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Worker Drug Use and Workplace Policies and Programs: Results from the 1994 and 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse 

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Type of Program
Total1
 
1 -24 Employees (1)
 
25 - 499 Employees (2)
 
500 or More Employees (3)
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
Any
43.6
48.5b
 
22.5(1,3)
27.5(1,3), b
 
52.2(1,2)
57.5(1,2), a
 
68.4(2,3)
73.6(2,3)
At Hiring
34.7
38.6a
 
16.0(1,3)
19.5(1,3), a
 
42.1(1,2)
46.3(1,2)
 
57.2(2,3)
62.5(2,3)
Random
20.2
25.4b
 
10.6(1,3)
14.6(1,3), b
 
24.7(1,2)
29.8(1,2), a
 
29.8
38.7a
Upon Suspicion
27.5
30.1
 
12.4(1,3)
15.9(1,3), a
 
33.3(1,2)
36.5(1,2)
 
46.0(2,3)
46.0
Post- Accident
22.4
28.7b
 
11.2(1,3)
16.3(1,3), b
 
28.0(1,2)
34.5(1,2), b
 
32.9
42.2a
Note: 1. The denominator refers to all full-time workers, age 18-49, in the sample whose workplace sizes were known (n=6,973 in 1994, and

n=7875 in 1997).

(1,2) Difference between small establishment (1-24 employees) and medium-sized establishment (25-499 employees) is statistically significant at the .01 level.

(1,3) Difference between small establishment (1-24 employees) and large establishment (500 or more employees) is statistically significant at the .01 level.

(2,3) Difference between medium-sized establishment (25-499 employees) and large establishment (500 or more employees) is statistically significant at the .01 level.

a Difference between 1994 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

b Difference between 1994 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.  

 

 
Table 5.2 Percentage of Full-Time Workers, Age 18-49, Reporting Workplace Drug Testing Programs, by Occupation Category and Type of Program, 1994 and 1997  
Occupation Category
Type of Testing Program
 
At Hiring
 
Random
 
Upon Suspicion
 
Post-Accident
1994 1997   1994 1997   1994 1997   1994 1997
Total
34.5
38.5a
 
20.1
25.3b
 
27.4
29.9
 
22.3
28.6b
Executive, Administrative & Managerial
30.1
33.3
 
18.3
24.1
 
25.5
30.3
 
17.7 
27.2b
Professional Specialty
24.2
26.9
 
12.4
14.3
 
19.7
17.9
 
11.8
15.2
Technicians & Related Support
35.9
38.0
 
20.5
19.5
 
34.8
30.3
 
20.7
26.4
Sales
25.9
28.9
 
14.0
18.7
 
19.0
23.9
 
16.2
19.8
Administrative Support
39.8
42.6
 
17.1
24.6a
 
24.7
31.3a
 
19.2
26.0a
Protective Service
67.1
74.0
 
38.7
60.4b
 
62.1
68.9
 
37.3
56.0a
Food Preparation, Waiters, Waitresses & Bartenders
16.7
19.1
 
9.2
16.7a
 
14.8
19.0
 
12.7
18.1
Other Service
25.9
37.3
 
19.7
19.6
 
27.5
24.0
 
15.5
20.9
Precision Production & Repair
35.0
56.1b
 
24.7
34.9
 
27.9
41.6
 
31.4
38.0
Construction
29.8
25.8
 
23.9
25.7
 
23.5
22.4
 
24.7
27.2
Extractive & Precision Production
51.5
56.8
 
25.4
35.8
 
37.0
47.7
 
34.8
35.7
Machine Operators & Inspectors
53.9
58.0
 
27.1
30.8
 
42.3
38.2
 
39.5
48.7
Transportation & Material Moving
61.7
62.7
 
51.3
52.9
 
47.9
47.6
 
56.9
54.7
Handlers, Helpers & Laborers
40.6
49.2
 
25.6
32.0
 
32.6
38.7
 
30.5
45.3a
Note: 1. The denominator refers to all those full-time workers, age 18-49, in the sample whose occupation was reported (n=6,999 in 1994 and n=7892 in 1997).

a Difference between 1994 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

b Difference between 1994 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.

 

Type of Program
Total
 
1 -24 Employees
 
25 - 499 Employees
 
500 or More Employees
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
1994
1997
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
1994
1997
Any
33.7
47.4a
44.4++
48.6a
 
22.5
20.7
22.5
28.2b
 
43.5
63.1a
52.7
57.0
 
59.5
85.2b
68.9
72.9 
At Hiring
24.4
35.5a
35.6++
38.9
 
12.5
9.6
16.5
20.4++a
 
32.8
48.4
42.6+
46.2
 
56.4
79.9a
57.3
61.4 +
Random
12.3
21.2a
20.8++
25.7b
 
7.1
5.6
11.0
15.5++b
 
17.4
29.1
25.2+
29.8a
 
22.7
47.4a
30.2
38.1
Upon Suspicion
23.2
33.0a
27.9
29.8
 
11.6
15.3
12.5
16.0a
 
33.6
42.0
33.3
36.0
 
48.9
63.0
45.9
45.0
Post- Accident
19.3
29.8a
22.6
28.6b
 
9.9
16.4
11.4
16.3b
 
28.9
38.1
27.9
34.2b
 
37.4
47.3
32.7
41.9a
+ Difference between current illicit drug users and non-users is statistically significant at the .05 level.

++ Difference between current illicit drug users and non-users is statistically significant at the .01 level.

a Difference between 1994 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

b Difference between 1994 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.
 

Occupation Category
Tests for Drugs 

at Hiring

 
Tests for Drugs Randomly
 
Tests for Drugs 

Upon Suspicion

1994
1997
Diff.
 
1994
1997
Diff.
 
1994
1997
Diff.
Total
7.7
4.9
-2.8b
 
13.7
8.1
-5.6b
 
15.0
10.8
-4.2b
Executive, Administrative & Managerial
7.3
3.0
-4.4b
 
13.9
6.1
-7.7b
 
15.7
12.0
-3.7
Professional Specialty
12.2
9.6
-2.6
 
20.8
13.1
-7.7b
 
17.0
15.0
-2.0
Technicians & Related Support
9.4
10.4
1.0
 
19.0
12.9
-6.1
 
14.4
12.4
-2.1
Sales
6.6
3.5
-3.2a
 
13.7
7.2
-6.5b
 
15.7
13.4
-2.2
Administrative Support
5.0
3.0
-2.0
 
11.6
6.8
-4.8b
 
13.8
8.4
-5.4a
Protective Service
6.0
0.6
-5.3a
 
7.4
6.4
-1.1
 
16.5
8.5
-8.0
Food Preparation, Waiters, Waitresses & Bartenders
10.1
12.4
2.3
 
11.9
11.7
-0.2
 
15.0
11.0
-4.0
Other Service
6.4
3.5
-2.8
 
12.0
5.5
-6.5a
 
13.4
6.3
-7.1a
Precision Production & Repair
7.8
1.8
-6.0a
 
11.2
3.6
-7.6a
 
14.7
8.9
-5.8
Construction
10.4
5.6
-4.7
 
12.3
9.6
-2.7
 
16.3
15.6
-0.7
Extractive & Precision Production
5.6
5.7
0.2
 
14.7
7.7
-7.0
 
13.4
7.7
-5.7
Machine Operators & Inspectors
6.8
4.7
-2.2
 
9.2
9.4
0.2
 
10.9
9.6
-1.3
Transportation & Material Moving
4.6
3.3
-1.4
 
11.0
8.0
-3.1
 
22.5
8.1
-14.4b
Handlers, Helpers & Laborers
5.1
1.9
-3.2
 
10.1
2.6
-7.5a
 
7.4
4.0
-3.4
a Difference between 1994 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

b Difference between 1994 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997

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This page was last updated on December 30, 2008.