Chapter 6
Long-Term Residential Treatment Discharges: 2005

Chapter 6 presents data on the reasons for discharge and length of stay (LOS) in treatment for the 117,142 linked admission/discharge records of clients discharged from long-term residential treatment in 2005 in 34 States [Table 6.1].

Table 6.1 and Figure 6.1 present the distribution of reasons for discharge among discharges from long-term residential treatment. Overall, 45,422 (39 percent) of long-term residential treatment discharges completed treatment, 15,166 (13 percent) were transferred to further treatment, 36,003 (31 percent) dropped out of treatment, 10,214 (9 percent) had treatment terminated by the facility, and 10,337 (9 percent) failed to complete treatment for other reasons.* Table 6.1 also presents reason for discharge by State.


* Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.

Figure 6.1
Reason for discharge from long-term residential treatment: TEDS 2005

Pie chart comparing Reason for discharge from short-term residential treatment in TEDS 2005

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Figure 6.2, Table 2.5, and Appendix Table C.1. The median LOS for long-term residential treatment was 53 days. The average (mean) LOS was longer, 88 days (standard deviation, 116). The average LOS was longer than the median LOS for all reasons for discharge and for all client characteristics [Tables 6.2-6.11].

Figure 6.2
Median and average lengths of stay in long-term residential treatment, by reason for discharge: TEDS 2005

Bar chart comparing Median and average lengths of stay in short-term residential treatment, by reason for discharge in TEDS 2005

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Long-term residential clients who completed treatment remained in treatment longer than clients who did not complete treatment. Among treatment completers, median LOS was 90 days, and among clients transferred to further treatment, it was 32 days. Among clients who dropped out of treatment, the median LOS was 25 days; among those whose treatment was terminated by the facility, it was 47 days; and among those who failed to complete treatment for other reasons, the median LOS was 41 days.

In comparison with all discharges combined, clients discharged from long-term residential treatment were [Table 2.7]:

Gender

Table 6.2 and Figure 6.3. Sixty-five percent of clients discharged from long-term residential treatment were male.

Females were more likely to complete long-term residential treatment or to transfer to further treatment (52 percent, combined) than were males (51 percent).

Males who completed long-term residential treatment had a slightly longer median LOS (90 days) than did females who completed long-term residential treatment (89 days).

 
Figure 6.3
Long-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by gender: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Short-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by gender in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Age at Admission

Table 6.3 and Figure 6.4. The largest age group among clients discharged from long-term residential treatment was ages 31 to 40 at admission (29 percent), followed by ages 21 to 30 (28 percent) and ages 41 to 50 (23 percent). Fourteen percent were under age 21, and 6 percent were over age 50.

Clients over age 50 were most likely to complete long-term residential treatment or to transfer to further treatment (61 percent), followed by clients aged 41 to 50 (56 percent). The combined completion/transfer rates for the younger age groups varied little and were 48 percent or 50 percent.

The median LOS among clients completing long-term residential treatment varied little with age at admission and was between 89 days and 91 days.

Figure 6.4
Long-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at admission: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Short-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at admission in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Race/Ethnicity

Table 6.4 and Figure 6.5. Fifty-one percent of clients discharged from long-term residential treatment were non-Hispanic White, 26 percent were non-Hispanic Black, 16 percent were of Hispanic origin, and 7 percent were of other racial/ethnic groups.

Non-Hispanic Whites were most likely to complete long-term residential treatment or to transfer to further treatment (55 percent). The combined completion/transfer rate was 48 percent among non-Hispanic Blacks and 45 percent among clients of Hispanic origin.

The median LOS among clients completing long-term residential treatment was longest (113 days) among non-Hispanic Blacks. It was shortest (89 days) for non-Hispanic Whites and those of other non-Hispanic racial/ethnic groups.

Figure 6.5
Long-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by race/ethnicity: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Short-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by race/ethnicity in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Primary Substance

Table 6.5 and Figure 6.6. Twenty-six percent of clients discharged from long-term residential treatment reported alcohol as their primary substance of abuse at admission. Cocaine was reported by 24 percent, stimulants by 20 percent, opiates by 16 percent, marijuana by 13 percent, and other substances by 2 percent.*

Clients reporting alcohol as their primary substance were most likely to complete long-term residential treatment or to transfer to further treatment (59 percent). The combined completion/transfer rates for the other specific substances were between 53 percent (stimulants) and 45 percent (opiates).

The median LOS among clients completing long-term residential treatment was longest (110 days) among those reporting opiates as their primary substance of abuse. It was shortest (87 days) among those reporting alcohol.


* Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.

Figure 6.6
Long-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by primary substance: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Short-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by primary substance in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Frequency of Use

Table 6.6 and Figure 6.7. Forty-two percent of clients discharged from long-term residential treatment reported daily use of their primary substance at admission, while 29 percent reported no use in the month before entering treatment.

Clients reporting daily use of their primary substance were least likely to complete long-term residential treatment or to transfer to further treatment (50 percent). The combined completion/transfer rates for less frequent substance use varied little and were between 51 percent and 54 percent.

The median LOS among clients completing long-term residential treatment was longest (106 days) among clients reporting no substance use in the month before entering treatment. There was no consistent pattern with frequency of substance use, and the median LOS for more frequent substance use was between 84 days and 89 days.

Figure 6.7
Long-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by frequency of substance use: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Short-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by frequency of substance use in the past month in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Age at First Use*

Table 6.7 and Figure 6.8. The peak age at first use of the primary substance among clients discharged from long-term residential treatment was 15 to 17 years (26 percent). Twenty-three percent did not begin use until they were over age 21, and 15 percent began use at age 12 or younger.

The proportions of clients who completed long-term residential treatment or transferred to further treatment varied little with age at first use of the primary substance and were between 52 percent and 54 percent.

The median LOS among clients completing long-term residential treatment was longest (108 days) among those whose substance use began after age 21. The median LOS varied little among clients whose use began at younger ages and was between 89 days and 91 days.


* Age at first use of the primary substance was reported for 69 percent of clients discharged from long-term residential treatment.

Figure 6.8
Long-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at first use: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Short-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at first use in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Prior Treatment

Table 6.8 and Figure 6.9. Thirty-six percent of clients discharged from long-term residential treatment had never been in treatment before, while 12 percent had been in treatment five or more times before.

Clients with no prior treatment episodes were most likely to complete long-term residential treatment or to transfer to further treatment (56 percent). The combined completion/transfer rate fell to 55 percent among those with one prior treatment episode, to 51 percent or 52 percent among those with two to four prior episodes, and to 45 percent among those with five or more prior episodes.

The median LOS among clients completing long-term residential treatment was longest (102 days) among clients with five or more prior treatment episodes. It was shortest (89 days) among those with no prior treatment episodes.

Figure 6.9
Long-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by number of prior treatment episodes: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Short-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by number of prior treatment episodes in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Treatment Referral Source

Table 6.9 and Figure 6.10. Thirty-six percent of clients discharged from long-term residential treatment were referred to treatment by the criminal justice system, 28 percent were self- or individual referrals, 21 percent were referred by alcohol/drug abuse care providers, 10 percent by community sources, and 5 percent by health care providers.

Clients referred to treatment by the criminal justice system, community sources, or health care providers were most likely to complete long-term residential treatment or to transfer to further treatment (54 percent, 54 percent, and 53 percent, respectively). The combined completion/transfer rate was lowest for self- or individual referrals (49 percent).

The median LOS among clients completing long-term residential treatment was longest (101 days) for referrals by alcohol/drug abuse care providers. It was shortest (60 days) for referrals by health care providers.

Figure 6.10
Long-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by treatment referral source: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Short-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by treatment referral source in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Employment Status

Table 6.10 and Figure 6.11. Sixty-four percent of clients age 16 and older discharged from long-term residential treatment were not in the labor force, 27 percent were unemployed, and 9 percent were employed either full time or part time.

Clients who were employed were most likely to complete long-term residential treatment or to transfer to further treatment (67 percent). The combined completion/transfer rates were 54 percent among those who were unemployed and 48 percent among those who were not in the labor force.

The median LOS among clients completing long-term residential treatment was longest (97 days) among those who were not in the labor force. It was shortest (54 days) among those who were employed.

Figure 6.11
Long-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by employment status: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Short-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by employment status in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

Education

Table 6.11 and Figure 6.12. Forty-three percent of clients age 18 and older discharged from long-term residential treatment had 12 years of education or a GED, 37 percent had fewer than 12 years of education, and 21 percent had more than 12 years of education.*

Clients with more education were more likely to complete long-term residential treatment or to transfer to further treatment than were clients with less education. The combined completion/transfer rate was highest (58 percent) among those with more than 12 years of education. It declined to 53 percent among clients with 12 years of education or a GED and to 47 percent among clients with fewer than 12 years of education.

The median LOS among clients completing long-term residential treatment varied little with level of education and was between 87 days and 90 days.


* Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.

Figure 6.12
Long-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by years of education: TEDS 2005

Stacked bar chart comparing Short-term residential treatment completion or transfer to further treatment, by years of education in TEDS 2005

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 10.03.06.

To Tables

To table of contents
To Table of Contents