Chapter 10
Opioid Replacement Detoxification Discharges: 2005

Chapter 10 presents data on the reasons for discharge and length of stay (LOS) in treatment for the 23,632 linked admission/discharge records of clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification in 2005 in 20 States [Table 10.1].

Table 10.1 and Figure 10.1 present the distribution of reasons for discharge among discharges from opioid replacement detoxification. Overall, 8,270 (35 percent) of opioid replacement detoxification discharges completed opioid replacement detoxification, 4,618 (20 percent) were transferred to further treatment, 8,532 (36 percent) dropped out of treatment, 724 (3 percent) had treatment terminated by the facility, and 1,488 (6 percent) failed to complete treatment for other reasons. Table 10.1 also presents reason for discharge by State.

Figure 10.1
Reason for discharge from opioid replacement detoxification: TEDS 2005

Pie chart comparing Reason for discharge from methadone detoxification in TEDS 2005

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Figure 10.2, Table 2.6, and Appendix Table C.1. The median LOS for opioid replacement detoxification was 9 days. The average (mean) LOS was longer, 32 days (standard deviation, 92). The average LOS was longer than the median LOS for most reasons for discharge and for most client characteristics [Tables 10.2-10.11].

Figure 10.2
Median and average lengths of stay in opioid replacement detoxification, by reason for discharge: TEDS 2005

Bar chart comparing Median and average lengths of stay in methadone detoxification, by reason for discharge in TEDS 2005

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Opioid replacement detoxification clients who completed treatment remained in treatment the same length of time (7 days) as those who transferred to further treatment. Among clients who dropped out of treatment, the median LOS was 13 days; among those whose treatment was terminated by the facility, it was 1 day; and among those who failed to complete treatment for other reasons, the median LOS was 19 days.

In comparison with all discharges combined, clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification were [Table 2.7]:

Gender

Table 10.2 and Figure 10.3. Seventy-one percent of clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification were male.

Females were more likely to complete opioid replacement detoxification or to transfer to further treatment (56 percent, combined) than were males (54 percent).

The median LOS among clients completing opioid replacement detoxification was the same for males and females (7 days).

Figure 10.3
Opioid replacement detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by gender: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing methadone detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by gender in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Age at Admission

Table 10.3 and Figure 10.4. The largest age group among clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification was ages 41 to 50 at admission (34 percent), followed by ages 31 to 40 (28 percent) and ages 21 to 30 (20 percent). Fifteen percent were over age 50, and 3 percent were under age 21.

Although clients under age 21 made up only 3 percent of opioid replacement detoxification clients, they were most likely to complete opioid replacement detoxification or to transfer to further treatment (63 percent). The combined rates for the older age groups varied little; they were 53 percent or 55 percent.

The median LOS among clients completing opioid replacement detoxification was longest (9 days) among clients over age 50. It was 6 days or 7 days among all the younger age groups.

Figure 10.4
Opioid replacement detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at admission: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing methadone detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at admission in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Race/Ethnicity

Table 10.4 and Figure 10.5. Fifty-one percent of clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification were non-Hispanic White, 26 percent were non-Hispanic Black, 19 percent were of Hispanic origin, and 4 percent were of other racial/ethnic groups.

Non-Hispanic Blacks were most likely to complete opioid replacement detoxification or to transfer to further treatment (65 percent). The combined rate was 58 percent among non- Hispanic Whites and 33 percent among clients of Hispanic origin.

The median LOS among clients completing opioid replacement detoxification was longest (21 days) for clients of Hispanic origin. It was shortest (5 days) among non-Hispanic Blacks.

Figure 10.5
Opioid replacement detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by race/ethnicity: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing methadone detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by race/ethnicity in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Primary Substance

Table 10.5 and Figure 10.6. Sixty-seven percent of clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification reported opiates as their primary substance of abuse at admission. Alcohol was reported by 19 percent, cocaine by 9 percent, stimulants by 3 percent, and marijuana and other substances by 1 percent each.

Of the 67 percent of clients reporting opiates as their primary substance, 40 percent completed opioid replacement detoxification or transferred to further treatment. The combined rates for the other specific substances were between 93 percent (stimulants) and 83 percent (alcohol and cocaine).

The median LOS among clients completing opioid replacement detoxification was longest (21 days) among those reporting opiates as their primary substance of abuse. It was shortest (4 days) among those reporting cocaine or marijuana.

Figure 10.6
Opioid replacement detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by primary substance: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing methadone detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by primary substance in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Frequency of Use

Table 10.6 and Figure 10.7. Eighty-nine percent of clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification reported daily use of their primary substance at admission, while 1 percent reported no use in in the month before entering treatment.

The proportions of clients who completed opioid replacement detoxification or transferred to further treatment displayed no consistent pattern with frequency of substance use and were between 52 percent and 87 percent.

The median LOS among clients completing opioid replacement detoxification varied little with frequency of substance use and was between 4 days and 7 days.

Figure 10.7
Opioid replacement detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by frequency of substance use: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing methadone detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by frequency of substance use in the past month in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Age at First Use*

Table 10.7 and Figure 10.8. The peak age at first use of the primary substance among clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification was over age 21 (34 percent). Ten percent began use at age 12 or younger.

Clients who were younger when they began their substance use were generally more likely to complete opioid replacement detoxification or to transfer to further treatment than were clients whose use began later. The combined rate was highest among those whose substance use began at age 12 or younger (84 percent). It was shortest (68 percent) among those whose use began after age 21.

The median LOS among clients completing opioid replacement detoxification varied little with age at first use of the primary substance and was 5 days or 6 days.


* Age at first use of the primary substance was reported for 46 percent of clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification.

Figure 10.8
Opioid replacement detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at first use: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing methadone detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at first use in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Prior Treatment

Table 10.8 and Figure 10.9. Twenty-nine percent of clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification had never been in treatment before, while 18 percent had been in treatment five or more times before.

Clients with five or more prior treatment episodes were least likely to complete opioid replacement detoxification or to transfer to further treatment (41 percent). The combined rates for fewer treatment episodes displayed no consistent pattern and were between 49 percent and 64 percent.

The median LOS among clients completing opioid replacement detoxification was longest (18 days) among those with five or more prior treatment episodes, but otherwise displayed no consistent pattern with the number of prior treatment episodes and was between 4 days and 13 days.

Figure 10.9
Opioid replacement detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by number of prior treatment episodes: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing methadone detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by number of prior treatment episodes in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Treatment Referral Source

Table 10.9 and Figure 10.10. Sixty-three percent of clients discharged from opioid replacement detoxification were self- or individual referrals to treatment, 18 percent were referred by health care providers, 12 percent by alcohol/drug abuse care providers, 5 percent by the criminal justice system, and 3 percent by community sources.*

Clients referred to treatment by health care providers were most likely to complete opioid replacement detoxification or to transfer to further treatment (83 percent). The combined rate was lowest for self- or individual referrals (39 percent).

The median LOS among clients completing opioid replacement detoxification was between 5 days and 7 days for all referral sources except self- or individual referrals (20 days).


* Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.
Figure 10.10
Opioid replacement detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by treatment referral source: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing methadone detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by treatment referral source in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Employment Status

Table 10.10 and Figure 10.11. Forty percent of clients age 16 and older discharged from opioid replacement detoxification were not in the labor force, 31 percent were unemployed, and 29 percent were employed either full time or part time.

Clients who were not in the labor force or who were unemployed were most likely to complete opioid replacement detoxification or to transfer to further treatment (54 percent and 53 percent, respectively). The combined rate was 49 percent among those who were employed.

The median LOS among clients completing opioid replacement detoxification was 8 days to 10 days for all employment categories.

Figure 10.11
Opioid replacement detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by employment status: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing methadone detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by employment status in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Education

Table 10.11 and Figure 10.12. Forty-five percent of clients age 18 and older discharged from opioid replacement detoxification had 12 years of education or a GED, 36 percent had fewer than 12 years of education, and 19 percent had more than 12 years of education.

Clients with more than 12 years of education were more likely to complete opioid replacement detoxification or to transfer to further treatment than were clients with 12 years or fewer. The combined rate was highest (59 percent) among those with more than 12 years of education. It was 53 percent among clients with 12 years of education or a GED and 54 percent among clients with fewer than 12 years of education.

The median LOS among clients completing opioid replacement detoxification was the same (7 days) at all levels of education.

Figure 10.12
Opioid replacement detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by years of education: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing methadone detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by years of education in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

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