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90414
Table 3.1A – Perceived Risk and Availability of Substances, by Age Group: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Risk/Availability Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Aged 12-17
(2007)
Aged 12-17
(2008)
Aged 18-25
(2007)
Aged 18-25
(2008)
Aged 26+
(2007)
Aged 26+
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
2 Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
3 Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy."
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK1                
Cigarettes                
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day 182,079 182,807 17,186 17,198 23,043a 22,604 141,849 143,004
Marijuana                
Smoke Once a Month 93,372 91,440 8,575 8,320 8,074b 7,553 76,724 75,567
Smoke Once or Twice a Week 124,035b 120,210 13,634b 13,037 11,695b 10,934 98,707a 96,238
Cocaine                
Use Once a Month 174,567 172,709 12,256 12,142 20,496 20,226 141,815 140,342
Use Once or Twice a Week 217,598 218,051 19,543 19,372 27,811 28,005 170,245 170,674
Heroin                
Try Once or Twice 199,733 201,158 14,006 14,021 25,287 25,178 160,441 161,959
Use Once or Twice a Week 229,100 230,138 19,956 19,769 30,278 30,311 178,866a 180,058
LSD                
Try Once or Twice 174,588 172,748 12,134 11,925 20,446b 19,817 142,008 141,006
Use Once or Twice a Week 214,174 213,585 17,639 17,477 27,274a 26,879 169,261 169,229
Alcohol                
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day 171,672 171,365 16,277 16,279 20,342 20,617 135,052 134,470
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week 104,118 102,790 9,834 10,002 10,854 10,851 83,430 81,937
PERCEIVED AVAILABILITY2                
Fairly or Very Easy to Obtain3                
Marijuana 135,724 133,597 12,034 11,905 24,495 24,422 99,194 97,270
Cocaine 71,268 69,031 5,905b 5,279 12,904b 12,279 52,459 51,473
Crack 66,757b 62,777 6,104b 5,537 10,182b 9,337 50,471a 47,903
Heroin 40,545 39,821 3,390b 3,083 5,968 5,800 31,187 30,938
LSD 39,410 38,094 3,376 3,221 6,382 6,296 29,652 28,577
Approached in the Past Month by Someone Selling Drugs 18,841a 17,615 3,659a 3,402 6,083 6,019 9,100 8,193
90414
Table 3.1B – Perceived Risk and Availability of Substances, by Age Group: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Risk/Availability Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Aged 12-17
(2007)
Aged 12-17
(2008)
Aged 18-25
(2007)
Aged 18-25
(2008)
Aged 26+
(2007)
Aged 26+
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
2 Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
3 Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy."
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK1                
Cigarettes                
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day 73.9 73.6 68.8 69.7 70.7b 68.9 75.1 74.9
Marijuana                
Smoke Once a Month 38.4a 37.2 34.5 33.9 24.8b 23.1 41.3 40.1
Smoke Once or Twice a Week 51.0b 48.9 54.7b 53.1 36.0b 33.4 53.1b 51.1
Cocaine                
Use Once a Month 71.5b 70.2 49.6 49.7 63.3a 61.9 75.9b 74.3
Use Once or Twice a Week 89.1 88.6 78.9 79.2 85.8 85.7 91.0 90.3
Heroin                
Try Once or Twice 81.9 81.9 57.0 57.7 78.1 77.2 85.9 85.8
Use Once or Twice a Week 93.9 93.6 81.0 81.3 93.5a 92.9 95.6 95.3
LSD                
Try Once or Twice 72.3b 70.9 51.2 50.5 63.6b 61.4 76.4a 75.1
Use Once or Twice a Week 88.5b 87.7 74.2 73.9 84.9b 83.2 91.0a 90.2
Alcohol                
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day 69.7 69.1 65.2 65.9 62.4 62.8 71.6 70.6
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week 42.3 41.5 39.4 40.5 33.3 33.1 44.3 43.0
PERCEIVED AVAILABILITY2                
Fairly or Very Easy to Obtain3                
Marijuana 57.3b 55.8 49.1 49.2 76.0 75.3 55.0b 53.2
Cocaine 30.5a 29.3 24.5b 22.1 40.8b 38.5 29.5 28.7
Crack 28.7b 26.8 25.3b 23.2 32.3b 29.5 28.5b 26.8
Heroin 17.5 17.1 14.1a 13.0 19.0 18.4 17.7 17.4
LSD 17.1 16.4 14.4 13.8 20.4 20.0 16.8 16.1
Approached in the Past Month by Someone Selling Drugs 7.6a 7.1 14.5 13.7 18.6 18.3 4.8a 4.3
90414
Table 3.2A – Perceived Great Risk of Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic CIGARETTES ALCOHOL
Smoke One or More Packs
Per Day
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly
Every Day
Have Five or More Drinks
Once or Twice a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 17,186 17,198 16,277 16,279 9,834 10,002
AGE            
12-13 5,530 5,374 5,474 5,314 3,503a 3,262
14-15 5,759 5,824 5,335 5,391 3,237 3,408
16-17 5,897 6,000 5,468 5,573 3,094a 3,332
GENDER            
Male 8,261 8,309 7,652 7,679 4,617 4,653
Female 8,926 8,889 8,626 8,600 5,216 5,349
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 14,082 13,983 13,297 13,298 7,971 7,986
White 10,269 10,245 9,523 9,466 5,336 5,265
Black or African American 2,598 2,600 2,600 2,671 1,895 1,924
American Indian or Alaska Native 109 83 * 79 65 48
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 743 661 760 692 473 500
Two or More Races 305 337 273 321 167 197
Hispanic or Latino 3,104 3,215 2,980 2,981 1,863a 2,017
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 9,488 9,250 9,194 8,974 5,525 5,426
Small Metro 5,040 5,183 4,658 4,829 2,866 2,972
Nonmetro 2,658 2,765 2,425 2,475 1,443 1,604
90414
Table 3.2B – Perceived Great Risk of Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic CIGARETTES ALCOHOL
Smoke One or More Packs
Per Day
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly
Every Day
Have Five or More Drinks
Once or Twice a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 68.8 69.7 65.2 65.9 39.4 40.5
AGE            
12-13 69.2 70.1 68.3 69.2 43.9 42.6
14-15 68.3 69.4 63.3 64.1 38.5a 40.5
16-17 69.0 69.7 64.0 64.7 36.2a 38.6
GENDER            
Male 64.8 65.9 60.1 60.9 36.3 36.9
Female 73.0 73.6 70.4 71.1 42.7 44.2
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 69.0 69.9 65.2 66.4 39.2 39.9
White 68.6a 70.2 63.6 64.9 35.7 36.1
Black or African American 68.5 69.6 68.7 71.3 50.2 51.3
American Indian or Alaska Native 67.9 61.2 * 58.1 40.8 35.6
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 73.7 69.4 75.5 72.1 47.5 52.1
Two or More Races 73.0 67.6 65.6 64.5 40.2 39.6
Hispanic or Latino 67.9 68.9 65.1 63.7 40.7 43.0
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 70.2 70.4 68.1 68.2 41.0 41.2
Small Metro 68.8 70.3 63.5 65.3 39.1 40.2
Nonmetro 64.3 66.6 58.6 59.7 35.0b 38.7
90414
Table 3.3A – Perceived Great Risk of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic MARIJUANA COCAINE
Smoke Once a Month Smoke Once or Twice
a Week
Use Once a Month Use Once or Twice
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 8,575 8,320 13,634b 13,037 12,256 12,142 19,543 19,372
AGE                
12-13 3,339 3,298 5,245a 4,891 3,346 3,261 5,791 5,533
14-15 2,944 2,828 4,571 4,502 4,118 4,056 6,624 6,603
16-17 2,292 2,194 3,818 3,643 4,792 4,826 7,127 7,237
GENDER                
Male 4,107 3,985 6,493a 6,234 6,240 6,162 9,903 9,883
Female 4,468 4,335 7,140b 6,803 6,016 5,980 9,639 9,489
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 6,990a 6,719 11,311b 10,718 10,190 9,924 16,278a 15,989
White 5,081 4,906 8,529a 8,128 7,355 7,129 12,223 11,880
Black or African American 1,315 1,230 1,772 1,677 2,067 2,041 2,752 2,827
American Indian or Alaska Native * 32 86a 45 93 64 121 106
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 376 377 661 565 420 407 799 700
Two or More Races 130 138 215 253 212 231 336 397
Hispanic or Latino 1,584 1,601 2,323 2,319 2,066a 2,218 3,265 3,383
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 4,519a 4,169 7,235a 6,717 6,604 6,414 10,528 10,330
Small Metro 2,466 2,518 3,991 3,949 3,528 3,560 5,765 5,758
Nonmetro 1,590 1,633 2,408 2,371 2,124 2,168 3,250 3,285
90414
Table 3.3B – Perceived Great Risk of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic MARIJUANA COCAINE
Smoke Once a Month Smoke Once or Twice
a Week
Use Once a Month Use Once or Twice
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 34.5 33.9 54.7b 53.1 49.6 49.7 78.9 79.2
AGE                
12-13 42.1 43.4 65.8 64.4 42.4 43.2 73.3 73.1
14-15 35.1 33.8 54.3 53.7 49.5 48.6 79.3 79.1
16-17 26.9 25.5 44.7a 42.4 56.5 56.5 83.8 84.6
GENDER                
Male 32.4 31.8 51.1 49.7 49.7 49.5 78.6 79.2
Female 36.7 36.0 58.5a 56.6 49.6 49.9 79.2 79.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 34.4 33.8 55.6a 53.8 50.5 50.1 80.6 80.6
White 34.1 33.8 57.2 56.0 49.7 49.4 82.4 82.2
Black or African American 34.8 32.9 46.8 45.1 55.3 55.0 73.3 76.2
American Indian or Alaska Native * 24.3 53.8b 33.5 59.2 48.3 76.5 79.4
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 37.6 39.9 65.8 59.6 42.5 43.1 80.9a 73.8
Two or More Races 31.5 27.8 51.6 50.9 51.8 46.7 81.3 80.2
Hispanic or Latino 34.8 34.4 50.7 49.8 45.6 47.8 71.7 72.9
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 33.5 31.9 53.6a 51.3 49.5 49.3 78.6 79.3
Small Metro 33.9 34.3 54.7 53.7 48.6 48.7 79.3 78.6
Nonmetro 38.7 39.4 58.6 57.3 52.0 52.7 79.5 79.8
90414
Table 3.4A – Perceived Great Risk of Heroin and LSD Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic HEROIN LSD
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 14,006 14,021 19,956 19,769 12,134 11,925 17,639 17,477
AGE                
12-13 3,603 3,509 5,643 5,410 3,245 3,177 5,012 4,799
14-15 4,656 4,789 6,779 6,775 4,035 3,992 5,946 5,904
16-17 5,748 5,724 7,534 7,584 4,853 4,755 6,681 6,774
GENDER                
Male 7,222 7,272 10,151 10,085 6,176 6,073 8,925 8,878
Female 6,784 6,750 9,806 9,684 5,958 5,851 8,714 8,599
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 11,426 11,309 16,569b 16,214 9,884 9,620 14,665a 14,389
White 8,258 8,108 12,452 12,140 7,103 6,839 11,086 10,767
Black or African American 2,287 2,320 2,807 2,813 1,978 2,033 2,447 2,499
American Indian or Alaska Native * 76 126 103 * 69 122 84
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 506 468 798 675 463 404 672 630
Two or More Races 247 286 328a 412 203 228 285 338
Hispanic or Latino 2,579 2,712 3,388b 3,555 2,250 2,304 2,974 3,088
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 7,574 7,407 10,759 10,440 6,466 6,260 9,482 9,204
Small Metro 4,085 4,174 5,920 5,979 3,553 3,536 5,216 5,306
Nonmetro 2,347 2,441 3,277 3,349 2,115 2,129 2,942 2,966
90414
Table 3.4B – Perceived Great Risk of Heroin and LSD Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic HEROIN LSD
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 57.0 57.7 81.0 81.3 51.2 50.5 74.2 73.9
AGE                
12-13 46.3 47.1 72.2 72.6 44.1 44.6 67.6 67.1
14-15 56.0 57.6 81.4 81.5 50.3 49.4 74.0 73.0
16-17 67.8 67.2 88.8 88.9 58.3 56.6 80.2 80.5
GENDER                
Male 57.8 58.7 81.0 81.4 51.2 50.5 73.8 73.6
Female 56.2 56.7 81.1 81.3 51.2 50.6 74.6 74.2
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 57.0 57.4 82.4 82.3 51.0 50.3 75.5 75.0
White 56.1 56.4 84.4 84.5 50.0 49.0 77.7 76.9
Black or African American 61.4 63.0 75.1 76.4 54.9 56.7 67.8 69.7
American Indian or Alaska Native * 58.8 80.0 77.4 * 54.8 78.3 67.2
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 51.4 50.1 81.0a 72.3 49.1 45.1 70.7 69.1
Two or More Races 60.8 58.3 80.1 83.5 52.4 48.5 74.4 71.9
Hispanic or Latino 57.3 59.0 75.1 77.3 51.8 51.5 68.4 69.0
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 57.0 57.4 80.7 80.8 50.6 49.9 74.0 73.2
Small Metro 56.7 57.3 81.9 82.1 50.9 50.0 74.6 74.7
Nonmetro 57.8 59.5 80.6 81.9 53.7 53.6 74.2 74.5
90414
Table 3.5A – Perceived That Obtaining Specific Illicit Drugs Would Be Fairly or Very Easy among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/
Geographic Characteristic
Marijuana
(2007)
Marijuana
(2008)
Cocaine
(2007)
Cocaine
(2008)
Crack
(2007)
Crack
(2008)
Heroin
(2007)
Heroin
(2008)
LSD
(2007)
LSD
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy." Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 12,034 11,905 5,905b 5,279 6,104b 5,537 3,390b 3,083 3,376 3,221
AGE                    
12-13 1,594 1,514 978 866 1,135 1,084 641 632 489 451
14-15 4,220 4,324 1,997 1,905 2,219 2,137 1,191 1,159 1,077 1,137
16-17 6,220 6,066 2,930b 2,508 2,750b 2,315 1,558b 1,292 1,810a 1,633
GENDER                    
Male 6,043 5,926 2,503b 2,256 2,473b 2,232 1,359 1,262 1,395 1,352
Female 5,992 5,978 3,402b 3,023 3,631b 3,305 2,031a 1,821 1,981 1,869
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 9,945 9,702 4,665b 4,143 4,858b 4,392 2,721b 2,450 2,796 2,624
White 7,437 7,129 3,338b 2,920 3,358b 3,025 1,841 1,685 2,144 2,013
Black or African American 1,903 1,938 1,048 952 1,157 1,067 713a 596 486 444
American Indian or Alaska Native * 67 * 21 * 21 * 13 16 14
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * * * *
Asian 291 274 121 127 179 145 76 79 84 86
Two or More Races 205a 262 103 107 96 114 60 64 62 59
Hispanic or Latino 2,089 2,203 1,240 1,136 1,246 1,145 669 633 579 597
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 6,566 6,534 3,259b 2,834 3,355b 3,007 1,889 1,720 1,845 1,761
Small Metro 3,591 3,597 1,798 1,668 1,832 1,675 990 892 1,006 976
Nonmetro 1,877 1,773 847 777 917 855 511 471 525 483
90414
Table 3.5B – Perceived That Obtaining Specific Illicit Drugs Would Be Fairly or Very Easy among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/
Geographic Characteristic
Marijuana
(2007)
Marijuana
(2008)
Cocaine
(2007)
Cocaine
(2008)
Crack
(2007)
Crack
(2008)
Heroin
(2007)
Heroin
(2008)
LSD
(2007)
LSD
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy." Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 49.1 49.2 24.5b 22.1 25.3b 23.2 14.1a 13.0 14.4 13.8
AGE                    
12-13 20.6 20.5 12.8 11.8 14.8 14.8 8.4 8.7 6.7 6.4
14-15 50.9 52.2 24.5 23.4 27.1 26.2 14.7 14.3 13.5 14.3
16-17 73.4a 71.0 35.3b 29.9 33.1b 27.7 18.8b 15.5 22.1b 19.8
GENDER                    
Male 48.1 47.9 20.3a 18.5 20.0a 18.4 11.1 10.5 11.6 11.3
Female 50.2 50.5 28.9b 25.9 30.8b 28.3 17.4a 15.7 17.3 16.5
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 49.8 49.5 23.8b 21.5 24.7b 22.8 13.9a 12.8 14.6 13.9
White 50.9 50.0 23.2b 20.8 23.3b 21.6 12.9 12.1 15.3 14.7
Black or African American 51.1 52.6 28.6 26.2 31.5 29.2 19.6a 16.5 13.5 12.4
American Indian or Alaska Native * 49.6 * 15.8 * 16.0 * 9.8 10.6 10.8
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * * * *
Asian 29.3 29.5 12.4 14.0 18.2 15.8 7.8 8.7 8.8 9.5
Two or More Races 50.1 54.3 25.6 22.6 23.9 24.1 15.2 13.7 16.1 13.0
Hispanic or Latino 46.1 47.7 27.8 25.0 27.8 25.2 15.1 14.0 13.4 13.5
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 49.5 50.7 25.0b 22.4 25.7a 23.7 14.6 13.7 14.5 14.2
Small Metro 49.9 49.7 25.4a 23.4 25.8a 23.5 14.1 12.6 14.5 14.0
Nonmetro 46.3a 43.4 21.2 19.3 22.9 21.3 12.9 11.8 13.5 12.3
90414
Table 3.6A – Youths Feel That Parents Would Strongly Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Perceptions of Parents' Feelings include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove." Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Parents' Feelings data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 22,849a 22,667 22,596b 22,282 23,179b 22,864 22,278a 22,054
AGE                
12-13 7,550 7,274 7,586 7,285 7,652 7,340 7,416 7,121
14-15 7,853 7,796 7,705 7,674 7,879 7,861 7,603 7,514
16-17 7,445 7,597 7,305 7,323 7,648 7,663 7,259 7,419
GENDER                
Male 11,576 11,522 11,477b 11,292 11,775b 11,580 11,250 11,156
Female 11,273a 11,145 11,119a 10,990 11,404a 11,284 11,028a 10,898
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 18,653b 18,414 18,404b 18,019 18,917b 18,555 18,248b 17,984
White 13,683 13,466 13,491 13,105 13,918 13,590 13,380 13,149
Black or African American 3,405 3,384 3,373 3,382 3,436 3,407 3,348 3,328
American Indian or Alaska Native 141 115 * 118 * 117 141 112
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 980 906 976 890 975 895 950 868
Two or More Races 381 452 373 437 384 456 375 441
Hispanic or Latino 4,195 4,253 4,192 4,263 4,261 4,309 4,031 4,070
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 12,450 12,193 12,189 11,906 12,513 12,221 12,175 11,827
Small Metro 6,693 6,789 6,620 6,626 6,800 6,818 6,515 6,619
Nonmetro 3,706 3,685 3,786 3,750 3,866 3,825 3,588 3,608
90414
Table 3.6B – Youths Feel That Parents Would Strongly Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Perceptions of Parents' Feelings include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove." Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Parents' Feelings data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 92.1 92.4 91.0 90.8 93.3 93.1 89.6 89.7
AGE                
12-13 95.8 95.8 96.0 95.8 96.9 96.5 93.8 93.5
14-15 93.4 93.3 91.6 91.9 93.5 94.1 90.3 89.9
16-17 87.4 88.4 85.8 85.2 89.7 89.1 85.2 86.3
GENDER                
Male 91.6 92.1 90.7 90.3 93.0 92.5 88.8 89.1
Female 92.6 92.6 91.4 91.3 93.6 93.7 90.4 90.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 92.0 92.4 90.7 90.4 93.2 93.0 89.8 90.1
White 91.7 92.5 90.4 90.0 93.2 93.3 89.6 90.3
Black or African American 91.5 91.3 90.6 91.1 92.2 91.7 89.6 89.5
American Indian or Alaska Native 90.6 87.9 * 90.7 * 89.9 89.6 85.3
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 97.0 95.5 96.5 94.0 96.4 94.5 93.9 91.1
Two or More Races 91.7 91.4 89.9 87.7 92.5 91.7 90.5 88.2
Hispanic or Latino 92.7 92.4 92.4 92.5 93.7 93.5 88.8 88.1
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 92.8 93.2 90.9 91.0 93.2 93.4 90.6 90.2
Small Metro 91.9 92.6 90.8 90.3 93.3 92.9 89.4 90.2
Nonmetro 90.0 89.4 91.7 90.8 93.6 92.6 86.9 87.5
90414
Table 3.7A – Youths Feel That Close Friends Would Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove" or "Somewhat disapprove." Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 21,780b 21,485 20,576a 20,297 20,929a 20,640 20,986 20,869
AGE                
12-13 7,453 7,149 7,483 7,167 7,492 7,215 7,392 7,105
14-15 7,391 7,264 7,032 6,960 7,140 7,082 7,048 7,025
16-17 6,937 7,072 6,061 6,170 6,297 6,342 6,546 6,739
GENDER                
Male 10,860a 10,677 10,229 10,076 10,407 10,254 10,382 10,281
Female 10,920 10,807 10,347 10,221 10,522 10,386 10,604 10,588
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 17,794b 17,463 16,763b 16,388 17,062b 16,706 17,148a 16,955
White 13,032 12,830 12,222 11,972 12,497 12,271 12,503 12,393
Black or African American 3,241 3,137 3,080 2,963 3,098 2,979 3,150 3,099
American Indian or Alaska Native * 105 129 100 130 101 * 102
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 955 878 924 868 921 865 945 856
Two or More Races 366 433 347 404 355 410 356 422
Hispanic or Latino 3,986 4,021 3,813 3,909 3,866 3,933 3,839 3,915
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 11,901 11,524 11,075 10,710 11,292 10,925 11,478 11,182
Small Metro 6,346 6,481 6,004 6,101 6,090 6,186 6,110 6,283
Nonmetro 3,534 3,480 3,496 3,485 3,547 3,530 3,399 3,405
90414
Table 3.7B – Youths Feel That Close Friends Would Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove" or "Somewhat disapprove." Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 87.8 87.4 82.9 82.6 84.3 84.1 84.5 85.0
AGE                
12-13 94.2 93.8 94.5 94.0 94.5 94.7 93.2 93.3
14-15 88.1 86.9 83.7 83.3 85.1 84.8 83.9 84.2
16-17 81.5 82.3 71.3 71.8 74.1 73.9 77.0 78.5
GENDER                
Male 86.1 85.4 81.1 80.6 82.4 82.1 82.2 82.4
Female 89.5 89.6 84.8 84.7 86.3 86.1 86.9 87.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 87.8 87.5 82.7 82.2 84.1 83.8 84.5 85.1
White 87.5 88.2 82.0 82.2 83.8 84.3 83.9a 85.2
Black or African American 86.6a 84.4 82.4 80.0 82.9 80.4 84.3 83.6
American Indian or Alaska Native * 79.2 83.2 76.2 83.5 77.4 * 77.2
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 95.1 91.9 91.8 90.8 91.8 90.4 94.0 89.6
Two or More Races 88.8 87.0 84.3 81.1 86.6 82.2 86.3 84.8
Hispanic or Latino 87.8 87.0 84.0 84.6 85.1 85.2 84.6 84.9
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 88.6 88.0 82.5 81.8 84.1 83.5 85.4 85.5
Small Metro 87.2 88.3 82.5 83.0 83.7 84.2 84.0a 85.5
Nonmetro 85.9 84.3 84.9 84.5 86.2 85.7 82.6 82.7
90414
Table 3.8A – Youths Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Peers' Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Feelings about Peers include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove" or "Somewhat disapprove." Respondents with unknown Feelings about Peers data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 22,312b 22,048 20,519b 20,195 20,641a 20,344 21,568 21,430
AGE                
12-13 7,467 7,171 7,443 7,155 7,421 7,153 7,420 7,128
14-15 7,548 7,454 6,943 6,909 6,967 6,962 7,214 7,246
16-17 7,297 7,423 6,133 6,132 6,252 6,230 6,934 7,056
GENDER                
Male 11,228 11,121 10,257 10,159 10,262 10,193 10,721 10,686
Female 11,083a 10,927 10,262b 10,036 10,379b 10,151 10,847 10,744
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 18,247b 17,925 16,677b 16,385 16,854b 16,554 17,618 17,460
White 13,396 13,079 12,086 11,832 12,284 12,048 12,853 12,729
Black or African American 3,336 3,332 3,163 3,110 3,120 3,058 3,260 3,211
American Indian or Alaska Native 143 116 128 107 129 107 * 105
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 944 873 908 851 917 853 953 887
Two or More Races 362 442 332 404 343 410 355a 440
Hispanic or Latino 4,065 4,123 3,842 3,810 3,787 3,790 3,951 3,970
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 12,162 11,816 11,038 10,689 11,093 10,768 11,780 11,503
Small Metro 6,524 6,618 5,951 6,003 6,013 6,078 6,296 6,407
Nonmetro 3,626 3,614 3,530 3,503 3,535 3,499 3,492 3,520
90414
Table 3.8B – Youths Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Peers' Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Feelings about Peers include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove" or "Somewhat disapprove." Respondents with unknown Feelings about Peers data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 89.7 89.6 82.5 82.1 82.9 82.7 86.6 87.0
AGE                
12-13 94.2 93.8 93.6 93.6 93.2 93.5 93.3 93.2
14-15 89.6 89.1 82.4 82.7 82.7 83.3 85.6 86.6
16-17 85.6 86.3 72.1 71.3 73.4 72.4 81.3 81.9
GENDER                
Male 88.7 88.7 81.0 81.1 81.0 81.3 84.6 85.2
Female 90.8 90.5 83.9 83.1 84.9 84.1 88.6 88.9
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 89.8 89.7 82.0 82.0 82.8 82.8 86.6 87.3
White 89.9 89.7 80.9 81.2 82.3 82.7 86.0a 87.3
Black or African American 88.8 89.4 84.4 83.6 82.9 82.1 86.8 86.1
American Indian or Alaska Native 91.2 87.5 80.4 81.6 81.2 81.8 * 79.1
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 93.3 91.8 89.9 89.1 90.7 89.1 94.2 92.6
Two or More Races 87.1 88.3 80.3 80.7 83.0 81.9 85.9 87.9
Hispanic or Latino 89.3 89.2 84.5 82.4 83.2 81.9 86.7 85.7
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 90.4 90.1 82.2 81.5 82.4 82.1 87.5 87.6
Small Metro 89.4 89.9 81.3 81.6 82.2 82.5 86.1 87.0
Nonmetro 88.0 87.5 85.4 84.9 85.6 84.8 84.4 85.1
90414
Table 3.9A – Participation in a Prevention Program or Group in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PREVENTION PROGRAM OR GROUP1
Problem-Solving, Communication,
or Self-Esteem Group
Violence Prevention Program Pregnancy or Sexually
Transmitted Disease Prevention
Program
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 5,552a 5,278 3,916b 3,336 2,887a 2,656
AGE            
12-13 2,091a 1,886 1,821b 1,462 925b 740
14-15 1,829 1,834 1,228 1,129 1,081 1,096
16-17 1,632 1,558 867a 744 881 820
GENDER            
Male 2,613 2,506 1,979b 1,660 1,373 1,243
Female 2,939 2,772 1,937b 1,676 1,515 1,413
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 4,580a 4,332 3,156b 2,690 2,308a 2,130
White 3,098 2,980 1,874b 1,640 1,361 1,288
Black or African American 1,057 930 1,002b 818 764a 631
American Indian or Alaska Native 25 30 23 17 17 19
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 280 241 166 128 117 128
Two or More Races 103 129 73 74 43 54
Hispanic or Latino 971 946 760a 645 579 526
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 3,064 2,866 2,206b 1,774 1,584 1,440
Small Metro 1,611 1,554 1,146b 972 841 761
Nonmetro 877 858 564 589 463 455
90414
Table 3.9B – Participation in a Prevention Program or Group in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PREVENTION PROGRAM OR GROUP1
Problem-Solving, Communication,
or Self-Esteem Group
Violence Prevention Program Pregnancy or Sexually
Transmitted Disease Prevention
Program
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 22.5 21.7 15.7b 13.5 11.5 10.8
AGE            
12-13 26.9 25.3 22.8b 19.1 11.5b 9.6
14-15 21.8 22.0 14.6 13.5 12.8 13.0
16-17 19.1 18.2 10.1a 8.7 10.3 9.5
GENDER            
Male 20.7 20.1 15.5b 13.2 10.8 9.9
Female 24.4 23.3 15.8b 13.9 12.3 11.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 22.8 22.0 15.5b 13.5 11.3 10.6
White 21.1 20.7 12.6a 11.3 9.1 8.8
Black or African American 27.9a 24.9 26.3b 21.8 20.1a 16.8
American Indian or Alaska Native 15.5 23.6 13.8 13.2 10.2 14.1
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 28.3 26.6 16.6 13.5 11.5 13.5
Two or More Races 25.3 25.8 17.6 14.9 10.3 11.0
Hispanic or Latino 21.4 20.5 16.5a 13.8 12.5 11.2
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 22.9 22.1 16.3b 13.5 11.7 10.9
Small Metro 22.2 21.4 15.7b 13.2 11.4 10.3
Nonmetro 21.5 21.0 13.7 14.2 11.2 11.0
90414
Table 3.10A – Participation in a Substance Use Program or Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Message in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE PROGRAM OR PREVENTION MESSAGE1
Participated in Alcohol,
Tobacco, or Drug
Prevention Program
Outside of School
Participated in Program
to Help Deal with Drug
or Alcohol Use
Saw or Heard Alcohol or
Drug Prevention Message
from Sources Outside
School
Talked to Parents about
Dangers of Tobacco,
Alcohol, or Drug Use
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 2,834 2,732 1,189 1,082 19,423 19,208 14,833a 14,444
AGE                
12-13 1,163a 1,014 517a 423 5,823 5,579 4,913 4,667
14-15 901 935 350 373 6,662 6,685 4,939 4,938
16-17 770 783 322 287 6,937 6,944 4,980 4,839
GENDER                
Male 1,493 1,417 649 562 9,675 9,591 7,313 7,253
Female 1,341 1,315 541 520 9,748 9,617 7,519b 7,190
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 2,290 2,243 932 844 15,909a 15,619 11,984 11,762
White 1,477 1,420 551 505 11,772 11,429 9,139 8,880
Black or African American 583 582 301 265 2,827 2,842 1,943 1,959
American Indian or Alaska Native * 24 14 6 124 * 100 63
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 145 142 46 44 808 761 527 487
Two or More Races 47 58 18 21 320a 401 246a 323
Hispanic or Latino 544 489 258 238 3,514 3,589 2,849a 2,682
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 1,449 1,434 660 566 10,559 10,310 8,159 7,746
Small Metro 877 807 347 325 5,742 5,758 4,293 4,385
Nonmetro 509 490 183 191 3,122 3,141 2,381 2,313
90414
Table 3.10B – Participation in a Substance Use Program or Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Message in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE PROGRAM OR PREVENTION MESSAGE1
Participated in Alcohol,
Tobacco, or Drug
Prevention Program
Outside of School
Participated in Program
to Help Deal with Drug
or Alcohol Use
Saw or Heard Alcohol or
Drug Prevention Message
from Sources Outside
School
Talked to Parents about
Dangers of Tobacco,
Alcohol, or Drug Use
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 11.3 11.1 4.8 4.4 77.9 78.0 59.6 58.7
AGE                
12-13 14.5 13.2 6.5 5.5 73.1 73.0 61.9 61.3
14-15 10.7 11.1 4.1 4.5 79.0 79.8 58.7 58.9
16-17 9.0 9.1 3.8 3.3 81.3 80.8 58.4 56.3
GENDER                
Male 11.7 11.2 5.1 4.5 76.1 76.3 57.6 57.7
Female 10.9 10.9 4.4 4.3 79.7 79.9 61.7a 59.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 11.2 11.2 4.6 4.2 78.3 78.3 59.0 59.0
White 9.9 9.7 3.7 3.5 79.2 78.7 61.5 61.2
Black or African American 15.3 15.5 8.0 7.1 74.3 75.8 51.4 52.2
American Indian or Alaska Native * 18.4 8.5 4.5 75.4 * 61.0 48.0
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 14.4 15.0 4.6 4.7 80.3 80.4 52.3 51.7
Two or More Races 11.3 11.7 4.2 4.1 77.4 80.4 60.1 64.5
Hispanic or Latino 11.8 10.4 5.6 5.1 76.3 76.8 62.1b 57.6
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 10.7 10.9 4.9 4.3 78.3 78.5 60.5 59.1
Small Metro 12.0 10.9 4.7 4.4 78.4 78.2 58.9 59.5
Nonmetro 12.3 11.8 4.4 4.7 75.8 76.2 57.9 56.1
90414
Table 3.11A – Participated in a Physical Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Got into a Serious Fight
at School or Work
Took Part in a
Group-Against-Group Fight
Attacked Someone with the Intent
to Seriously Hurt Them
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as having participated if they indicated taking part in the particular behavior at least one time. Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 5,611a 5,287 3,857a 3,580 1,841 1,813
AGE            
12-13 1,813 1,724 1,132 1,061 530 502
14-15 2,054 1,961 1,394 1,335 644 666
16-17 1,744 1,603 1,330a 1,184 667 645
GENDER            
Male 3,313a 3,095 2,163a 1,968 1,184 1,103
Female 2,299 2,193 1,694 1,612 657 710
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 4,468b 4,130 3,075b 2,764 1,530 1,471
White 2,916 2,766 2,063b 1,819 918 898
Black or African American 1,211a 1,072 782 721 502 461
American Indian or Alaska Native 49 32 31 25 8 19
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 146 126 108 111 55 35
Two or More Races 122 113 81 78 42 50
Hispanic or Latino 1,143 1,157 781 816 311 342
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 3,073a 2,821 2,069 1,915 1,013 913
Small Metro 1,608 1,547 1,122 1,012 542 566
Nonmetro 930 919 666 653 286 334
90414
Table 3.11B – Participated in a Physical Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Got into a Serious Fight
at School or Work
Took Part in a
Group-Against-Group Fight
Attacked Someone with the Intent
to Seriously Hurt Them
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as having participated if they indicated taking part in the particular behavior at least one time. Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 22.3 21.4 15.4a 14.5 7.3 7.3
AGE            
12-13 22.4 22.3 14.0 13.7 6.5 6.5
14-15 24.2 23.3 16.5 15.9 7.6 7.9
16-17 20.4a 18.6 15.6a 13.7 7.8 7.5
GENDER            
Male 25.8 24.5 16.9a 15.6 9.2 8.7
Female 18.7 18.1 13.8 13.3 5.3 5.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 21.8a 20.6 15.0a 13.8 7.5 7.3
White 19.4 18.9 13.8a 12.4 6.1 6.1
Black or African American 31.7a 28.5 20.4 19.2 13.1 12.3
American Indian or Alaska Native 29.6 24.0 18.7 19.0 4.8b 14.0
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 14.4 13.1 10.6 11.5 5.4 3.7
Two or More Races 29.2 22.6 19.4 15.5 10.1 9.9
Hispanic or Latino 24.6 24.7 16.8 17.4 6.7 7.3
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 22.6 21.4 15.2 14.5 7.4 6.9
Small Metro 21.8 20.9 15.2a 13.6 7.4 7.6
Nonmetro 22.4 22.1 16.1 15.7 6.9 8.0
90414
Table 3.12A – Participated in a Nonphysical Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Carried a Handgun Sold Illegal Drugs Stole or Tried to Steal Anything
Worth More Than $50
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as having participated if they indicated taking part in the particular behavior at least one time. Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 838 795 728 754 1,073 1,148
AGE            
12-13 158 162 42 41 159 166
14-15 316 321 245 251 382 412
16-17 364 311 441 462 533 570
GENDER            
Male 710 660 540 532 717 745
Female 128 135 188 222 357 403
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 683 657 617 618 875 911
White 490 475 456 434 580 598
Black or African American 140 134 121 136 215 236
American Indian or Alaska Native 8 6 9 3 11 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 26 24 16 19 38 29
Two or More Races 18 16 11 22 25 32
Hispanic or Latino 155 137 112 136 198 237
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 365 374 396 381 606 646
Small Metro 292 239 228 256 333 333
Nonmetro 182 181 105 116 134 169
90414
Table 3.12B – Participated in a Nonphysical Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Carried a Handgun Sold Illegal Drugs Stole or Tried to Steal Anything
Worth More Than $50
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as having participated if they indicated taking part in the particular behavior at least one time. Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 3.3 3.2 2.9 3.0 4.3 4.6
AGE            
12-13 2.0 2.1 0.5 0.5 2.0 2.1
14-15 3.7 3.8 2.9 3.0 4.5 4.9
16-17 4.3 3.6 5.2 5.4 6.2 6.6
GENDER            
Male 5.5 5.2 4.2 4.2 5.6 5.9
Female 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.8 2.9 3.3
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 3.3 3.3 3.0 3.1 4.3 4.5
White 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.9 4.1
Black or African American 3.7 3.6 3.2 3.6 5.6 6.3
American Indian or Alaska Native 4.5 4.6 5.4 2.3 6.6 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 2.5 2.5 1.6 2.0 3.7 3.0
Two or More Races 4.3 3.2 2.5 4.3 6.0 6.3
Hispanic or Latino 3.3 2.9 2.4 2.9 4.3 5.0
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9 4.5 4.9
Small Metro 4.0 3.2 3.1 3.5 4.5 4.5
Nonmetro 4.4 4.4 2.5 2.8 3.2 4.1
90414
Table 3.13A – Selected Risk and Protective Factors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic RISK FACTORS1 PROTECTIVE FACTORS1
Youth Moved 2 or
More Times in the
Past 5 Years
Youth Argued with
at Least One Parent
10 or More Times
in the Past Year
Youth Was
Approached by
Someone Selling
Drugs in the
Past Month
Youth Had Someone
to Talk to about
Problems2
Youth Attended 25
or More Religious
Services in the Past
Year3
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
3 Special occasions, such as weddings, funerals, or other special events, were not to have been considered in the number of times attended religious services.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 6,144a 5,855 5,540 5,797 3,659a 3,402 23,826b 23,537 7,740 7,695
AGE                    
12-13 2,127 2,007 1,376 1,423 404 361 7,698 7,351 2,415 2,402
14-15 2,100 1,994 2,014 2,148 1,252 1,248 8,053 7,968 2,702 2,737
16-17 1,917 1,854 2,151 2,226 2,004a 1,793 8,075 8,218 2,623 2,555
GENDER                    
Male 3,162a 2,957 2,314 2,387 2,223b 1,959 12,174b 11,956 3,648 3,650
Female 2,983 2,898 3,226 3,410 1,436 1,443 11,653 11,581 4,092 4,045
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 4,789a 4,505 4,734 4,855 2,877 2,692 19,468b 19,150 6,737 6,625
White 2,927 2,748 3,905 3,982 1,985 1,875 14,339 14,024 5,189 5,099
Black or African American 1,439 1,289 504 510 694 637 3,578 3,549 1,053 1,073
American Indian or Alaska Native 44 53 * 22 36 26 151 * * 23
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * * * *
Asian 214 198 173 203 72 54 938 896 310 269
Two or More Races 138 174 109 128 77 89 397 477 123 131
Hispanic or Latino 1,356 1,350 807a 942 782 711 4,358 4,387 1,004 1,070
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 3,294 3,032 3,015 3,077 2,078 1,988 12,879 12,524 3,872 3,866
Small Metro 1,845 1,811 1,600a 1,803 1,090 1,024 7,008 7,066 2,406 2,419
Nonmetro 1,006 1,012 926 917 491a 390 3,939 3,946 1,463 1,410
90414
Table 3.13B – Selected Risk and Protective Factors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic RISK FACTORS1 PROTECTIVE FACTORS1
Youth Moved 2 or
More Times in the
Past 5 Years
Youth Argued with
at Least One Parent
10 or More Times
in the Past Year
Youth Was
Approached by
Someone Selling
Drugs in the
Past Month
Youth Had Someone
to Talk to about
Problems2
Youth Attended 25
or More Religious
Services in the Past
Year3
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
3 Special occasions, such as weddings, funerals, or other special events, were not to have been considered in the number of times attended religious services.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 25.0 24.1 22.3a 23.7 14.5 13.7 96.4 96.3 31.4 31.7
AGE                    
12-13 27.2 26.9 17.2 18.7 5.0 4.6 97.0 96.5 30.9 32.3
14-15 25.2 24.1 24.0 25.8 14.7 14.8 96.4 95.9 32.5 33.1
16-17 22.7 21.7 25.3 26.0 23.4b 20.7 95.9 96.6 30.9 30.0
GENDER                    
Male 25.2 23.9 18.2 19.1 17.3b 15.5 96.3 95.8 29.1 29.5
Female 24.8 24.3 26.5a 28.4 11.6 11.9 96.5 96.8 33.8 34.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 23.8 22.8 23.3 24.5 14.0 13.4 96.7 96.6 33.4 33.7
White 19.8 19.1 26.3 27.5 13.2 12.8 97.0 97.0 35.2 35.5
Black or African American 38.8a 35.2 13.3 13.6 18.1 16.9 95.7 96.1 28.0 29.2
American Indian or Alaska Native 28.3 40.8 * 16.4 21.9 18.9 96.2 * * 17.3
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * * * *
Asian 21.5 21.2 17.3 22.1 7.1 5.6 94.9 94.3 31.0 29.5
Two or More Races 33.6 35.1 26.4 26.1 18.3 17.8 97.2 96.1 30.0 26.7
Hispanic or Latino 30.1 29.7 17.6a 20.3 16.8 15.1 95.5 95.1 22.3 23.3
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 24.7 23.4 22.4 23.6 15.2 15.0 96.5 96.2 29.0 29.9
Small Metro 25.5 25.0 21.9b 24.6 14.7 13.8 96.4 96.4 33.3 33.4
Nonmetro 24.8 24.9 22.4 22.3 11.8b 9.3 96.3 96.6 35.8 34.7
90414
Table 3.14A – Youths Agreed or Strongly Agreed with Statements about Religious Beliefs among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STATEMENTS ABOUT RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
Religious Beliefs Are a Very
Important Part of Youth's Life
Religious Beliefs Influence Youth's
Decision Making in Life
It Is Important for Friends to
Share Religious Beliefs
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Religious Beliefs include "Strongly disagree," "Disagree," "Agree," and "Strongly agree." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Agree" or "Strongly agree." Respondents with unknown Religious Beliefs data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18,734b 18,266 16,819a 16,497 8,585b 8,176
AGE            
12-13 6,445 6,139 5,911 5,616 3,113 2,928
14-15 6,274 6,194 5,622 5,598 2,831 2,817
16-17 6,014 5,934 5,286 5,284 2,641a 2,431
GENDER            
Male 9,218 9,101 8,336 8,285 4,267 4,165
Female 9,516b 9,166 8,483b 8,212 4,318b 4,010
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 15,220b 14,617 13,761b 13,263 7,066b 6,664
White 10,819a 10,254 9,725a 9,239 4,825 4,644
Black or African American 3,115 3,148 2,866 2,895 1,626 1,507
American Indian or Alaska Native 131 100 119 92 73 47
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 807 698 740 645 358 298
Two or More Races 292 339 263 317 156 135
Hispanic or Latino 3,514a 3,649 3,058b 3,234 1,519 1,512
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 9,996 9,593 8,881 8,565 4,241 3,947
Small Metro 5,585 5,481 5,053 4,998 2,657 2,574
Nonmetro 3,153 3,193 2,884 2,934 1,687 1,655
90414
Table 3.14B – Youths Agreed or Strongly Agreed with Statements about Religious Beliefs among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STATEMENTS ABOUT RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
Religious Beliefs Are a Very
Important Part of Youth's Life
Religious Beliefs Influence Youth's
Decision Making in Life
It Is Important for Friends to
Share Religious Beliefs
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Religious Beliefs include "Strongly disagree," "Disagree," "Agree," and "Strongly agree." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Agree" or "Strongly agree." Respondents with unknown Religious Beliefs data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 76.1 75.0 68.4 67.8 35.1a 33.8
AGE            
12-13 82.0 81.6 75.6 74.7 40.1 39.3
14-15 75.6 74.8 67.6 67.6 34.2 34.1
16-17 71.1 69.4 62.5 61.9 31.2b 28.6
GENDER            
Male 73.6 73.5 66.7 66.9 34.3 33.8
Female 78.7b 76.6 70.2 68.7 35.9a 33.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 75.6b 74.0 68.5a 67.2 35.3a 33.9
White 73.3b 71.1 65.9a 64.3 32.8 32.4
Black or African American 83.4 85.6 77.2 78.3 43.8 41.0
American Indian or Alaska Native 84.2 76.2 76.3 69.9 47.1 36.9
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 81.1a 73.9 74.3 68.3 36.3 32.1
Two or More Races 71.1 69.9 64.4 64.6 38.1a 27.4
Hispanic or Latino 78.1 79.6 67.9 70.4 34.1 33.2
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 75.0 74.0 66.7 65.9 32.0 30.5
Small Metro 77.4a 75.0 70.1 68.7 36.9 35.6
Nonmetro 77.3 78.2 70.8 72.2 41.8 41.0
90414
Table 3.15A – Parents Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific Behaviors in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
Parents Made Youth Do
Chores around the House
Parents Limited Amount
of Time Youth
Watched TV
Parents Let Youth
Know He or She Had
Done a Good Job
Parents Let Youth Know
They Were Proud of
Something He or She
Had Done
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Parental Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Always" or "Sometimes." Respondents with unknown Parental Involvement data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 22,073b 21,784 9,939 9,856 21,645b 21,332 21,541b 21,150
AGE                
12-13 7,171 6,886 4,261 4,161 7,343 7,004 7,343a 6,974
14-15 7,473 7,425 3,234 3,258 7,175 7,188 7,164 7,091
16-17 7,430 7,473 2,443 2,438 7,127 7,140 7,034 7,085
GENDER                
Male 11,272 11,180 5,001 5,008 11,244 11,116 11,174a 10,994
Female 10,801b 10,604 4,938 4,849 10,401a 10,216 10,367a 10,155
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 18,017b 17,698 7,787 7,761 17,736b 17,385 17,634b 17,293
White 13,073 12,773 5,521 5,536 13,091 12,788 13,005 12,729
Black or African American 3,534 3,460 1,477 1,400 3,286 3,239 3,270 3,234
American Indian or Alaska Native 152 124 * 60 140 103 139 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 827 802 512 537 822 732 813 729
Two or More Races 364a 449 161 180 340a 440 351 425
Hispanic or Latino 4,057 4,087 2,151 2,096 3,909 3,946 3,907 3,857
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 11,934 11,536 5,716 5,415 11,702 11,328 11,693 11,232
Small Metro 6,470 6,555 2,701 2,909 6,340 6,383 6,261 6,376
Nonmetro 3,670 3,692 1,522 1,531 3,603 3,621 3,587 3,541
90414
Table 3.15B – Parents Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific Behaviors in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
Parents Made Youth Do
Chores around the House
Parents Limited Amount
of Time Youth
Watched TV
Parents Let Youth
Know He or She Had
Done a Good Job
Parents Let Youth Know
They Were Proud of
Something He or She
Had Done
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Parental Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Always" or "Sometimes." Respondents with unknown Parental Involvement data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 87.8 87.9 39.7 39.9 86.2 86.1 85.7 85.4
AGE                
12-13 88.6 89.0 52.9 53.9 90.8 90.5 90.7 90.1
14-15 88.1 88.2 38.3 38.8 84.8 85.3 84.5 84.3
16-17 86.9 86.8 28.6 28.3 83.3 82.9 82.2 82.2
GENDER                
Male 87.9 88.5 39.1 39.7 87.7 87.9 87.2 86.9
Female 87.8 87.3 40.3 40.0 84.6 84.2 84.2 83.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 87.9 88.2 38.1 38.8 86.6 86.6 86.1 86.2
White 87.2 87.3 37.0 38.0 87.3 87.4 86.7 87.0
Black or African American 92.4 92.0 38.7 37.2 86.1 86.1 85.5 86.1
American Indian or Alaska Native 92.8 93.1 * 45.1 87.6a 76.8 87.2 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 81.5 83.9 50.4 56.2 81.1 76.7 80.0 76.1
Two or More Races 86.9 90.7 38.6 35.8 81.2a 87.8 84.2 84.9
Hispanic or Latino 87.5 87.0 46.6 44.6 84.2 83.9 84.1 82.1
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 87.7 87.4 42.1 41.1 86.1 85.8 85.9 85.1
Small Metro 87.8 88.4 36.8a 39.3 86.1 86.1 85.0 86.0
Nonmetro 88.5 88.7 36.9 36.9 86.6 87.0 86.4 85.2
90414
Table 3.16A – Measures of Student Characteristics in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS1
Participated in One or
Fewer Activities2
Drug or Alcohol Prevention
Messages Were Seen or
Heard in School3
Youth Liked a Lot or
Kind of Liked Going to
School4
Grade Average for Last
Completed Period Was "D"
or Lower5
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
3 Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Seen or Heard in School includes respondents who reported having a special class about drugs or alcohol in school or having had films, lectures, discussion, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in a regular school class, such as health or physical education, or outside of a regular school class, such as in a special assembly.
4
Response categories for the School Satisfaction question include "You liked going to school a lot," "You kind of liked going to school," "You didn't like going to school very much," and "You hated going to school." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "You liked going to school a lot" or "You kind of liked going to school."
5 Response categories for Grade Average include "An 'A+,' 'A,' or 'A-minus' average"; "A 'B+,' 'B,' or 'B-minus' average"; "A 'C+,' 'C,' or 'C-minus' average"; "A 'D' or less than a 'D' average"; and "My school does not give these grades." Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 3,215 3,260 17,601 17,484 18,943 18,845 1,422 1,418
AGE                
12-13 830 833 5,712 5,493 6,097 5,861 320 333
14-15 1,053 1,118 6,236 6,331 6,440 6,444 552 557
16-17 1,332 1,310 5,654 5,659 6,407 6,539 550 527
GENDER                
Male 1,943 1,885 8,852 8,751 9,458 9,445 906 828
Female 1,272 1,376 8,749 8,733 9,486 9,399 515 590
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 2,406 2,422 14,534 14,380 15,524 15,288 1,113 1,112
White 1,781 1,810 10,821 10,689 11,326 11,054 744 814
Black or African American 443 411 2,477 2,482 2,882 2,928 285 230
American Indian or Alaska Native 18 31 * * * 100 * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 101 92 779 683 841 769 19 16
Two or More Races 53 69 300a 376 313 381 36 32
Hispanic or Latino 809 838 3,068 3,104 3,419 3,557 308 306
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 1,808 1,671 9,633 9,375 10,408 10,200 727 707
Small Metro 942 1,017 5,116 5,218 5,496 5,611 456 452
Nonmetro 465a 573 2,852 2,891 3,040 3,034 238 259
90414
Table 3.16B – Measures of Student Characteristics in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS1
Participated in One or
Fewer Activities2
Drug or Alcohol Prevention
Messages Were Seen or
Heard in School3
Youth Liked a Lot or
Kind of Liked Going to
School4
Grade Average for Last
Completed Period Was "D"
or Lower5
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
3 Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Seen or Heard in School includes respondents who reported having a special class about drugs or alcohol in school or having had films, lectures, discussion, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in a regular school class, such as health or physical education, or outside of a regular school class, such as in a special assembly.
4
Response categories for the School Satisfaction question include "You liked going to school a lot," "You kind of liked going to school," "You didn't like going to school very much," and "You hated going to school." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "You liked going to school a lot" or "You kind of liked going to school."
5 Response categories for Grade Average include "An 'A+,' 'A,' or 'A-minus' average"; "A 'B+,' 'B,' or 'B-minus' average"; "A 'C+,' 'C,' or 'C-minus' average"; "A 'D' or less than a 'D' average"; and "My school does not give these grades." Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 13.8 14.1 75.8 75.9 81.0 81.3 6.3 6.4
AGE                
12-13 11.4 11.9 78.8 79.1 83.6 83.5 4.7 5.1
14-15 13.2 14.1 78.9 80.0 80.7 81.2 7.2 7.3
16-17 16.5 16.0 70.0 69.1 79.0 79.7 6.9 6.6
GENDER                
Male 16.3 15.9 74.5 74.1 78.9 79.6 7.9 7.3
Female 11.2 12.2 77.2 77.7 83.3 83.1 4.7 5.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 12.5 12.8 75.8 76.0 80.4 80.4 6.0 6.1
White 12.4 12.8 75.8 76.2 78.9 78.4 5.4 6.0
Black or African American 13.1 12.3 73.5 74.5 85.0a 87.4 8.9a 7.2
American Indian or Alaska Native 11.8a 25.8 * * * 82.7 * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 10.8 10.5 83.5 78.0 89.1 87.8 2.1 1.9
Two or More Races 13.2 14.3 75.0 78.2 78.0 79.1 9.3 7.0
Hispanic or Latino 19.8 20.2 75.6 75.1 83.7 85.6 7.9 7.7
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 14.3 13.6 76.5 76.5 82.1 82.8 6.0 6.0
Small Metro 13.8 14.6 75.0 75.0 80.1 80.3 6.9 6.7
Nonmetro 12.1b 14.8 74.7 75.4 79.2 78.5 6.4 7.0
90414
Table 3.17A – Adults Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific School-Related Behaviors in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic ADULT INVOLVEMENT
Teacher Always or
Sometimes Let Youth
Know He or She Was
Doing a Good Job with
School Work
Parents Checked That
Youth Did Homework
Parents Provided Help
with Homework
Parents Limited Time
Youth Went Out with
Friends on a School
Night
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
NOTE: Response categories for the Adult Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Always" or "Sometimes." Respondents with unknown Adult Involvement data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18,888 18,486 18,548 18,342 18,842 18,485 16,236 16,082
AGE                
12-13 6,267a 5,897 6,487 6,213 6,522 6,313 5,325 5,150
14-15 6,298 6,201 6,358 6,325 6,469 6,354 5,614 5,612
16-17 6,323 6,389 5,703 5,804 5,850 5,817 5,297 5,320
GENDER                
Male 9,622 9,482 9,920 9,699 9,857 9,609 8,114 7,941
Female 9,266 9,004 8,628 8,643 8,985 8,876 8,122 8,141
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 15,510 15,062 15,236 15,011 15,754 15,376 13,309 13,121
White 11,303 10,914 11,233 11,095 11,810 11,610 9,859 9,651
Black or African American 2,911 2,852 2,778 2,737 2,747 2,665 2,369 2,406
American Indian or Alaska Native 131 103 134 * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 813 740 724 657 715a 555 667 583
Two or More Races 310 384 318 368 319 397 272 345
Hispanic or Latino 3,378 3,424 3,311 3,331 3,087 3,109 2,927 2,961
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 10,431 9,906 10,087 9,735 10,179 9,680 8,850 8,553
Small Metro 5,457 5,547 5,405 5,528 5,518 5,655 4,727 4,866
Nonmetro 3,000 3,032 3,056 3,080 3,144 3,150 2,659 2,663
90414
Table 3.17B – Adults Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific School-Related Behaviors in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic ADULT INVOLVEMENT
Teacher Always or
Sometimes Let Youth
Know He or She Was
Doing a Good Job with
School Work
Parents Checked That
Youth Did Homework
Parents Provided Help
with Homework
Parents Limited Time
Youth Went Out with
Friends on a School
Night
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
NOTE: Response categories for the Adult Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Always" or "Sometimes." Respondents with unknown Adult Involvement data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 80.9a 79.9 79.5 79.3 80.9 80.0 70.4 70.2
AGE                
12-13 86.1a 84.2 89.1 88.6 89.6 90.1 74.7 75.3
14-15 79.0 78.1 79.8 79.7 81.5 80.1 71.3 71.0
16-17 78.0 77.9 70.5 70.8 72.4 71.1 65.5 65.1
GENDER                
Male 80.4 80.0 82.9 81.9 82.6a 81.2 68.7 67.7
Female 81.4a 79.8 75.8 76.5 79.1 78.7 72.1 72.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 80.4a 79.3 79.1 79.0 81.9 81.1 69.9 69.8
White 78.8a 77.5 78.4 78.7 82.5 82.5 69.5 69.2
Black or African American 85.9 85.2 82.3 81.9 81.6 79.9 71.0 72.6
American Indian or Alaska Native 87.5 85.3 89.5 * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 86.5 84.2 76.8 75.2 76.2b 63.7 71.8 67.4
Two or More Races 77.4 80.0 79.2 76.5 79.6 82.7 68.2 72.8
Hispanic or Latino 82.9 82.4 81.2 80.2 75.9 74.8 72.8 71.9
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 82.4a 80.5 79.6 79.1 80.7a 78.8 70.8 70.2
Small Metro 79.6 79.4 79.1 79.2 80.6 81.1 69.8 70.4
Nonmetro 78.1 78.6 79.7 79.7 82.1 81.7 70.1 69.8
90414
Table 3.18A – Youths Perceived That All or Most Students in Grade Level Use Specific Substances among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE OF STUDENTS IN GRADE LEVEL
Smoke Cigarettes Use Marijuana or
Hashish
Drink Alcoholic
Beverages
Get Drunk at Least Once
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months, or reported that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
NOTE: Response categories for the Substance Use in Grade Level questions include "All of them," "Most of them," "A few of them," and "None of them." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "All of them" or "Most of them." Respondents with unknown Substance Use in Grade Level data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 6,026a 5,675 5,114 5,130 9,952 9,751 4,142 3,943
AGE                
12-13 532 454 263 268 754 721 167 160
14-15 2,130 2,083 1,746 1,738 3,517 3,391 1,272 1,188
16-17 3,365a 3,137 3,105 3,124 5,680 5,640 2,703 2,594
GENDER                
Male 2,591a 2,384 2,292 2,267 4,455 4,319 1,761a 1,573
Female 3,435 3,291 2,822 2,863 5,497 5,432 2,382 2,369
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 5,000a 4,706 4,120 4,112 8,201 7,991 3,390 3,171
White 3,671a 3,412 2,804 2,764 6,317a 5,979 2,556a 2,367
Black or African American 1,029 972 1,055 1,066 1,320 1,447 615 599
American Indian or Alaska Native * 33 27 45 * 52 * 22
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 113 146 113 96 304 279 116 92
Two or More Races 118 125 103 126 174 203 64 83
Hispanic or Latino 1,027 969 995 1,017 1,751 1,760 752 771
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 2,972 2,929 2,881 2,930 5,258 5,247 2,177 2,053
Small Metro 1,898 1,783 1,571 1,557 2,996 2,938 1,245 1,248
Nonmetro 1,157b 963 662 643 1,698 1,566 721 642
90414
Table 3.18B – Youths Perceived That All or Most Students in Grade Level Use Specific Substances among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE OF STUDENTS IN GRADE LEVEL
Smoke Cigarettes Use Marijuana or
Hashish
Drink Alcoholic
Beverages
Get Drunk at Least Once
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months, or reported that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
NOTE: Response categories for the Substance Use in Grade Level questions include "All of them," "Most of them," "A few of them," and "None of them." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "All of them" or "Most of them." Respondents with unknown Substance Use in Grade Level data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 26.7a 25.4 23.1 23.4 44.3 43.9 18.7 18.1
AGE                
12-13 7.7 6.9 3.9 4.2 11.1 11.0 2.5 2.5
14-15 27.5 27.0 23.2 23.2 45.7 44.4 16.9 15.9
16-17 42.2b 39.0 39.4 39.3 71.4 70.2 34.3 32.7
GENDER                
Male 22.4a 20.8 20.2 20.2 38.8 38.1 15.5a 14.2
Female 31.2 30.1 26.2 26.9 50.1 49.9 22.1 22.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 26.8 25.6 22.5 22.9 44.3 43.8 18.5 17.7
White 26.4 25.0 20.6 20.7 45.8a 44.2 18.7 17.7
Black or African American 31.4 30.0 32.8 33.5 40.7a 44.9 19.4 19.0
American Indian or Alaska Native * 29.3 21.0b 39.0 * 44.8 * 19.1
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 12.5 17.4 12.9 12.1 33.7 34.0 13.0 11.6
Two or More Races 30.2 26.7 26.5 27.3 44.3 43.1 16.8 18.0
Hispanic or Latino 26.0 24.1 25.7 26.0 44.4 44.3 19.4 19.8
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 24.3 24.7 24.1 25.2 43.3 44.6 18.2 17.8
Small Metro 28.6a 26.3 24.0 23.5 45.3 43.8 19.1 18.9
Nonmetro 31.1b 25.7 18.2 17.6 46.0b 42.0 19.8a 17.5
90414
Table 3.19A – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Risk Perceptions of Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Perceptions of Risk1 Used Illicit Drugs2 Used Marijuana Used Cigarettes Binge Use
of Alcohol3
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
CIGARETTES        
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day – Great Risk 1,380 1,007 1,187 1,366
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 913 646 1,064 818
MARIJUANA        
Smoke Once a Month – Great Risk 312 127 333 335
Smoke Once a Month – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 1,976 1,524 1,913 1,850
Smoke Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 432 192 463 483
Smoke Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 1,857 1,461 1,777 1,704
COCAINE        
Use Once a Month – Great Risk 1,109 830 1,160 1,135
Use Once a Month – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 1,160 808 1,053 1,031
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 1,653 1,228 1,669 1,682
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 618 413 548 487
HEROIN        
Try Once or Twice – Great Risk 1,548 1,194 1,569 1,513
Try Once or Twice – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 723 445 642 656
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 1,918 1,446 1,910 1,914
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 353 193 302 255
LSD        
Try Once or Twice – Great Risk 1,033 755 1,154 1,126
Try Once or Twice – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 1,180 851 1,020 1,010
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 1,552 1,155 1,609 1,642
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 662 442 561 494
ALCOHOL        
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day – Great Risk 1,125 807 998 1,012
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 1,165 845 1,251 1,173
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 664 443 610 496
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 1,624 1,209 1,635 1,691
90414
Table 3.19B – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Risk Perceptions of Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2008
Perceptions of Risk1 Used Illicit Drugs2 Used Marijuana Used Cigarettes Binge Use
of Alcohol3
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
CIGARETTES        
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day – Great Risk 8.0 5.9 6.9 7.9
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 12.2 8.6 14.2 10.9
MARIJUANA        
Smoke Once a Month – Great Risk 3.7 1.5 4.0 4.0
Smoke Once a Month – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 12.2 9.4 11.8 11.4
Smoke Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 3.3 1.5 3.6 3.7
Smoke Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 16.1 12.7 15.4 14.8
COCAINE        
Use Once a Month – Great Risk 9.1 6.8 9.6 9.4
Use Once a Month – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 9.4 6.6 8.6 8.4
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 8.5 6.3 8.6 8.7
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 12.1 8.1 10.8 9.6
HEROIN        
Try Once or Twice – Great Risk 11.0 8.5 11.2 10.8
Try Once or Twice – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 7.0 4.3 6.3 6.4
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 9.7 7.3 9.7 9.7
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 7.8 4.3 6.7 5.6
LSD        
Try Once or Twice – Great Risk 8.7 6.3 9.7 9.4
Try Once or Twice – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 10.1 7.3 8.7 8.7
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 8.9 6.6 9.2 9.4
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 10.7 7.1 9.1 8.0
ALCOHOL        
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day – Great Risk 6.9 5.0 6.1 6.2
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 13.8 10.0 14.8 13.9
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 6.6 4.4 6.1 5.0
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 11.1 8.2 11.1 11.5
90414
Table 3.20A – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Perceived Availability of Selected Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Perceived Availability1 Used Illicit Drugs2 Used Marijuana Used Cigarettes Binge Use
of Alcohol3
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
FAIRLY OR VERY EASY TO OBTAIN        
Marijuana 1,970 1,560 1,921 1,921
Cocaine 906 664 873 891
Crack 733 504 664 698
Heroin 390 251 388 401
LSD 620 452 592 626
FAIRLY, VERY DIFFICULT, OR IMPOSSIBLE TO OBTAIN        
Marijuana 318 93 326 260
Cocaine 1,336 956 1,327 1,259
Crack 1,506 1,113 1,529 1,443
Heroin 1,831 1,349 1,803 1,730
LSD 1,583 1,142 1,584 1,500
90414
Table 3.20B – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Perceived Availability of Selected Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2008
Perceived Availability1 Used Illicit Drugs2 Used Marijuana Used Cigarettes Binge Use
of Alcohol3
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
FAIRLY OR VERY EASY TO OBTAIN        
Marijuana 16.5 13.1 16.1 16.1
Cocaine 17.2 12.6 16.5 16.9
Crack 13.2 9.1 12.0 12.6
Heroin 12.6 8.1 12.6 13.0
LSD 19.2 14.0 18.4 19.4
FAIRLY, VERY DIFFICULT, OR IMPOSSIBLE TO OBTAIN        
Marijuana 2.6 0.8 2.6 2.1
Cocaine 7.2 5.1 7.2 6.8
Crack 8.2 6.1 8.4 7.9
Heroin 8.9 6.6 8.8 8.4
LSD 7.9 5.7 7.9 7.5
90414
Table 3.21A – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Youth's Perceptions of Parents' Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
YOUTH'S PERCEPTIONS OF PARENTS'
FEELINGS ABOUT YOUTH…
               
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
1,736 521 1,208 425 1,528 699 1,709 452
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
1,498 772 957 676 1,596 638 1,556 605
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
1,634 628 1,069 558 1,710 520 1,693 461
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
1,708 557 1,224 405 1,672 554 1,534 623
90414
Table 3.21B – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Youth's Perceptions of Parents' Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2008
Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
YOUTH'S PERCEPTIONS OF PARENTS'
FEELINGS ABOUT YOUTH…
               
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
7.7 27.8 5.3 22.7 6.7 37.3 7.5 24.1
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
6.7 34.1 4.3 29.8 7.2 28.1 7.0 26.7
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
7.1 37.1 4.7 32.9 7.5 30.7 7.4 27.2
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
7.7 22.0 5.5 16.0 7.6 21.9 7.0 24.7
90414
Table 3.22A – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
YOUTH'S PERCEPTIONS OF CLOSE
FRIENDS' FEELINGS ABOUT YOUTH…
               
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
1,522 749 1,043 589 1,404 825 1,506 652
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
969 1,296 526 1,103 1,112 1,113 1,095 1,063
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
1,000 1,263 542 1,087 1,176 1,047 1,135 1,024
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
1,367 898 935 692 1,336 885 1,290 863
YOUTH'S FEELINGS ABOUT PEERS…                
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
1,694 571 1,178 450 1,446 778 1,619 545
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
928 1,341 489 1,145 1,023 1,204 1,031 1,129
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
909 1,361 474 1,158 1,041 1,186 1,040 1,117
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
1,454 817 970 664 1,379 847 1,314 846
90414
Table 3.22B – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2008
Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
YOUTH'S PERCEPTIONS OF CLOSE
FRIENDS' FEELINGS ABOUT YOUTH…
               
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
7.1 24.3 4.9 19.1 6.5 26.7 7.0 21.1
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
4.8 30.4 2.6 25.8 5.5 26.1 5.4 24.9
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
4.8 32.3 2.6 27.8 5.7 26.7 5.5 26.2
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
6.6 24.4 4.5 18.8 6.4 24.1 6.2 23.5
YOUTH'S FEELINGS ABOUT PEERS…                
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
7.7 22.3 5.3 17.6 6.6 30.4 7.3 21.3
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
4.6 30.4 2.4 26.0 5.1 27.3 5.1 25.6
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
4.5 31.9 2.3 27.1 5.1 27.8 5.1 26.2
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
6.8 25.5 4.5 20.7 6.4 26.5 6.1 26.4
90414
Table 3.23A – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Youth's Exposure to Prevention Programs and Messages and Youth's Delinquency in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Prevention Programs/Messages and Delinquency1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as "Yes" if they indicated participating in a particular behavior at least one time and "No" if they did not.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
EXPOSURE TO PREVENTION PROGRAMS
AND MESSAGES IN PAST YEAR
               
Participated in Problem-Solving,
  Communication, or Self-Esteem Group
412 1,847 246 1,377 357 1,871 322 1,834
Participated in Violence Prevention Program 271 1,995 170 1,459 243 1,987 198 1,964
Participated in Pregnancy or Sexually
  Transmitted Disease Prevention Program
256 2,010 171 1,455 199 2,028 194 1,968
Participated in Alcohol, Tobacco, or Drug
  Prevention Program Outside of School
242 2,021 154 1,472 218 2,011 204 1,961
Participated in Program to Help Deal with
  Drug or Alcohol Use
151 2,108 97 1,524 120 2,100 113 2,043
Saw or Heard Alcohol or Drug Prevention
  Message from Sources Outside School
1,716 553 1,274 354 1,681 542 1,648 518
Talked to Parents about Dangers of Tobacco,
  Alcohol, or Drug Use
1,245 1,017 934 694 1,233 995 1,256 905
DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR IN PAST YEAR4                
Got into a Serious Fight at School or Work 841 1,429 583 1,045 825 1,409 734 1,431
Took Part in a Group-Against-Group Fight 687 1,583 496 1,130 641 1,585 575 1,588
Attacked Someone with the Intent to Seriously
  Hurt Them
434 1,846 333 1,304 391 1,846 361 1,813
Carried a Handgun 212 2,064 164 1,468 177 2,054 166 2,008
Sold Illegal Drugs 500 1,770 430 1,195 413 1,811 382 1,789
Stole or Tried to Steal Anything Worth More
  Than $50
457 1,819 374 1,261 378 1,854 365 1,807
90414
Table 3.23B – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Youth's Exposure to Prevention Programs and Messages and Youth's Delinquency in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2008
Prevention Programs/Messages and Delinquency1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as "Yes" if they indicated participating in a particular behavior at least one time and "No" if they did not.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
EXPOSURE TO PREVENTION PROGRAMS
AND MESSAGES IN PAST YEAR
               
Participated in Problem-Solving,
  Communication, or Self-Esteem Group
7.8 9.7 4.7 7.2 6.8 9.8 6.1 9.6
Participated in Violence Prevention Program 8.1 9.4 5.1 6.8 7.3 9.3 5.9 9.2
Participated in Pregnancy or Sexually
  Transmitted Disease Prevention Program
9.7 9.1 6.4 6.6 7.5 9.2 7.3 8.9
Participated in Alcohol, Tobacco, or Drug
  Prevention Program Outside of School
8.9 9.2 5.6 6.7 8.0 9.2 7.5 8.9
Participated in Program to Help Deal with
  Drug or Alcohol Use
14.0 8.9 9.0 6.5 11.1 8.9 10.4 8.7
Saw or Heard Alcohol or Drug Prevention
  Message from Sources Outside School
8.9 10.2 6.6 6.6 8.8 10.0 8.6 9.6
Talked to Parents about Dangers of Tobacco,
  Alcohol, or Drug Use
8.6 10.0 6.5 6.8 8.5 9.8 8.7 8.9
DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR IN PAST YEAR4                
Got into a Serious Fight at School or Work 15.9 7.3 11.0 5.4 15.6 7.2 13.9 7.4
Took Part in a Group-Against-Group Fight 19.2 7.5 13.9 5.3 17.9 7.5 16.1 7.5
Attacked Someone with the Intent to Seriously
  Hurt Them
24.0 8.0 18.4 5.7 21.5 8.0 19.9 7.9
Carried a Handgun 26.6 8.6 20.6 6.1 22.3 8.6 20.9 8.4
Sold Illegal Drugs 66.4 7.4 57.1 5.0 54.8 7.5 50.7 7.4
Stole or Tried to Steal Anything Worth More
  Than $50
39.8 7.7 32.6 5.3 33.0 7.8 31.8 7.6
90414
Table 3.24A – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Risk and Protective Factors, Religious Beliefs, and Past Year Parental Involvement among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Risk and Protective Factors, Religious Feelings, and Parental Involvement1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
5 Special occasions, such as weddings, funerals, or other special events, were not to have been considered in the number of times attended religious services.
6 Response categories for the questions on Religious Beliefs include "Strongly disagree," "Disagree," "Agree," and "Strongly agree." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Agree" or "Strongly agree" and "No" if they reported "Strongly disagree" or "Disagree."
7 Responses categories for the Parental Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Always" or "Sometimes" and "No" if they reported "Seldom" or "Never."
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS                
Youth Moved 2 or More Times in the Past 5
  Years
720 1,508 501 1,112 735 1,458 618 1,538
Youth Argued with at Least One Parent 10 or
  More Times in the Past Year
880 1,385 636 991 864 1,361 813 1,334
Youth Was Approached by Someone Selling
  Drugs in the Past Month
1,106 1,193 935 721 991 1,267 992 1,190
Youth Had Someone to Talk to about
  Problems4
2,096 148 1,514 99 2,081 114 2,033 108
Youth Attended 25 or More Religious Services
  in the Past Year5
398 1,843 231 1,385 395 1,810 417 1,727
YOUTH RELIGIOUS BELIEFS6                
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That
  Religious Beliefs Are a Very Important Part
  of His or Her Life
1,248 986 816 794 1,194 1,007 1,273 867
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That His or Her
  Religious Beliefs Influence Decision Making
  in Life
987 1,239 630 976 962 1,228 1,028 1,102
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That It Is
  Important for Friends to Share Religious
  Beliefs
472 1,763 258 1,358 454 1,742 465 1,668
PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN PAST YEAR7                
Parent Always or Sometimes Made Youth Do
  Chores around the House
1,856 418 1,325 304 1,841 389 1,751 416
Parent Always or Sometimes Limited Amount
  of Time Youth Watched TV
565 1,700 344 1,284 463 1,766 449 1,715
Parents Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  He or She Had Done a Good Job
1,702 568 1,232 396 1,672 560 1,680 485
Parents Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  They Were Proud of Something He or She Had
  Done
1,702 564 1,225 400 1,674 556 1,689 473
90414
Table 3.24B – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Risk and Protective Factors, Religious Beliefs, and Past Year Parental Involvement among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2008
Risk and Protective Factors, Religious Feelings, and Parental Involvement1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
5 Special occasions, such as weddings, funerals, or other special events, were not to have been considered in the number of times attended religious services.
6 Response categories for the questions on Religious Beliefs include "Strongly disagree," "Disagree," "Agree," and "Strongly agree." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Agree" or "Strongly agree" and "No" if they reported "Strongly disagree" or "Disagree."
7 Responses categories for the Parental Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Always" or "Sometimes" and "No" if they reported "Seldom" or "Never."
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS                
Youth Moved 2 or More Times in the Past 5
  Years
12.3 8.2 8.6 6.0 12.6 7.9 10.5 8.3
Youth Argued with at Least One Parent 10 or
  More Times in the Past Year
15.2 7.4 11.0 5.3 14.9 7.3 14.0 7.1
Youth Was Approached by Someone Selling
  Drugs in the Past Month
32.5 5.6 27.5 3.4 29.1 5.9 29.2 5.5
Youth Had Someone to Talk to about
  Problems4
8.9 16.4 6.4 10.9 8.8 12.7 8.6 12.0
Youth Attended 25 or More Religious Services
  in the Past Year5
5.2 11.1 3.0 8.4 5.1 10.9 5.4 10.4
YOUTH RELIGIOUS BELIEFS6                
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That
  Religious Beliefs Are a Very Important Part
  of His or Her Life
6.8 16.2 4.5 13.0 6.5 16.6 7.0 14.2
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That His or Her
  Religious Beliefs Influence Decision Making
  in Life
6.0 15.8 3.8 12.5 5.8 15.7 6.2 14.1
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That It Is
  Important for Friends to Share Religious
  Beliefs
5.8 11.0 3.2 8.5 5.6 10.9 5.7 10.4
PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN PAST YEAR7                
Parent Always or Sometimes Made Youth Do
  Chores around the House
8.5 14.0 6.1 10.2 8.4 13.0 8.0 13.9
Parent Always or Sometimes Limited Amount
  of Time Youth Watched TV
5.7 11.4 3.5 8.6 4.7 11.9 4.6 11.5
Parents Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  He or She Had Done a Good Job
8.0 16.5 5.8 11.5 7.8 16.2 7.9 14.1
Parents Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  They Were Proud of Something He or She Had
  Done
8.0 15.6 5.8 11.1 7.9 15.4 8.0 13.1
90414
Table 3.25A – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Scholastic Environment among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year: Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Scholastic Environment1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
5 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
6 Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Seen or Heard in School includes respondents who reported having a special class about drugs or alcohol in school or having had films, lectures, discussion, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in a regular school class, such as health or physical education, or outside of a regular school class, such as in a special assembly.
7 Response categories for the School Satisfaction question include "You liked going to school a lot," "You kind of liked going to school," "You didn't like going to school very much," and "You hated going to school." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "You liked going to school a lot" or "You kind of liked going to school" and were categorized as "No" if they reported "You didn't like going to school very much" or "You hated going to school."
8 Response categories for Grade Average include "An 'A+,' 'A,' or 'A-minus' average"; "A 'B+,' 'B,' or 'B-minus' average"; "A 'C+,' 'C,' or 'C-minus' average"; "A 'D' or less than a 'D' average"; and "My school does not give these grades." Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
9 Response categories for the Adult Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Always" or "Sometimes" and "No" if they reported "Seldom" or "Never."
10 Response categories for the Substance Use in Grade Level questions include "All of them," "Most of them," "A few of them," and "None of them." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "All of them" or "Most of them" and "No" if they reported "A few of them" or "None of them."
11 Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were not considered to be enrolled in school.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS IN PAST YEAR4                
Participated in One or Fewer Activities5 511 1,647 406 1,164 563 1,571 432 1,657
Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Were
  Seen or Heard in School6
1,484 671 1,065 501 1,460 666 1,455 634
Youth Liked a Lot or Kind of Liked Going to
  School7
1,388 779 993 584 1,351 787 1,406 689
Grade Average for Last Completed Period Was
  "D" or Lower8
331 1,764 240 1,292 344 1,720 273 1,762
ADULT INVOLVEMENT IN PAST YEAR4,9                
Teacher Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  He or She Was Doing a Good Job with School Work
1,504 662 1,104 471 1,513 616 1,504 589
Parents Always or Sometimes Checked That
  Youth Did Homework
1,394 767 995 580 1,336 796 1,347 746
Parents Always or Sometimes Provided Help with
  Homework
1,431 724 1,004 563 1,423 709 1,347 738
Parents Always or Sometimes Limited Time
  Youth Went Out with Friends on a School Night
1,338 819 948 622 1,348 785 1,279 807
SUBSTANCE USE IN GRADE LEVEL10,11                
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade
  Smoke Cigarettes
991 1,139 746 816 1,194 895 1,045 1,029
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade Use
  Marijuana or Hashish
1,228 894 1,027 535 1,072 1,004 1,088 974
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade
  Drink Alcoholic Beverages
1,532 598 1,214 348 1,523 557 1,659 414
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade Get
  Drunk at Least Once a Week
783 1,321 610 937 760 1,301 874 1,179
90414
Table 3.25B – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Scholastic Environment among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year: Percentages, 2008
Scholastic Environment1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
5 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
6 Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Seen or Heard in School includes respondents who reported having a special class about drugs or alcohol in school or having had films, lectures, discussion, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in a regular school class, such as health or physical education, or outside of a regular school class, such as in a special assembly.
7 Response categories for the School Satisfaction question include "You liked going to school a lot," "You kind of liked going to school," "You didn't like going to school very much," and "You hated going to school." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "You liked going to school a lot" or "You kind of liked going to school" and were categorized as "No" if they reported "You didn't like going to school very much" or "You hated going to school."
8 Response categories for Grade Average include "An 'A+,' 'A,' or 'A-minus' average"; "A 'B+,' 'B,' or 'B-minus' average"; "A 'C+,' 'C,' or 'C-minus' average"; "A 'D' or less than a 'D' average"; and "My school does not give these grades." Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
9 Response categories for the Adult Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Always" or "Sometimes" and "No" if they reported "Seldom" or "Never."
10 Response categories for the Substance Use in Grade Level questions include "All of them," "Most of them," "A few of them," and "None of them." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "All of them" or "Most of them" and "No" if they reported "A few of them" or "None of them."
11 Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were not considered to be enrolled in school.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS IN PAST YEAR4                
Participated in One or Fewer Activities5 15.7 8.3 12.5 5.9 17.3 7.9 13.2 8.3
Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Were
  Seen or Heard in School6
8.5 12.1 6.1 9.0 8.3 12.0 8.3 11.4
Youth Liked a Lot or Kind of Liked Going to
  School7
7.4 18.0 5.3 13.5 7.2 18.2 7.5 15.9
Grade Average for Last Completed Period Was
  "D" or Lower8
23.3 8.5 16.9 6.2 24.3 8.3 19.3 8.5
ADULT INVOLVEMENT IN PAST YEAR4,9                
Teacher Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  He or She Was Doing a Good Job with School Work
8.1 14.2 6.0 10.1 8.2 13.2 8.1 12.6
Parents Always or Sometimes Checked That
  Youth Did Homework
7.6 16.0 5.4 12.1 7.3 16.6 7.3 15.5
Parents Always or Sometimes Provided Help with
  Homework
7.7 15.6 5.4 12.2 7.7 15.3 7.3 15.9
Parents Always or Sometimes Limited Time
  Youth Went Out with Friends on a School Night
8.3 12.0 5.9 9.1 8.4 11.5 8.0 11.8
SUBSTANCE USE IN GRADE LEVEL10,11                
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade
  Smoke Cigarettes
17.5 6.8 13.1 4.9 21.0 5.4 18.4 6.2
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade Use
  Marijuana or Hashish
23.9 5.3 20.0 3.2 20.9 6.0 21.2 5.8
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade
  Drink Alcoholic Beverages
15.7 4.8 12.5 2.8 15.6 4.5 17.0 3.3
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade Get
  Drunk at Least Once a Week
19.9 7.4 15.5 5.2 19.3 7.3 22.2 6.6

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