Worker Drug Use and Workplace Policies and Programs:
Results from the 1994 and 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
Occupations and Drug Testing Programs
Table 5.2 presents the percentage of full-time
workers, age 18-49, reporting workplace drug testing programs, by occupation
category and type of program for 1994 and 1997. It shows that workers in
safety-sensitive positions (i.e., in protective services), were much more
likely to report having workplace drug testing programs.
Workers in the protective service occupation
reported the highest percentage of testing at-hiring and upon suspicion
in 1994, and they reported the highest percentage of testing at-hiring,
randomly, upon suspicion, and post-accident in 1997. The percentage of
workers in protective service occupations reporting drug testing randomly
and post-accident increased significantly between 1994 and 1997.
Workers in the food preparation, waitstaff,
and bartending occupation reported the lowest percentage of drug testing
at hiring in both 1994 and 1997. Although the percentage of workers in
these occupations who reported random testing almost doubled from 1994
to 1997 (9.2% vs. 16.7%), food preparation, waitstaff, and bartending occupation
remained as one of the occupations in which workers reported lower percentages
of testing randomly, upon suspicion, and post-accident, second only to
the professional specialty occupations.
Across occupational categories, drug testing
at hiring remained the most frequent type of testing program reported.