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Worker Drug Use and Workplace Policies and Programs: Results from the 1994 and 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse 

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1994
 
1997
 
Odds Ratio1
95% Confidence Interval
 
Odds Ratio
95% Confidence Interval
Age Group

18-252

26-34

35-49

 

1.00

0.83

0.53**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.60, 1.16)

(0.35, 0.78)

   

1.00

0.65*

0.53*

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.43, 0.97)

(0.30, 0.93)

Gender

Male2

Female

 

1.00

0.47**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.35, 0.62)

   

1.00

0.41**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.28, 0.60)

Race/Ethnicity

White2

Black

Hispanic

 

1.00

0.76

0.43**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.55, 1.04)

(0.30, 0.62)

   

1.00

0.75

0.31**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.51, 1.09)

(0.18, 0.54)

Education

Less than high school2

High school graduate

Some college

College graduate

 

1.00

0.98

0.96

0.87

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.69, 1.40)

(0.61, 1.49)

(0.57, 1.35)

   

1.00

0.62

0.75

0.45*

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.35, 1.10)

(0.40, 1.40)

(0.21, 0.98)

Personal Income

Less than $9,0002

$9,000-$19,999

$20,000-$39,999

$40,000-$74,999

$75,000 or more

 

1.00

0.74

0.48**

0.35**

0.88

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.52, 1.05)

(0.30, 0.75)

(0.18, 0.66)

(0.37, 2.08)

   

1.00

0.57

0.42**

0.40*

0.67

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.32, 1.02)

(0.22, 0.82)

(0.18, 0.89)

(0.22, 2.05)

Establishment Size

1-24 Employees2

25-499 Employees

500 or More Employees

 

1.00

0.50**

0.60**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.38, 0.66)

(0.43, 0.83)

   

1.00

1.05

0.90

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.77, 1.43)

(0.48, 1.69)

Region

Northeast2

North Central

South

West

 

1.00

0.94

1.05

1.03

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.58, 1.54)

(0.71, 1.57)

(0.61, 1.72)

   

1.00

1.55

1.13

1.82**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.92, 2.61)

(0.64, 2.01)

(1.16, 2.87)

1 The odds ratios for each explanatory variable measure the likelihood of using any illicit drugs in the past month for the subgroup relative to a reference group.

2 Reference group.

** P < .01; * P < .05

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994B, 1997 

 
1994
 
1997
 
Odds Ratio2
95% Confidence Interval
 
Odds Ratio
95% Confidence Interval
Model I: Information, Policies, EAPs
Information about Alcohol or Drug Use

Provided

Not Provided3

 
 

0.86

1.00

 
 

(0.52, 1.42)

(1.00, 1.00)

   
 

1.14

1.00

 

(0.49, 2.63)

(1.00, 1.00)

Written Policy about Alcohol or Drug Use

Yes

No3

 
 

1.02

1.00

 
 

(0.63, 1.64)

(1.00, 1.00)

   
 

0.45

1.00

 
 

(0.20, 1.03)

(1.00, 1.00)

Employee Assistance Programs

Available

Not Available3

 
 

0.73

1.00

 
 

(0.52, 1.02)

(1.00, 1.00)

   
 

1.59

1.00

 
 

(0.81, 3.15)

(1.00, 1.00)

Model II: Test at hiring, randomly, upon suspicion, and post-accident
Test as Part of the Hiring Process

Yes

No3

 
 

0.61*

1.00

 
 

(0.38, 0.98)

(1.00, 1.00)

   
 

0.59

1.00

 
 

(0.29, 1.20)

(1.00, 1.00)

Test on a Random Basis

Yes

No3

 

0.56*

1.00

 

(0.33, 0.95)

(1.00, 1.00)

   

0.55

1.00

 

(0.30, 1.04)

(1.00, 1.00)

Test Upon Suspicion

Yes

No3

 

1.61

1.00

 

(0.81, 3.18)

(1.00, 1.00)

   

2.06

1.00

 

(0.87, 4.88)

(1.00, 1.00)

Test After a Work-Related Accident

Yes

No3

 
 

1.26

1.00

 
 

(0.66, 2.42)

(1.00, 1.00)

   
 

1.16

1.00

 
 

(0.57, 2.35)

(1.00, 1.00)

1 In the analysis on which this table was based, the following demographic variables were controlled: gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, region, and the establishment size of the workplace.

2 The odds ratios for each explanatory variable measure the likelihood of using any illicit drugs in the past month for the subgroup relative to a reference group.

3 Reference group

* P < .05.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994B, 1997

 
1994
 
1997
 
Odds Ratio1
95% Confidence Interval
 
Odds Ratio
95% Confidence Interval
Age Group

18-252

26-34

35-49

 

1.00

0.73*

0.52*

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.56, 0.95)

(0.38, 0.70)

   

1.00

0.72*

0.59*

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.54, 0.95)

(0.39, 0.91)

Gender

Male2

Female

 

1.00

0.24**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.17, 0.33)

   

1.00

0.18**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.12, 0.28)

Race/Ethnicity

White2

Black

Hispanic

 

1.00

0.53**

0.79

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.41, 0.70)

(0.57, 1.10)

   

1.00

0.51**

0.76

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.33, 0.77)

(0.49, 1.18)

Education

Less than high school2

High school graduate

Some college

College graduate

 

1.00

0.79

0.71

0.37**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.56, 1.13)

(0.49, 1.02)

(0.24, 0.59)

   

1.00

0.47*

0.50*

0.51*

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.27, 0.81)

(0.27, 0.92)

(0.28, 0.94)

Personal Income

Less than $9,0002

$9,000-$19,999

$20,000-$39,999

$40,000-$74,999

$75,000 or more

 

1.00

1.23

0.84

1.01

0.75

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.89, 1.70)

(0.60, 1.18)

(0.59, 1.74)

(0.27, 2.11)

   

1.00

0.97

0.69

0.61

0.15**

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.56, 1.68)

(0.38, 1.23)

(0.32, 1.17)

(0.04, 0.57)

Establishment Size

1-24 Employees2

25-499 Employees

500 or More Employees

 

1.00

0.94

0.96

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.73, 1.21)

(0.65, 1.41)

   

1.00

1.39

1.45

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.92, 2.10)

(0.90, 2.34)

Region

Northeast2

North Central

South

West

 

1.00

1.51*

1.08

0.67*

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(1.04, 2.21)

(0.80, 1.46)

(0.45, 1.00)

   

1.00

1.05

0.71

0.65

 

(1.00, 1.00)

(0.58, 1.89)

(0.38, 1.32)

(0.36, 1.16)

1 The odds ratios for each explanatory variable measure the likelihood of heavy alcohol use in the past month for the subgroup relative to a reference group.

2 Reference group

** P < .01; * P < .05.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994B, 1997. 

 
1994
 
1997
 
Odds Ratio2
95% Confidence Interval
 
Odds Ratio
95% Confidence Interval
Model I: Information, Policies, EAPs
Information about Alcohol or Drug Use

Provided

Not Provided3

 
 

1.06

1.00

 
 

(0.55, 2.05)

(1.00, 1.00)

   
 

1.43

1.00

 
 

(0.66, 3.07)

(1.00, 1.00)

Written Policy about Alcohol or Drug Use

Yes

No3

 
 

0.91

1.00

 
 

(0.44, 1.89)

(1.00, 1.00)

   
 

0.46

1.00

 
 

(0.21, 1.01)

(1.00, 1.00)

Employee Assistance Programs

Available

Not Available3

 
 

0.85

1.00

 
 

(0.61, 1.21)

(1.00, 1.00)

   
 

1.20

1.00

 
 

(0.76, 1.89)

(1.00, 1.00)

Model II: Test at hiring, randomly, upon suspicion, and post-accident
Test as Part of the Hiring Process

Yes

No3

 
 

0.88

1.00

 
 

(0.62, 1.25)

(1.00, 1.00)

   
 

0.68

1.00

 
 

(0.38, 1.23)

(1.00, 1.00)

Test on a Random Basis

Yes

No3

 

0.86

1.00

 

(0.57, 1.30)

(1.00, 1.00)

   

1.45

1.00

 

(0.87, 2.42)

(1.00, 1.00)

Test Upon Suspicion

Yes

No3

 

0.82

1.00

 

(0.47, 1.42)

(1.00, 1.00)

   

1.08

1.00

 

(0.65, 1.79)

(1.00, 1.00)

Test After a Work-Related Accident

Yes

No3

 
 

1.45

1.00

 
 

(0.88, 2.41)

(1.00, 1.00)

   
 

1.25

1.00

 
 

(0.65, 2.40)

(1.00, 1.00)

1 In the analysis on which this table was based, the following demographic variables were controlled: gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, region, and the establishment size of the workplace.

2 The odds ratios for each explanatory variable measure the likelihood of using any illicit drugs in the past month for the subgroup relative to a reference group.

3 Reference group

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994B, 1997



5 In a separate analysis, the ADon=t know@ responses to the survey questions regarding the drug use information, policies, EAPs, and drug testing programs were coded as ANo=s@ rather than as missing. The estimate results were similar to what were presented here.

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This page was last updated on December 30, 2008.