Highlights of Recent Reports on Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Released in 2008

bulletAll reports by year of release:  2009     2008      2007      2006      2005      2004     2003      2002     2001 (reports are listed from most recent to earliest release)

bulletAll reports released in 2008 (listed from most recent to earliest release):

  • The TEDS Report: TEDS Report Definitions   SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) is a major national data collection system from SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies that produces an annual report of the demographic characteristics and substance abuse problems of admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. In addition, trend data are provided for monitoring changing patterns in substance abuse treatment admissions and discharges.  TEDS produces data on both admissions and discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities that report to individual State administrative data systems. In general, facilities reporting TEDS data are those that receive State alcohol and/or drug agency funds (including Federal Block Grant funds) for the provision of alcohol and/or drug treatment services.  TEDS provides data on about 1.8 million admissions annually and has been useful to people involved in substance abuse treatment resource allocation and program planning.  This report provides the definitions for terms used in TEDS reports for the following topics: substances of abuse, treatment service characteristics, referral sources, prior substance abuse treatment, client characteristics, geographic characteristics, and discharge characteristics.
  • The NSDUH Report: Trends in Substance Use, Dependence or Abuse, and Treatment Among Adolescents: 2002 to 2007   Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, adolescent past month use of cigarettes, alcohol, and illicit drugs declined between 2002 and 2007 but little change occurred between 2006 and 2007.   Between 2002 and 2007, past month use by youth of cigarettes declined from 13.0% to 9.8%; alcohol from 17.6% to 15.9% and illicit drugs from 11.6% to 9.5%.   The decline in past month illicit drug use by youth can be attributed primarily to a decline in marijuana use: 8.2% used marijuana in 2002 compared with 6.7% in 2007.   Past year alcohol dependence or abuse among youth remained relatively stable between 2002 and 2007 but illicit drug dependence or abuse declined from 5.6% to 4.3%.   Among adolescents who needed treatment, there were no statistically significant changes in the percentage who received treatment for either alcohol or drugs between 2002 and 2007.
  • The NSDUH Report: Participation in Self-help Groups for Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use, 2006 and 2007   Combined 2006 to 2007 data from SAMHSA's National Surveys on Drug Use and Health indicate that an annual average of 5 million persons aged 12 or older (2%) attended a self-help group in the past year because of their use of alcohol or illicit drugs.   Among persons aged 12 or older who attended self-help groups in the past year, 45.3% attended a self-help group because of their alcohol use only, 21.8% attended a self-help group because of their illicit drug use only, and 33.0% attended a self-help group because of their use of both alcohol and illicit drugs.   Among past year self-help group participants aged 12 or older, 45.1% abstained from any alcohol or illicit drug use in the past month.   Almost one-third (32.7%) of persons aged 12 or older who attended a self-help group for their alcohol or illicit drug use in the past year also received special treatment for substance use in the past year.
  • The NSDUH Report: Underage Alcohol Use: Where Do Young People Get Alcohol?   Based on combined data from SAMHSA's 2006 to 2007 National Surveys on Drug Use & Health, an annual average of 28.1% of underage drinkers (10.8 million persons aged 12 to 20) drank alcohol in the past month. By age group within the underage drinkers the rates were: 51.1% of those aged 18 to 20; 25.9% of those age 15 to 17; and 6.1% of those aged 12 to 14.   Underage drinkers who drank in the past month (i.e., current drinkers) obtained their last alcohol drink as follows: 30.6% paid for the last alcoholic drink, 26.4% got it for free from a nonrelative of legal drinking age, 14.6% got it for free from another underage person, 5.9% got it from a parent or guardian, and 8.5% got it from another relative who was of legal drinking age.   Current underage drinkers who paid for their last drink consumed more drinks on average the last time they drank than those who did not pay for their alcohol drink (6.0 drinks vs. 3.9 drinks).
  • The NSDUH Report: Major Depressive Episode and Treatment for Depression among Veterans Aged 21 to 39    Combined data from SAMHSA's 2004 to 2007 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health indicate than an annual average of 9.3% (312,000) veterans aged 21 to 39 experienced at least one major depressive episode in the past year.   Among veterans aged 21 to 39 with a major depressive episode in the past year, 51.7% reported severe impairment in at least one of four role domains (i.e., home management, work, close relationships with others, and social life) and 23.5% reported very severe impairment in at least one of the domains.    More than half (59.6%) of veterans aged 21 to 39 who experienced a major depressive episode in the past year received treatment for depression in the past year.
  • The NSDUH Report: Mental Health Service Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2005 and 2006   Combined 2005 and 2006 data from SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health indicate that an annual average of 3.3 million youths aged 12 to 17 (13.3%) received services for emotional or behavioral problems in a specialty mental health setting in the past year.   About 3 million youth (12%) received services for emotional or behavioral problems in a school-based setting, and around 752,000 (3%) received such services in a general medical setting.   Female youths were more likely than their male counterparts to receive services for emotional or behavioral problems in a specialty mental health or educational setting.
  • The NSDUH Report: Out-of-Home Services for Emotional or Behavioral Problems among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 to 2006   Combined 2002 to 2006 data from SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health indicate that an estimated 2.6% of youths aged 12 to 17 reported receiving out-of-home services for emotional or behavioral problems in the past 12 months in a hospital, a residential treatment center or a foster care or therapeutic foster care setting.   Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received any type of out-of-home services for emotional or behavioral problems in the past 12 months, about half reported staying only for one or two nights.   The reported length of time spent in out-of-home services settings in the past year varied by gender; in general, male youths aged 12 to 17 were more likely to report having stayed for one night, while their female counterparts were more likely to report having stayed for seven nights or longer.
  • The NSDUH Report: Alcohol Use among Pregnant Women and Recent Mothers: 2002 to 2007    Data from SAMHSA's National Surveys on Drug Use & Health conducted in 2002 through 2007 were used to compare alcohol drinking rates, frequency, and quantity among women aged 15 to 44 divided into three groups: (1) pregnant, (2) recent mother (i.e., had a child within the past 12 months), and (3) all other women in this age group. A stable pattern of drinking was found for all three groups during 2002 to 2007. Combined data from SAMHSA's 2006-2007 National Surveys on Drug Use & Health examined drinking patterns among women aged 15 to 44. Pregnant women (11.6%) were significantly less likely to have used alcohol in the past month than recent mothers (42.1%) or all other women (54.0%). Among current alcohol drinkers, both pregnant women and recent mothers drank alcohol on fewer days than other women (4.9 days for pregnant women, 4.4 days for recent mothers, and 6.1 days for all other women). Pregnant and recent mothers also drank fewer drinks on their drinking days (2.4 drinks for pregnant women, 2.5 drinks for recent mothers, and 3.0 drinks for all other women).  Of concern is the fact that pregnant women aged 15 to 17 were more likely to drink alcohol in the past month than pregnant women in other age groups and they were likely to consume over 3 drinks on the days they drank.
  • The NSDUH Report:   Underage Alcohol Use: Where Do Young People Drink?   SAMHSA's 2006 National Survey on Drug Use & Health indicated that more than a fourth of the persons under the legal age for drinking actually drank in the past month; that is, there were 10.8 million current underage drinkers.   Over a half (53.4%) of the current underage alcohol users drank at someone else's home the last time they used alcohol and another 30.3% drank in their own home.   Younger female underage drinkers were more likely than older ones to have had their most recent drink in a car or other vehicle. For example, female underage drinkers aged 16 were eight times more likely to have had their last drank in a car than those aged 20 (12.8% vs. 1.6%).   Among current underage drinkers aged 20, females were almost twice as likely as males to have had their most recent drink in a restaurant, bar, or club (20.0% vs. 10.2%).
  • The NSDUH Report: Inhalant Use and Major Depressive Episode among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2004 to 2006   Combined data from SAMHSA's 2004 to 2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health were used to produce annual averages of an estimated 2.1 million youth (8.5%) who experienced a major depressive episode in the past year and 1.1 million youth (4.5%) who had used inhalants in the past year.    Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an estimated 218,000 youth (0.9%) had both experienced at least one major depressive episode in the past year and used inhalants during the past year.    Youth who had experienced a major depressive episode in the past year were more than twice as likely as those without deception to have used inhalants in the past year (10.2% vs. 4.0%).    Among the youth who had both experienced a major depressive episode in the past year and reported inhalant use in the past year: 28.3% had used inhalants first in their lifetime before their first major depressive episode, 28.5% experienced both at the same age, and 43.1% had their first major depressive episode before first using inhalants.
  • The DASIS Report: First-Time and Repeat Admissions Aged 18 to 25 to Substance Abuse Treatment, 2006   Based on SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) on substance abuse treatment admissions in 2006, repeat admissions aged 18 to 25 were more likely than first-time admissions of the same age group to report heroin and other opiates as the primary substance of abuse (27% vs. 12%) and to report the use of multiple substances (67% vs. 56%).   The South was unlike any other region in that a majority of all admissions aged 18 to 25 were first-time admissions instead of repeat admissions, regardless of the primary substance of abuse.   The criminal justice system was the principal referral source to substance abuse treatment for all admissions aged 18 to 25 whether first-time substance abuse treatment admissions or repeat substance abuse treatment admissions.
  • The DASIS Report: Frequency of Use among Alcohol-Only Treatment Admissions: 2006  Based on substance abuse treatment admissions in 2006 reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 49% of the alcohol-only treatment admissions reporting daily use were referred to substance abuse treatment by themselves, a family member or a friend.   Over half (55%) of alcohol-only treatment admissions reporting less than daily use were referred to treatment by the criminal justice system.    Alcohol-only treatment admissions in 2006 reporting daily use were more likely than those reporting less frequent use to be "not in the labor force" (41% vs. 24%) and less likely to be employed full-time (20% vs. 41%).   Among alcohol-only treatment admissions, those reporting daily alcohol use were more likely than those reporting less frequent use to be homeless (26% vs. 9%).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Serious Psychological Distress Among Adults Aged 50 or Older: 2005 and 2006  Combined data from SAMHSA's 2005 and 2006 National Surveys on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH) indicate than an annual average of 7% of adults aged 50 or older experienced serious psychological distress in the past year. Adults aged 50 to 64 were more likely to experience past year serious psychological distress than those aged 65 or older (8.8% vs. 4.5%).  Adults aged 50 or older were more likely to experience serious psychological distress in the past year if they had less than a high school education than if they were college graduates (10.2% vs. 5.2%), had family incomes less than $20,000 compared with those with $75,000 or more (11.7% vs. 4.4%), and were without health insurance compared with those with health insurance (12.3% vs. 6.7%).  Over half (53.7%) of the adults aged 50 or older with past year serious psychological distress received mental health treatment in the past year, 6.2% did not receive treatment although they felt they needed it, and 40.1% did not receive treatment and did not perceive a need for it.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Substate Regions: 2004 to 2006  Combined data from SAMHSA's 2004-2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health indicate that past year nonmedical use of pain relievers ranged from a low of 2.48% in a ward of the District of Columbia to a high of 7.92% in northwest Florida.  Of the 15 substate regions with the highest rates of nonmedical use of pain relievers, 10 of the highest substate regions were in the South and 5 were in the West.  Of the 15 substate regions with the lowest rates of nonmedical use of pain relievers, 7 of the lowest substate regions were in the South, 4 were in the Midwest, 3 were in the Northeast, and 1 was in the West.
  • The NSDUH Report: Major Depressive Episode among Youths Aged 12 to 17   Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 8.5% of youth (about 2.1 million youth) had experienced at least one major depressive episode during the past year. Rates of depression varied by gender and age.   Female youth were more than twice as likely as males to have experienced a major depressive episode in the past year (12.7% vs. 4.6%).   Over 91% of the youth who experienced at least one major depressive episode in the past year reported more than one period in their lifetime during which for 2 weeks or longer they felt sadness, discouragement, or boredom and also had other problems.   Nearly half (48.3%) of the youth with a major depressive episode in the past year reported severe impairment in at least one of four major role domains (home, school/work, family relationships, or social life) and 21% reported very severe impairment in at least one of the domains.   Youth with a major depressive episode who reported a very severe impairment were unable to carry out normal activities on about 5 times more days in the past year than those reporting no more than mild impairment (58.4 days vs. 11.7 days).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Parent Awareness of Youth Use of Cigarettes, Alcohol, and Marijuana   SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health includes a sample of parents and their children who live in the same household. These parent-child pairs are composed of a child aged 12 to 17 and his or her biological, step, adoptive, or foster parent.  Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, mothers were more likely than fathers to be aware of their child's substance use in the past year regardless of the household having only the mother or both parents.  Fathers in two parent households were more likely than fathers in father-only households to be aware of their child's substance use in the past year.  The older the child, the more likely that parents were aware of their child's alcohol and cigarette use in the past year.  Past year substance use by youth was higher in one-parent households than those with both parents.  Within one-parent households, substance use by youth was generally higher among youth in father-child pairs than mother-child pairs.
  • The NSDUH Report:  State Estimates of Persons Aged 18 or Older Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol or Illicit Drugs   Based on the combined 2004 to 2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health data from current drivers aged 18 or older, 15.1% had driven under the influence of alcohol during the past year and 4.7% had driven under the influence of illicit drugs.   States with the highest rates of driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year among adults aged 18 or older were Wisconsin (26.4%), North Dakota (24.9%), Minnesota (23.5%), Nebraska (22.9%), and South Dakota (21.6%).   The highest rates of driving under the influence of illicit drugs in the past year among adults aged 18 or older were in the District of Columbia (7.0%), Rhode Island (6.8%), Massachusetts (6.4%), Montana (6.3%), and Wyoming (6.2%).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Use among Underage Drinkers     Based on combined data from SAMHSA's 2005 to 2006 National Surveys on Drug Use & Health, an annual average of 28.3% of underage drinkers (10.8 million persons aged 12 to 20) drank alcohol in the past month.  Underage drinkers who drank in the past month used alcohol an average of 5.9 days in the past month and consumed an average of 4.9 alcoholic drinks per day on the days they drank in the past month.  Person under the legal age consumed, on average, more drinks per days on the days they drank in the past month than drinkers of legal age (4.9 drinks vs. 2.8 drinks).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Substance Use and Dependence Following Initiation of Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use  Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 3.2% of the persons aged 12 or older who first used alcohol 13 to 24 months prior to the survey interview were dependent on alcohol in the past 12 months.  Of those who first used marijuana in the 13 to 24 months prior to the survey interview, 5.8% were dependent on marijuana in the past year.  Among new users of crack cocaine in the 13 to 24 months prior to the survey interview, 9.2% were dependent on any type of cocaine in the past year; and 13.4% of the new users of heroin in the 13 to 24 months prior to the survey interview were dependent on heroin in the past year.
  • The DASIS Report: Employment Status and Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions, 2006  Of the substance abuse treatment admissions aged 18 to 64 reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 31% in 2006 were employed full- or part-time at the time of admission, 33% were unemployed, and 36% were not in the labor force (i.e., not employed and not looking for work).  Full time employed substance abuse treatment admissions were more likely to report alcohol as their primary substance of abuse (58%) than substance abuse treatment admissions who were homemakers (35%), unemployed (39%), labor force dropouts (39%), or disabled (46%).  Substance abuse treatment admissions who were labor force dropouts were more than twice as likely as admissions who were employed full time to report daily use of their primary substance in the past month (56% vs. 26%).  Substance abuse treatment admissions who were homemakers (59%) or who were employed full time (57%) were more likely to report entering treatment for the first time than admissions who were unemployed (40%), labor force dropouts (47%), or disabled (41%).
  • The DASIS Report: Adolescent Admissions Reporting Inhalants, 2006  Based on SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), adolescents aged 12 to 17 accounted for 8% of admissions to substance abuse treatment in 2006; however, they represent 48% of all admissions reporting inhalants.  Females comprised a larger proportion of adolescent admissions reporting inhalants than of adolescent admissions not reporting inhalants (41% vs. 30%).  In 2006, 45% of adolescent admissions reporting inhalants had a concurrent psychiatric disorder in contrast to only 29% of their counterparts who did not report inhalants.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Inhalant Use across the Adolescent Years    Inhalants were the most frequently reported class of illicit drugs use in the past year among adolescents age 12 (3.4%) or age 13 (4.8%).  Combined data from SAMHSA's 2002 to 2006 National Surveys on Drug Use & Health found an annual average of 593,000 youths aged 12 to 17 used an inhalant for the first time in the 12 months prior to their survey interview.    Among past year new inhalant users aged 12 to 15, the three most commonly used types of inhalants were: glue, shoe polish, or toluene; spray paints; and gasoline or lighter fluid. In comparison, nitrous oxide or "whippets" were the most common type of inhalant used among past year new inhalant users aged 16 or 17.   
  • The NSDUH Report:  Nonmedical Stimulant Use, Other Drug Use, Delinquent Behaviors, and Depression Among Adolescents   SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimated that about 510,000 youth aged 12 to 17 (2%) used stimulants (including methamphetamines) nonmedically in the past year in 2006. Nonmedical use is defined as the use of prescription-type psychotherapeutic drugs that were not prescribed for the respondent by a physician or were used only for the experience or feeling they caused.   Over 71% of youth who used stimulants nonmedically in the past year compared with 34% of youth who did not use stimulants nonmedically also engaged in at least one of the six types of delinquent behaviors in the past year that were included in SAMHSA's National Survey of Drug Use. These delinquent behaviors were: (1) got into a serious fight, (2) took part in a group fight against another group, (3) sold drugs, (4) stole anything valued more than $50, (5) attacked someone, and (6) carried a handgun.   Youth who used stimulants nonmedically in the past year were also more likely than youth who did not use stimulants nonmedically to have experienced a major depressive episode in the past year (23% vs. 8.1%).
  • The NSDUH Report: Use of Specific Hallucinogens: 2006   Specific questions on the following hallucinogens were first collected in SAMHSA's 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: ketamine, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT), 5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT or "Foxy"), and Salvia divinorum.  Based on SAMHSA's 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health of persons aged 12 or older, 23 million had used LSD, 6.6 million used PCP, 2.3 million used ketamine, 1.8 million used Salvia divinorum and 0.7 million had used DMT, AMT, or Foxy at least once in their lifetime.  Among youth aged 12 to 17, females were more likely than males to have used Ecstasy in the past year (1.4% vs. 1.0%).  In contrast, male youth aged 12 to 17 were more likely than female youth to have used Salvia divinorum in the past year (0.9% vs. 0.3%).  In 2006, young adults aged 18 to 25 were more likely to be past year users of LSD, Ecstasy, and Salvia divinorum than youths aged 12 to 17 or adults aged 26 or older.
  • The DASIS Report: Primary Methamphetamine / Amphetamine Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment: 2005    From 1995 to 2005, the percentage of substance abuse treatment admissions for primary abuse of methamphetamine /amphetamine more than doubled from 4% to 9%. In 2005, about 1.8 million substance abuse treatment admissions were reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Of these, 169,500 were for primary methamphetamine /amphetamine abuse and 80,000 admissions were for secondary or tertiary methamphetamine /amphetamine abuse. The duration of use of their primary drug before admission to treatment was, on average, six years less for persons admitted to treatment for primary methamphetamine /amphetamine abuse than it was for persons admitted for abuse of other primary substances. The criminal justice system was the principal source of referral for 49% of primary methamphetamine /amphetamine treatment admissions compared with 34% of admissions for other primary substances.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Substance Use and Mental Health Data are presented on substance use and mental health problems before and after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita among adults aged 18 or older who lived in the Gulf State Disaster Area and for adults living in the rest of the United States. Estimates of substance use and mental health problems before Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from July 2004 through June 2005. Estimates for the post hurricane period were based on NSDUH data from January 2006 through December 2006. Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on substance use and mental health was primarily found among persons who were displaced from their homes.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Nicotine Dependence: 2006   Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, of the 61.6 million persons aged 12 or older who in 2006 smoked cigarettes in the past month, 57.7% (35.5 million) met the criteria for nicotine dependence in the past month. Persons aged 12 or older who were dependent on nicotine in the past month were more likely than those who were not nicotine dependent to have engaged in alcohol use (61.7% vs. 49.1%), binge alcohol use (40.1% vs. 20.1%), and heavy alcohol use (14.9% vs. 5.5%) in the past month. Adults aged 18 or older who were dependent on nicotine in the past month were more than twice as likely as adults who were not nicotine dependent to have experienced serious psychological distress in the past year (21.2% vs. 9.4%). Both youth and adults who were dependent on nicotine in the past month were more than twice as likely as those who were not nicotine dependent to have experienced a major depressive episode in the past year.
  • The DASIS Report:  Geographic Differences in Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions for Methamphetamine /Amphetamine and Marijuana: 2005 Among the six substances of abuse that dominate substance abuse treatment admissions reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), three (marijuana, methamphetamine/amphetamines, and opiates other than heroin) increased between 1995 and 2005 and three decreased (alcohol, cocaine, and heroin). Generally, in both 1995 and 2005, the Pacific and Mountain States had the highest rates for substance abuse treatment admissions whose primary drug was methamphetamine/ amphetamines. The marijuana treatment admission rate for the nation increased from 81 per 100,000 population aged 12 or older in 1995 to 118 per 100,000 in 2005. The full report contains maps indicating the relative quintile for each State's rate of substance abuse treatment admissions whose primary drug was methamphetamine /amphetamines or marijuana.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Misuse of Over-the-Counter Cough and Cold Medications among Persons Aged 12 to 25      Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, in 2006 about 3.1 million persons aged 12 to 25 (5.3%) had ever used an over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medication to get high; that is, used it nonmedically. Nearly 1 million persons aged 12 to 25 (1.7%) had used an over-the-counter cough and cold medication to get high in the past year.  Young adults aged 18 to 25 were more likely than youth aged 12 to 17 to have used OTC cough and cold medications nonmedically in their lifetime (6.5% vs. 3.7%) but were less likely to do so in the past year (1.6% vs. 1.9%).  Whites aged 12 to 25 (2.1%) were more likely than Hispanics (1.4%) and Blacks (0.6%) to have used an over-the-counter cough and cold medication in the past year to get high.
  • The NSDUH Report: Treatment for Past Year Depression among Adults   Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 67.4% of the adults who had experienced at least one major depressive episode during the past year had received treatment for depression in the past year.  The types of treatment received for depression in the past year by the adults with past year depression were: 69.4% both talked to a professional and received medication for their depression, 23.8% only talked to a professional about their depression, and 6.7% only received medication for their depression.  Perceived helpfulness of their treatment for depression depended upon which treatment they received. Adults with depression in the past year who received medication as well as talked to a professional were most likely to perceive their treatment as extremely helpful or helped alot.

This page was last updated on March 27, 2009.