,000. This rate of decline was equaled or exceeded in 25 States.
Heroin and Other Opiates
- TEDS admissions for primary opiate abuse
increased from 12 percent of all admissions in 1992 to 18 percent in 2001, exceeding the
proportion of admissions for primary cocaine abuse for the fifth consecutive year. In 2001,
heroin accounted for 88 percent of primary opiate admissions.
- Opiates other than heroin accounted for 2
percent of all TEDS admissions in 2001. However, the number of admissions for these drugs
increased 168 percent between 1992 and 2001. Other opiates include non-prescription use
of methadone, codeine, morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, meperidine, opium, and
other drugs with morphine-like effects.
- Heroin admission rates were highest in the
Pacific, Northeast, and some Middle Atlantic States. The overall rate for the United
States increased by 52 percent over the period
1992-2001. Heroin admission rates increased by 100 percent or more in 18 States during this time.
- Nearly half (47 percent) of primary heroin
admissions were White, followed by 26 percent of Hispanic origin and 24 percent Black.
- Admissions for heroin inhalation and
smoking increased between 1992 and 2001.
- The proportion of admissions for primary
cocaine abuse declined from 18 percent in 1992 to 13 percent in 2001.
- Cocaine admission rates were generally
highest in the Northeast, Middle Atlantic, and
some Southern States. Trends indicated stable or declining admission rates for primary
cocaine abuse. Cocaine admission rates decreased
from 1992 to 2001 by 25 percent or more in 17 States.
- Smoked cocaine (crack) represented 73 percent of all primary cocaine admissions in
2001, a proportion that remained fairly stable
from 1993 to 2001.
- The proportion of admissions for primary
marijuana abuse increased from 6 percent in 1992 to 15 percent in 2001.
- Marijuana treatment admission rates
showed substantial increases across a large number
of States. The U.S. admission rate for primary marijuana abuse increased from 45 per
100,000 population aged 12 and over in 1992 to 113 per 100,000 in 2001. In 29 States, 2001
rates were at least 100 percent higher than 1992 rates.
- More than half (57 percent) of primary
marijuana admissions were referred to treatment through the criminal justice system.
- Marijuana admissions were generally male
(76 percent), White (56 percent), and young (46 percent were under 20 years of age).
- Marijuana use began at an early age among primary marijuana admissions26 percent
had first used marijuana by the age of 12, and 56 percent by the age of 14.
and Other Stimulants
- The proportion of admissions for abuse of
methamphetamine/amphetamine and other stimulants increased from 2 percent to 6 percent
between 1992 and 2001.
- Since 1992, methamphetamine/amphetamine admission rates increased by 100 percent
or more in 33 States, spreading east from the
Pacific States into the Midwest and South.
- Methamphetamine/amphetamine admissions were predominantly White (77 percent),
followed by persons of Mexican origin (9
percent). Females made up 46 percent of methamphetamine/amphetamine admissions.
- The main routes of administration for
methamphetamines/amphetamines were smoking (45 percent), injection (26 percent), and
inhalation (19 percent).
- Of the Year 2001 discharges, 39
percent completed treatment and 11 percent
transferred to another treatment program. One in four
(24 percent) left against professional advice,
while the treatment of an additional 19 percent
was terminated by the facility.
- Admissions for different primary
substances were likely to be admitted to different types
of service. Discharges reflected this variation,
and there were different treatment completion
rates for the different service types.
- The median length of stay for persons
completing treatment ranged from 5 days for detoxification to 92 days for outpatient
- Admissions to detoxification were usually
for primary alcohol (49 percent) or opiates (33 percent).
- Detoxification admissions were more likely
to be male (75 percent vs. 70 percent of all
admissions), Hispanic (17 percent vs. 12 percent of all admissions), and older (average
age 38 vs. average age 34 for all admissions).
- Admissions to detoxification were more
likely to be self-referred (63 percent) than were
all admissions (36 percent) and less likely to
enter treatment through the criminal justice system
(10 percent vs. 35 percent).
- Daily use was reported by 82 percent of
detoxification admissions, compared with 46
percent of all admissions.
- One-third of detoxification admissions (33
percent) were entering treatment for the first
time, compared with 44 percent of all admissions, and 26 percent had been in treatment 5 or
more times previously, compared with 12 percent of all admissions.