Chapter 8
Detoxification Discharges: 2004

Chapter 8 presents data on the reasons for discharge and length of stay (LOS) in treatment for the 211,161 linked admission/discharge records of clients discharged from detoxification in 2004 in 26 States [Table 8.1].

Table 8.1 and Figure 8.1 present the distribution of reasons for discharge for discharges from detoxification. Overall, 131,476 (62 percent) of detoxification discharges completed detoxification, 28,706 (14 percent) were transferred to further treatment, 34,570 (16 percent) dropped out of treatment, 4,512 (2 percent) had treatment terminated by the facility, and 11,897 (6 percent) failed to complete treatment for other reasons. Figure 8.1 also presents reason for discharge by State.

Figure 8.1
Reason for discharge from detoxification: TEDS 2004

Pie chart comparing Reason for discharge from detoxification in TEDS 2004

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Figure 8.2, Table 2.5, and Appendix Table C.7. The median LOS for detoxification was 3 days. The average (mean) LOS was longer, 11 days (standard deviation, 68). The average LOS was longer than the median LOS for all reasons for discharge for all client characteristics.

Figure 8.2
Median and average lengths of stay in detoxification, by reason for discharge: TEDS 2004

Bar chart comparing Median and average lengths of stay in detoxification, by reason for discharge in TEDS 2004

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Among clients who completed detoxification, there was little difference in the median LOS by reason for discharge. Among treatment completers, median LOS was 3 days, and among clients transferred to further treatment, it was 4 days. Among clients who dropped out of treatment or whose treatment was terminated by the facility, the median LOS was 2 days, and among those who failed to complete treatment for other reasons, the median LOS was 1 day.

In comparison with all discharges combined, clients discharged from detoxification were more likely:

Clients discharged from detoxification were less likely than all discharges combined:

Demographics

Tables 8.2-8.4 and Figures 8.3-8.5. Three-quarters (74 percent) of clients discharged from detoxification were male. The peak age group at admission was 40 to 49 years (32 percent of all detoxification discharges, followed by 30 to 39 years (29 percent). Twenty-three percent were ages 20 to 29, and 13 percent were age 50 and older. Small proportions were younger than age 15 (less than 1 percent) and ages 15 to 19 (3 percent).* Most clients discharged from detoxification were non-Hispanic White (60 percent), while 19 percent were non-Hispanic Black, 16 percent were of Hispanic origin, and 5 percent were of other racial/ethnic groups.


* Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.

Table 8.2 and Figure 8.3. Males had a slightly higher combined rate of detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment (76 percent) than did females (75 percent). Females had a longer median LOS among detoxification completers (4 days) than did males (3 days).

Figure 8.3
Detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by gender: TEDS 2004

Stacked bar chart comparing detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by gender in TEDS 2004

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Table 8.3 and Figure 8.4. Clients in the older and younger age groups were more likely either to complete detoxification or to be transferred to further treatment than clients in the middle age groups. The combined rate was 82 percent among clients who were younger than age 15. It fell to 71 percent among those who were ages 20 to 29, then increased with age to 81 percent among those who were age 50 and older.

The median LOS among detoxification completers was between 3 days and 4 days regardless of age at admission.

Figure 8.4
Detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at admission: TEDS 2004

Stacked bar chart comparing detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at admission in TEDS 2004

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Table 8.4 and Figure 8.5. Discharges of Hispanic origin and non-Hispanic Blacks were more likely either to complete detoxification or to be transferred to further treatment (80 percent and 79 percent, respectively) than were non-Hispanic Whites (74 percent).

The median LOS among detoxification completers was 1 day to 4 days for all racial/ethnic groups.

Figure 8.5
Detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by race/ethnicity: TEDS 2004

Stacked bar chart comparing detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by race/ethnicity in TEDS 2004

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Primary Substance

Table 8.5 and Figure 8.6. Fifty-one percent of clients discharged from detoxification reported alcohol as their primary substance of abuse at admission. Opiates were reported by 29 percent, cocaine by 10 percent, stimulants by 5 percent, marijuana by 2 percent, and other substances by 3 percent.

Clients who reported alcohol as their primary substance had the highest combined rate of detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment (81 percent). The combined rate was lowest, at 68 percent, among the major substances of abuse (alcohol, opiates, cocaine, stimulants, and marijuana) for clients who reported opiates as their primary substance.

Clients who reported opiates as their primary substance had the longest median LOS among detoxification completers (5 days), and clients who reported alcohol had the shortest (2 days).

Figure 8.6
Detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by primary substance: TEDS 2004

Stacked bar chart comparing detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by primary substance in TEDS 2004

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Frequency of Use

Table 8.6 and Figure 8.7. Sixty-nine percent of detoxification discharges reported daily use of their primary substance in the month before entering treatment, while 3 percent reported no use in that period.

The combined rate of completion or transfer to further treatment showed no consistent pattern with frequency of use among clients discharged from detoxification. Among the 69 percent of clients who reported daily use, the combined rate was 73 percent. Among the 28 percent who reported some use but less than daily use, the combined rates were between 86 percent and 91 percent. Among the 3 percent who reported no use, the combined rate was 57 percent.

The median LOS among detoxification completers showed no consistent pattern with frequency of primary substance use and was between 1 day and 4 days.

Figure 8.7
Detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by frequency of substance use in the past month: TEDS 2004

Stacked bar chart comparing detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by frequency of substance use in the past month in TEDS 2004

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Age at First Use

Table 8.7 and Figure 8.8. Sixty-two percent of the detoxification discharges first used their primary substance by age 18. The peak age at first use was 15 to 16 years (20 percent of detoxification discharges). Sixteen percent did not begin use until they were over age 25.

Clients who were younger when they began their substance use were somewhat more likely either to complete detoxification or to be transferred to further treatment than were clients whose use began later. The combined rate was 78 percent in all age at first use groups for those whose substance use began at age 18 or younger, and was 75 percent or 76 percent in all age groups age 19 and older.

The median LOS for detoxification completers displayed no consistent pattern with age at first use of the primary substance and was between 2 days and 4 days.

Figure 8.8
Detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at first use: TEDS 2004

Stacked bar chart comparing detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by age at first use in TEDS 2004

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Prior Treatment

Table 8.8 and Figure 8.9. Thirty-seven percent of detoxification discharges had never been in treatment before, while 20 percent had been in treatment five or more times previously.

Clients with fewer prior treatment episodes were more likely either to complete detoxification or to be transferred to further treatment than were clients with more prior treatment episodes. The combined rate fell from 79 percent among those with no prior treatment episodes to 69 percent among those who had been in treatment five or more times.

Clients with more prior treatment episodes who completed detoxification had a longer median LOS than clients who had been in treatment fewer times. The median LOS was longest among those with five or more prior treatment episodes (5 days). It fell to 1 day among those with no prior treatment episodes.

Figure 8.9
Detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by number of prior treatment episodes: TEDS 2004

Stacked bar chart comparing detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by number of prior treatment episodes in TEDS 2004

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Treatment Referral Source

Table 8.9 and Figure 8.10. Fifty-seven percent of clients discharged from detoxification were self- or individual referrals to treatment, and 16 percent were referred to treatment through the criminal justice system. Health care providers, substance abuse treatment providers, and community referrals made up 9 percent each, and schools and employers made up less than 1 percent each.*

The combined rates of detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment were above the average detoxification combined rate of 76 percent for those referred to treatment by community sources (87 percent), health care providers (81 percent), substance abuse treatment providers (79 percent), and employers (79 percent). The combined rates were below average for self- or individual referrals and for those referred to treatment through the criminal justice system (73 percent each).

The median LOS among detoxification completers was 4 days for self- or individual referrals. The median LOS was shortest (1 day) for those who had been referred to treatment through the criminal justice system or by community sources. The median LOS for detoxification completers referred by other sources was between 2 days and 5 days.


* Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.
Figure 8.10
Detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by treatment referral source: TEDS 2004

Stacked bar chart comparing detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by treatment referral source in TEDS 2004

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Employment Status

Table 8.10 and Figure 8.11. Forty-three percent of clients age 16 and older discharged from detoxification were not in the labor force. Thirty-seven percent were unemployed, and 20 percent were employed either full time or part time.

The combined rate of detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment displayed no consistent pattern with employment status and was between 70 percent and 82 percent.

Clients who were unemployed or not in the labor force and who completed detoxification had a longer median LOS than clients who were employed full time or part time. The median LOS was longest among those who were not in the labor force (4 days). It was 3 days among those who were unemployed, and was shortest (1 day) among those employed full time or part time.

Figure 8.11
Detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by employment status: TEDS 2004

Stacked bar chart comparing detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by employment status in TEDS 2004

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

Education

Table 8.11 and Figure 8.12. Forty-seven percent of clients age 18 and older discharged from detoxification had 12 years of education or a GED. Twenty-three percent each had more than 12 years of education or 9 to 11 years of education, and 7 percent had 8 years of education or less.

The combined rate of detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment displayed no consistent pattern with education and was between 75 percent and 77 percent.

The median LOS among clients completing detoxification displayed no consistent pattern with education and was between 3 days and 4 days.

Figure 8.12
Detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by years of education: TEDS 2004

Stacked bar chart comparing detoxification completion or transfer to further treatment, by years of education in TEDS 2004

Figure legend

SOURCE: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Data received through 2.1.2006.

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