Chapter 4
Intensive Outpatient Treatment Discharges: 2005

Chapter 4 presents data on the reasons for discharge and length of stay (LOS) in treatment for the 134,703 linked admission/discharge records of clients discharged from intensive outpatient treatment in 2005 in 32 States [Table 4.1]. Intensive outpatient treatment in this chapter includes outpatient care other than outpatient treatment (Chapter 3), outpatient detoxification (Chapter 8), and opioid replacement outpatient therapy (Chapter 9).

Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 present the distribution of reasons for discharge among discharges from intensive outpatient treatment. Overall, 48,718 (36 percent) of in­tensive outpatient discharges completed treat­­ment, 24,964 (19 percent) were transferred to further treatment, 32,567 (24 percent) dropped out of treatment, 17,152 (13 percent) had treatment terminated by the facility, and 11,302 (8 percent) failed to complete treatment for other reasons. Table 4.1 also presents reason for discharge by State.

Figure 4.1
Reason for discharge from intensive outpatient treatment: TEDS 2005

Pie chart comparing Reason for discharge from intensive outpatient treatment in TEDS 2005

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Figure 4.2, Table 2.5, and Appendix Table C.1. The median LOS for intensive outpatient treatment was 46 days. The average (mean) LOS was longer, 79 days (standard deviation, 106). The average LOS was longer than the median LOS for all reasons for discharge and for all client characteristics [Tables 4.2-4.11].

Figure 4.2
Median and average lengths of stay in intensive outpatient treatment, by reason for discharge: TEDS 2005

Bar chart comparing Median and average lengths of stay in intensive outpatient treatment, by reason for discharge in TEDS 2005

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Intensive outpatient clients who completed treatment remained in treatment longer than clients who did not complete treatment. Among treatment completers, median LOS was 59 days, and among clients transferred to further treatment, it was 45 days. Among clients who dropped out of treatment, the median LOS was 30 days; among those whose treatment was terminated by the facility, it was 42 days; and among those who failed to complete treatment for other reasons, the median LOS was 44 days.

In comparison with all discharges combined completion/transfer, clients discharged from intensive outpatient treatment were [Table 2.7]:

Gender

Table 4.2 and Figure 4.3. Sixty percent of clients discharged from intensive outpatient treatment were male.

Males were more likely to complete intensive outpatient treatment or to transfer to further treatment (57 percent, combined completion/transfer) than were females (51 percent).

Females who completed intensive outpatient treatment had a longer median LOS (63 days) than did males who completed intensive outpatient treatment (57 days).

Figure 4.3
Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by gender: TEDS 2005

Bar chart comparing Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by gender in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Age at Admission

Table 4.3 and Figure 4.4. The largest age group among clients discharged from intensive outpatient treatment was ages 21 to 30 at admission (28 percent), followed by ages 31 to 40 (26 percent) and ages 41 to 50 (21 percent). Eighteen percent were under age 21, and 6 percent were over age 50.*

Clients over age 50 were most likely to complete intensive outpatient treatment or to transfer to further treatment (62 percent), followed by clients aged 41 to 50 (56 percent). The combined completion/transfer completion/transfer rates for the younger age groups varied little and were 53 percent or 54 percent.

The median LOS among clients completing intensive outpatient treatment was longest (64 days) among clients under age 21. It was between 56 days and 58 days in all of the older age groups.


* Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.


Figure 4.4
Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at admission: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at admission in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Race/Ethnicity

Table 4.4 and Figure 4.5. Fifty-nine percent of clients discharged from intensive outpatient treatment were non-Hispanic White, 26 percent were non-Hispanic Black, 9 percent were of Hispanic origin, and 5 percent were of other racial/ethnic groups.*

Non-Hispanic Whites were most likely to complete intensive outpatient treatment or to transfer to further treatment (58 percent). The combined completion/transfer rate was 53 percent among clients of Hispanic origin and 47 percent among non-Hispanic Blacks.

The median LOS among clients completing intensive outpatient treatment was longest (71 days) among non-Hispanic Blacks. It was shortest (56 days) among non-Hispanic Whites.


* Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.


Figure 4.5
Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by race/ethnicity: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by race/ethnicity in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Primary Substance

Table 4.5 and Figure 4.6. Thirty-six percent of clients discharged from intensive outpatient treatment reported alcohol as their primary substance of abuse at admission. Marijuana was reported by 22 percent, cocaine by 18 percent, stimulants by 11 percent, opiates by 10 percent, and other substances by 2 percent.*

Clients reporting alcohol as their primary substance were most likely to complete intensive outpatient treatment or to transfer to further treatment (62 percent). The combined completion/transfer rates for the other substances were between 53 percent (marijuana) and 48 percent (cocaine).

The median LOS among clients completing intensive outpatient treatment was longest (71 days) among those reporting marijuana as their primary substance of abuse. It was shortest (54 days) among those reporting opiates.


* Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.

Figure 4.6
Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by primary substance: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by primary substance in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Frequency of Use

Table 4.6 and Figure 4.7. Thirty-three percent of clients discharged from intensive outpatient treatment reported no use of their primary substance in the month before entering treatment, while 28 percent reported daily use at admission.

Clients reporting no substance use in the month before entering treatment were most likely to complete intensive outpatient treatment or to transfer to further treatment (61 percent). The combined completion/transfer rates for more frequent substance use varied little and were between 51 percent and 53 percent.

The median LOS among clients completing intensive outpatient treatment was longest (68 days) among those reporting no substance use in the month before entering treatment. The median LOS declined as the frequency of substance use increased, and was 45 days among those reporting daily use.

Figure 4.7
Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by frequency of substance use: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by frequency of substance use in the past month in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Age at First Use

Table 4.7 and Figure 4.8. The peak age at first use of the primary substance among clients discharged from intensive outpatient treatment was 15 to 17 years (29 percent). Twenty percent did not begin use until they were over age 21, and 14 percent began use at age 12 or younger.

Age at first use displayed no consistent pattern with the combined completion/transfer rate of intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment. Clients whose use began after age 21 had the lowest rate (50 percent). The combined completion/transfer rate displayed no consistent pattern among clients whose use began at younger ages, and was between 55 percent and 58 percent.

The median LOS among clients completing intensive outpatient treatment varied little with age at first use of the primary substance and was between 57 days and 60 days.

Figure 4.8
Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at first use: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at first use in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Prior Treatment

Table 4.8 and Figure 4.9. Forty-two percent of clients discharged from intensive outpatient treatment had never been in treatment before, while 9 percent had been in treatment five or more times before.

Clients with no prior treatment episodes were most likely to complete intensive outpatient treatment or to transfer to further treatment (58 percent). The combined completion/transfer rate was 57 percent among those with one prior treatment episode and 50 percent among those with five or more prior episodes.

The median LOS among clients completing intensive outpatient treatment was longest (59 days) among clients with no prior treatment episodes. It declined with more prior treatment episodes and was 50 days among those with four or five or more prior episodes.

Figure 4.9
Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by number of prior treatment episodes: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by number of prior treatment episodes in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Treatment Referral Source

Table 4.9 and Figure 4.10. Thirty-eight percent of clients discharged from intensive outpatient treatment were referred to treatment by the criminal justice system, 27 percent were self- or individual referrals, 18 percent were referred by community sources, 11 percent by alcohol/drug abuse care providers, and 7 percent by health care providers.*

Clients referred to treatment by the criminal justice system were most likely to complete intensive outpatient treatment or to transfer to further treatment (60 percent). The combined completion/transfer rate was lowest for self- or individual referrals and referrals by health care providers (51 percent each).

The median LOS among clients completing intensive outpatient treatment was longest (67 days) for criminal justice system referrals. It was shortest (49 days) for self- or individual referrals.


* Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.

Figure 4.10
Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by treatment referral source: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by treatment referral source in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Employment Status

Table 4.10 and Figure 4.11. Forty-two percent of clients age 16 and older discharged from intensive outpatient treatment were not in the labor force, 30 percent were unemployed, and 28 percent were employed either full time or part time.

Clients who were employed were most likely to complete intensive outpatient treatment or to transfer to further treatment (62 percent). The combined completion/transfer rates were 52 percent among those who were unemployed and 51 percent among those who were not in the labor force.

The median LOS among clients completing intensive outpatient treatment was longest (62 days) among those who were not in the labor force. It was shortest (56 days) among those who were unemployed.

Figure 4.11
Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by employment status: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by employment status in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Education

Table 4.11 and Figure 4.12. Forty-three percent of clients age 18 and older discharged from intensive outpatient treatment had 12 years of education or a GED, 34 percent had fewer than 12 years of education, and 23 percent had more than 12 years of education.

Clients with more education were more likely to complete intensive outpatient treatment or to transfer to further treatment than were clients with less education. The combined completion/transfer rate was highest (61 percent) among those with more than 12 years of education. It declined to 56 percent among clients with 12 years of education or a GED and to 50 percent among clients with fewer than 12 years of education.

The median LOS among clients completing intensive outpatient treatment was longest (63 days) among those with fewer than 12 years of education. It was shortest (53 days) among those with more than 12 years of education.

Figure 4.12
Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by years of education: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Intensive outpatient treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by years of education in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

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