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2000 National Survey on Drug Use & Health

Appendix C: Other Sources of Data

A variety of other surveys and data systems collect data on substance use. It is useful to consider the results of these other studies when discussing the NHSDA data. In doing this, it is important to understand the methodological differences between the different surveys and the impact that these differences could have on estimates of substance use prevalence. This appendix briefly describes several of these other data systems, including recent results from them.

In-depth comparisons of the methodologies of the three major federally sponsored national surveys of youth substance use have been done. In 1997, a comparison between the NHSDA and Monitoring the Future (MTF) was published (Gfroerer, et al., 1997). In 2000, a series of papers comparing different aspects of the NHSDA, MTF, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was commissioned by DHHS. Under contract with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Westat identified and funded several experts in survey methods to prepare these papers. The papers will be published in a forthcoming volume of the Journal of Drug Issues. The major findings of this study were:

C.1. Other National Surveys of Illicit Drug Use

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a national survey that tracks drug use trends and related attitudes among America's adolescents. This survey is conducted annually by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan through a grant awarded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). The MTF and NHSDA are the Federal Government's largest and primary tools for tracking youth substance use. The MTF is composed of three substudies: (a) an annual survey of high school seniors initiated in 1975; (b) ongoing panel studies of representative samples from each graduating class that have been conducted by mail since 1976; and (c) annual surveys of eighth and tenth graders initiated in 1991. In 2000, for all three grades combined, there were 435 public and private schools and about 45,000 students in the sample. The students completed a self-administered questionnaire during a regular class period (Johnston, et al., 2001).

Comparisons between the MTF estimates and estimates based on students sampled in the NHSDA have generally shown NHSDA substance use prevalence levels to be lower than MTF estimates, with relative differences being largest for eighth graders. The lower prevalences in the NHSDA may be due to more underreporting in the household setting as compared to the MTF school setting. MTF does not survey dropouts, a group generally shown (using the NHSDA) to have higher rates of use (Gfroerer, et al., 1997). However, the direction of trends has generally been similar between the two surveys. Both surveys showed significant increases in illicit drug use among adolescents between 1992 and 1996. Comparisons of NHSDA and MTF results for 1999 and 2000, based on NHSDA data collected during January through June to control for seasonality, generally show similar trends in the prevalence of use of illicit drugs (see Tables C.1 to C.4).

Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)

The YRBS is a component of CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), which biennially measures the prevalence of six priority health-risk behavior categories including: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and STDs; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The YRBSS includes national, state, territorial, and local school-based surveys of high school students. The 1999 national school-based survey used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12. The 1999 state and local surveys used a two-stage cluster sample design to produce representative samples of students in grades 9 through 12 in their jurisdictions. The 1999 national YRBS sample included 15,349 students in grades 9 through 12 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The students completed a self-administered questionnaire during a regular class period (CDC, 2000). In general, this school-based survey has found higher rates of alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and cocaine use for youths than those found in the NHSDA. Data from the most recent YRBS indicated a general leveling of drug and alcohol use between 1997 and 1999. The 1999 data showed steady prevalence levels for both past month marijuana and alcohol use among ninth through twelfth graders. The NHSDA data showed a similar trend for alcohol, but a significant decrease in marijuana use among 12 to 17 year olds during this time period. Although the two surveys generally have shown similar trends, the prevalence estimates are much higher in the YRBS (26.7 percent vs. 7.0 percent in the NHSDA PAPI for past month marijuana use in 1999). This is likely due to thedifference in the age groups that are sampled and the dissimilarity of the study designs (school-based vs. home-based).

National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)

The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) is conducted to measure the effects of family, peer group, school, neighborhood, religious institution, and community influences on health risks such as tobacco, drug, and alcohol use. The survey also asks about substance abuse (alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs). The survey consists of three phases. In Wave 1 (conducted in 1994-95), roughly 90,000 students from grades 7 through 12 at 144 schools around the U.S. answered brief questionnaires. Interviews were also conducted with about 20,000 students and their parents in the students' homes. In Wave 2, students were interviewed a second time in their homes. These interviews took place in 1996. Wave 3 will consist of re-interviews of respondents from Wave 1 and will begin in July of 2001. Survey results from the first two waves indicated that nearly one-third of teenagers had smoked marijuana. Nearly 7 percent of seventh and eighth graders used marijuana at least once in the past month as did 15.7 percent of ninth through twelfth graders (Resnick, et al., 1997).

Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS)

In November of 2000, the Partnership for a Drug Free America (PDFA) released results from the 2000 Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS), an on-going national research study that tracks drug use and drug related attitudes among children, teens, and their parents. In the 2000 PATS, 7,290 teens in grades seven through twelve completed self-administered questionnaires. The study showed that there has been a statistically significant decline in overall drug use for adolescents in these grades. The most significant declines were in marijuana use among teenagers. Lifetime use declined from 44 percent in 1997 to 40 percent in 2000. There was also a significant decline in past month use, from 24 percent in 1997 to 21 percent in 2000 (PDFA, 2001). In comparison, the 2000 NHSDA reported that 7.2 percent of youths aged 12 to 17 used marijuana in the past month. This is a slight, but not statistically significant, decline from 1999. From 1997 to 1999, however, the NHSDA PAPI showed a significant decline in past month marijuana use among 12 to 17 year olds (from 9.4 percent to 7.0 percent). The major difference in these prevalence estimates is likely to be due to the different study designs. The youth portion of the PATS is a school-based survey. This may elicit more reporting of sensitive behaviors than the home-based NHSDA.

The PATS also found a positive trend in teen attitudes about marijuana. In 2000, 43 percent of teens believed that marijuana will make them lonely (up from 38 percent in 1998). In addition, more teens believed that marijuana will make them act stupid or foolishly in 2000 (54 percent, up from 51 percent in 1998). The results of the study also indicated that fewer teens see marijuana all around them (47 percent, down from 59 percent in 1997), and fewer believed that most people will use the drug (36 percent, down from 41 percent in 1997). Although not nearly as prevalent as marijuana use, the 2000 PATS survey found a significant increase in the lifetime use of ecstasy. Lifetime use has increased from 7 to 10 percent in the past year and has doubled since 1995.

National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY)

The National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) was sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse to evaluate the Office of National Drug Control Policy's (ONDCP) National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. The survey was specifically designed to evaluate Phase III of the campaign, which began in September 1999 and will run at least until 2003. The NSPY is divided into two phases. In the first phase, a sample of youths aged 9 to 18 and their parents were recruited to participate in the in-home survey. In the second phase, the respondents from phase one participate in two additional interviews at intervals of 6 to 24 months. The recruitment phase is broken into three waves which each consist of national cross-sectional surveys. In April 2001, ONDCP released the data from the first two waves which were collected between November 1999 and December 2000 (ONDCP, 2001).

The first two waves of data showed a consistent pattern of association between exposure to the media campaign and positive outcomes for parents, but the data were inconclusive for youths. More conclusive data is expected at the conclusion of Wave 4. The NSPY also produces estimates of marijuana use among youths. Waves 1 and 2 of the NSPY estimate that 19.2 percent of youths aged 12 through 17 have used marijuana in their lifetime. The estimates for past year and past month use are 14 percent and 6 percent, respectively. The corresponding 2000 NHSDA estimates for lifetime, past year, and past month use among youths aged 12 to 17 are 18.3, 13.4, and 7.2, respectively. Although the NSPY questions are shorter and less direct than the NHSDA, the two surveys produced very similar estimates in 2000.

C.2. Alcohol and Cigarette Use Surveys

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuing nationwide sample survey which collects data using personal household interviews. The survey is sponsored by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and provides national estimates of selected health measures. The survey estimated that 23.0 percent of the population aged 18 and over were current cigarette smokers in 2000 (down slightly from 23.5 percent in 1999). Among males, 25.6 percent reported current cigarette smoking compared to 20.6 percent of females aged 18 and older (NCHS, 2001).

The 2000 NHSDA estimates that 26.8 percent of adults aged 18 and older are current smokers. Among males, 28.7 percent reported current cigarette smoking compared to 24.1 percent of females. These represent slight, but not statistically significant, declines from 1999. The modest difference in these prevalence estimates may be due to the way "current smoking" is defined in the two surveys. In the NHIS, current smokers are defined as those who have smokedat least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and answer that they currently smoke, including those who smoke only on some days. In the NHSDA, current cigarette smoking is defined as any use in the past month.

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

This school-based survey showed increases in smoking rates among students from 1991 to 1997. Cigarette smoking peaked in 1996 among eighth and tenth graders nationwide and in 1997 among twelfth graders. Since those peak years, cigarette use has gradually declined. Past-month smoking rates found in the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) for eighth graders were 19.4 percent in 1997, 19.1 percent in 1998, 17.5 percent in 1999, and 14.6 percent in 2000. Among tenth graders, current smoking rates were 29.8 percent in 1997, 27.6 percent in 1998, 25.7 percent in 1999, and 23.9 percent in 2000. For twelfth graders, smoking rates rose steadily from 28.3 percent in 1991, to 36.5 percent in 1997, but then showed a statistically significant decline to 31.4 percent in 2000 (Johnston, et al., 2001). The NHSDA also showed a statistically significant decline among eighth and twelfth graders from 1999 to 2000. See Table C.5 for a comparison of the MTF and NHSDA cigarette use estimates.

The MTF data has indicated alcohol use among teens to be fairly stable over the past several years. Alcohol consumption in the month prior to survey was reported by 22.4 percent of eighth graders, 41 percent of tenth graders, and 50 percent of seventh graders in the 2000 survey. Table C.6 shows how these numbers compare with NHSDA estimates. Although the NHSDA estimates are lower, they show the same stability in teen alcohol use as the MTF. Binge drinking, defined in the MTF as consuming five or more drinks in a row sometime in the prior two weeks, has also remained steady over the last 3 years. In the 2000 MTF, binge drinking rates stand at 14.1 percent, 26.2 percent, and 30.0 percent among eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders, respectively.

Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey found increases in long-term trends for past month cigarette use among students in grades 9-12. Past month smoking rose from 27.5 percent in 1991 to 34.8 percent in 1999. Overall prevalences of lifetime, past month, and frequent cigarette use (defined as smoking 20 or more days of the 30 days preceding the survey) in the 1999 survey were 70.4 percent, 34.8 percent and 16.8 percent, respectively (CDC, 2000). While the NHSDA has not shown these increases in smoking for youth aged 12 to 17, the NHSDA estimates for years prior to 1994 were apparently substantial underestimates because the data were collected without private self-administered answer sheets. When the NHSDA converted to the use of these answer sheets in 1994, the smoking rate for adolescents approximately doubled. This raises questions about the accuracy of the NHSDA measurement of the trend prior to 1994, even after adjustments are made to account for the effect of the new questionnaire. Between 1994 and 1999, however, the NHSDA showed significant declines in past month cigarette use among 12 to 17 year olds. Although the rate fluctuated slightly in the years between, it decreased from 18.9 percent in 1994 to 15.9 percent in 1999 (PAPI).

Alcohol use among ninth through twelfth graders in the YRBS has remained fairly stable over the last few surveys. Past month alcohol use was 50 percent in the 1999 survey which is not a change from the estimate of 50.8 reported for this behavior in the 1991 YRBS. The NHSDA also showed steady rates of past month alcohol use for youths aged 12 to 17 during this time. The rate was 21.6 percent in 1994 and 19.0 percent in 1999. This does not represent a statistically significant change. Episodic heavy drinking (defined as 5 or more drinks on one or more occasions in the 30 days prior to the survey) has also held steady with prevalence rates of 31.3 percent in 1991 and 31.5 in the 1999 YRBS. Although the corresponding 1999 NHSDA PAPI rate for 12 to 17 year olds is much lower (7.8 percent), the NHSDA has also showed a level trend from 1994 to 1999.

Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS)

Data from the 2000 Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS) shows a continuing decline in cigarette use among teens. For teens in grades 7 through 12, the prevalence of past month cigarette use was 42 percent in 1998, 37 percent in 1999, and 34 percent in 2000 (PDFA, 2001). The NHSDA also showed a significant decline in past month smoking among youths aged 12 to 17. The rates dropped from 14.9 in 1999 to 13.4 in 2000. Again, the lower prevalence estimates in the NHSDA are likely due to the home-based study design.

Alcohol use has remained unchanged over the last few years. The 2000 PATS found that 58 percent of teens reported using alcohol in the past year. The rates were 58 percent in 1998 and 59 percent in 1999. However, the study did find significant declines in past month alcohol use and binge drinking. Some 39 percent of teens said they had used alcohol in the past month (down from 42 percent in 1998). The binge drinking estimate decreased slightly from 32 percent in 1999 to 31 percent in 2000. In comparison, the 2000 NHSDA rates for past month alcohol use and binge drinking for 12 to 17 year olds were 16.4 percent and 10.4 percent, respectively. These were not significantly different from the 1999 rates.

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a state-based telephone survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized adult population sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adults include all persons aged 18 and older. In 2000, the BRFSS collected data from all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. The BRFSS collects information on access to health care, health status indicators, health risk behaviors including cigarette and alcohol use, and the use of clinical preventive services by state. The median percentage of adults reporting current cigarette use in 2000 was 23.2 percent, a slight increase from 1999 (22.7 percent) (CDC, 2001). The corresponding NHSDA rate (26.3 percent) was not statistically different from the 1999 rate (27.0 percent). In 1999, the median percentage of adultswho reported current alcohol use in the BRFSS remained stable at 54.2 percent. The 2000 NHSDA estimate of 50.2 percent was also not a significant change from 1999.

National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)

Results from the 1994-95 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, described above) indicate that nearly 3.2 percent of seventh and eighth graders smoked 6 or more cigarettes a day as did 12.8 percent of ninth through twelfth graders. In addition, the Add Health study found that 7.3 percent of seventh and eighth graders used alcohol 2 or more days in the past month as did 23.1 percent of ninth through twelfth graders (Resnick, et al., 1997).

Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS)

In 1993 the Harvard School of Public Health conducted a mail survey of students from a nationally representative sample of colleges. The purpose of the study was to gather data on the drinking patterns of college students. The study was repeated in 1997 and 1999. The survey found that the overall rate of binge drinking did not change from 1993 to 1999 (44.5 percent and 44.1 percent, respectively). The CAS defined binge drinking as the consumption of five or more drinks in a row for men and four drinks in a row for women. The study found a sizeable increase in both the number of students who binge drank frequently (22.7 percent in 1999 vs. 19.8 percent in 1993) and those who did not drink at all (19.2 percent in 1999 vs. 15.4 percent in 1993) (Wechsler, et al., 2000). The 1999 NHSDA binge drinking rate among full-time undergraduates aged 18 to 22 was 43.1 percent. It is useful to note that the NHSDA defines binge drinking as five or more drinks in a row on a least one occasion in the past month for both men and women. Despite the different definition of binge drinking, the CAS estimate and the NHSDA estimate are very similar.

C.3. Surveys of Populations Not Covered by the NHSDA

National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY)

The National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY, described above) is distinct in that it measures drug use and attitudes among youths as young as 9. Waves 1 and 2 of the NSPY show that youths aged 9 to 11 are strongly opposed to marijuana use. The survey estimates that only 0.7 percent of youths aged 9 through 11 have used marijuana in their lifetime. The estimates for past year and past month use are 0.4 percent and 0.2 percent, respectively (ONDCP, 2001).

Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DC*MADS)

The Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DC*MADS) was designed (a) to estimate the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of drug abuse among all types of people residing in one metropolitan area of the country during one period of time with special focus on populations who were underrepresented or unrepresented in household surveys and (b) to develop a methodological model for similar types of research in other metropolitan areas of thecountry. Sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and conducted from 1989 to 1995 by Research Triangle Institute and Westat, Inc. as the principals, the project included 11 separate, but coordinated studies that focused on different population subgroups (e.g., homeless people, institutionalized individuals, adult and juvenile offenders, new mothers, drug abuse treatment clients) or different aspects of the drug abuse problem (e.g., adverse consequences of drug abuse). DC*MADS provided a replicable methodological approach for developing representative estimates of the prevalence of drug abuse among all population subgroups, regardless of their residential setting, in a metropolitan area. The key population domains in DC*MADS were the homeless, the institutionalized, and the household. A major finding of DC*MADS was that, when data are aggregated for populations from each of the three domains, the overall prevalence estimates for use of drugs differ only marginally from those that would be obtained from the household population alone (i.e., from the NHSDA), largely because the other populations are very small compared to the household population. However, a somewhat different picture emerged when the numbers of drug users were examined. Adding in the nonhousehold populations resulted in an increase of approximately 14,000 illicit drugs users compared with the corresponding estimates for the household population. About 25 percent of past year crack users, 20 percent of past year heroin users, and one-third of past year needle users were found in the nonhousehold population (Bray and Marsden, 1999).

Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel

The 1998 DoD Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel (seventh in a series of studies conducted since 1980) was sponsored by the Department of Defense (DoD) and conducted by Research Triangle Institute. The sample consisted of 17,264 active duty Armed Forces personnel worldwide who completed self-administered questionnaires anonymously that assessed substance use and other health behaviors. For the total DoD, during the 30 days prior to the date that a survey was completed, heavy alcohol use declined from 20.8 percent in 1980 to 15.4 percent in 1998; cigarette smoking decreased from 51.0 percent in 1980 to 29.9 percent in 1998; and use of any illicit drugs declined from 27.6 percent in 1980 to 2.7 percent in 1998. For the latest survey, military personnel exhibited significantly higher rates of heavy alcohol use than their civilian counterparts (14.2 percent vs 9.9 percent) when demographic differences between the military and civilian populations were taken into account (civilian data were drawn from the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and adjusted to reflect demographic characteristics of the military). Differences in military and civilian heavy alcohol use rates were largest for men aged 18 to 25. Among this age group, the military rate was nearly twice as high as the adjusted civilian rate (26.9 percent vs 14.9 percent). In contrast, military personnel showed lower rates of cigarette use (29.1 percent vs 32.8 percent) compared to civilians, a finding that seems largely due to an increase in smoking among civilians rather than a significant decrease among military personnel since the prior survey in 1995. Similarly, rates of illicit drug use in the military were significantly lower than those observed for the comparable civilian population when demographic differences between the military and civilian populations were taken into account (2.6 percent vs. 10.7 percent). Differences in illicit drug use between the military and civilian populations were more pronounced for males than females. For malesaged 18 to 55, 2.8 percent of those in the military used drugs in the 30 days prior to survey compared to 11.4 percent of the civilian population (adjusted). For females aged 18 to 55, 1.9 percent of those in the military used drugs in the 30 days prior to survey compared to 6.2 percent of the civilian population (adjusted). Nearly all military personnel reported having been tested for drugs since joining the military (Bray et al., 1999).

Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities

The 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities sampled inmates from a universe of 1,409 State prisons and 127 Federal Prisons for the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). Systematic random sampling was used to select the inmates for the computer-assisted personal interviews. The final numbers interviewed were 14,285 State prisoners and 4,041 Federal prisoners. Among other items, these surveys collect information on the use of drugs in the month before the offense for convicted inmates. Women in State prisons (62 percent) were more likely than men (56 percent) to have used drugs in the month before the offense. Women were also more likely to have committed their offense while under the influence of drugs (40 percent compared to 32 percent of male prisoners). Among Federal prisoners, men (45 percent) were more likely than women (37 percent) to have used drugs in the past month. Male and female Federal prisoners were equally likely to report the influence of drugs during their offense (23 percent of male and 19 percent of female prisoners). The survey results indicate substantially higher rates of drug use among State and Federal prisoners as compared to the household population (BJS, 1999).

Table C.1 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Marijuana Among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000

 

Survey

 

NHSDA (Jan-June)

MTF1

Time Period, by Current Grade Level

1999

2000

1999

2000

Lifetime Use

       

    8th grade

10.9

9.2

22.0

20.3

    10th grade

27.7

26.9

40.9

40.3

    12th grade

41.4

37.1

49.7

48.8

         

Past Year Use

       

    8th grade

8.1

6.8

16.5

15.6

    10th grade

21.6

20.0

32.1

32.2

    12th grade

29.7

26.8

37.8

36.5

         

Past Month Use

       

    8th grade

4.5

3.3

9.7

9.1

    10th grade

10.7

10.1

19.4

19.7

    12th grade

16.4

15.4

23.1

21.6

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.
1MTF = Monitoring the Future Study.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000.
The Monitoring the Future Study, The University of Michigan, 1999 and 2000.

Table C.2 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Cocaine Among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000

 

Survey

 

NHSDA (Jan-June)

MTF1

Time Period, by Current Grade Level

1999

2000

1999

2000

Lifetime Use

       

    8th grade

0.8

0.9

4.7

4.5

    10th grade

3.2

3.2

7.7

6.9

    12th grade

7.5

5.4

9.8

8.6

         

Past Year Use

       

    8th grade

0.3

0.7

2.7

2.6

    10th grade

1.9

2.8

4.9

4.4

    12th grade

4.6a

2.5

6.2a

5.0

         

Past Month Use

       

    8th grade

0.2

0.1

1.3

1.2

    10th grade

0.7

0.9

1.8

1.8

    12th grade

1.2a

0.3

2.6

2.1

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.
1MTF = Monitoring the Future Study.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000.
The Monitoring the Future Study, The University of Michigan, 1999 and 2000.

Table C.3 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Inhalants Among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000

 

Survey

 

NHSDA (Jan-June)

MTF1

Time Period, by Current Grade Level

1999

2000

1999

2000

Lifetime Use

       

    8th grade

10.8

9.7

19.7a

17.9

    10th grade

10.6

10.2

17.0

16.6

    12th grade

12.2

9.5

15.4

14.2

         

Past Year Use

       

    8th grade

4.5

3.8

10.3

9.4

    10th grade

4.5

3.5

7.2

7.3

    12th grade

4.8

3.7

5.6

5.9

         

Past Month Use

       

    8th grade

1.4

0.8

5.0

4.5

    10th grade

0.8

0.7

2.6

2.6

    12th grade

1.2

0.8

2.0

2.2

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.
1MTF = Monitoring the Future Study.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000.
The Monitoring the Future Study, The University of Michigan, 1999 and 2000.

Table C.4 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Hallucinogens Among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000

 

Survey

 

NHSDA (Jan-June)

MTF1

Time Period, by Current Grade Level

1999

2000

1999

2000

Lifetime Use

       

    8th grade

2.7

2.3

4.8

4.6

    10th grade

7.8

7.3

9.7

8.9

    12th grade

13.6

12.2

13.7

13.0

         

Past Year Use

       

    8th grade

1.7

1.6

2.9

2.8

    10th grade

5.4

4.9

6.9

6.1

    12th grade

8.7

6.8

9.4a

8.1

         

Past Month Use

       

    8th grade

0.4

0.2

1.3

1.2

    10th grade

1.4

1.6

2.9a

2.3

    12th grade

2.4

1.9

3.5b

2.6

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.
1MTF = Monitoring the Future Study.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000.
The Monitoring the Future Study, The University of Michigan, 1999 and 2000.

Table C.5 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Cigarettes Among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000

 

Survey

 

NHSDA (Jan-June)

MTF1

Time Period, by Current Grade Level

1999

2000

1999

2000

Lifetime Use

       

    8th grade

31.0c

25.0

44.1c

40.5

    10th grade

49.9

46.7

57.6a

55.1

    12th grade

61.8c

53.7

64.6

62.5

         

Past Year Use

       

    8th grade

19.0c

13.9

--

--

    10th grade

31.2

28.4

--

--

    12th grade

46.3c

34.8

--

--

         

Past Month Use

       

    8th grade

9.4a

6.9

17.5c

14.6

    10th grade

20.0

18.4

25.7

23.9

    12th grade

34.0c

26.8

34.6b

31.4

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.
1MTF = Monitoring the Future Study.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000.
The Monitoring the Future Study, The University of Michigan, 1999 and 2000.

Table C.6 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Alcohol Among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000

 

Survey

 

NHSDA (Jan-June)

MTF1

Time Period, by Current Grade Level

1999

2000

1999

2000

Lifetime Use

       

    8th grade

34.6

31.8

52.1

51.7

    10th grade

58.8

56.9

70.6

71.4

    12th grade

72.3

71.4

80.0

80.3

         

Past Year Use

       

    8th grade

25.9

23.5

43.5

43.1

    10th grade

49.2

46.3

63.7

65.3

    12th grade

62.8

62.5

73.8

73.2

         

Past Month Use

       

    8th grade

9.1

9.1

24.0

22.4

    10th grade

23.4

23.1

40.0

41.0

    12th grade

38.6

37.1

51.0

50.0

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.
1MTF = Monitoring the Future Study.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000.
The Monitoring the Future Study, The University of Michigan, 1999 and 2000.

This page was last updated on June 03, 2008.