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Worker Drug Use and Workplace Policies and Programs: Results from the 1994 and 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

Table A1.1 Percentage of Past Month Illicit Drug and Heavy Alcohol Users, Age 18-49, by Employment Status STANDARD ERRORS, 1994 and 1997
           
Employment Status
Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Heavy Alcohol Use1
 
Total Labor Force
1994
Total 0.5     0.4     -  
Full-Time 0.5     0.4     0.7  
Part-Time 0.9     0.7     0.6  
Unemployed 1.8     0.5     0.3  
1997
Total 0.5     0.5     -  
Full-Time 0.5     0.6     0.8  
Part-Time 0.8     0.8     0.6  
Unemployed 2.6     2.4     0.5  
1 Current heavy alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of at least five days in the previous 30 days.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.

 
Table A1.2 Trends in Percentage of Persons, Age 18-49, Reporting Drug Use, by Employment Status, STANDARD ERRORS, 1985-1997
Employment Status
Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Heavy Alcohol Use1
1985
1988
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
 
1985
1988
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
Total
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
 
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.5
Full-time
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
 
9.7
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.6
Part-time
1.7
1.5
1.6
1.1
0.9
1.5
0.9
1.1
1.0
0.8
 
1.3
1.4
1.1
0.6
1.1
0.9
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.8
Unemployed
3.1
2.9
2.3
1.7
1.4
1.5
1.8
1.2
1.4
2.6
 
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.4
1.7
1.5
1.1
1.6
2.5
 
Employment Status
Past Year Illicit Drug Use
1985
1988
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
Total
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
Full-time
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
Part-time
2.3
2.1
1.8
1.2
1.4
1.8
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.2
Unemployed
3.0
3.3
3.1
2.1
1.6
2.1
2.0
2.1
2.1
3.0
1 Current heavy alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of at least five days in the previous 30 days.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: 1985-1997.  

Type of Drug 
Percent of Total Population
 
Percent of Persons Reporting Any Current Illicit Drug Use 
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
Marijuana  
0.5
0.5
 
2.1
3.6
Cocaine  
0.1
0.2
 
1.8
2.4
Psychotherapeutics 1  
0.2
0.3
 
2.4
3.9
Hallucinogens 2  
0.1
0.2
 
1.1
2.1
Heroin  
0.1
0.1
 
0.3
1.0
Inhalants 3  
0.1
0.1
 
1.2
1.1
Marijuana only  
0.4
0.5
 
2.8
4.1
Any illicit drug other than marijuana  
0.3
0.4
 
2.8
4.1
1 Psychotherapeutic drugs are any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic used for nonmedical reasons; over-the-counter drugs are not included.

2 Hallucinogenic drugs include a number of illicit drugs such as LSD, Peyote, Mescaline, Psilocybin, PCP, and Ecstasy.

3 Inhalants are fumes or gases that are inhaled to produce intoxication. They include a number of substances such as glues, aerosols, butane, ether, amyl nitrite, nitrous oxide, and solvents.

a Difference between estimate and 1994 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994B and 1997. 

 
Illicit Drug Use
 
Heavy Alcohol Use1
Demographic Characteristics
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
Total
0.5
0.5
 
0.4
0.6
Age Group

18-25

26-34

35-49

1.1

0.7

0.8

1.3

0.8

0.9

 
1.0

0.7

0.6

1.1

0.8

1.0

Gender

Male

Female

0.8

0.6

0.9

0.6

 
0.7

0.5

0.8

0.5

Race/Ethnicity

White

Black

Hispanic

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.7

0.9

0.9

 
0.6

0.6

1.0

0.7

0.8

1.3

Education

Less than high school

High school graduate

Some college

College graduate

1.2

0.8

1.0

0.9

2.3

0.8

1.2

1.1

 
1.5

0.8

0.8

0.6

2.5

0.8

1.1

1.0

Region

Northeast

North Central

South

West

1.2

1.3

0.7

1.2

1.0

1.3

1.0

1.1

 
0.8

1.3

0.7

0.9

2.2

1.3

0.8

0.8

Personal Income

Less than $9,000

$9,000-$19,999

$20,000-$39,999

$40,000-$74,999

$75,000 or more

1.7

0.8

0.6

1.0

3.8

2.8

1.1

0.8

1.3

4.3

 
1.2

0.9

0.7

1.2

2.4

1.8

1.3

0.8

1.6

1.3

Note: Subtotals may not sum to totals due to missing values on the demographic variables and rounding error.

1 Heavy alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of at least five days in the previous 30 days.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.  

 
Illicit Drug Use
 
Heavy Alcohol Use1
 
Total Population
Demographic Characteristics
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
Total (in thousands)
394 
409 
 
315 
491 
 
-
-
Age Group

18-25

26-34

35-49

2.3

2.6

3.3

1.5

3.0

4.6

 
2.1

2.4

3.0

2.7

3.4

4.9

 
0.6

0.7

0.7

0.6

1.0

1.0

Gender

Male

Female

2.6

2.6

2.7

2.7

 
2.3

2.3

2.6

2.6

 
0.8

0.8

1.1

1.1

Race/Ethnicity

White

Black

Hispanic

1.6

1.3

1.0

2.1

1.3

1.3

 
2.1

0.9

1.3

2.4

1.2

2.0 

 
1.0

0.7

0.5

1.2

0.9

0.7

Education

Less than high school

High school graduate

Some college

College graduate

2.1

2.7

2.6

2.8

3.5

2.9

3.8

3.6

 
2.1

2.5

2.2

2.1

3.4

3.3

3.6

3.2

 
0.6

0.9

0.8

0.9

0.7

1.2

0.9

1.2

Region

Northeast

North Central

South

West

3.0

3.5

3.6

3.0

1.4

4.2

4.6

2.9

 
2.2

3.2

2.9

2.4

4.7

3.6

4.4

2.4

 
1.2

1.3

1.6

1.5

1.8

1.7

1.9

1.5

Personal Income

Less than $9,000

$9,000-$19,999

$20,000-$39,999

$40,000-$74,999

  • $75,000 or more
2.0

2.5

2.1

2.0

1.8

2.6

3.7

3.8

3.2

3.1

 
1.2

2.5

2.6

2.8

1.1

1.7

3.3

4.2

3.5

0.9

 
0.5

0.9

1.0

0.7

0.4

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.2

0.7

Note: Subtotals may not sum to totals due to missing values on the demographic variables and rounding error.

1 Heavy alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of at least five days in the previous 30 days.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.

 

 
Table A2.3 Percentage of Illicit Drug and Heavy Alcohol Users Among Full-Time Workers, Age 18-49, by Establishment Size, STANDARD ERRORS, 1994 and 1997
           
Establishment Size
Illicit Drug Use
 
Heavy Alcohol Use1
 
Total Full-Time Workers
1994
Total 0.5     0.5     -  
1-24 Employees 0.9     0.7     1.0  
25-499 Employees 0.6     0.6     1.0  
500+ Employees 0.8     1.2     0.7  
1997
Total 0.5     0.6     -  
1-24 Employees 1.0     0.9     1.3  
25-499 Employees 0.7     1.1     1.2  
500+ Employees 1.5     1.3     1.0  

Note: Subtotals may not sum to totals due to rounding error. The estimated numbers in this table differ from the estimated numbers found in other tables due to missing values on the establishment size variable.

1 Heavy alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of at least five days in the previous 30 days.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.

 

 
Table A2.4 Percentage of Full-Time Workers, Age 18-49, Reporting Workplace Drug or Alcohol Testing, Current Illicit Drug Use, and Heavy Alcohol Use, by Occupation Categories, STANDARD ERRORS, 1994 and 1997
Occupation Category  
Workplace Drug/Alcohol Testing
 
Current Illicit 

Drug Use

 
Current Heavy Alcohol Use1
 
1994
1997
Diff.2
 
1994
1997
Diff.2
 
1994
1997
Diff.2
Total  
1.1
1.3
1.7
 
0.5
0.5
0.8
 
0.5
0.6
0.7
Executive, Administrative & Managerial  
2.2
3.3
4.0
 
1.1
2.1
2.3
 
1.1
1.5
1.9
Professional Specialty  
2.0
3.1
3.7
 
1.0
1.0
1.4
 
1.0
1.4
1.7
Technicians & Related Support  
4.6
5.3
7.0
 
1.4
3.1
3.3
 
1.6
1.6
2.3
Sales  
2.5
3.0
3.9
 
1.7
2.3
2.9
 
1.3
0.9
1.5
Administrative Support  
2.4
2.6
3.5
 
1.0
0.6
1.2
 
0.7
1.3
1.5
Protective Service  
5.5
3.4
6.5
 
1.6
1.6
2.3
 
3.0
2.3
3.8
Food Preparation, Waiters, Waitresses & Bartenders  
2.5
3.2
4.1
 
2.1
3.8
4.4
 
2.3
3.1
3.9
Other Service  
3.1
4.6
5.9
 
1.3
4.0
4.2
 
1.6
4.4
4.7
Precision Production & Repair  
4.3
6.3
7.6
 
2.0
1.6
2.6
 
2.5
2.5
3.6
Construction  
3.5
3.9
5.2
 
2.2
2.8
3.6
 
2.4
3.6
4.3
Extractive & Precision Production  
4.2
6.1
7.4
 
1.9
1.6
2.5
 
2.6
2.0
3.3
Machine Operators & Inspectors  
3.7
3.4
2.9
 
1.9
1.8
2.6
 
2.3
1.7
2.9
Transportation & Material Moving  
3.0
4.5
5.4
 
1.5
3.1
3.4
 
2.6
2.7
3.8
Handlers, Helpers & Laborers  
3.9
6.0
7.1
 
2.5
1.5
2.9
 
3.1
3.6
4.7

1 Heavy alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of at least five days in the previous 30 days.

2 Diff. refers to percentage difference between 1994 and 1997.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B and 1997.


 
Table A3.1 Percentage of Full-Time Workers, Age 18-49, Reporting Various Workplace Outcomes, by Current Illicit Drug and Heavy Alcohol Use, STANDARD ERRORS, 1994 and 1997
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Heavy Alcohol Use1
Workplace Outcome
Yes
No
 
Yes
No
1994
1997
1994
1997
1994
1997
1994
1997
Worked for three or more employers in the past year
1.4
1.6
0.3
0.4
 
1.5
1.4
0.3
0.4
Missed two or more days of work in the past month due to illness or injury
1.8
3.1
0.5
0.6
 
1.4
3.2
0.5
0.6
Skipped one or more days of work in the past month
1.8
3.3
0.4
0.4
 
1.7
3.1
0.4
0.4
Voluntarily left an employer in the past year
2.1
3.2
0.6
0.8
 
2.2
3.2
0.6
0.8
Fired by an employer in the past year
1.3
0.7
0.2
1.2
 
1.5
0.4
0.2
0.2
Had a workplace accident in the past year
1.3
1.1
0.4
0.4
 
1.4
2.6
0.4
0.4

1 Current heavy alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of at least five days in the previous 30 days.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.
 

 
Table A4.1 Percentage of Full-Time Workers, Age 18-49, Reporting That Their Workplace Provides Information, Has a Written Policy, or Maintains an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) Concerning Drug or Alcohol Use, by Establishment Size, 1994, 1997 B STANDARD ERRORS
 
Information About

Drug and Alcohol Use

 
Written Policy About

Drug and Alcohol Use

 
Employee

Assistance Program

Establishment Size
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
Total 0.7 1.0   0.7 1.0   0.9 1.6
1-24 Employees 1.4 1.8   1.6 1.8   1.2 1.7
25-499 Employees 0.9 1.0   0.9 1.1   1.2 1.6
500+ Employees 0.9 1.6   1.1 1.7   1.5 2.8

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.


 
Table A4.2 Percentage of Full-Time Workers, Age 18-49, Reporting That Their Workplace Provides Information, Has a Written Policy, or Maintains an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) Concerning Drug or Alcohol Use, by Establishment Size and Current Illicit Drug Use, STANDARD ERRORS, 1994 and 1997
 
Information About

Drug and Alcohol Use

 
Written Policy About

Drug and Alcohol Use

 
Employee

Assistance Program

Establishment Size
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
    1994
Total 2.6 0.7   2.7 0.7   2.5 0.9
1-24 Employees 4.2 1.5   4.4 1.6   2.6 1.3
25-499 Employees 3.3 0.9   3.8 1.0   5.5 1.3
500+ Employees 2.6 1.0   2.3 1.2   3.7 1.5
    1997
Total 3.7 1.0   3.6 1.0   4.1 1.6
1-24 Employees 5.5 1.8   5.1 1.8   6.0 1.7
25-499 Employees 4.2 0.9   4.2 1.1   5.6 1.6
500+ Employees 3.5 1.7   4.4 1.8   8.4 2.9

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.

 

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.
Occupation Category
Information About Drug or Alcohol Use
Written Policy About Drug or Alcohol Use
Employee Assistance Program
1994
1997
Diff.
1994
1997
Diff.
1994
1997
Diff.
Total
0.7
1.0
1.2
0.7
1.0
1.3
0.9
1.6
1.8
Executive, Administrative & Managerial
1.7
2.8
3.3
2.0
2.9
3.5
2.1
3.4
4.0
Professional Specialty
1.9
3.0
3.6
2.2
3.0
3.7
2.4
3.2
4.0
Technicians & Related Support
2.7
4.0
4.8
2.8
3.6
4.5
4.1
4.6
6.2
Sales
2.5
3.0
3.9
2.7
3.1
4.0
2.7
3.8
4.7
Administrative Support
1.9
2.1
2.8
2.1
2.3
3.1
2.3
2.6
3.5
Protective Service
1.3
2.3
2.7
2.0
3.5
4.0
3.9
4.2
5.7
Food Preparation, Waiters, Waitresses & Bartenders
2.9
3.5
4.5
3.3
3.9
5.1
2.3
3.7
4.3
Other Service
2.6
3.5
4.4
2.7
3.9
4.7
3.5
4.1
5.4
Precision Production & Repair
3.5
4.3
5.5
3.8
4.6
5.9
4.3
7.0
8.2
Construction
3.7
4.2
5.6
3.8
4.3
5.8
3.2
4.6
5.6
Extractive & Precision Production
3.5
4.0
5.3
3.6
4.3
5.6
4.3
6.4
7.7
Machine Operators & Inspectors
2.6
2.3
3.5
2.8
2.7
3.9
3.2
3.3
4.6
Transportation & Material Moving
2.6
2.3
3.5
2.8
2.5
3.8
3.6
5.6
6.6
Handlers, Helpers & Laborers
3.9
4.6
6.0
3.9
4.5
6.0
4.0
5.1
6.5
Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.
Establishment Size
Total
 
1 -24 Employees
 
25 - 499 Employees
 
500 or More Employees
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
Any
1.1
1.2
 
1.2
1.3
 
1.4
1.8
 
1.7
3.0
At Hiring
1.0
1.3
 
1.1
1.1
 
1.5
1.9
 
2.3
3.3
Random
0.9
1.1
 
1.0
1.1
 
1.2
1.6
 
2.1
3.6
Upon Suspicion
0.9
1.2
 
0.9
1.0
 
1.4
1.8
 
2.3
3.2
Post- Accident
0.8
1.3
 
0.9
1.2
 
1.3
1.9
 
2.0
3.2
Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.

 

 

Table A5.2 Percentage of Full-Time Workers, Age 18-49, Reporting Workplace Drug Testing Programs, by Occupation Category and Type of Program, STANDARD ERRORS, 1994 and 1997  
Occupation Category
Type of Testing Program
 
At Hiring
 
Random
 
Upon Suspicion
 
Post-Accident
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
Total
1.0
1.3
 
0.9
1.1
 
0.9
1.2
 
0.8
1.3
Executive, Administrative & Managerial
2.2
3.6
 
1.6
3.3
 
1.9
3.3
 
1.6
3.1
Professional Specialty
2.0
2.6
 
1.6
2.0
 
1.7
2.2
 
1.7
2.0
Technicians & Related Support
4.4
4.9
 
3.3
3.5
 
4.0
4.5
 
3.0
4.3
Sales
2.4
2.9
 
1.9
2.2
 
2.2
2.7
 
2.1
2.4
Administrative Support
2.4
2.5
 
2.0
2.6
 
2.0
2.7
 
1.6
2.4
Protective Service
6.1
4.9
 
4.7
5.7
 
6.2
4.9
 
5.3
5.8
Food Preparation, Waiters, Waitresses & Bartenders
2.9
3.2
 
1.9
3.0
 
2.3
3.2
 
2.3
3.0
Other Service
3.1
5.1
 
2.9
3.7
 
3.1
3.4
 
2.7
4.0
Precision Production & Repair
4.2
5.7
 
4.1
5.9
 
4.2
6.8
 
4.4
7.0
Construction
3.8
3.7
 
3.4
3.9
 
3.8
3.8
 
3.3
3.6
Extractive & Precision Production
4.2
6.9
 
3.5
6.1
 
3.9
6.9
 
4.2
6.3
Machine Operators & Inspectors
3.6
3.4
 
3.4
3.4
 
3.2
3.7
 
3.1
4.3
Transportation & Material Moving
3.9
4.8
 
4.4
5.0
 
4.2
4.4
 
4.4
5.6
Handlers, Helpers & Laborers
4.1
6.1
 
3.8
5.6
 
4.5
5.0
 
4.1
5.7

Note: The denominator refers to all those full-time workers, age 18-49, in the sample.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.  

Type of Program
Total
 
1 -24 Employees
 
25 - 499 Employees
 
500 or More Employees
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
1994
1997
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
1994
1997
Any
2.7
4.8
1.1
1.3
 
3.4
5.1
1.2
1.4
 
5.1
6.7
1.5
1.8
 
6.6
5.2
1.8
3.2
At Hiring
2.3
4.6
1.1
1.4
 
2.6
3.1
1.1
1.1
 
4.7
7.4
1.5
2.0
 
6.7
6.5
2.4
3.5
Random
1.9
3.4
0.9
1.2
 
2.1
1.6
1.0
1.1
 
3.4
6.5
1.3
1.5
 
5.7
10.9
2.2
3.7
Upon Suspicion
2.5
4.1
0.9
1.3
 
2.5
5.5
0.9
1.1
 
5.0
5.8
1.4
1.9
 
6.4
10.6
2.3
3.5
Post- Accident
2.3
3.8
0.8
1.3
 
2.4
5.2
0.9
1.3
 
5.2
6.3
1.2
1.9
 
6.3
10.9
2.0
3.3
Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.
Establishment Size
Tests for Drugs at Hiring
 
Tests for Drugs Randomly 
 
Tests for Drugs 

Upon Suspicion

 
Tests for Drugs 

Post-Accident

Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
 
Current Illicit Drug Use
No Current Illicit Drug Use
1994
1997
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
1994
1997
 
1994
1997
1994
1997
Total
2.7
3.3
0.5
0.6
 
2.7
3.4
0.6
0.6
 
2.9
3.2
0.8
0.9
 
2.2
2.2
0.5
0.5
1-24 Employees
3.6
5.5
0.7
0.8
 
3.5
5.8
0.9
0.8
 
3.6
5.0
1.0
1.1
 
3.0
3.2
0.7
0.9
25 - 499 Employees
4.9
3.5
0.6
0.7
 
5.1
4.4
0.8
0.9
 
5.0
3.9
1.1
1.4
 
3.5
3.2
0.8
0.6
500 + Employees
6.3
3.4
1.1
1.2
 
6.4
4.2
1.7
1.5
 
7.4
3.5
1.9
1.9
 
4.4
6.3
1.1
0.6
Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.
Occupation Category
Information About Drug or Alcohol Use
Written Policy About Drug or Alcohol Use
Employee Assistance Program
1994
1997
Diff.1
1994
1997
Diff.1
1994
1997
Diff.1
Total
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.7
0.9
1.1
Executive, Administrative & Managerial
1.0
1.2
1.6
1.3
1.3
1.8
1.6
2.4
2.8
Professional Specialty
1.5
1.9
2.4
2.1
1.9
2.8
1.8
2.5
3.1
Technicians & Related Support
2.6
3.7
4.5
3.7
3.8
5.3
2.6
3.7
4.6
Sales
1.2
1.0
1.6
1.9
1.6
2.5
1.8
2.6
3.2
Administrative Support
1.0
0.7
1.2
1.5
1.0
1.8
1.7
1.4
2.2
Protective Service
2.5
0.6
2.6
3.4
4.1
5.4
4.1
3.0
5.1
Food Preparation, Waiters, Waitresses & Bartenders
2.3
3.0
3.8
2.4
2.9
3.8
2.9
2.6
3.9
Other Service
1.7
1.7
2.4
2.6
1.8
3.2
2.6
1.5
3.0
Precision Production & Repair
2.5
0.9
2.7
2.8
1.5
3.2
3.2
3.1
4.5
Construction
3.3
1.9
3.8
3.0
2.4
3.9
3.5
3.0
4.6
Extractive & Precision Production
1.5
2.7
3.1
2.4
2.9
3.7
2.6
3.0
4.0
Machine Operators & Inspectors
1.9
1.3
2.3
1.7
2.2
2.8
1.9
1.9
2.7
Transportation & Material Moving
1.7
1.8
2.5
2.3
3.9
4.5
3.6
3.8
5.2
Handlers, Helpers & Laborers
1.9
0.8
2.1
2.7
1.2
2.9
2.4
1.3
2.8
1 Diff. refers to percentage difference between 1994 and 1997.

Source: Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-B, 1997.


Reference:
6 See Shah, B.V., Barnwell, B.G., Hunt, P.N., & LaVange, L.M. (1994). SUDAAN User=s Manual: Release 6.4. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.

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