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Chapter 1 Alternative Text for Figure

Figure 1.1 is titled "U.S. Census Bureau Regions." It is map of the United States divided into the four U.S. Census Bureau regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

The Northeast region is made up of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

The South region is made up of Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.

The Midwest region is made up of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

The West region is made up of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

Click here to return to Figure 1.1.

Chapter 2 Alternative Text for Figures

Figure 2.1 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2010." It is a bar graph, where the numbers in millions of past month users are shown on the horizontal axis and seven drug categories (illicit drugs, marijuana, psychotherapeutics, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and heroin) are shown on the vertical axis. There is a footnote on the illicit drugs row that says, "Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically."

The number of persons who used illicit drugs in the past month was 22.6 million.

The number of persons who used marijuana in the past month was 17.4 million.

The number of persons who used psychotherapeutics in the past month was 7.0 million.

The number of persons who used cocaine in the past month was 1.5 million.

The number of persons who used hallucinogens in the past month was 1.2 million.

The number of persons who used inhalants in the past month was 0.7 million.

The number of persons who used heroin in the past month was 0.2 million.

Click here to return to Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.2 is titled "Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the five drug categories (illicit drugs, marijuana, psychotherapeutics, cocaine, and hallucinogens), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 8.3 percent in 2002, 8.2 percent in 2003, 7.9 percent in 2004, 8.1 percent in 2005, 8.3 percent in 2006, 8.0 percent in both 2007 and 2008, 8.7 percent in 2009, and 8.9 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month marijuana use was 6.2 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 6.1 percent in 2004, 6.0 percent in both 2005 and 2006, 5.8 percent in 2007, 6.1 percent in 2008, 6.6 percent in 2009, and 6.9 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month psychotherapeutic use was 2.7 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 2.5 percent in 2004, 2.7 percent in 2005, 2.9 percent in 2006, 2.8 percent in 2007, 2.5 percent in 2008, 2.8 percent in 2009, and 2.7 percent in 2010.

The prevalence of past month cocaine use was 0.9 percent in 2002, 1.0 percent in 2003, 0.8 percent in 2004, 1.0 percent in both 2005 and 2006, 0.8 percent in 2007, 0.7 percent in both 2008 and 2009, and 0.6 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month hallucinogen use was 0.5 percent in 2002; 0.4 percent in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008; and 0.5 percent in both 2009 and 2010. The difference between the 2010 estimate and the 2004 estimate was statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 2.2.

Figure 2.3 is titled "Past Month Nonmedical Use of Types of Psychotherapeutic Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four psychotherapeutic drug categories (pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of past month use of pain relievers was 1.9 percent in 2002, 2.0 percent in 2003, 1.8 percent in 2004, 1.9 percent in 2005, 2.1 percent in both 2006 and 2007, 1.9 percent in 2008, 2.1 percent in 2009, and 2.0 percent in 2010.

The prevalence of past month use of tranquilizers was 0.8 percent in both 2002 and 2003; 0.7 percent in 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008; 0.8 percent in 2009; and 0.9 percent in 2010. The difference between the 2010 estimate and the 2004 estimate was statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month use of stimulants was 0.6 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 0.5 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 0.6 percent in 2006, 0.4 percent in both 2007 and 2008, 0.5 percent in 2009, and 0.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month use of sedatives was 0.2 percent in 2002; 0.1 percent in 2003, 2004, and 2005; 0.2 percent in 2006; and 0.1 percent in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010.

Click here to return to Figure 2.3.

Figure 2.4 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age: 2009 and 2010." It is a bar graph, where survey years and 14 categories of age in years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and 2009; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among 12 or 13 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 3.6 percent in 2009 and 4.0 percent in 2010.

Among 14 or 15 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 9.0 percent in 2009 and 9.3 percent in 2010.

Among 16 or 17 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 16.7 percent in 2009 and 16.6 percent in 2010.

Among 18 to 20 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 22.2 percent in 2009 and 23.1 percent in 2010.

Among 21 to 25 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 20.5 percent in both 2009 and 2010.

Among 26 to 29 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 14.4 percent in 2009 and 14.8 percent in 2010.

Among 30 to 34 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 10.5 percent in 2009 and 12.9 percent in 2010. This difference was statistically significant.

Among 35 to 39 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 8.0 percent in 2009 and 8.1 percent in 2010.

Among 40 to 44 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 6.5 percent in 2009 and 6.9 percent in 2010.

Among 45 to 49 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 6.5 percent in 2009 and 7.2 percent in 2010.

Among 50 to 54 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 6.9 percent in 2009 and 7.2 percent in 2010.

Among 55 to 59 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 5.4 percent in 2009 and 4.1 percent in 2010.

Among 60 to 64 year olds, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 3.1 percent in 2009 and 2.7 percent in 2010.

Among persons aged 65 or older, the prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 0.9 percent in 2009 and 1.1 percent in 2010.

Click here to return to Figure 2.4.

Figure 2.5 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of youths aged 12 to 17 using illicit drugs in the past month was 11.6 percent in 2002, 11.2 percent in 2003, 10.6 percent in 2004, 9.9 percent in 2005, 9.8 percent in 2006, 9.5 percent in 2007, 9.3 percent in 2008, 10.0 percent in 2009, and 10.1 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month illicit drug use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 20.2 percent in 2002, 20.3 percent in 2003, 19.4 percent in 2004, 20.1 percent in 2005, 19.8 percent in 2006, 19.7 percent in 2007, 19.6 percent in 2008, 21.2 percent in 2009, and 21.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month illicit drug use among adults aged 26 or older was  percent in 2002, 5.6 percent in 2003, 5.5 percent in 2004, 5.8 percent in 2005, 6.1 percent in 2006, 5.8 percent in 2007, 5.9 percent in 2008, 6.3 percent in 2009, and 6.6 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 2.5.

Figure 2.6 is titled "Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the five drug categories (illicit drugs, marijuana, psychotherapeutics, inhalants, and hallucinogens), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of youths aged 12 to 17 using illicit drugs in the past month was 11.6 percent in 2002, 11.2 percent in 2003, 10.6 percent in 2004, 9.9 percent in 2005, 9.8 percent in 2006, 9.5 percent in 2007, 9.3 percent in 2008, 10.0 percent in 2009, and 10.1 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of youths aged 12 to 17 using marijuana in the past month was 8.2 percent in 2002; 7.9 percent in 2003; 7.6 percent in 2004; 6.8 percent in 2005; 6.7 percent in 2006, 2007, and 2008; 7.3 percent in 2009; and 7.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2006, 2007, and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of youths aged 12 to 17 using psychotherapeutics in the past month was 4.0 percent in both 2002 and 2003; 3.6 percent in 2004; 3.3 percent in 2005, 2006, and 2007; 2.9 percent in 2008; 3.1 percent in 2009; and 3.0 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of youths aged 12 to 17 using inhalants in the past month was 1.2 percent in 2002, 1.3 percent in 2003, 1.2 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 1.3 percent in 2006, 1.2 percent in 2007, 1.1 percent in 2008, 1.0 percent in 2009, and 1.1 percent in 2010.

The prevalence of youths aged 12 to 17 using hallucinogens in the past month was 1.0 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 0.8 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 0.7 percent in both 2006 and 2007, 1.0 percent in 2008, and 0.9 percent in both 2009 and 2010.

Click here to return to Figure 2.6.

Figure 2.7 is titled "Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Young Adults Aged 18 to 25: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the five drug categories (illicit drugs, marijuana, psychotherapeutics, cocaine, and hallucinogens), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of past month illicit drug use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 20.2 percent in 2002, 20.3 percent in 2003, 19.4 percent in 2004, 20.1 percent in 2005, 19.8 percent in 2006, 19.7 percent in 2007, 19.6 percent in 2008, 21.2 percent in 2009, and 21.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month marijuana use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 17.3 percent in 2002, 17.0 percent in 2003, 16.1 percent in 2004, 16.6 percent in 2005, 16.3 percent in 2006, 16.4 percent in 2007, 16.5 percent in 2008, 18.1 percent in 2009, and 18.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month psychotherapeutic use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 5.5 percent in 2002, 6.1 percent in both 2003 and 2004, 6.3 percent in 2005, 6.5 percent in 2006, 6.0 percent in 2007, 5.9 percent in 2008, 6.3 percent in 2009, and 5.9 percent in 2010.

The prevalence of past month cocaine use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 2.0 percent in 2002, 2.2 percent in 2003, 2.1 percent in 2004, 2.6 percent in 2005, 2.2 percent in 2006, 1.7 percent in 2007, 1.5 percent in 2008, 1.4 percent in 2009, 1.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month hallucinogen use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 1.9 percent in 2002, 1.7 percent in 2003, 1.5 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 1.7 percent in 2006, 1.5 percent in 2007, 1.7 percent in 2008, 1.8 percent in 2009, and 2.0 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2004, 2005, and 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 2.7.

Figure 2.8 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Adults Aged 50 to 59: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each age group (50 to 59, 50 to 54, and 55 to 59), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among adults aged 50 to 59, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 2.7 percent in 2002, 3.1 percent in 2003, 3.8 percent in 2004, 4.4 percent in 2005, 4.3 percent in 2006, 5.0 percent in 2007, 4.6 percent in 2008, 6.2 percent in 2009, and 5.8 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among adults aged 50 to 54, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 3.4 percent in 2002, 3.9 percent in 2003, 4.8 percent in 2004, 5.2 percent in 2005, 6.0 percent in 2006, 5.7 percent in 2007, 4.3 percent in 2008, 6.9 percent in 2009, and 7.2 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Among adults aged 55 to 59, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 1.9 percent in 2002, 2.0 percent in 2003, 2.6 percent in 2004, 3.4 percent in 2005, 2.4 percent in 2006, 4.1 percent in 2007, 5.0 percent in 2008, 5.4 percent in 2009, and 4.1 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 2.8.

Figure 2.9 is titled "Past Month Marijuana Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among males aged 12 to 17, the percentage using marijuana in the past month was 9.1 percent in 2002, 8.6 percent in 2003, 8.1 percent in 2004, 7.5 percent in 2005, 6.8 percent in 2006, 7.5 percent in 2007, 7.3 percent in 2008, and 8.3 percent in both 2009 and 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2006 and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Among females aged 12 to 17, the percentage using marijuana in the past month was 7.2 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 7.1 percent in 2004, 6.2 percent in 2005, 6.4 percent in 2006, 5.8 percent in 2007, 6.0 percent in 2008, 6.3 percent in 2009, and 6.4 percent in 2010.

Click here to return to Figure 2.9.

Figure 2.10 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Race/Ethnicity: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each race/ethnicity category (black or African American, white, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. There is a note below the figure that says, "Sample sizes for American Indians or Alaska Natives and for persons of two or more races were too small for reliable trend presentation for these groups. Due to low precision, estimates for Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders are not shown."

Among blacks or African Americans, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 9.7 percent in 2002, 8.7 percent in both 2003 and 2004, 9.7 percent in 2005, 9.8 percent in 2006, 9.5 percent in 2007, 10.1 percent in 2008, 9.6 percent in 2009, and 10.7 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2003 and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among whites, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 8.5 percent in 2002, 8.3 percent in 2003, 8.1 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 8.5 percent in 2006, 8.2 percent in both 2007 and 2008, 8.8 percent in 2009, and 9.1 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Among Hispanics or Latinos, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 7.2 percent in 2002, 8.0 percent in 2003, 7.2 percent in 2004, 7.6 percent in 2005, 6.9 percent in 2006, 6.6 percent in 2007, 6.2 percent in 2008, 7.9 percent in 2009, and 8.1 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2007 and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Among Asians, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 3.5 percent in 2002, 3.8 percent in 2003, 3.1 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 3.6 percent in 2006, 4.2 percent in 2007, 3.6 percent in 2008, 3.7 percent in 2009, and 3.5 percent in 2010.

Click here to return to Figure 2.10.

Figure 2.11 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Employment Status: 2009 and 2010." There are two bar graphs, one for rates of use and one for the number of users. Employment status is shown on the horizontal axis in both graphs. The percentage using illicit drugs in the past month is shown on the vertical axis of the rates of use graph, and the number of users in millions is shown on the vertical axis of the number of users' graph. There is a separate bar for the 2009 and 2010 survey years within each employment status category. The four employment statuses are full time, part time, unemployed, and other. There is a footnote on the "Other" bar that says, "The Other Employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and 2009; no differences were significant.

The prevalence of past month illicit drug use among those employed full time was 8.0 percent (9.2 million) in 2009 and 8.4 percent (9.6 million) in 2010.

The prevalence of past month illicit drug use among those employed part time was 11.5 percent (3.6 million) in 2009 and 11.2 percent (3.7 million) in 2010.

The prevalence of past month illicit drug use among those unemployed was 17.0 percent (2.5 million) in 2009 and 17.5 percent (2.6 million) in 2010.

The prevalence of past month illicit drug use among those with other employment status was 6.0 percent (4.0 million) in 2009 and 6.4 percent (4.3 million) in 2010.

Click here to return to Figure 2.11.

Figure 2.12 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by County Type: 2010." It is a bar graph, where county type is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. The five county types are large metropolitan, small metropolitan, nonmetropolitan urbanized, nonmetropolitan less urbanized, and nonmetropolitan completely rural.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in the large metropolitan county type using illicit drugs in the past month was 9.4 percent.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in the small metropolitan county type using illicit drugs in the past month was 8.8 percent.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in the nonmetropolitan urbanized county type using illicit drugs in the past month was 8.7 percent.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in the nonmetropolitan less urbanized county type using illicit drugs in the past month was 7.1 percent.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in the nonmetropolitan completely rural county type using illicit drugs in the past month was 3.7 percent.

Click here to return to Figure 2.12.

Chapter 3 Alternative Text for Figures

Figure 3.1 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age: 2010." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are 14 age categories, and for each age category, the bar is divided into three sections corresponding to three types of alcohol use: (1) current alcohol use, which does not include binge use or heavy use; (2) binge alcohol use, which does not include heavy use; and (3) heavy alcohol use. Individual estimates may not sum to the total due to rounding.

Among 12 or 13 year olds, 3.1 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 2.1 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 0.9 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 0.1 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 14 or 15 year olds, 12.4 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 5.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 5.5 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 1.2 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 16 or 17 year olds, 24.6 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 9.3 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 11.7 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 3.6 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 18 to 20 year olds, 48.9 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 15.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 22.0 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 11.3 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 21 to 25 year olds, 70.0 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 24.5 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 30.3 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 15.2 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 26 to 29 year olds, 65.3 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 26.7 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 27.2 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 11.4 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 30 to 34 year olds, 63.9 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 29.3 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 25.3 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 9.3 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 35 to 39 year olds, 60.5 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 31.9 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 20.8 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.8 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 40 to 44 year olds, 61.1 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 34.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 19.0 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.5 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 45 to 49 year olds, 58.9 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 34.0 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 17.7 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.2 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 50 to 54 year olds, 57.6 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 37.0 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 14.6 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 6.0 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 55 to 59 year olds, 52.7 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 35.8 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 11.7 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 5.2 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 60 to 64 year olds, 51.6 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 37.8 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 10.5 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 3.3 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among persons aged 65 or older, 38.2 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 30.7 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 5.9 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 1.6 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Click here to return to Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.2 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Race/Ethnicity: 2010." It is a bar graph, where race/ethnicity is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. The six categories of race/ethnicity are (1) white, (2) black or African American, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, (4) Asian, (5) two or more races, and (6) Hispanic or Latino. For each race/ethnicity category, the bar is divided into three sections corresponding to three types of alcohol use: (1) current alcohol use, which does not include binge use or heavy use; (2) binge alcohol use, which does not include heavy use; and (3) heavy alcohol use. Individual estimates may not sum to the total due to rounding. There is a note below the figure that says, "Due to low precision, estimates for Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders are not shown."

Among whites, 56.7 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 32.8 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 16.3 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.7 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among blacks or African Americans, 42.8 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 23.1 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 15.3 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 4.5 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among American Indians or Alaska Natives, 36.6 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 11.8 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 17.9 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 6.9 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among Asians, 38.4 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 26.0 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 9.9 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 2.4 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among persons of two or more races, 45.2 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 23.7 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 15.7 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 5.8 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among Hispanics or Latinos, 41.8 percent were past month alcohol users; of these, 16.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge and non-heavy use), 20.0 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 5.1 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Click here to return to Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.3 is titled "Binge Alcohol Use among Adults Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each college enrollment status (enrolled full time in college and not enrolled full time in college), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among adults aged 18 to 22 enrolled full time in college, 44.4 percent were past month binge alcohol users in 2002, 43.5 percent in 2003, 43.4 percent in 2004, 44.8 percent in 2005, 45.5 percent in 2006, 43.6 percent in 2007, 40.5 percent in 2008, 43.5 percent in 2009, and 42.2 percent in 2010. The difference between the 2010 estimate and the 2006 estimate was statistically significant.

Among adults aged 18 to 22 not enrolled full time in college, 38.9 percent were past month binge alcohol users in 2002, 38.7 percent in 2003, 39.4 percent in 2004, 38.3 percent in 2005, 38.4 percent in both 2006 and 2007, 38.1 percent in 2008, 37.8 percent in 2009, and 35.6 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.4 is titled "Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2010." It is a bar graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year was 14.2 percent in 2002, 13.6 percent in 2003, 13.5 percent in 2004, 13.0 percent in 2005, 12.4 percent in 2006, 12.7 percent in 2007, 12.4 percent in 2008, 12.0 percent in 2009, and 11.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.5 is titled "Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 16 or Older, by Age: 2010." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. There are 12 age categories.

The percentage of persons driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year was 5.8 percent among 16 or 17 year olds, 15.1 percent among 18 to 20 year olds, 23.4 percent among 21 to 25 year olds, 19.3 percent among 26 to 29 year olds, 18.0 percent among 30 to 34 year olds, 14.8 percent among 35 to 39 year olds, 13.4 percent among 40 to 44 year olds, 11.8 percent among 45 to 49 year olds, 10.5 percent among 50 to 54 year olds, 10.1 percent among 55 to 59 year olds, 6.4 percent among 60 to 64 year olds, and 2.7 percent among persons aged 65 or older.

Click here to return to Figure 3.5.

Figure 3.6 is titled "Current Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by Age: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or 13 year olds, 14 or 15 year olds, 16 or 17 year olds, and 18 to 20 year olds), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among persons aged 12 or 13, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 4.3 percent in 2002, 4.5 percent in 2003, 4.3 percent in 2004, 4.2 percent in 2005, 3.9 percent in 2006, 3.5 percent in 2007, 3.4 percent in 2008, 3.5 percent in 2009, and 3.1 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 14 or 15, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 16.6 percent in 2002, 17.0 percent in 2003, 16.4 percent in 2004, 15.1 percent in 2005, 15.6 percent in 2006, 14.7 percent in 2007, 13.1 percent in 2008, 13.0 percent in 2009, and 12.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 16 or 17, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 32.6 percent in 2002, 31.8 percent in 2003, 32.5 percent in 2004, 30.1 percent in 2005, 29.7 percent in 2006, 29.0 percent in 2007, 26.2 percent in 2008, 26.3 percent in 2009, and 24.6 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2009 estimate and the 2002 through 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 18 to 20, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 51.0 percent in 2002, 51.5 percent in 2003, 51.1 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 51.6 percent in 2006, 50.7 percent in 2007, 48.7 percent in 2008, 49.7 percent in 2009, and 48.9 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2003 through 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.7 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by Gender: 2010." It is a bar graph, where the levels of alcohol use (current, binge, and heavy) are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There is a bar for each gender at each alcohol use level.

The percentage of males aged 12 to 20 using alcohol in the past month was 28.3 percent. The percentage of females aged 12 to 20 using alcohol in the past month was 24.1 percent.

The percentage of males aged 12 to 20 reporting binge alcohol use in the past month was 19.8 percent. The percentages of females aged 12 to 20 reporting binge alcohol use in the past month was 14.0 percent.

The percentage of males aged 12 to 20 reporting heavy alcohol use in the past month was 6.7 percent. The percentage of females aged 12 to 20 reporting heavy alcohol use in the past month was 3.5 percent.

Click here to return to Figure 3.7.

Chapter 4 Alternative Text for Figures

Figure 4.1 is titled "Past Month Tobacco Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are five categories of tobacco use: tobacco products, cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco. For each type of tobacco use, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 30.4 percent used tobacco products in the past month in 2002, 29.8 percent in 2003, 29.2 percent in 2004, 29.4 percent in 2005, 29.6 percent in 2006, 28.6 percent in 2007, 28.4 percent in 2008, 27.7 percent in 2009, and 27.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 26.0 percent used cigarettes in the past month in 2002, 25.4 percent in 2003, 24.9 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 25.0 percent in 2006, 24.2 percent in 2007, 23.9 percent in 2008, 23.3 percent in 2009, and 23.0 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 5.4 percent used cigars in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 5.7 percent in 2004, 5.6 percent in both 2005 and 2006, 5.4 percent in 2007, 5.3 percent in both 2008 and 2009, and 5.2 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2004 and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 3.3 percent used smokeless tobacco in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 3.0 percent in 2004, 3.2 percent in 2005, 3.3 percent in 2006, 3.2 percent in 2007, 3.5 percent in 2008, 3.4 percent in 2009, and 3.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2004 and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 0.8 percent used pipe tobacco in the past month in 2002, 0.7 percent in 2003, 0.8 percent in 2004, 0.9 percent in both 2005 and 2006, and 0.8 percent in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010.

Click here to return to Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.2 is titled "Past Month Tobacco Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are five categories of tobacco use: tobacco products, cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco. For each type of tobacco use, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 15.2 percent used tobacco products in the past month in 2002, 14.4 percent in both 2003 and 2004, 13.1 percent in 2005, 12.9 percent in 2006, 12.4 percent in 2007, 11.4 percent in 2008, 11.6 percent in 2009, and 10.7 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 13.0 percent used cigarettes in the past month in 2002, 12.2 percent in 2003, 11.9 percent in 2004, 10.8 percent in 2005, 10.4 percent in 2006, 9.8 percent in 2007, 9.1 percent in 2008, 8.9 percent in 2009, and 8.3 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 4.5 percent used cigars in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 4.8 percent in 2004, 4.2 percent in 2005, 4.1 percent in 2006, 4.2 percent in 2007, 3.8 percent in 2008, 4.0 percent in 2009, and 3.2 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 2.0 percent used smokeless tobacco in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 2.3 percent in 2004, 2.1 percent in 2005, 2.4 percent in both 2006 and 2007, 2.2 percent in 2008, and 2.3 percent in both 2009 and 2010. The difference between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 0.6 percent used pipe tobacco in both 2002 and 2003; 0.7 percent in 2004; 0.6 percent in 2005; 0.7 percent in 2006, 2007, and 2008; 0.9 percent in 2009; and 0.6 percent in 2010. The difference between the 2010 estimate and the 2009 estimate was statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 4.2.

Figure 4.3 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age: 2010." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are 14 age categories.

The percentage of past month cigarette smoking was 1.8 percent among 12 or 13 year olds, 7.4 percent among 14 or 15 year olds, 15.4 percent among 16 or 17 year olds, 31.9 percent among 18 to 20 year olds, 35.8 percent among 21 to 25 year olds, 36.8 percent among 26 to 29 year olds, 30.9 percent among 30 to 34 year olds, 24.7 percent among 35 to 39 year olds, 26.5 percent among 40 to 44 year olds, 26.2 percent among 45 to 49 year olds, 25.2 percent among 50 to 54 year olds, 22.8 percent among 55 to 59 year olds, 16.9 percent among 60 to 64 year olds, and 9.1 percent among persons aged 65 or older.

Click here to return to Figure 4.3.

Figure 4.4 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among male youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 12.3 percent in 2002, 11.9 percent in 2003, 11.3 percent in 2004, 10.7 percent in 2005, 10.0 percent in both 2006 and 2007, 9.0 percent in 2008, 9.2 percent in 2009, and 8.6 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

Among female youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 13.6 percent in 2002, 12.5 percent in both 2003 and 2004, 10.8 percent in 2005, 10.7 percent in 2006, 9.7 percent in 2007, 9.2 percent in 2008, 8.6 percent in 2009, and 8.1 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 4.4.

Figure 4.5 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among Women Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status: Combined Years 2002 and 2003 to Combined Years 2009 and 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There is a line representing women who are pregnant and a line representing women who are not pregnant. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2009 and 2010 combined data and each of the previous combined years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among pregnant women aged 15 to 44, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 18.0 percent in 2002 and 2003 combined, 18.0 percent in 2003 and 2004 combined, 16.6 percent in 2004 and 2005 combined, 16.5 percent in 2005 and 2006 combined, 16.4 percent in 2006 and 2007 combined, 16.4 percent in 2007 and 2008 combined, 15.3 percent in 2008 and 2009 combined, and 16.3 percent in 2009 and 2010 combined.

Among women aged 15 to 44 who were not pregnant, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 30.7 percent in 2002 and 2003 combined, 30.0 percent in 2003 and 2004 combined, 29.6 percent in 2004 and 2005 combined, 29.5 percent in 2005 and 2006 combined, 28.4 percent in 2006 and 2007 combined, 27.3 percent in 2007 and 2008 combined, 27.4 percent in 2008 and 2009 combined, and 26.7 percent in 2009 and 2010 combined. The differences between the 2009 and 2010 combined estimate and the 2002 and 2003 combined, 2003 and 2004 combined, 2004 and 2005 combined, 2005 and 2006 combined, and 2006 and 2007 combined estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.6 is titled "Past Month Smokers of One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day among Daily Smokers, by Age Group: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking one or more packs per day in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 21.7 percent smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day in the past month in 2002, 22.0 percent in 2003, 19.3 percent in 2004, 20.1 percent in 2005, 17.7 percent in 2006, 18.5 percent in 2007, 18.4 percent in 2008, 17.9 percent in 2009, and 16.5 percent in 2010.

Among adults aged 18 to 25, 39.0 percent smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day in the past month in 2002, 37.1 percent in 2003, 34.9 percent in 2004, 36.9 percent in 2005, 34.4 percent in 2006, 33.1 percent in 2007, 32.1 percent in 2008, 29.7 percent in 2009, and 27.8 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Among adults aged 26 or older, 56.9 percent smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day in the past month in 2002, 57.9 percent in 2003, 59.1 percent in 2004, 55.0 percent in 2005, 54.7 percent in 2006, 55.0 percent in 2007, 52.8 percent in 2008, 49.3 percent in 2009, and 48.9 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 4.6.

Chapter 5 Alternative Text for Figures

Figure 5.1 is titled "First Specific Drug Associated with Initiation of Illicit Drug Use among Past Year Illicit Drug Initiates Aged 12 or Older: 2010." It is a pie chart with the following written below the chart: "3.0 million Initiates of Illicit Drugs." There is also a note at the bottom of the figure that says, "The percentages do not add up to 100 percent due to rounding or because a small number of respondents initiated multiple drugs on the same day. The first specific drug refers to the one that was used on the occasion of first-time use of any illicit drug."

The percentage of those who initiated illicit drug use with marijuana was 61.8 percent.

The percentage of those who initiated illicit drug use with pain relievers was 17.3 percent.

The percentage of those who initiated illicit drug use with inhalants was 9.0 percent.

The percentage of those who initiated illicit drug use with tranquilizers was 4.6 percent.

The percentage of those who initiated illicit drug use with hallucinogens was 3.0 percent.

The percentage of those who initiated illicit drug use with stimulants was 2.5 percent.

The percentage of those who initiated illicit drug use with sedatives was 1.9 percent.

The percentage of those who initiated illicit drug use with cocaine was 0.1 percent.

The percentage of those who initiated illicit drug use with heroin was 0.1 percent.

Click here to return to Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.2 is titled "Past Year Initiates of Specific Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2010." It is a bar graph, where the specific illicit drugs (marijuana, pain relievers, tranquilizers, Ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, stimulants, LSD, sedatives, heroin, and PCP) are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of past year initiates are shown on the vertical axis. There is a note at the bottom of the figure that says, "The specific drug refers to the one that was used for the first time, regardless of whether it was the first drug used or not."

The number of past year initiates among persons aged 12 or older in 2010 was 2,426,000 for marijuana; 2,004,000 for pain relievers; 1,238,000 for tranquilizers; 937,000 for Ecstasy; 793,000 for inhalants; 637,000 for cocaine; 624,000 for stimulants; 377,000 for LSD; 252,000 for sedatives; 140,000 for heroin; and 45,000 for PCP.

Click here to return to Figure 5.2.

Figure 5.3 is titled "Mean Age at First Use for Specific Illicit Drugs among Past Year Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2010." It is a bar graph, where the specific illicit drugs (inhalants, PCP, marijuana, LSD, Ecstasy, pain relievers, cocaine, stimulants, heroin, sedatives, and tranquilizers) are shown on the horizontal axis and the mean age in years is shown on the vertical axis.

Among persons aged 12 to 49, the mean age at first use of past year initiates was 16.3 years for inhalants, 17.6 years for PCP, 18.4 years for marijuana, 19.1 years for LSD, 19.4 years for Ecstasy, 21.0 years for pain relievers, 21.2 years for cocaine, 21.2 years for stimulants, 21.3 years for heroin, 23.5 years for sedatives, and 24.6 years for tranquilizers.

Click here to return to Figure 5.3.

Figure 5.4 is titled "Past Year Marijuana Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older and Mean Age at First Use of Marijuana among Past Year Marijuana Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2002 through 2010." There are two bar graphs, one for the number of past year initiates and one for the mean age at first use. The past year initiates' bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the numbers in millions of past year initiates on the vertical axis. The mean-age-at-first-use bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the mean age in years shown on the vertical axis. There is a footnote on the mean-age-at-first-use bar graph that states, "Mean-age-at-first-use estimates are for recent initiates aged 12 to 49." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

There were 2.2 million persons aged 12 or older who used marijuana for the first time in the past 12 months in 2002; 2.0 million persons in 2003; 2.1 million persons each year in 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007; 2.2 million persons in 2008; and 2.4 million in both 2009 and 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

The mean age at first marijuana use among past year marijuana initiates aged 12 to 49 was 17.0 years in 2002, 16.8 years in 2003, 17.1 years in 2004, 17.4 years in both 2005 and 2006, 17.6 years in 2007, 17.8 years in 2008, 17.0 years in 2009, and 18.4 years in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 5.4.

Figure 5.5 is titled "Past Year Hallucinogen Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of past year initiates are shown on the vertical axis. For each drug category (any hallucinogen, Ecstasy, LSD, and PCP), there is a line showing the number in thousands of past year initiates over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among persons aged 12 or older, the number of past year initiates of hallucinogens was 1,152,000 in 2002; 886,000 in 2003; 934,000 in 2004; 953,000 in 2005; 1,116,000 in 2006; 1,064,000 in 2007; 1,127,000 in 2008; 1,269,000 in 2009; and 1,229,000 in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2003, 2004, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, the number of past year initiates of Ecstasy was 1,206,000 in 2002; 642,000 in 2003; 607,000 in 2004; 615,000 in 2005; 860,000 in 2006; 781,000 in 2007; 894,000 in 2008; 1,110,000 in 2009; and 937,000 in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, the number of past year initiates of LSD was 338,000 in 2002; 200,000 in 2003; 235,000 in 2004; 243,000 in 2005; 264,000 in 2006; 270,000 in 2007; 394,000 in 2008; 337,000 in 2009; and 377,000 in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2003 through 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, the number of past year initiates of PCP was 123,000 in 2002; 105,000 in 2003; 106,000 in 2004; 77,000 in 2005; 69,000 in 2006; 58,000 in 2007; 53,000 in 2008; and 45,000 in both 2009 and 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 5.5.

Figure 5.6 is titled "Past Year Methamphetamine Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older and Mean Age at First Use of Methamphetamine among Past Year Methamphetamine Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2002 through 2010." There are two bar graphs, one for the number of past year initiates and one for mean age at first use. The past year initiates' bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of past year initiates shown on the vertical axis. The mean-age-at-first-use bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the mean age in years shown on the vertical axis. There is a footnote on the mean-age-at-first-use bar graph that says, "Mean-age-at-first-use estimates are for recent initiates aged 12 to 49." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

There were 299,000 persons aged 12 or older who used methamphetamine for the first time in the past 12 months in 2002; 260,000 persons in 2003; 318,000 persons in 2004; 192,000 persons in 2005; 259,000 persons in 2006; 157,000 persons in 2007; 95,000 persons in 2008; 154,000 in 2009; and 105,000 in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

The mean age at first methamphetamine use among recent initiates aged 12 to 49 was 18.9 years in 2002, 20.4 years in 2003, 20.6 years in 2004, 18.6 years in 2005, 22.2 years in 2006, 19.1 years in 2007, 19.2 years in 2008, 19.3 years in 2009, and 18.8 years in 2010.

Click here to return to Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.7 is titled "Past Year Cigarette Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age at First Use: 2002 through 2010." It is a bar graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in millions of persons who initiated cigarette use in the past year are shown on the vertical axis. Each bar is divided into two sections representing age at first use: initiated use prior to age 18 and initiated use at age 18 or older. Due to rounding, the stacked bar totals may not add to the overall total. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Of the 1.9 million persons in 2002 who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months, 1.3 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.6 million initiated at age 18 or older. The difference between the 2010 estimate for the number of persons who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months and the 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Of the 2.0 million persons in 2003 who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.6 million initiated at age 18 or older. The difference between the 2010 estimate for the number of persons who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months and the 2003 estimate was statistically significant.

Of the 2.1 million persons in 2004 who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.7 million initiated at age 18 or older. The difference between the 2010 estimate for the number of persons who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months and the 2004 estimate was statistically significant.

Of the 2.3 million persons in 2005 who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.8 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Of the 2.4 million persons in 2006 who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months, 1.5 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.9 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Of the 2.2 million persons in 2007 who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months, 1.3 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.9 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Of the 2.4 million persons in 2008 who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18, and 1.0 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Of the 2.5 million persons in 2009 who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months, 1.5 million initiated prior to age 18, and 1.0 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Of the 2.4 million persons in 2010 who smoked cigarettes for the first time in the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18, and 1.0 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Click here to return to Figure 5.7.

Figure 5.8 is titled "Past Year Cigarette Initiation among Youths Aged 12 to 17 Who Had Never Smoked Prior to the Past Year, by Gender: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage initiating cigarettes in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among males aged 12 to 17 who had never smoked prior to the past year, 6.1 percent reported cigarette use initiation in 2002, 5.8 percent in both 2003 and 2004, 6.0 percent in 2005, 6.3 percent in 2006, 5.7 percent in both 2007 and 2008, 6.2 percent in 2009, and 5.7 percent in 2010.

Among females aged 12 to 17 who had never smoked prior to the past year, 7.4 percent reported cigarette use initiation in 2002, 7.5 percent in 2003, 7.8 percent in 2004, 7.1 percent in 2005, 6.9 percent in 2006, 6.0 percent in 2007, 6.7 percent in 2008, 6.1 percent in 2009, and 6.0 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 5.8.

Chapter 6 Alternative Text for Figures

Figure 6.1 is titled "Past Month Binge Drinking and Marijuana Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Perceptions of Risk: 2010." It is a bar graph, where alcohol and marijuana use behaviors are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the two behavior categories, there is a bar representing perceived great risk and a bar representing perceived moderate, slight, or no risk.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived great risk in having five or more drinks of alcohol once or twice a week, 4.8 percent reported binge drinking in the past month.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived moderate, slight, or no risk in having five or more drinks of alcohol once or twice a week, 10.0 percent reported binge drinking in the past month.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived great risk in smoking marijuana once a month, 1.3 percent reported using marijuana in the past month.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived moderate, slight, or no risk in smoking marijuana once a month, 10.2 percent reported using marijuana in the past month.

Click here to return to Figure 6.1.

Figure 6.2 is titled "Perceived Great Risk of Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage perceiving great risk is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the three behavior categories (smoke one or more packs of cigarettes per day, have four or five drinks nearly every day, and have five or more drinks once or twice a week), there is a line showing perceived great risk over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day is a great risk was 63.1 percent in 2002, 64.2 percent in 2003, 67.5 percent in 2004, 68.3 percent in 2005, 68.7 percent in 2006, 68.8 percent in 2007, 69.7 percent in 2008, 65.8 percent in 2009, and 65.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that having four or five drinks of alcohol nearly every day is a great risk was 62.2 percent in 2002, 61.6 percent in 2003, 61.8 percent in 2004, 63.8 percent in 2005, 64.6 percent in 2006, 65.2 percent in 2007, 65.9 percent in 2008, 64.3 percent in 2009, and 65.0 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that having five or more drinks of alcohol once or twice a week is a great risk was 38.2 percent in 2002, 38.5 percent in 2003, 38.1 percent in 2004, 38.4 percent in 2005, 39.4 percent in both 2006 and 2007, 40.5 percent in 2008, 39.9 percent in 2009, and 40.8 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.2.

Figure 6.3 is titled "Perceived Great Risk of Marijuana Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage perceiving great risk is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the two marijuana use behavior categories (smoke marijuana once or twice a week and smoke marijuana once a month), there is a line showing estimates for 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that smoking marijuana once or twice a week is a great risk was 51.5 percent in 2002, 54.4 percent in 2003, 54.7 percent in 2004, 55.0 percent in 2005, 54.2 percent in 2006, 54.7 percent in 2007, 53.1 percent in 2008, 49.3 percent in 2009, and 47.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that smoking marijuana once a month is a great risk was 32.4 percent in 2002, 34.9 percent in 2003, 35.0 percent in 2004, 34.0 percent in 2005, 34.7 percent in 2006, 34.5 percent in 2007, 33.9 percent in 2008, 30.7 percent in 2009, and 30.1 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.4 is titled "Perceived Great Risk of Use of Selected Illicit Drugs Once or Twice a Week among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage perceiving great risk is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four behavior categories (once or twice a week use of heroin, cocaine, LSD, and marijuana), there is a line showing perceived risk over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that using heroin once or twice a week is a great risk was 82.5 percent in 2002, 82.6 percent in 2003, 81.4 percent in 2004, 81.8 percent in 2005, 81.2 percent in 2006, 81.0 percent in 2007, 81.3 percent in 2008, 81.0 percent in 2009, and 80.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that using cocaine once or twice a week is a great risk was 79.8 percent in 2002, 80.7 percent in 2003, 79.8 percent in 2004, 79.9 percent in 2005, 79.2 percent in 2006, 78.9 percent in 2007, 79.2 percent in 2008, 78.5 percent in 2009, and 78.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that using LSD once or twice a week is a great risk was 76.2 percent in 2002, 76.9 percent in 2003, 76.4 percent in 2004, 76.1 percent in 2005, 74.7 percent in 2006, 74.2 percent in 2007, 73.9 percent in 2008, 71.8 percent in 2009, and 71.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that using marijuana once or twice a week is a great risk was 51.5 percent in 2002, 54.4 percent in 2003, 54.7 percent in 2004, 55.0 percent in 2005, 54.2 percent in 2006, 54.7 percent in 2007, 53.1 percent in 2008, 49.3 percent in 2009, and 47.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.4.

Figure 6.5 is titled "Perceived Availability of Selected Illicit Drugs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage indicating it was fairly or very easy to obtain specific illicit drugs is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four types of illicit drugs (marijuana, cocaine, LSD, and heroin), there is a line showing perceived availability over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that marijuana is fairly or very easy to obtain was 55.0 percent in 2002, 53.6 percent in 2003, 52.2 percent in 2004, 51.0 percent in 2005, 50.1 percent in 2006, 49.1 percent in 2007, 49.2 percent in 2008, 49.9 percent in 2009, and 48.6 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that cocaine is fairly or very easy to obtain was 25.0 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 24.4 percent in 2004, 24.9 percent in 2005, 25.9 percent in 2006, 24.5 percent in 2007, 22.1 percent in 2008, 20.9 percent in 2009, and 19.0 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that LSD is fairly or very easy to obtain was 19.4 percent in 2002, 17.6 percent in 2003, 16.9 percent in 2004, 15.7 percent in 2005, 14.0 percent in 2006, 14.4 percent in 2007, 13.8 percent in 2008, 13.5 percent in 2009, and 12.9 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that heroin is fairly or very easy to obtain was 15.8 percent in 2002, 15.3 percent in 2003, 14.0 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 14.4 percent in 2006, 14.1 percent in 2007, 13.0 percent in 2008, 12.9 percent in 2009, and 11.6 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.5.

Figure 6.6 is titled "Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Messages and Programs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage who had seen or heard substance use prevention messages is shown on the vertical axis. There are two categories: (1) seen or heard drug or alcohol prevention messages from sources outside of school, and (2) seen or heard drug or alcohol prevention messages at school. A footnote on the at-school label says, "Estimates are from youths aged 12 to 17 who were enrolled in school in the past year." For each of these categories, there is a line showing exposure to substance use prevention messages over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage who had seen or heard drug or alcohol prevention messages from sources outside of school in the past year was 83.2 percent in 2002, 83.6 percent in 2003, 83.0 percent in 2004, 81.1 percent in 2005, 79.4 percent in 2006, 77.9 percent in 2007, 78.0 percent in 2008, 77.0 percent in 2009, and 75.9 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 enrolled in school, the percentage who had seen or heard drug or alcohol prevention messages at school in the past year was 78.8 percent in 2002, 78.1 percent in 2003, 78.2 percent in 2004, 77.9 percent in 2005, 76.9 percent in 2006, 75.8 percent in 2007, 75.9 percent in 2008, 74.9 percent in 2009, and 75.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 through 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.6.

Chapter 7 Alternative Text for Figures

Figure 7.1 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2010." It is a bar graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in millions of persons with dependence or abuse are shown on the vertical axis. Each bar is divided into three sections representing (1) both alcohol and illicit drugs, (2) illicit drugs only, and (3) alcohol only. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. Due to rounding, the stacked bar totals may not add to the overall total.

Of the 22.0 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2002, 3.2 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.9 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 14.9 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 21.6 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2003, 3.1 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.8 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 14.8 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 22.5 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2004, 3.4 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.9 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.2 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only. The difference between the 2010 estimate and the 2004 estimate for dependence or abuse of both alcohol and illicit drugs was statistically significant.

Of the 22.2 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2005, 3.3 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.6 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.4 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2005 estimates for dependence or abuse of both alcohol and illicit drugs and for dependence or abuse of illicit drugs only were statistically significant.

Of the 22.6 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2006, 3.2 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.8 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.6 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 22.3 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2007, 3.2 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.7 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.5 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only. The difference between the 2010 estimate and the 2007 estimate for dependence or abuse of illicit drugs only was statistically significant.

Of the 22.2 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2008, 3.1 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.9 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.2 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 22.5 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2009, 3.2 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.9 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.4 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 22.1 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2010, 2.9 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 4.2 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.0 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Click here to return to Figure 7.1.

Figure 7.2 is titled "Specific Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2010." It is a bar graph, where the numbers in thousands of users with dependence or abuse are shown on the horizontal axis and nine specific illicit drugs (marijuana, pain relievers, cocaine, tranquilizers, hallucinogens, heroin, stimulants, sedatives, and inhalants) are shown on the vertical axis.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who had dependence or abuse of marijuana in the past year was 4,476,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who had dependence or abuse of pain relievers in the past year was 1,921,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who had dependence or abuse of cocaine in the past year was 1,003,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who had dependence or abuse of tranquilizers in the past year was 521,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who had dependence or abuse of hallucinogens in the past year was 397,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who had dependence or abuse of heroin in the past year was 359,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who had dependence or abuse of stimulants in the past year was 357,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who had dependence or abuse of sedatives in the past year was 162,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who had dependence or abuse of inhalants in the past year was 161,000.

Click here to return to Figure 7.2.

Figure 7.3 is titled "Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in millions of users with dependence or abuse of specific illicit drugs is shown on the vertical axis. For each drug category (illicit drugs, marijuana, cocaine, and pain relievers), there is a line showing dependence or abuse over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The number of persons aged 12 or older with dependence or abuse of illicit drugs in the past year was 7.1 million in 2002, 6.8 million in 2003, 7.3 million in 2004, 6.8 million in 2005, 7.0 million in 2006, 6.9 million in 2007, 7.0 million in 2008, and 7.1 million in both 2009 and 2010.

The number of persons aged 12 or older with dependence or abuse of marijuana in the past year was 4.3 million in 2002, 4.2 million in 2003, 4.5 million in 2004, 4.1 million in 2005, 4.2 million in 2006, 3.9 million in 2007, 4.2 million in 2008, 4.3 million in 2009, and 4.5 million in 2010. The difference between the 2010 estimate and the 2007 estimate was statistically significant.

The number of persons aged 12 or older with dependence or abuse of cocaine in the past year was 1.5 million in both 2002 and 2003, 1.6 million in 2004, 1.5 million in 2005, 1.7 million in 2006, 1.6 million in 2007, 1.4 million in 2008, 1.1 million in 2009, and 1.0 million in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

The number of persons aged 12 or older with dependence or abuse of pain relievers in the past year was 1.5 million in 2002, 1.4 million in both 2003 and 2004, 1.5 million in 2005, 1.6 million in 2006, 1.7 million in both 2007 and 2008, and 1.9 million in both 2009 and 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 7.3.

Figure 7.4 is titled "Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Adults Aged 21 or Older, by Age at First Use of Alcohol: 2010." It is a bar graph, where the age at first use of alcohol is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Each bar is divided into two sections: (1) alcohol dependence and (2) alcohol abuse. Due to rounding, the stacked bar totals may not add to the overall total. Four groups of age at first use are shown: 14 or younger, 15 to 17, 18 to 20, and 21 or older.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 14 or younger, 15.1 percent had alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 7.6 percent had alcohol dependence, and 7.5 percent had alcohol abuse.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 15 to 17, 9.1 percent had alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 4.1 percent had alcohol dependence, and 5.1 percent had alcohol abuse.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 18 to 20, 4.4 percent had alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 2.3 percent had alcohol dependence, and 2.0 percent had alcohol abuse.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 21 or older, 2.7 percent had alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 1.2 percent had alcohol dependence, and 1.5 percent had alcohol abuse.

Click here to return to Figure 7.4.

Figure 7.5 is titled "Alcohol and Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with alcohol or illicit drug dependence or abuse in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each type of dependence or abuse (illicit drugs, alcohol, and alcohol or illicit drugs), there is a line showing dependence or abuse over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between the 2010 estimate and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage with illicit drug dependence or abuse in the past year was 5.6 percent in 2002, 5.1 percent in 2003, 5.3 percent in 2004, 4.7 percent in 2005, 4.6 percent in 2006, 4.3 percent in 2007, 4.6 percent in 2008, 4.3 percent in 2009, and 4.7 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002 and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage with alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year was 5.9 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 6.0 percent in 2004, 5.5 percent in 2005, 5.4 percent in both 2006 and 2007, 4.9 percent in 2008, 4.6 percent in 2009, and 4.5 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage with alcohol or illicit drug dependence or abuse in the past year was 8.9 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 8.8 percent in 2004, 8.0 percent in both 2005 and 2006, 7.7 percent in 2007, 7.6 percent in 2008, 7.0 percent in 2009, and 7.3 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 7.5.

Figure 7.6 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age and Gender: 2010." It is a bar graph, where age categories are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. There are three age categories: aged 12 or older, aged 12 to 17, and aged 18 or older. For each age category, there is a bar representing males and a bar representing females.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 11.6 percent of males and 5.9 percent of females had past year substance dependence or abuse.

Among persons aged 12 to 17, 6.9 percent of males and 7.7 percent of females had past year substance dependence or abuse.

Among persons aged 18 or older, 12.2 percent of males and 5.8 percent of females had past year substance dependence or abuse.

Click here to return to Figure 7.6.

Figure 7.7 is titled "Locations Where Past Year Substance Use Treatment Was Received among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2010." It is a bar graph, where the numbers in thousands of persons receiving treatment are shown on the horizontal axis and the types of substance use treatment locations are shown on the vertical axis. There are eight types of substance use treatment locations: (1) self-help group, (2) outpatient rehabilitation, (3) outpatient mental health center, (4) inpatient rehabilitation, (5) hospital inpatient, (6) private doctor's office, (7) emergency room, and (8) prison or jail.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who received substance use treatment at a self-help group was 2,334,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who received substance use treatment at an outpatient rehabilitation facility was 1,689,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who received substance use treatment at an outpatient mental health center was 999,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who received substance use treatment at an inpatient rehabilitation facility was 986,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who received substance use treatment at a hospital as an inpatient was 731,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who received substance use treatment at a private doctor's office was 653,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who received substance use treatment at an emergency room was 467,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who received substance use treatment at a prison or jail was 342,000.

Click here to return to Figure 7.7.

Figure 7.8 is titled "Substances for Which Most Recent Treatment Was Received in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2010." It is a bar graph, where the numbers in thousands of persons receiving their most recent treatment are shown on the horizontal axis and the substances for which the most recent treatment was received are shown on the vertical axis. There are eight substances: (1) alcohol, (2) marijuana, (3) pain relievers, (4) cocaine, (5) heroin, (6) tranquilizers, (7) stimulants, and (8) hallucinogens.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for alcohol was 2,596,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for marijuana was 1,021,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for pain relievers was 754,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for cocaine was 699,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for heroin was 417,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for tranquilizers was 350,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for stimulants was 343,000.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for hallucinogens was 333,000.

Click here to return to Figure 7.8.

Figure 7.9 is titled "Received Most Recent Treatment in the Past Year for the Use of Pain Relievers among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2010." It is a bar graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of persons whose most recent treatment was for the use of pain relievers are shown on the vertical axis. Bars are shown for 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for pain relievers was 360,000 in 2002; 415,000 in 2003; 424,000 in 2004; 466,000 in 2005; 547,000 in 2006; 558,000 in 2007; 601,000 in 2008; 739,000 in 2009; and 754,000 in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 7.9.

Figure 7.10 is titled "Past Year Perceived Need for and Effort Made to Receive Specialty Treatment among Persons Aged 12 or Older Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use: 2010." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "20.5 million Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use." The pie chart shows the percentages of persons who did not feel the need for treatment, as well as the percentages of those who felt the need for treatment and made an effort and those who did not make an effort to get treatment.

Of the 20.5 million persons needing but not receiving treatment for illicit drug or alcohol use in the past year, 95.0 percent did not feel they needed treatment, 3.3 percent felt they needed treatment and did not make an effort to get it, and 1.7 percent felt they needed treatment and made an effort to get it.

Click here to return to Figure 7.10.

Figure 7.11 is titled "Reasons for Not Receiving Substance Use Treatment among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Needed and Made an Effort to Get Treatment But Did Not Receive Treatment and Felt They Needed Treatment: 2007 through 2010 Combined." It is a bar graph, where the percentage reporting a particular reason is shown on the horizontal axis and the reasons for not receiving treatment are shown on the vertical axis. Eight reasons are shown: (1) no health coverage and could not afford cost, (2) not ready to stop using, (3) no transportation/inconvenient, (4) might have negative effect on job, (5) might cause neighbors/community to have negative opinion, (6) able to handle the problem without treatment, (7) had health coverage but did not cover treatment or did not cover cost, and (8) did not have time for treatment.

Among persons aged 12 or older who needed and made an effort to get treatment but did not receive treatment and felt they needed it, 38.8 percent indicated that they did not have health coverage and could not afford the cost, 30.2 percent indicated that they were not ready to stop using, 9.2 percent indicated that they had no transportation or it was inconvenient, 8.8 percent indicated that it might have a negative effect on their job, 8.5 percent indicated that it might cause neighbors/community to have a negative opinion of them, 8.0 percent indicated that they were able to handle the problem without treatment, 7.6 percent indicated that they had health coverage but it did not cover treatment or did not cover the cost, and 7.2 percent indicated that they did not have time for treatment.

Click here to return to Figure 7.11.

Chapter 8 Alternative Text for Figures

Figure 8.1 is titled "Past Month Alcohol Use among Youths in NSDUH and MTF: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using alcohol in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each survey's youths (NSDUH youths aged 12 to 17 and MTF 8th and 10th graders combined), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. There is a note under the figure that says, "MTF = Monitoring the Future; NSDUH = National Survey on Drug Use and Health." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of 8th and 10th graders using alcohol (in MTF) in the past month was 27.5 percent in 2002, 27.6 percent in 2003, 26.9 percent in 2004, 25.2 percent in 2005, 25.5 percent in 2006, 24.7 percent in 2007, 22.4 percent in 2008, 22.7 percent in 2009, and 21.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of 12 to 17 year olds using alcohol (in NSDUH) in the past month was 17.6 percent in 2002, 17.7 percent in 2003, 17.6 percent in 2004, 16.5 percent in 2005, 16.6 percent in 2006, 15.9 percent in 2007, 14.6 percent in 2008, 14.7 percent in 2009, and 13.6 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 8.1.

Figure 8.2 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among Youths in NSDUH and MTF: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each survey's youths (NSDUH youths aged 12 to 17 and MTF 8th and 10th graders combined), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. There is a note under the figure that says, "MTF = Monitoring the Future; NSDUH = National Survey on Drug Use and Health." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of 8th and 10th graders using cigarettes (in MTF) in the past month was 14.2 percent in 2002, 13.5 percent in 2003, 12.6 percent in 2004, 12.1 percent in 2005, 11.6 percent in 2006, 10.6 percent in 2007, 9.6 percent in 2008, 9.8 percent in 2009, and 10.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of 12 to 17 year olds using cigarettes (in NSDUH) in the past month was 13.0 percent in 2002, 12.2 percent in 2003, 11.9 percent in 2004, 10.8 percent in 2005, 10.4 percent in 2006, 9.8 percent in 2007, 9.1 percent in 2008, 8.9 percent in 2009, and 8.3 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 8.2.

Figure 8.3 is titled "Past Month Marijuana Use among Youths in NSDUH and MTF: 2002 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using marijuana in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each survey's youths (NSDUH youths aged 12 to 17 and MTF 8th and 10th graders combined), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. There is a note under the figure that says, "MTF = Monitoring the Future; NSDUH = National Survey on Drug Use and Health." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2010 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of 8th and 10th graders using marijuana (in MTF) in the past month was 13.1 percent in 2002, 12.3 percent in 2003, 11.2 percent in 2004, 10.9 percent in 2005, 10.4 percent in 2006, 10.0 percent in 2007, 9.8 percent in 2008, 11.2 percent in 2009, and 12.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of 12 to 17 year olds using marijuana (in NSDUH) in the past month was 8.2 percent in 2002; 7.9 percent in 2003; 7.6 percent in 2004; 6.8 percent in 2005; 6.7 percent in 2006, 2007, and 2008; 7.3 percent in 2009; and 7.4 percent in 2010. The differences between the 2010 estimate and the 2002, 2006, 2007, and 2008 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 8.3.

Figure 8.4 is titled "Past Month Marijuana Use among Youths in NSDUH, MTF, and YRBS: 1971 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using marijuana in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There is a note under the figure that says, "MTF = Monitoring the Future; NSDUH = National Survey on Drug Use and Health; YRBS = Youth Risk Behavior Survey." Another note says, "NSDUH data for youths aged 12 to 17 are not presented for 1999 to 2001 because of design changes in the survey. These design changes preclude direct comparisons of estimates from 2002 to 2010 with estimates prior to 1999." For each data source, there is a line representing the percentage using marijuana during the past month for the years shown.

According to the NSDUH data for youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage of youths reporting past month marijuana use was 5.1 percent in 1971; 6.0 percent in 1972; 10.2 percent in 1974; 10.5 percent in 1976; 14.1 percent in 1977; 14.2 percent in 1979; 9.9 percent in 1982; 10.2 percent in 1985; 5.4 percent in 1988; 4.4 percent in 1990; 3.6 percent in 1991; 3.4 percent in 1992; 4.0 percent in 1993; 6.0 percent in 1994; 8.2 percent in 1995; 7.1 percent in 1996; 9.4 percent in 1997; 8.3 percent in 1998; 8.2 percent in 2002; 7.9 percent in 2003; 7.6 percent in 2004; 6.8 percent in 2005, 6.7 percent in 2006, 2007, and 2008; 7.3 percent in 2009; and 7.4 percent in 2010.

According to the MTF data for 8th and 10th graders combined, the percentage reporting past month marijuana use was 6.0 percent in 1991, 5.9 percent in 1992, 8.0 percent in 1993, 11.8 percent in 1994, 13.2 percent in 1995, 15.9 percent in 1996, 15.4 percent in 1997, 14.2 percent in 1998, 14.6 percent in 1999, 14.4 percent in 2000, 14.5 percent in 2001, 13.1 percent in 2002, 12.3 percent in 2003, 11.2 percent in 2004, 10.9 percent in 2005, 10.4 percent in 2006, 10.0 percent in 2007, 9.8 percent in 2008, 11.2 percent in 2009, and 12.4 percent in 2010.

According to the MTF data for 12th graders, the percentage reporting past month marijuana use was 27.1 percent in 1975, 32.2 percent in 1976, 35.4 percent in 1977, 37.1 percent in 1978, 36.5 percent in 1979, 33.7 percent in 1980, 31.6 percent in 1981, 28.5 percent in 1982, 27.0 percent in 1983, 25.2 percent in 1984, 25.7 percent in 1985, 23.4 percent in 1986, 21.0 percent in 1987, 18.0 percent in 1988, 16.7 percent in 1989, 14.0 percent in 1990, 13.8 percent in 1991, 11.9 percent in 1992, 15.5 percent in 1993, 19.0 percent in 1994, 21.2 percent in 1995, 21.9 percent in 1996, 23.7 percent in 1997, 22.8 percent in 1998, 23.1 percent in 1999, 21.6 percent in 2000, 22.4 percent in 2001, 21.5 percent in 2002, 21.2 percent in 2003, 19.9 percent in 2004, 19.8 percent in 2005, 18.3 percent in 2006, 18.8 percent in 2007, 19.4 percent in 2008, 20.6 percent in 2009, and 21.4 percent in 2010.

According to the YRBS combined data for 9th through 12th graders, the percentage reporting past month marijuana use was 14.7 percent in 1991, 17.7 percent in 1993, 25.3 percent in 1995, 26.2 percent in 1997, 26.7 percent in 1999, 23.9 percent in 2001, 22.4 percent in 2003, 20.2 percent in 2005, 19.7 percent in 2007, and 20.8 percent in 2009.

Click here to return to Figure 8.4.

Figure 8.5 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Pain Reliever Use among Youths and Young Adults in NSDUH and MTF: 1994 through 2010." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using pain relievers nonmedically in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. There is a note under the figure that says, "MTF = Monitoring the Future; NSDUH = National Survey on Drug Use and Health." A second note says, "NSDUH data are not presented for 1999 to 2001 because of design changes in the survey. These design changes preclude direct comparisons of estimates from 2002 to 2010 with estimates prior to 1999." Another note says, "Data for MTF are for 'narcotics other than heroin.' MTF estimates from 1994 to 2001 are not comparable with MTF estimates for 2002 and later due to questionnaire changes." For each data source, there is a line representing the percentage using pain relievers nonmedically during the past year for the years shown.

According to the NSDUH data for youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage reporting past year nonmedical pain reliever use was 3.2 percent in 1994, 3.0 percent in 1995, 3.7 percent in 1996, 3.6 percent in 1997, 3.1 percent in 1998, 7.6 percent in 2002, 7.7 percent in 2003, 7.4 percent in 2004, 6.9 percent in 2005, 7.2 percent in 2006, 6.7 percent in 2007, 6.5 percent in 2008, 6.6 percent in 2009, and 6.2 percent in 2010.

According to the NSDUH data for young adults aged 18 to 25, the percentage of young adults reporting past year nonmedical pain reliever use was 4.7 percent in 1994, 4.2 percent in 1995, 4.9 percent in 1996, 3.8 percent in 1997, 4.4 percent in 1998, 11.4 percent in 2002, 12.0 percent in 2003, 11.9 percent in 2004, 12.4 percent in 2005 and 2006, 12.1 percent in 2007, 12.0 percent in 2008, 11.9 percent in 2009, and 11.1 percent in 2010.

According to the MTF data for 12th graders, the percentage reporting past year nonmedical pain reliever use was 3.8 percent in 1994, 4.7 percent in 1995, 5.4 percent in 1996, 6.2 percent in 1997, 6.3 percent in 1998, 6.7 percent in 1999, 7.0 percent in 2000, 6.7 percent in 2001, 9.4 percent in 2002, 9.3 percent in 2003, 9.5 percent in 2004, 9.0 percent in 2005 and 2006, 9.2 percent in 2007, 9.1 percent in 2008, 9.2 percent in 2009, and 8.7 percent in 2010.

Click here to return to Figure 8.5.

Appendix B Alternative Text for Figure

Figure B.1 is titled "Required Effective Sample in the 2010 NSDUH as a Function of the Proportion Estimated." It is a graph of a function within a coordinate plane; the horizontal axis shows the proportion estimated, and the vertical axis shows the required effective sample size. A horizontal line through the graph indicates that an effective sample size of 68 is required for the current rule. The graph decreases from an infinitely large required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is close to zero and approaches a local minimum of 50 when the estimated proportion is 0.20. The graph increases for estimated proportions greater than 0.20 until a required effective sample size of 68 is reached for an estimated proportion of 0.50. The graph decreases for estimated proportions greater than 0.50 and approaches a local minimum of 50 for the required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is 0.80. The graph increases for estimated proportions greater than 0.80 and reaches an infinitely large required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is close to 1.

Click here to return to Figure B.1.

Appendix A Alternative Text for Equations

Appendix A Equation 1: The adjustment factor a sub k as a function of lambda is defined as the ratio of two quantities. The quantity in the numerator is defined as the sum of two terms. The first term is calculated as the product of l sub k and the difference between u sub k and c sub k. The second term is calculated as the product of u sub k, the difference between c sub k and l sub k, and the value of the exponential function evaluated as the following product: capital A sub k multiplied by the transpose of the vector x sub k, multiplied by lambda. The quantity in the denominator is defined as the sum of two terms. The first term is the difference between u sub k and c sub k. The second term is calculated as the product of the difference between c sub k and l sub k and the value of the exponential function evaluated as the following product: capital A sub k multiplied by the transpose of the vector x sub k, multiplied by lambda.

Click here to return to Equation A.1.

Appendix A Equation 2: The quantity of the summation over s of the product of (x sub k, d sub k, and a sub k as a function of lambda), minus the quantity capital T tilde sub x is equal to zero.

Click here to return to Equation A.2.

Appendix A Equation 3: Delta of the parameters w and d equals the summation over all k in s of the ratio of d sub k to capital A sub k multiplied by the sum of the following two quantities. The first quantity is calculated as the product of the difference between a sub k and l sub k and the logarithm of the ratio of the difference between a sub k and l sub k to the difference between c sub k and l sub k. The second quantity is defined as the product of the difference between u sub k and a sub k and the logarithm of the ratio of the difference between u sub k and a sub k to the difference between u sub k and c sub k.

Click here to return to Equation A.3.

Appendix B Alternative Text for Equations

Appendix B Equation 1: p hat sub d is equal to capital Y hat sub d divided by capital N hat sub d

Click here to return to Equation B.1.

Appendix B Equation 2: The standard error of capital Y hat sub d is equal to capital N hat sub d times the standard error of p hat sub d.

Click here to return to Equation B.2.

Appendix B Equation 3: Two suppression rules are shown. The first indicates that suppressions occurred when the relative standard error of the negative of the natural logarithm of p hat was greater than .175 and p hat was less than or equal to .5.

Click here to return to Equation B.3.

Appendix B Equation 4: The second suppression rule indicates that suppressions also occurred when the relative standard error of the negative of the natural logarithm of the difference 1 minus p hat was greater than .175 and p hat was greater than .5.

Click here to return to Equation B.4.

Appendix B Equation 5: Two computational forms of the suppression rule are presented. The first indicates that suppressions occurred when p hat was less than or equal to .5 and the following ratio was greater than .175: The numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat divided by p hat; the denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.5.

Appendix B Equation 6: The second computational form of the suppression rule indicates that suppressions also occurred whenever p hat was greater than .5 and the following ratio was greater than .175: The numerator is the standard error of p hat divided by the difference 1 minus p hat; the denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of the difference 1 minus p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.6.

Appendix B Equation 7: Capital Z is equal to the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is p hat sub 1 minus p hat sub 2. The denominator is the square root of the following quantity: the variance of p hat sub1, plus the variance of p hat sub 2, minus twice the covariance of p hat sub 1 and p hat sub 2.

Click here to return to Equation B.7.

Appendix B Equation 8: p bar sub 2 minus p bar sub 1

Click here to return to Equation B.8.

Appendix B Equation 9: The variance of p hat is equal to the product of 1 divided by n, capital D, p hat, and the difference 1 minus p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.9.

Appendix B Equation 10: The variance of the quantity p hat sub 2 i minus p hat sub 1 i is equal to capital D sub i times the sum of two quantities. The first quantity is the product of 1 over n sub 1 i times p hat sub 1 i times the difference 1 minus p hat sub 1 i. The second quantity is the product of 1 over n sub 2 i times p hat sub 2 i times the difference 1 minus p hat sub 2 i. The variable i can take on the values 1 and 2.

Click here to return to Equation B.10.

Appendix B Equation 11: The variance of the quantity p bar sub 2 minus p bar sub 1 is equal to one quarter of the sum of two quantities. The first quantity is the variance of the difference of p hat sub two one minus p hat sub one one. The second quantity is the variance of the difference p hat sub two two minus p hat sub one two.

Click here to return to Equation B.11.

Appendix B Equation 12: Capital Z is equal to the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is p bar sub 2 minus p bar sub 1. The denominator is the square root of the variance of the quantity p bar sub 2 minus p bar sub 1.

Click here to return to Equation B.12.

Appendix B Equation 13: Capital S R R is equal to the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is the summation of the product of w sub h h and complete sub h h. The denominator is the summation of the product of w sub h h and eligible sub h h.

Click here to return to Equation B.13.

Appendix B Equation 14: Capital I R R is equal to the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is the summation of the product of w sub i and complete sub i. The denominator is the summation of the product of w sub i and selected sub i

Click here to return to Equation B.14.

Appendix B Equation 14a: Capital O R R is equal to the product of capital S R R and capital I R R.

Click here to return to Equation B.14a.

Appendix B Equation 15: Capital I, which stands for "past year initiate," as a function of i is equal to 1 if the date of the interview minus the date of initiation (first use) is less than or equal to 365. Capital I is equal to 0 otherwise.

Click here to return to Equation B.15.

Appendix B Equation 16: Estimated Past Year Initiates Aged 11 in 2009 times the Estimated Lifetime Users Aged 12 to 17 in 2010 divided by the Estimated Lifetime Users Aged 12 to 17 in 2009

Click here to return to Equation B.16.

Appendix B Equation 17: 77,477 times 8,573,937 over 9,382,813 is equal to 70,798.

Click here to return to Equation B.17.

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