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State Estimates of Substance Use
and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010
National Surveys on Drug Use and Health



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality



Acknowledgments

This report was prepared by the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and by RTI International (a trade name of Research Triangle Institute), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Work by RTI was performed under Contract No. HHSS283200800004C. The coauthors are Arthur Hughes and Pradip Muhuri, SAMHSA, and Neeraja S. Sathe and Kathryn Spagnola, RTI.

Public Domain Notice

All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from SAMHSA. Citation of the source is appreciated. However, this publication may not be reproduced or distributed for a fee without the specific, written authorization of the Office of Communications, SAMHSA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Recommended Citation

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, NSDUH Series H-43, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4703. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012.

Electronic Access and Copies of Publication

This publication may be downloaded from http://store.samhsa.gov/home. Hard copies may be obtained from SAMHSA at 1-877-SAMHSA-7 (1-877-726-4727) (English and Español).

Originating Office

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality
1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 2-1042
Rockville, MD 20857

July 2012
(Revised October 2013)

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Table of Contents

List of Figures
List of Tables

Highlights

1. Introduction
1.1 Summary of NSDUH Methodology
1.2 Format of Report and Presentation of Data
1.2.1 Mental Disorders
1.2.2 Chapter and Appendix Information
1.2.3 Figures
1.2.4 Confidence Intervals and Margins of Error
1.2.5 Comparisons of Estimates between Years
1.2.6 Related Substance Use Measures
1.3 Measures Presented in This Report
1.4 Other NSDUH Reports and Products
1.5 Revised 2006-2010 Estimates

2. Illicit Drug Use
2.1 Illicit Drugs
2.2 Marijuana
2.3 Perceptions of Risk of Marijuana Use
2.4 Incidence of Marijuana Use
2.5 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana
2.6 Cocaine
2.7 Pain Relievers (Nonmedical Use)

3. Alcohol Use
3.1 Alcohol Use
3.2 Binge Alcohol Use
3.3 Perceptions of Risk of Binge Alcohol Use

4. Tobacco Use
4.1 Tobacco
4.2 Cigarettes
4.3 Perceptions of Risk of Heavy Cigarette Use

5. Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment Need
5.1 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse
5.2 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse
5.3 Illicit Drug or Alcohol Dependence or Abuse
5.4 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Problems
5.5 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Problems

6. Mental Disorders
6.1 Serious Mental Illness among Adults
6.2 Any Mental Illness among Adults
6.3 Serious Thoughts of Suicide among Adults
6.4 Youth and Adult Depression

References

Appendix

A. State Estimation Methodology

B. Tables of Model-Based Estimates (50 States and the District of Columbia)

C. Comparison of the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 Model-Based Estimates (50 States and the District of Columbia)

D. Other Sources of State-Level Data

E. List of Contributors

List of Figures

2.1 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.2 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.3 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.4 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.5 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.6 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.7 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.8 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.9 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.10 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.11 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.12 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.13 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.14 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.15 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.16 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.17 First Use of Marijuana among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.18 First Use of Marijuana among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.19 First Use of Marijuana among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.20 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.21 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.22 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.23 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.24 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.25 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.26 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.27 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.28 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.29 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.30 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

2.31 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs


3.1 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.2 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.3 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.4 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.5 Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.6 Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.7 Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.8 Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.9 Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.10 Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.11 Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.12 Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.13 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

3.14 Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs


4.1 Tobacco Product Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.2 Tobacco Product Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.3 Tobacco Product Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.4 Tobacco Product Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.5 Cigarette Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.6 Cigarette Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.7 Cigarette Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.8 Cigarette Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.9 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.10 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.11 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

4.12 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs


5.1 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.2 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.3 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.4 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.5 Alcohol Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.6 Alcohol Dependence in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.7 Alcohol Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.8 Alcohol Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.9 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.10 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.11 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.12 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.13 Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.14 Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.15 Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.16 Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.17 Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.18 Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.19 Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.20 Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.21 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.22 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.23 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.24 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.25 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.26 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.27 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

5.28 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs


6.1 Serious Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.2 Serious Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.3 Serious Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.4 Any Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.5 Any Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.6 Any Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.7 Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.8 Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.9 Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.10 Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.11 Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.12 Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

6.13 Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs


D.1 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2010 BRFSS

D.2 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009-2010 NSDUHs

D.3 Current Cigarette Use among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2010 BRFSS

D.4 Cigarette Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009-2010 NSDUHs

List of Tables

A.1 Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2008

A.2 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2008

A.3 Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2009

A.4 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2009

A.5 Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2010

A.6 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2010

A.7 Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2008 and 2009

A.8 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2008 and 2009

A.9 Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2009 and 2010

A.10 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2009 and 2010

A.11 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: 2008, 2009, and 2010

A.12 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: 2008-2009 and 2009-2010

A.13 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: 2008, 2009, and 2010

A.14 Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: 2008-2009 and 2009-2010

A.15 Outcomes, by Survey Year, for Which Small Area Estimates Are Available


B.1 Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.2 Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.3 Marijuana Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.4 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.5 First Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.6 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.7 Cocaine Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.8 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.9 Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.10 Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.11 Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.12 Alcohol Use and Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.13 Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.14 Cigarette Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.15 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.16 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.17 Alcohol Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.18 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.19 Illicit Drug Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.20 Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.21 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.22 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.23 Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.24 Any Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.25 Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

B.26 Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs


C.1 Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.2 Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.3 Marijuana Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.4 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.5 First Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and State: Average Annual Rates and P Values from Tests of Differences between Rates, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.6 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.7 Cocaine Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.8 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.9 Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.10 Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.11 Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.12 Alcohol Use and Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.13 Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.14 Cigarette Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.15 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.16 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.17 Alcohol Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.18 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.19 Illicit Drug Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.20 Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.21 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.22 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.23 Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.24 Any Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.25 Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

C.26 Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs


D.1 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2010 BRFSS and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

D.2 Cigarette Use among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2010 BRFSS and 2009-2010 NSDUHs

Highlights

This report presents State estimates for 25 measures of substance use and mental health based on the combined 2009 and 2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs). Sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), NSDUH is an ongoing survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years or older. Interview data from 135,811 persons were collected in 2009-2010 (see Table A.9 in Appendix A). With the exception of the four mental health measures, separate estimates are presented for each measure in four age groups: 12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 or older, and all persons 12 or older. For past year serious mental illness, past year any mental illness, past year suicidal thoughts, and past year major depressive episode (i.e., depression), estimates are available for adults in three age groups: 18 to 25, 26 or older, and 18 or older. In addition, estimates for major depressive episode are available for youths aged 12 to 17. This report also includes estimates for persons aged 12 to 20 for two of the measures—past month alcohol use and past month binge alcohol use, representing underage use of alcohol. Although estimates for persons aged 18 or older for the substance use measures are not included in this report, they are available at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/Index.aspx. Additionally, tables showing the total number of persons associated with each measure are available at this Web site.

For each measure, States have been ranked and categorized into quintiles, or fifths, in order to simplify the discussion.1 Estimates presented in this report are based on a hierarchical Bayes estimation method that combines survey data with a national model. Note that these estimates are benchmarked to the national design-based estimates (for details, see Section A.6 in Appendix A). In addition to presenting State estimates for 2009-2010, Chapters 2 to 6 provide comparisons of the 2008-2009 estimates with the 2009-2010 estimates for all measures and indicate whether the differences between the two are statistically significant.2 Increases or decreases are discussed only if they are statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Tables showing comparisons between 2002-2003 and 2009-2010 State estimates are available on the SAMHSA Web site at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/Index.aspx.

Illicit Drug Use

Alcohol Use

Tobacco Use

Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment Need

Mental Disorders

1. Introduction

This report presents State estimates for 25 measures of substance use and mental disorders based on the 2009 and 2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs). Changes (increases or decreases) that occurred between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 for these measures also are presented. Sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), NSDUH is an ongoing survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years or older. Interview data from 135,811 persons were collected in 2009-2010 (see Table A.9 in Appendix A). State estimates presented in this report have been developed using a small area estimation (SAE) procedure in which State-level NSDUH data are combined with county and census block group/tract-level data from the State. Aggregates of these State estimates are presented as regional and national estimates. Note that these estimates are benchmarked to the national design-based estimates (for details, see Section A.6 in Appendix A). This model-based methodology provides more precise estimates of substance use and mental disorders at the State level than those based solely on the sample, particularly for States with smaller samples.

Starting in 1999, the NSDUH sample was expanded to produce State-level estimates. The samples in each State were selected to represent proportionately the geography and demography of that State. The first report with State estimates was published in 2000 (Office of Applied Studies [OAS], 2000). It utilized the 1999 survey data and the SAE procedure. Because the SAE procedure requires significant preparatory steps for the modeling and extensive computation to generate results, the number of measures estimated has been limited to ones with high policy value. The first report included only seven measures. Subsequent State reports have been published annually, gradually extending the capabilities of the SAE procedure and increasing the number of measures estimated (Hughes, Muhuri, Sathe, & Spagnola, 2010, 2011; Hughes, Sathe, & Spagnola, 2008, 2009; Wright, 2002a, 2002b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004; Wright & Sathe, 2005, 2006; Wright, Sathe, & Spagnola, 2007). The current practice is to base annual estimates on a 2-year moving average of NSDUH data in order to enhance the precision for States with smaller samples.

State estimates also have been produced for additional measures by combining multiple years of NSDUH data and using sampling weights and direct estimation. The advantage of this approach is that it can be used on any variable in the NSDUH dataset; however, the estimates typically are not as accurate as the estimates based on the SAE methods. These estimates have been included in some reports and tables on the SAMHSA Web site.

1.1 Summary of NSDUH Methodology

NSDUH is the primary source of statistical information on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco by the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population aged 12 or older. Conducted by the Federal Government since 1971, the survey collects data by administering questionnaires to a representative sample of the population through face-to-face interviews at their place of residence. The survey is planned and managed by SAMHSA's Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). The data are collected and processed by RTI International3 through a contract with CBHSQ. This section briefly describes the national survey methodology; for further details, see Appendix A.

The survey covers residents of households, noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, rooming houses, dormitories), and civilians living on military bases. Persons excluded from the survey include homeless people who do not use shelters, active military personnel, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as prisons and long-term hospitals.

The 1999 survey marked the first year in which the national sample was interviewed using a computer-assisted interviewing (CAI) method. The survey used a combination of computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) conducted by an interviewer and audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI). Use of ACASI is designed to provide the respondent with a highly private and confidential means of responding to questions and increases the level of honest reporting of illicit drug use and other sensitive behaviors. For further details on the development of the CAI procedures for the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA, the former name of NSDUH), see OAS (2001).

The 1999 through 2001 NHSDAs and the 2002 through 2010 NSDUHs employed a 50-State design with an independent, multistage area probability sample for each of the 50 States and the District of Columbia. For the 50-State design, 8 States were designated as large sample States (California, Florida, Illinois, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas) with target sample sizes of 3,600 per year or 7,200 over a 2-year period. In 2009-2010, sample sizes in these States ranged from 5,900 to 7,375 (see Table A.9). For the remaining 42 States and the District of Columbia, the target sample size was 900 per year or 1,800 over a 2-year period. Sample sizes in these States ranged from 1,719 to 1,934 in 2009-2010. This approach ensures there is sufficient sample in every State to support SAE while at the same time maintaining efficiency for national estimates. The design also oversampled youths and young adults, so that each State's sample was approximately equally distributed among three major age groups: 12 to 17 years, 18 to 25 years, and 26 years or older.

In 2002, several changes were introduced to the survey. Incentive payments of $30 were given to respondents for the first time in order to address concerns about the national and State response rates. Other changes included a change in the survey name, new data collection quality control procedures, and a shift from the 1990 decennial census to the 2000 census as a basis for population count totals and to calculate any census-related predictor variables that are used in the estimation.

An unanticipated result of these changes was that the prevalence rates for 2002 were in general substantially higher than those for 2001—higher than could be attributable to the usual year-to-year trend—and thus are not comparable with estimates for 2001 and prior years.4 Therefore, the 2002 NSDUH was established as a new baseline for both the national and the State estimates. Given the varying effects of the incentive and other changes, not only are the estimates for 2002 and later years not comparable with prior years, but the relative rankings of States also may have been affected. Therefore, the rankings of States for 2002-2003 or later should not be compared with those for prior years. By combining data across 2 years, the precision of the small area estimates for the small sample States, and thus their rankings, have been improved significantly. In addition, by combining 2 years of data, the impact of the national model on those States has been reduced significantly relative to estimates based on a single year's data.5

Nationally in 2009-2010, 289,943 addresses were screened, and 135,811 persons responded within the screened addresses (see Table A.9 in Appendix A). The survey is conducted from January through December each year. The screening response rate (SRR) for 2009-2010 combined averaged 88.4 percent, and the interview response rate (IRR) averaged 75.1 percent, for an overall response rate (ORR) of 66.4 percent (Table A.9). The ORRs for 2009-2010 ranged from 52.2 percent in New York to 77.0 percent in South Dakota. Estimates in this report have been adjusted to reflect the probability of selection, unit nonresponse, poststratification to known census population estimates, item imputation, and other aspects of the estimation process. These procedures are described in the NSDUH methodological resource books (MRBs) (see http://www.samhsa.gov/data/Methodological_Reports.aspx).

The weighted SRR is defined as the weighted number of successfully screened households (or dwelling units)6 divided by the weighted number of eligible households, or

Equation 1.1-1     D

where w sub h h is the inverse of the unconditional probability of selection for the household (hh) and excludes all adjustments for nonresponse and poststratification.

At the person level, the weighted IRR is defined as the weighted number of respondents divided by the weighted number of selected persons, or

Equation 1.1-2     D

where w sub i is the inverse of the probability of selection for the ith person and includes household-level nonresponse and poststratification adjustments. To be considered a completed interview, a respondent must provide enough data to pass the usable case rule.7

The weighted ORR is defined as the product of the weighted SRR and the weighted IRR or

Equation 1.1-3 .     D

1.2 Format of Report and Presentation of Data

This report has six chapters, including this introductory chapter. Chapters 2 through 6 discuss the findings of the 2009-2010 State small area estimates and comparisons between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, along with U.S. maps of estimates for States at the end of each chapter. Tables showing comparisons between 2002-2003 and 2009-2010 State estimates will be available on the SAMHSA Web site at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/Index.aspx. Appendix A presents the State estimation methodology. Data tables are presented in Appendices B and C. Appendix D includes a discussion on other sources of State-level data. Information on the contributors to this report is provided in Appendix E.

1.2.1 Mental Disorders

To address SAMHSA's need for estimates of serious mental illness, any mental illness, and suicidal thoughts (i.e., suicidal ideation), several important changes were made to the adult mental health items in the 2008 NSDUH questionnaire.

In addition, as part of the Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS), a clinical follow-up study was initiated in which a randomly selected subsample of adults (about 1,500 in 2008, 2011, and 2012, and 500 in 2009 and 2010) who had completed the NSDUH interview was administered a standard clinical interview by mental health clinicians via paper and pencil over the telephone to determine their mental illness status; the clinical interview was used as a "gold standard" for measuring mental illness among adults. Using both the clinical interview and the NSDUH CAI data for the respondents who completed the clinical interview (using only 2008 data), statistical models were developed that then were applied to data from all adult respondents who had completed the NSDUH CAI interviews (regardless of whether they had clinical interview data) to produce estimates of mental illness among the adult civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Subsequently, using the entire clinical interview sample of approximately 5,000 interviews that were collected in 2008 to 2012, CBHSQ developed a more accurate statistical model for adults. This revised model incorporated the NSDUH respondent's age, past year suicidal thoughts, past year major depressive episode (MDE), and the variables that were specified in the 2008 model (i.e., the Kessler-6 [K6] and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule [WHODAS]). Results for serious mental illness and any mental illness from this revised model were closer to the direct estimates of serious mental illness and any mental illness from the clinical interviews in the MHSS than the previous model's results did, especially for young adults aged 18 to 25. See Section A.11 in Appendix A for a more complete discussion of the revised 2012 model and estimates.

Estimates of serious mental illness and any mental illness for 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 were produced using this new model and are presented in the Appendix B and C tables. These tables and maps with revised estimates include a source note with the text (i.e., "Revised October 2013") to indicate that the estimates are based on the updated 2012 model.

These questionnaire changes caused discontinuities in trends for major depressive episode (i.e., depression) and serious psychological distress among adults aged 18 or older. As a result, adult depression and serious psychological distress estimates were excluded from the 2007-2008 State report. For youths aged 12 to 17, no questionnaire changes were made in 2008 that affected the estimation of youth depression items; so, estimates of youth depression have appeared in the 2004-2005 report and in all subsequent NSDUH State reports. An analysis was performed to better understand the nature of the changes in the reporting of adult depression associated with the questionnaire changes in 2008. This led to the development of statistical adjustments for the adult depression estimates for the years from 2005 to 2008; thus, comparable adult depression data are now available for the years 2005 and beyond. For more information about these changes, see Section A.11 in Appendix A of this report, Appendix B of the 2008 NSDUH national findings report (OAS, 2009), and Appendix B of the 2012 NSDUH mental health findings report (CBHSQ, in press).

1.2.2 Chapter and Appendix Information

Chapter 2 presents State estimates for the prevalence of illicit drug use, marijuana use, the perceived risk of marijuana use, incidence of marijuana use, illicit drug use other than marijuana, cocaine use, and the nonmedical use of pain relievers. Chapter 3 discusses analogous estimates of alcohol use, binge alcohol use, and the perceived risk of binge alcohol use. Chapter 4 presents estimates of tobacco use, cigarette use, and the perceived risk of heavy cigarette use. Chapter 5 discusses the substance use disorder and treatment need-related measures (i.e., alcohol or illicit drug dependence or abuse and needing but not receiving treatment). Chapter 6 presents estimates of serious mental illness, any mental illness, and suicidal thoughts among adults aged 18 or older, as well as major depressive episode (i.e., depression) among youths aged 12 to 17 and adults aged 18 or older. In Chapters 2 through 6, trends between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 are discussed.

At the ends of Chapters 2 through 6, State model-based estimates are portrayed in U.S. maps showing all 50 States and the District of Columbia. The maps reflect the ranking of States into fifths from lowest to highest for each measure to simplify the discussion in the chapters. Appendix A describes the SAE methodology for 2009-2010. For more details on the SAE methodology, see Appendix E of the 2001 State report (Wright, 2003b). Also included in Appendix A are the State sample sizes and response rates for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2008-2009 combined, and 2009-2010 combined (Tables A.1 to A.14). Tables of model-based estimates for each substance use or mental health measure are included in Appendix B. The quintile rankings can be determined from these tables that include all 50 States and the District of Columbia, listed in alphabetical order, by 4 age categories. Tables comparing the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 estimates are presented in Appendix C. Note that because the layout is very similar for the tables in Appendix C and the tables that will be available on SAMHSA's Web site comparing the 2002-2003 and 2009-2010 estimates, a larger font size has been deliberately used for the years in the titles of these tables so that a reader can quickly distinguish between the two sets of tables. Tables comparing estimates over various time periods are presented for the four U.S. geographic regions in addition to State and age groups. These regions, defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, consist of the following groups of States:

Northeast Region - Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

Midwest Region - Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

South Region - Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.

West Region - Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

Tables for individual States (and for the Nation as a whole and its census regions) are available on the SAMHSA Web site and display all of the estimates discussed in this report by the appropriate age categories (see http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/Index.aspx). Also available on the SAMHSA Web site are tables of the total number of persons associated with each measure corresponding to the estimated percentages or rates for each substance use or mental health measure in Appendix B (see http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/Index.aspx). Estimates for all persons aged 18 or older for all 25 measures are also available on the Web site.

1.2.3 Figures

The color of each State on the U.S. maps indicates how the State ranks relative to other States for each measure. States could fall into one of five groups according to their ranking by quintiles. Because there are 51 areas to be ranked for each measure, the middle quintile was assigned 11 areas and the remaining groups 10 each. In some cases, a "quintile" could have more or fewer States than desired because two (or more) States have the same estimate (to two decimal places). When such ties occurred at the "boundary" between two quintiles, all States with the same estimate were assigned to the lower quintile. Those States with the highest rates for a given measure are in red, with the exception of the perceptions of risk measures, for which the lowest perceptions of great risk are in red. Those States with the lowest estimates are in white, with the exception of the perceptions of risk measures, for which the highest perceptions of great risk are in white.

1.2.4 Confidence Intervals and Margins of Error

At the top of each table in Appendix B is the design-based national estimate along with a 95 percent design-based confidence interval, all of which are based on survey weights and the reported data. The State and regional estimates are model-based statistics (using SAE methodology) that have been adjusted such that the population-weighted mean of the estimates across the 50 States and the District of Columbia equals the design-based national estimate. For more details on this benchmarking, see Section A.6 in Appendix A. Associated with each State and regional estimate is a 95 percent Bayesian confidence interval. These intervals indicate the uncertainty in the estimate due to both sampling variability and model bias. For example, the State with the highest estimated rate of past month use of marijuana for young adults aged 18 to 25 was Vermont, with a rate of 32.0 percent and a 95 percent confidence interval that ranged from 28.4 to 35.9 percent (Table B.3). Therefore, the probability is 0.95 that the true prevalence of past month marijuana use in Vermont for persons aged 18 to 25 is between 28.4 and 35.9 percent. Note that in NSDUH State reports prior to the 2008-2009 report, the term "prediction interval" (PI) was used to represent uncertainty in the State and regional estimates. However, that term also is used in other applications to estimate future values of a parameter of interest. That interpretation does not apply to NSDUH State report estimates, so PI was replaced with "Bayesian confidence interval."

Margin of error is another term used to describe uncertainty in the estimates. For example, if lower interval l comma and upper interval u is a 95 percent symmetric confidence interval for the population proportion (p) and p hat is an estimate of p obtained from the survey data, then the margin of error of p hat is given by u minus p hat or p hat minus l. Because lower interval l comma and upper interval u is a symmetric confidence interval, u minus p hat will be the same as p hat minus l. In this case, the probability is 0.95 that the true population value (p) is within ± u minus p hat or p hat minus l of the survey estimate (p hat). The margin of error defined above will vary for each estimate and will be affected not only by the sample size (e.g., the larger the sample, the smaller the margin of error), but also by the sample design (e.g., telephone surveys using random digit dialing and surveys employing a stratified multistage cluster design will, more than likely, produce a different margin of error) (Scheuren, 2004).

The confidence intervals shown in NSDUH reports are asymmetric, meaning that the distance between the estimate and the lower confidence limit will not be the same as the distance between the upper confidence limit and the estimate. For example, Utah's past month marijuana use rate of 7.7 percent for persons aged 18 to 25 years (see Table B.3) is 1.8 (i.e., 7.7 - 5.9) percentage points from the lower 95 percent confidence limit and 2.5 (i.e., 10.2 - 7.7) percentage points from the upper limit. These asymmetric confidence intervals work well for small percentages often found in NSDUH reports while still being appropriate for larger percentages. Some surveys or polls provide only one margin of error for all reported percentages. This single number is usually calculated by setting the sample percentage estimate (p hat) equal to 50 percent, which will produce an upper bound or maximum margin of error. Such an approach would not be feasible in this report because the estimates vary from less than 1 percent to over 75 percent; hence, applying a single margin of error to these estimates could significantly overstate or understate the actual precision levels. Therefore, given the differences mentioned above, it is more useful and informative to report the Bayesian confidence interval for each estimate instead of a margin of error.

In this report, State estimates are discussed in terms of their observed rankings because it provides a useful context. In Chapters 2 through 6, when it is indicated that a State has the highest or lowest rate, it does not imply that the State's rate is significantly higher or lower than the next highest or lowest State. When comparing two State prevalence rates, two overlapping 95 percent confidence intervals do not imply that their State prevalence rates are statistically equivalent at the 5 percent level of significance. For details on a more accurate test to compare State prevalence rates, see Section A.12 in Appendix A.

1.2.5 Comparisons of Estimates between Years

Comparisons between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 are presented in Appendix C for 25 measures, by age group (see Tables C.1 to C.26). These tables show the estimates for 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 and a p value corresponding to a test of the hypothesis that there was "no change" over this period. The report discusses differences (i.e., increases or decreases) only if they are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance. These differences correspond to p values of 0.05 or less, which have been marked on the tables. In addition, p values greater than 0.05 but less than or equal to 0.10 have been marked on the tables to highlight other possible changes that may be of interest despite not quite reaching statistical significance. The methodology for testing for change involves fitting one model for 2008-2009 based on the predictor variables and the sample for those years and fitting a separate model for 2009-2010 based on the predictor variables and sample for those years. This methodology can lead to slightly different national models (i.e., models with slightly different model coefficients for the two sets of years). The change between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 estimates the average yearly change between 2008 and 2010. "Average yearly change" indicates the change between 2008 and 2010 divided by 2. For more details on this topic, see Section A.13 in Appendix A on measuring change between years in State estimates.

1.2.6 Related Substance Use Measures

Throughout the report, there are a number of related drug use measures, such as marijuana use and illicit drug use. It might appear that one could draw conclusions by subtracting one from the other (e.g., subtracting the percentage who used illicit drugs other than marijuana in the past month from the percentage who used illicit drugs in the past month to find the percentage who only used marijuana in the past month). Because related measures have been estimated with different models, subtracting one measure from another related measure at the State or census region level in this report can give misleading results, perhaps even a "negative" estimate, and should be avoided. However, these comparisons can be made at the national level because these estimates are design-based estimates. For example, at the national level, subtracting cigarette use rates from tobacco use rates will give the rate of persons who did not use cigarettes, but used other forms of tobacco (as shown in Chapter 4).

1.3 Measures Presented in This Report

Estimates for 2009-2010 were developed for 25 measures of substance use and mental disorders:

For all measures except serious mental illness, any mental illness, suicidal thoughts, and depression, there are separate estimates for three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) and a combined estimate for those aged 12 or older. For serious mental illness, any mental illness, suicidal thoughts, and depression, estimates are shown for two age groups (18 to 25 and 26 or older) and a combined estimate for those aged 18 or older. In addition, estimates of depression among youths aged 12 to 17 are presented. Estimates of past month alcohol use and binge alcohol use also are presented for those aged 12 to 20.

Statistical tests of differences between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 were conducted for all 25 measures. Results of these statistical tests are available for the first time for three mental health measures, namely, serious mental illness, any mental illness, and suicidal thoughts.

1.4 Other NSDUH Reports and Products

The national results from the 2010 NSDUH were released in September 2011 (CBHSQ, 2011) and in January 2012 (CBHSQ, 2012b). Similarly, the national results from the 2011 NSDUH were released in September 2012.

Additional methodological information on the survey, including the questionnaire, is available on the CBHSQ Web site at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/Methodological_Reports.aspx. Brief descriptive reports and in-depth analytic reports focusing on specific issues or population groups also are produced by CBHSQ. Further information on accessing NSDUH publications, detailed tables, and public use files is contained in "Accessing Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)" (OAS, 2004). A complete listing of previously published reports from NSDUH and other data sources is available from CBHSQ. Most of these reports are available through the Internet (http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH.aspx). In addition, CBHSQ makes public use data files available to researchers through the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Data Archive (SAMHDA). Currently, data files are available for online analysis from the 1979 to 2011 NSDUHs at http://www.datafiles.samhsa.gov.

Estimates for substate planning areas based on combined 2008-2010 NSDUH data are available at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/substate2k10/toc.aspx. The substate planning area definitions for all 50 States and the District of Columbia are based on the areas for substate allocation of funds under SAMHSA's Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment (SAPT) block grant. Substate area estimates based on combined 2008-2010 data are available for all measures listed in Section 1.3. Comparisons between 2006-2008 and 2008-2010 also are available. For this comparison, the 2006-2008 substate small area estimates were reproduced using the 2008-2010 substate region definitions. Along with the substate estimates, comparable State, regional, and national estimates are summarized in tables along with maps that indicate the distribution of prevalence rates across the United States. The methodology used for producing substate estimates is similar to the SAE methodology used to produce the State estimates in this report.

1.5 Revised 2006-2010 Estimates

During regular data collection and processing checks for the 2011 NSDUH, data errors were identified. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). Cases with erroneous data were removed from the data files, and the remaining cases were reweighted to provide representative estimates. Therefore, some estimates using 2006-2010 NSDUH data in the 2011 national findings report and detailed tables, as well as other new reports (including this report), will contain estimates that differ from corresponding estimates found in some previous reports. All of the tables and maps in this report have a source note (i.e., "Revised March 2012") on them to indicate that they are based on updated NSDUH data (excluding the erroneous data for Pennsylvania and Maryland).

The errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 States and the District of Columbia. The direct estimates for an area (e.g., a State or substate) are only based on its data. However, in reports such as the current one, where model-based SAE techniques are used, estimates for all States may be affected, even though the errors were concentrated in only two States. This is because the model-based estimate for a given State is a combination of the direct estimate for that State and the State estimate obtained from a national model. The national model, which has estimated parameter coefficients based on data from all States, changed when the erroneous Pennsylvania and Maryland data were removed and the remaining cases were reweighted. As a result, the model-based estimates in all States changed, although the most notable changes occurred in Pennsylvania and Maryland because the direct estimates in those States changed, as did their estimates based on the national model. In reports that do not use model-based estimates, the only estimates appreciably affected were estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region.

In this current report, the 2009-2010 and 2008-2009 model-based State estimates are based on the corrected data. Thus, the 2008-2009 estimates presented here in Appendices A and C may not match the 2008-2009 estimates shown in prior reports, including the July 2012 version of this report.

2. Illicit Drug Use

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) obtains information on nine different categories of illicit drug use: marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and the nonmedical use of prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. Estimates of "illicit drug use" reported from NSDUH reflect the use of any of the nine drug categories listed above. Use of alcohol and tobacco products, while illegal for youths, is not included in these estimates, but is discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. This chapter presents State estimates of any illicit drug use, marijuana use, perceptions of risk of marijuana use, incidence of marijuana use (i.e., first-time use), use of illicit drugs other than marijuana, cocaine use, and nonmedical use of pain relievers.

2.1 Illicit Drugs

In 2009-2010, 8.8 percent of the U.S. population aged 12 or older used an illicit drug in the past month, and this rate was higher than the rate in 2008-2009 (8.4 percent) (see Table C.1 in Appendix C). Each of the four census regions also exhibited a higher rate in 2009-2010 compared with 2008-2009. In 2009-2010, past month use of illicit drugs among persons aged 12 or older ranged from 5.3 percent in North Dakota to 14.2 percent in Alaska (see Table B.1 in Appendix B). Colorado, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont were in the highest fifth for persons aged 12 or older and for each of the age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) (Figures 2.1 to 2.4).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, rates of past month illicit drug use among persons aged 12 or older increased in eight States (Colorado, District of Columbia, Idaho, Maryland, Michigan, Texas, Virginia, and Washington). Only Hawaii's rate decreased. Among youths aged 12 to 17, the only two increases occurred in California and the District of Columbia; there were no decreases among 12 to 17 year olds in any State. Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, seven States had increases in past month illicit drug use among those aged 18 to 25 (Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, and Washington); no States experienced decreases in that age group. There were increases among those aged 26 years or older in Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia; only Hawaii's rate decreased in that age group (from 10.2 percent in 2008-2009 to 7.4 percent in 2009-2010) (Table C.1).

2.2 Marijuana

In 2009-2010, past month marijuana use was reported by 6.8 percent of the U.S. population aged 12 years or older, an increase from 6.4 percent in 2008-2009 (Table C.3). Nine States that were in the top fifth for past month illicit drug use among persons aged 12 or older also were ranked in the top fifth for past month marijuana use: Alaska, Colorado, District of Columbia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont (Figures 2.1 and 2.9).

Seven States were ranked in the top fifth for past month marijuana use in age groups 12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 or older, and 12 or older: Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont (Figures 2.9 to 2.12). The rate of past month marijuana use in the 12 or older population ranged from 3.1 percent in Utah to 11.8 percent in Alaska (Table B.3). Utah had the lowest rate in all age groups. Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, past month marijuana use among persons 12 or older increased in 10 States: Colorado, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Washington (Table C.3). During the same time period, past month marijuana use increased in one State among 12 to 17 year olds (District of Columbia), eight States among 18 to 25 year olds (Florida, Illinois, Iowa, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Washington), and four States among persons aged 26 or older (District of Columbia, Idaho, Michigan, and Texas). Decreases only occurred in two States: Tennessee, among persons aged 12 or older, and Utah, among youths aged 12 to 17. All four census regions had higher rates of past month marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older in 2009-2010 compared with 2008-2009.

In 2009-2010, an estimated 11.5 percent of persons aged 12 or older in the United States reported marijuana use in the past year, an increase from 10.9 percent in 2008-2009 (Table C.2). Of the age groups 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older, persons aged 18 to 25 accounted for the highest rate of past year marijuana use (30.4 percent). Utah had the lowest rate (6.9 percent) of past year marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older, while Alaska had the highest rate in that age group (17.5 percent). Similar to past month marijuana use, Utah had the lowest rate for past year marijuana use in all age groups. Seven States (Colorado, Massachusetts, Montana, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont) were in the top fifth for past year marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older and in all three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) (Figures 2.5 to 2.8). Seventeen States experienced changes in past year marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010: Arkansas' rate decreased, whereas California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Texas had increases. Similar to past month marijuana use, there were increases between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 in past year marijuana use rates among persons aged 12 or older in the Northeast (from 12.0 to 12.9 percent), Midwest (from 10.4 to 10.8 percent), South (from 9.6 to 9.9 percent), and West (from 12.6 to 13.4 percent) regions of the United States (Table C.2).

2.3 Perceptions of Risk of Marijuana Use

An individual's perception of the risks of substance use has been shown to be inversely related to whether he or she actually uses the substance (e.g., Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 1998). Of the 10 States that ranked in the highest fifth for past month marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older in 2009-2010, 9 States (Alaska, Colorado, District of Columbia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont) were included in the lowest fifth for the perceived great risk of smoking marijuana once a month (Figures 2.9 and 2.13).

Perceived great risk of marijuana use once a month among persons 12 or older ranged from 22.3 percent in Colorado to 45.2 percent in Mississippi (Table B.4). The correspondence between the State-level estimates for perceived great risk of smoking marijuana once a month (2009-2010) and past month marijuana use (2009-2010) can be further clarified with the following examples. Alaska, with 11.8 percent of people aged 12 or older using marijuana in the past month, ranked in the top fifth for marijuana use; in the same State, 24.4 percent perceived smoking marijuana once a month as a great risk, which ranked in the lowest fifth compared with the other States (Tables B.3 and B.4; Figures 2.9 and 2.13). On the other hand, Alabama, which ranked in the lowest fifth for past month marijuana use (4.9 percent), had one of the highest rates (41.0 percent) of perceived great risk of smoking marijuana (Tables B.3 and B.4; Figures 2.9 and 2.13). Among youths aged 12 to 17, 7 of the 10 States that ranked in the highest fifth for past month marijuana use also ranked in the lowest fifth for perceived great risk of smoking marijuana once a month (Colorado, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont) (Figures 2.10 and 2.14).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, the national percentage of persons aged 12 or older perceiving a great risk of smoking marijuana once a month decreased from 35.8 to 33.6 percent (Table C.4). Decreases in the national rates occurred in every age group, including among youths aged 12 to 17 (from 31.8 to 29.9 percent). Declines also were observed in every age group within all four census regions. Twenty States showed decreases in the perceived great risk of smoking marijuana once a month among persons aged 12 or older: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Illinois, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, 16 States showed decreases in this rate for youths aged 12 to 17: California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, and Virginia. Over the same time period, this rate decreased in 22 States among persons aged 18 to 25 and decreased in 15 States among persons aged 26 or older. No increases were observed in any State or age group.

2.4 Incidence of Marijuana Use

Related to the prevalence of marijuana use is the number of persons who used marijuana for the first time ever over a specific period of time. In this report, the incidence of marijuana use is defined as the number of persons who used marijuana for the first time during a 2-year period preceding the survey interview. Unlike annual estimates presented in the NSDUH national findings report (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality [CBHSQ], 2011), this report averages data over a 2-year period and calculates the annualized marijuana incidence rate (expressed as a rate per 100 person-years of exposure).9 For the combined years 2009-2010, the national marijuana incidence rate for persons aged 12 or older was 1.8 percent (Table B.5). In 2009-2010, Colorado had the highest rate (2.8 percent), and Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Utah, and West Virginia had the lowest rate (1.4 percent) among persons aged 12 or older (Table B.5).

Nine States (Alaska, Colorado, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Montana, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont) that were ranked in the top fifth for past month marijuana use in the 12 or older age group also had a similar standing for marijuana incidence (Figures 2.9 and 2.17). Most initiations of marijuana take place at age 25 or earlier (Gfroerer, Wu, & Penne, 2002). It follows that the rates of initiation in the 26 or older age group were much lower than those in the 18 to 25 and 12 to 17 age groups. In 2009-2010, the national rates of marijuana initiation were 5.9, 7.3, and 0.2 percent for persons aged 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older, respectively. Colorado had the highest rate of youths initiating marijuana between the ages of 12 and 17 (9.3 percent), while Utah had the lowest rate (4.0 percent) in this age group. With respect to marijuana initiation between the ages of 18 and 25, the rate ranged from 4.0 percent in Utah to 12.5 percent in Vermont. Seven States (Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Montana, New Hampshire, and Vermont) were in the top fifth for marijuana incidence for persons aged 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 12 or older, whereas five States (Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Utah) were in the bottom fifth corresponding to the lowest initiation rates in those three age groups (Figures 2.17 to 2.19).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, the marijuana incidence rate among persons aged 12 or older increased in eight States (Colorado, Iowa, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas, and West Virginia). Increases occurred among 12 to 17 year olds in Colorado, New Hampshire, and New Jersey and among 18 to 25 year olds in Connecticut Illinois, and Montana. Across all States and age groups, only Wisconsin's rate among 18 to 25 year olds decreased (from 8.4 to 7.0 percent) (Table C.5). There was an increase in the Northeast census region among persons aged 12 or older (from 1.8 to 1.9 percent).

2.5 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana

Illicit drugs other than marijuana include cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and the nonmedical use of prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. For the years 2009-2010 combined, the national estimate of past month use of illicit drugs other than marijuana among persons aged 12 or older was 3.6 percent (Table B.6). Iowa, North Dakota, and South Dakota had the lowest rate (2.4 percent), and Rhode Island had the highest rate (4.8 percent) among persons aged 12 or older. Seven States (District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington) that were in the top fifth for past month use of illicit drugs among those aged 12 or older also had a similar standing for past month use of an illicit drug other than marijuana (Figures 2.1 and 2.20).

Nationally and in all census regions, between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, there were no changes in the past month use of illicit drugs other than marijuana in any of the age groups presented (Table C.6). Eight States showed changes among persons aged 12 or older. Of them, Colorado, New Jersey, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming had increases, while Hawaii and Kentucky had decreases.

2.6 Cocaine

In 2009-2010, the national prevalence of past year cocaine use among persons aged 12 or older was 1.9 percent, which was a decline from 2.0 percent in 2008-2009 (Table C.7). Because cocaine is one of the substances included in the "illicit drug use other than marijuana" category, it is useful to compare the rankings of States with respect to these two measures. In 2009-2010, six States (District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) were ranked in the highest fifth for both past month use of an illicit drug other than marijuana (aged 12 or older) and past year use of cocaine (aged 12 or older) (Figures 2.20 and 2.24). Three States (Colorado, New Hampshire, and Vermont) were ranked in the top fifth for past year cocaine use in all three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) and overall for those aged 12 or older (Figures 2.24 to 2.27). State-level rates among persons aged 12 or older ranged from 1.0 percent in Alabama, Iowa, and North Dakota to 3.1 percent in Colorado, District of Columbia, and Vermont. The District of Columbia and South Carolina stand out for their ranking in the lowest fifth for those aged 12 to 17 and the highest fifth for those aged 26 or older (Figures 2.25 and 2.27).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, 10 States showed decreases in past year cocaine use among persons aged 12 or older: Delaware, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Among persons aged 18 to 25 (the age group with the highest rates of past year cocaine use), decreases were observed in 13 States. No States showed increases in any age group. In the Midwest, there were decreases in past year cocaine use among persons aged 18 to 25, 26 or older, and 12 or older (Table C.7).

2.7 Pain Relievers (Nonmedical Use)

Nonmedical use of prescription-type pain relievers is defined as use of these drugs without a prescription or use that occurred simply for the experience or feeling the drug caused. Over-the-counter (OTC) use and legitimate use of prescription-type pain relievers are not included. In 2009-2010, 4.9 percent of persons aged 12 or older nationwide reported having used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year, which was similar to the rate in 2008-2009 (4.9 percent) (Table C.8). This rate decreased nationally among persons aged 18 to 25 (from 12.0 to 11.5 percent), but remained unchanged for persons aged 12 to 17 and 26 or older.

In 2009-2010, Oklahoma had the highest percentage (7.0 percent) of persons aged 12 or older using pain relievers for nonmedical purposes in the past year, and South Dakota had the lowest rate (3.6 percent) (Table B.8). Oklahoma and Oregon were ranked in the top fifth of States for this measure in age groups 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older, as well as for the total population aged 12 or older. Illinois and Nebraska were ranked in the lowest fifth in each of these age groups (Figures 2.28 to 2.31).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, past year nonmedical use of pain relievers among persons aged 12 or older increased in Missouri and Wyoming and decreased in Hawaii and Oklahoma. Among 12 to 17 year olds, Michigan's rate decreased from 7.4 to 6.4 percent, while among persons aged 26 or older, Missouri's and Wyoming's rates increased (from 2.9 to 3.6 percent and from 2.5 to 3.2 percent, respectively). Among persons aged 18 to 25, three States (Hawaii, North Carolina, and Utah) showed decreases between these time periods. There were no other changes at the State level in any of the age groups.

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Figure 2.1 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.1

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.2 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.2

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.3 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.3

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.4 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.4

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.5 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.5

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.6 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.6

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.7 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.7

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.8 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.8

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.9 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.9

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.10 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.10

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.11 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.11

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.12 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.12

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.13 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.13

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.14 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.14

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.15 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.15

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.16 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.16

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.17 First Use of Marijuana among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.17

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.18 First Use of Marijuana among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.18

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.19 First Use of Marijuana among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.19

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.20 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.20

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.21 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.21

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.22 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.22

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.23 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.23

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.24 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.24

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.25 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.25

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.26 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.26

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.27 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.27

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.28 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.28

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.29 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.29

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.30 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.30

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.31 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.31

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

3. Alcohol Use

A number of measures of alcohol use are available from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). This report discusses past month alcohol use, past month binge alcohol use, and the perceived risk of binge alcohol use. Past month alcohol use is the consumption of at least one drink during the past 30 days (includes binge use). Binge alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the 30 days prior to the survey. A "drink" is defined as a can or bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a wine cooler, a shot of liquor, or a mixed drink with liquor in it. Respondents are asked to exclude occasions when only a sip or two is consumed from a drink. Alcohol is the most commonly used substance in the United States. Nationally, about half (51.8 percent) of Americans aged 12 or older reported being past month drinkers of alcohol in 2009-2010, which was similar to the 2008-2009 rate (51.7 percent) (see Table C.9 in Appendix C).

In addition to information on alcohol use among persons aged 12 or older and each of the three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), estimates of past month alcohol use and binge alcohol use for persons aged 12 to 20 are presented in this report to provide information on underage drinking at the State level.

3.1 Alcohol Use

In 2009-2010, the rate of past month alcohol use among persons aged 12 or older ranged from 26.4 percent in Utah to 64.1 percent in Wisconsin (Table B.9). The highest rates of past month alcohol use occurred in the 18 to 25 age group, with Massachusetts having the highest rate (74.3 percent). Five States ranked in the top fifth for all three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) and among persons aged 12 or older: Colorado, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Wisconsin (Figures 3.1 to 3.4). Among persons aged 12 or older, 8 of the 10 States that were ranked in the bottom fifth for past month alcohol use were from the South (Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia) (Figure 3.1).

Arizona was the only State with a decrease in past month alcohol use among persons aged 12 or older from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 (from 51.2 to 48.1 percent) (Table C.9). Six States showed decreases in past month alcohol use in the 12 to 17 year old age group: Colorado, Illinois, Michigan, Montana, North Dakota, and Ohio. There were no increases in past month alcohol use among youths aged 12 to 17. Decreases also were observed among youths in the Midwest census region and in their national rate.

Nationally, the rate of past month use of alcohol among persons aged 12 to 20 (underage alcohol use) in 2009-2010 was 26.7 percent (similar to the rate of 26.8 percent from 2008-2009). Underage alcohol use ranged from 16.5 percent in Utah to 34.6 percent in Vermont (Table B.12) in 2009-2010. Four States displayed decreases in alcohol use in this age group from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010: Colorado, Louisiana, Michigan, and North Dakota (Table C.12). Virginia showed an increase. Rates remained unchanged in all other States over this time period.

3.2 Binge Alcohol Use

Nationally, almost a quarter (23.4 percent) of persons aged 12 or older participated in binge use of alcohol in the past month in 2009-2010, which was similar to the 2008-2009 rate (23.5 percent) (Table C.10). In 2009-2010, past month binge use of alcohol among persons aged 12 or older ranged from 13.2 percent in Utah to 29.9 percent in Wisconsin (Table B.10). Four States were ranked in the top fifth in all three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) and among persons aged 12 or older: Iowa, Montana, North Dakota, and Wisconsin (Figures 3.5 to 3.8). The highest rates of binge use of alcohol occurred among young adults aged 18 to 25 (41.2 percent nationally). North Dakota and Vermont (51.3 percent) had the highest rate in this age group, between 1.5 and 2 times the highest rate among persons aged 26 or older (Wisconsin at 28.8 percent) and about 4 times the highest rate among youths aged 12 to 17 (Montana at 12.7 percent) (Table B.10).

Two States showed decreases in binge alcohol use between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 among persons aged 12 or older: Florida (from 21.9 to 20.7 percent) and Ohio (from 25.3 to 23.6 percent) (Table C.10). Idaho (from 20.1 to 21.9 percent) and Washington (from 21.4 to 23.9 percent) showed increases. The national rate of binge alcohol use decreased among youths aged 12 to 17 (from 8.9 to 8.4 percent), and a decrease also was observed in the Midwest region (from 9.4 to 8.7 percent) and South region (from 8.0 to 7.5 percent) for this age group. Among 12 to 17 year olds at the State level, decreases were observed in Indiana, North Dakota, Ohio, and Oregon; rates in the other States remained unchanged among this age group.

Nationally, the rate of underage binge alcohol use was 17.5 percent (similar to the rate of 17.9 percent from 2008-2009) (Table C.12). In 2009-2010, Utah (12.7 percent) had the lowest rate for past month underage (aged 12 to 20) binge use of alcohol, and North Dakota had the highest rate for this measure (24.2 percent) (Table B.12). Of the 10 States that ranked in the highest fifth for past month underage use of alcohol, 8 States also ranked in the highest fifth for past month underage binge use of alcohol: Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, and Vermont (Figures 3.13 and 3.14). Eight States showed decreases in underage binge use of alcohol: Colorado, Florida, Michigan, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, and South Dakota (Table C.12). No States showed an increase among this age group.

3.3 Perceptions of Risk of Binge Alcohol Use

In 2009-2010, 42.6 percent of persons aged 12 or older perceived a great risk of binge drinking, an increase from the rate of 41.8 percent in 2008-2009 (Table C.11). People's perceptions of the risk of binge drinking were moderately and inversely related to their actual rates of binge drinking at the State level in 2009-2010. Of the 10 States with the highest rates of binge use of alcohol in 2009-2010 among persons aged 12 or older, 6 States also had the lowest perceived risk of binge drinking for the population aged 12 or older: Iowa, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, and Wisconsin (Figures 3.5 and 3.9). Among persons aged 12 or older, South Dakota had the lowest percentage (33.6 percent) perceiving a great risk of drinking five or more drinks of alcohol on a single occasion, while Utah had the highest rate at 50.8 percent (Table B.11).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, a decrease in the perception of the risk of binge drinking among persons 12 or older was seen in Montana (from 39.1 to 36.6 percent), and increases were seen in Arkansas, California, Florida, New Hampshire, and Pennsylvania (Table C.11). Increases were also seen in the Northeast, South, and West regions. Among youths aged 12 to 17, an increase was seen in Pennsylvania (from 36.2 to 38.1 percent), while all other States remained unchanged in that age group. Among 18 to 25 year olds, the rate decreased in Montana (from 29.7 to 26.6 percent).

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Figure 3.1 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.1

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.2 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.2

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.3 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.3

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.4 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.4

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.5 Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.5

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.6 Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.6

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.7 Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.7

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.8 Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.8

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.9 Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.9

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.10 Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.10

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.11 Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.11

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.12 Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.12

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.13 Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.13

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 3.14 Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 3.14

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

4. Tobacco Use

Tobacco is the second most commonly used substance in the United States next to alcohol. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes a series of questions on the use of several tobacco products, including cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff), cigars, and pipe tobacco. This chapter includes State estimates on the past month use of tobacco, past month use of cigarettes, and the perceptions of great risk of smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day.

Most tobacco users are cigarette smokers. Nationally, the use of tobacco and cigarettes in the past month among persons aged 12 or older was 27.6 and 23.2 percent, respectively, in 2009-2010 (see Tables B.13 and B.14 in Appendix B). The difference between the two rates (4.4 percentage points) represents persons who did not smoke cigarettes, but who used one or more of the other forms of tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, or pipe tobacco).

4.1 Tobacco

The State with the highest prevalence rate for tobacco use among persons aged 12 or older was West Virginia (40.2 percent), while Utah had the lowest rate (16.8 percent) (Table B.13). Of the 10 States with the highest rates of past month tobacco use among persons aged 12 or older, 7 States were in the South region (Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and West Virginia). Kentucky, Missouri, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wyoming ranked in the highest fifth for all three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) and among persons aged 12 or older (Figures 4.1 to 4.4).

Among the 12 or older age group, decreases in past month tobacco use from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 were seen in Kentucky (from 38.1 to 35.5 percent) and Wisconsin (from 30.2 to 28.0 percent) (Table C.13 in Appendix C). Increases were seen in Alaska and Mississippi. Among youths aged 12 to 17, decreases were seen nationally (from 11.6 to 11.3 percent) and in the Midwest region (from 13.2 to 12.6 percent), Illinois (from 12.5 to 10.9 percent), and Oregon (from 14.9 to 12.9 percent). No increases in past month tobacco use were observed among youths aged 12 to 17.

4.2 Cigarettes

Because cigarettes are the main tobacco product, States that ranked high for past month tobacco use also ranked high for past month cigarette use. Of the 10 States in the highest fifth for past month use of tobacco, 8 States (Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and West Virginia) also were in the highest fifth for past month cigarette use among persons aged 12 or older (Figures 4.1 and 4.5). Similarly, 8 of the 10 States that were ranked in the lowest fifth among persons aged 12 or older were the same for both measures (California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Utah). West Virginia had the highest rate of past month cigarette use (32.0 percent), and Utah had the lowest rate (15.8 percent) for persons aged 12 or older (Table B.14).

Nationally, decreases in cigarette use were seen among youths aged 12 to 17 (from 9.1 percent in 2008-2009 to 8.7 percent in 2009-2010), young adults aged 18 to 25 (from 35.8 to 35.1 percent), and persons aged 12 or older (from 23.6 to 23.2 percent) (Table C.14). At the State level, a decline in cigarette use from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 among persons aged 12 or older was observed in Wisconsin (from 25.7 to 23.5 percent). Across all States in the 12 to 17 and 18 to 25 age groups, eight States had declines in cigarette use between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (two States among persons aged 12 to 17 and six States among persons aged 18 to 25). Declines in cigarette use also were observed in the Midwest census region for those age groups. No increases were seen for any State or age group.

4.3 Perceptions of Risk of Heavy Cigarette Use

States with high prevalence rates for cigarette use tended to have low rates of perceived great risk of heavy cigarette use (i.e., smoking one or more packs per day). Five States (Kentucky, Missouri, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and West Virginia) that ranked in the lowest fifth for perceptions of great risk of smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day also were ranked in the highest fifth for past month cigarette use among persons aged 12 or older (Figures 4.5 and 4.9). Kentucky had the lowest rate of perception of great risk for heavy cigarette use (62.3 percent), and New York had the highest rate (76.4 percent) among persons aged 12 or older (Table B.15).

Nationwide, the rates of perception of great risk of smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day decreased from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 among persons aged 12 or older (from 72.2 to 71.2 percent), youths aged 12 to 17 (from 67.5 to 65.4 percent), young adults aged 18 to 25 (from 66.8 to 65.2 percent), and persons aged 26 or older (from 73.8 to 73.0 percent) (Table C.15). Decreases also were observed in all four census regions among youths aged 12 to 17, in all but the West region among young adults aged 18 to 25, in the Midwest region among persons aged 26 or older, and in all but the Northeast region among persons aged 12 or older.

At the State level, there were 32 decreases from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 in the perception of risk of heavy cigarette use across three age groups (12 to 17: 17 States with decreases; 18 to 25: 10 States with decreases; and 26 or older: 5 States with decreases). The only increases were seen in Arkansas (from 69.6 to 72.6 percent) and Massachusetts (from 74.1 to 77.9 percent) for persons aged 26 or older and in Massachusetts for persons aged 12 or older (from 73.0 to 75.9 percent). Eleven States had declines in the perception of risk of heavy cigarette use among persons 12 or older. This is an indication that, across many States, there continues to be an increase in the number of persons who do not think there is great risk in people harming themselves physically or in other ways by smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day.

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Figure 4.1 Tobacco Product Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.1

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.2 Tobacco Product Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.2

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.3 Tobacco Product Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.3

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.4 Tobacco Product Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.4

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.5 Cigarette Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.5

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.6 Cigarette Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.6

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.7 Cigarette Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.7

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.8 Cigarette Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.8

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.9 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.9

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.10 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.10

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.11 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.11

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 4.12 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 4.12

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

5. Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment Need

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes a series of questions to assess the prevalence of substance use disorders (i.e., substance dependence or abuse) in the past 12 months. Substances include alcohol and illicit drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and the nonmedical use of prescription-type drugs. These questions are used to classify persons in this report as being dependent on or abusing specific substances based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994). The questions on dependence ask about health and emotional problems, attempts to cut down on use, tolerance, withdrawal, and other symptoms associated with substances used. The questions on abuse ask about problems at work, home, and school; problems with family or friends; physical danger; and trouble with the law due to substance use. Dependence reflects a more severe substance use problem than abuse, and persons are classified with abuse of a particular substance only if they are not dependent on that substance. For details, see Section A.10 in Appendix A.

Nationally, 22.4 million persons aged 12 or older in 2009-2010 were classified with illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year. Of these, 7.1 million had illicit drug dependence or abuse, and 18.4 million had alcohol dependence or abuse (see Tables 16, 18, and 20 in "State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUH: Web-Only Count Tables" at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/Index.aspx).

5.1 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse

In 2009-2010, 7.3 percent of the population aged 12 or older was classified with alcohol dependence or abuse nationwide in the past year (see Table B.16 in Appendix B). Persons aged 18 to 25 had the highest rate of alcohol dependence or abuse (15.9 percent) in the Nation. At the State level among persons 12 or older, the District of Columbia had the highest rate (9.5 percent), and Utah had the lowest rate (5.7 percent). While the District of Columbia had the highest rate of past year alcohol dependence or abuse among persons aged 26 or older (8.3 percent), it had the lowest rate among youths aged 12 to 17 along with Maryland (3.3 percent). Three States (Colorado, Montana, and South Dakota) ranked in the highest fifth for all three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) and among persons aged 12 or older (Figures 5.1 to 5.4).

Nationally, the rate for past year dependence or abuse of alcohol dropped from 16.8 percent in 2008-2009 to 15.9 percent in 2009-2010 among young adults 18 to 25 (see Table C.16 in Appendix C). Among 18 to 25 year olds, seven States showed decreases (Delaware, Minnesota, Missouri, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, and Wisconsin). For the 12 or older age group, decreases were observed in Minnesota and Missouri. A decrease also was seen in the Midwest region among the 12 to 17 age group (from 5.1 percent in 2008-2009 to 4.6 percent in 2009-2010), the 18 to 25 age group (from 18.2 to 16.8 percent), and 12 or older age group (from 7.8 to 7.5 percent). No increases in the past year alcohol dependence or abuse rates were observed for any State or age group.

In 2009-2010, 3.4 percent of persons aged 12 or older nationwide were estimated to be alcohol dependent in the past year, representing about 47 percent of those with alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year (Tables B.16 and B.17). State estimates for alcohol dependence for persons aged 12 or older ranged from 2.9 percent in Georgia, Kentucky, and Utah to 4.6 percent in the District of Columbia. The highest rates for alcohol dependence occurred in the 18 to 25 age group (6.6 percent nationally) compared with the rates for 12 to 17 year olds (1.8 percent nationally) and persons aged 26 or older (3.1 percent nationally). In 2009-2010 among young adults aged 18 to 25, these rates ranged from 5.3 percent in Georgia to 9.8 percent in Montana.

Two States that ranked in the highest fifth in the 12 or older population for alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year also were ranked in the highest fifth for past year alcohol dependence (District of Columbia and Rhode Island) (Figures 5.1 and 5.5). Among young adults aged 18 to 25, there were decreases in alcohol dependence from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 in three States: Michigan (from 6.9 to 6.1 percent), Ohio (from 7.8 to 7.0 percent), and Wisconsin (from 8.3 to 6.9 percent). Decreases in alcohol dependence also were seen in the Midwest region among young adults and youths (Table C.17). No increases in past year alcohol dependence were observed for any State or age group.

5.2 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse

Nationally in 2009-2010, 2.8 percent of persons aged 12 or older had illicit drug dependence or abuse in the past year, a rate that remained unchanged from 2008-2009 (Table C.18). The District of Columbia had the highest rate of past year illicit drug dependence or abuse (3.9 percent) among persons aged 12 or older, and North Dakota had the lowest rate (2.0 percent). The highest rates for past year illicit drug dependence or abuse occurred in the 18 to 25 age group (7.8 percent nationally), with the highest rate occurring in Vermont (11.0 percent) and the lowest rate in North Dakota (5.2 percent). Among young adults aged 18 to 25, decreases in the rates of past year illicit drug dependence or abuse occurred in the District of Columbia (from 8.8 to 7.1 percent) and Nevada (from 8.9 to 7.0 percent) between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (Table C.18). Among persons aged 12 or older, decreases were observed in Kentucky, Nevada, Rhode Island, and West Virginia, but an increase was seen in Mississippi.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in 2009-2010 estimated to have illicit drug dependence in the past year was 1.9 percent (more than two thirds of those who were estimated to have illicit drug dependence or abuse in the past year) (Tables B.18 and B.19). The District of Columbia had the highest percentage of persons aged 12 or older with illicit drug dependence in the past year (2.6 percent), and Iowa had the lowest rate (1.4 percent). Seven States (District of Columbia, Idaho, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont) that were in the highest group for illicit drug dependence or abuse among persons aged 12 or older were also in the highest group for illicit drug dependence (Figures 5.9 and 5.13).

Among young adults aged 18 to 25, a decline in the past year illicit drug dependence rate occurred in the District of Columbia (from 6.6 to 4.7 percent) from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 (Table C.19). Among persons 12 or older, decreases were observed in Kentucky and Rhode Island. Additionally, among persons aged 26 or older, a decrease was observed in Rhode Island. There were no significant changes in past year illicit drug dependence in any other State by age group combination.

5.3 Illicit Drug or Alcohol Dependence or Abuse

The national rate in 2009-2010 for past year illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse among persons aged 12 or older was 8.9 percent, similar to the rate in 2008-2009 (9.0 percent) (Table C.20). When examining illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse at the State level, the States with high rates for alcohol dependence or abuse tended to rank in the top fifth for illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse combined because alcohol accounts for most of the substance dependence or abuse. Of the 10 States that ranked in the highest fifth for past year alcohol dependence or abuse, 7 States also ranked in the top fifth for past year illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse among persons aged 12 or older: Colorado, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, Rhode Island, and South Dakota (Figures 5.1 and 5.17).

State percentages for past year illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse among persons aged 12 or older in 2009-2010 ranged from 7.4 percent in Utah to 12.0 percent in the District of Columbia (Table B.20). Four States (Colorado, Massachusetts, Montana, and South Dakota) were in the highest fifth for the three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) and among persons aged 12 or older (Figures 5.17 to 5.20). Four States (Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Utah) were in the lowest fifth for all age groups.

Among persons aged 12 or older, the rate of past year illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse at the State level decreased significantly from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 for Georgia, Minnesota, and Missouri (Table C.20). In the Midwest census region, decreases were seen in the 12 to 17 age group (from 7.6 to 7.2 percent) and in the 18 to 25 age group (from 21.6 to 20.6 percent). At the State level, decreases occurred among young adults aged 18 to 25 in Minnesota, Missouri, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; all of these States are located in the Midwest region.

5.4 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Problems

The definition of a person needing but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem is that the person met the criteria for illicit drug dependence or abuse in the past year according to the DSM-IV (APA, 1994), but did not receive specialty treatment for an illicit drug problem in the past year. Specialty treatment is treatment received at a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility (inpatient or outpatient), hospital (inpatient only), or mental health center. It does not include treatment at an emergency room, private doctor's office, self-help group, prison or jail, or hospital as an outpatient. The national rate in 2009-2010 for needing but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem among persons aged 12 or older was 2.5 percent, which was similar to the rate in 2008-2009 (Table C.21).

In 2009-2010, California and Rhode Island had the highest percentage of persons aged 12 or older (3.0 percent) needing but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug use problem (Table B.21). North Dakota had the lowest rate among persons aged 12 or older (1.8 percent). Among persons aged 12 or older, decreases between the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 estimates were observed in Kentucky, Nevada, Rhode Island, and West Virginia (Table C.21). Among persons aged 18 to 25, decreases were seen in the District of Columbia and Nevada, and an increase was seen in Washington.

5.5 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Problems

The definition of a person needing but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem is that the person met the criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year according to the DSM-IV (APA, 1994), but did not receive specialty treatment for an alcohol problem in the past year. The percentage of persons aged 12 or older needing but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem was 6.9 percent in 2009-2010, which was similar to the rate of 7.0 percent in 2008-2009 (Table C.22).

Five States (California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island) were ranked in the highest quintile for both needing but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem and needing but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem among persons aged 12 or older (Figures 5.21 and 5.25). The District of Columbia had the highest rate of needing but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem among persons aged 12 or older (9.2 percent), while Utah had the lowest rate (5.4 percent) (Table B.22). Although the District of Columbia ranked in the top fifth for needing but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem among persons aged 26 or older and among persons aged 12 or older, it ranked in the lowest quintile group among 12 to 17 year olds with a rate of 3.4 percent (among 12 to 17 year olds, Maryland's rate was the lowest at 3.3 percent).

At the State level, among persons 12 or older, declines in the rate of needing but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 were seen in Minnesota and New Mexico (Table C.22). A decline also was seen in the Midwest region. Among young adults aged 18 to 25, a decrease was observed in the Northeast and Midwest regions, as well as nationally (from 16.1 percent in 2008-2009 to 15.3 percent in 2009-2010). At the State level, decreases among young adults occurred in Delaware, Minnesota, Missouri, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

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Figure 5.1 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.1

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.2 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.2

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.3 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.3

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.4 Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.4

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.5 Alcohol Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.5

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.6 Alcohol Dependence in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.6

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.7 Alcohol Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.7

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.8 Alcohol Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.8

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.9 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.9

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.10 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.10

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.11 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.11

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.12 Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.12

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.13 Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.13

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.14 Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.14

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.15 Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.15

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.16 Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.16

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.17 Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.17

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.18 Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.18

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.19 Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.19

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.20 Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.20

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.21 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.21

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.22 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.22

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.23 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.23

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.24 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.24

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.25 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.25

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.26 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.26

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.27 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.27

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 5.28 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 5.28

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

6. Mental Disorders

This chapter presents findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) on past year serious mental illness, any mental illness, serious thoughts of suicide, and major depressive episode (i.e., depression) for adults aged 18 or older. Estimates of depression among youths aged 12 to 17 also are included. In addition to the findings, a brief description of each measure is provided. For more details on these measures, see Section A.11 in Appendix A.

6.1 Serious Mental Illness among Adults

Public Law No. 102-321, the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) Reorganization Act of 1992, established a block grant for States within the United States to fund community mental health services for adults with serious mental illness. The law required States to include prevalence estimates in their annual applications for block grant funds. This legislation also required the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to develop an operational definition of serious mental illness.

SAMHSA defined serious mental illness among adults as persons aged 18 or older who currently or at any time in the past year have had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder (excluding developmental and substance use disorders) of sufficient duration to meet diagnostic criteria specified within the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) that has resulted in serious functional impairment, which substantially interferes with or limits one or more major life activities.

Nationally in 2009-2010, 3.9 percent of adults aged 18 or older had serious mental illness in the past year (Table B.23). Idaho and Utah had the highest rate (5.1 percent), while California had the lowest rate (3.2 percent) among adults 18 or older. Among the 18 or older and 26 or older age groups, one State (Alabama) had an increase in the rate of serious mental illness from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010 (Table C.23). There were increases in two States (Delaware and Idaho) for the 18 to 25 year olds. No decreases occurred in any State or age group.

6.2 Any Mental Illness among Adults

Any mental illness among adults aged 18 or older is defined as currently or at any time in the past year having had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder (excluding developmental and substance use disorders) of sufficient duration at any time during the past year to meet diagnostic criteria specified within the DSM-IV (APA, 1994). Adults who had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder in the past year, regardless of their level of functional impairment, were defined as having any mental illness.

In 2009-2010, the national rate of past year any mental illness among adults aged 18 or older was 18.1 percent (Table B.24). The highest rate for any mental illness among persons aged 18 or older occurred in Utah (22.9 percent); the lowest rate occurred in Georgia (15.6 percent). Among persons aged 18 or older, Alabama, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Rhode Island, Utah, and West Virginia ranked in the highest fifth for both serious mental illness and any mental illness (Figures 6.1 and 6.4).

Among adults aged 18 or older and 26 or older, three States had increases in the rate of any mental illness between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (Alabama, Alaska, and Idaho), while three States had decreases (Nevada, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin) and one State had an increase (Alaska) among young adults aged 18 to 25 (Table C.24).

6.3 Serious Thoughts of Suicide among Adults

Responding to a need for national and State-level data on the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behavior, a set of questions was added beginning with the 2008 NSDUH questionnaire. These questions include asking all adult respondents aged 18 or older if at any time during the past 12 months they had serious thoughts of suicide.

In 2009-2010, 3.8 percent of adults aged 18 or older had serious thoughts of suicide in the past year in the United States, which was similar to the rate from 2008-2009 (3.7 percent) (Table C.25). State-level estimates ranged from 3.1 percent in Georgia and Texas to 5.0 percent in Utah. Having serious thoughts of suicide in the past year was highest among young adults aged 18 to 25 (6.4 percent nationwide) in 2009-2010 (Table B.25).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, an increase in the percentage of adults having had serious thoughts of suicide was seen in Delaware (from 3.0 to 3.9 percent among all adults 18 or older). No other changes in any State or age group were observed.

6.4 Youth and Adult Depression

Whether a person has a major depressive episode is determined from the criteria specified in the DSM-IV (APA, 1994). The NSDUH questionnaire allows for the production of various estimates related to major depressive episode, including lifetime and past year prevalence, treatment, and role impairment. For this report, estimates were produced only for past year major depressive episode (i.e., depression). Some questions in the adult module differ slightly from questions in the adolescent depression module. Therefore, data on major depressive episode for adults aged 18 or older should not be compared or combined with data on major depressive episode for youths aged 12 to 17.

Nationwide in 2009-2010, 6.7 percent of adults aged 18 or older had a major depressive episode in the past year, which was similar to the rate from 2008-2009 (6.5 percent) (Table C.26). Estimates at the State level ranged from 5.9 percent in New Mexico to 8.2 percent in Utah (Table B.26). Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, rates of depression among adults aged 18 or older increased in Iowa and Ohio (Table C.26).

In 2009-2010, 8.1 percent of youths aged 12 to 17 experienced depression nationwide during the past year (Table B.26), which was similar to the rate in 2008-2009 (8.2 percent) (Table C.26). In 2009-2010, rates of depression among youths ranged from 6.9 percent in the District of Columbia and Louisiana to 9.6 percent in Missouri. At the State level, there were no significant changes in the rates of depression among youths between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010.

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Figure 6.1 Serious Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.1

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012; SMI Estimates Revised October 2013).

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Figure 6.2 Serious Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.2

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012; SMI Estimates Revised October 2013).

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Figure 6.3 Serious Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.3

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012; SMI Estimates Revised October 2013).

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Figure 6.4 Any Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.4

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012; AMI Estimates Revised October 2013).

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Figure 6.5 Any Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.5

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012; AMI Estimates Revised October 2013).

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Figure 6.6 Any Mental Illness in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.6

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012; AMI Estimates Revised October 2013).

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Figure 6.7 Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.7

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 6.8 Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.8

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 6.9 Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.9

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 6.10 Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.10

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 6.11 Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.11

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 6.12 Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.12

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 6.13 Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 6.13

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

References

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Folsom, R. E., Shah, B., & Vaish, A. (1999). Substance abuse in states: A methodological report on model based estimates from the 1994-1996 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. In Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Statistical Meetings, American Statistical Association, Survey Research Methods Section, Baltimore, MD (pp. 371-375). Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.

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Hennessy, K. H., & Ginsberg, C. (Eds.). (2001). Substance use survey data collection methodologies and selected papers [Special issue]. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(3), 595-808.

Hughes, A., Muhuri, P., Sathe, N., & Spagnola, K. (2010). State estimates of substance use from the 2007-2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 10-4472, NSDUH Series H-37). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Hughes, A., Muhuri, P., Sathe, N., & Spagnola, K. (2011). State estimates of substance use from the 2008-2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 11-4641, NSDUH Series H-40). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality.

Hughes, A., Sathe, N., & Spagnola, K. (2008). State estimates of substance use from the 2005-2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 08-4311, NSDUH Series H-33). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Hughes, A., Sathe, N., & Spagnola, K. (2009). State estimates of substance use from the 2006-2007 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4362, NSDUH Series H-35). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Kessler, R. C., Barker, P. R., Colpe, L. J., Epstein, J. F., Gfroerer, J. C., Hiripi, E., Howes, M. J., Normand, S. L., Manderscheid, R. W., Walters, E. E., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2003). Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 184-189.

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Miller, J. W., Gfroerer, J. C., Brewer, R. D., Naimi, T. S., Mokdad, A., & Giles, W. H. (2004). Prevalence of adult binge drinking: A comparison of two national surveys. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27, 197-204.

Novak, S. (2007, October). An item response analysis of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) items in the 2002-2004 NSDUH (prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration under Contract No. 283-03-9028, RTI/8726). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International.

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Schenker, N., & Gentleman, J. F. (2001). On judging the significance of differences by examining the overlap between confidence intervals. American Statistician, 55(3), 182-186.

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Shah, B. V., Barnwell, B. G., Folsom, R., & Vaish, A. (2000). Design consistent small area estimates using Gibbs algorithm for logistic models. In Proceedings of the 2000 Joint Statistical Meetings, American Statistical Association, Survey Research Methods Section, Indianapolis, IN (pp. 105-111). Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.

Singh, A. C., & Folsom, R. E. (2001, April 11-14). Hierarchical Bayes calibrated domain estimation via Metropolis-Hastings Step in MCMC with application to small areas. Presented at the International Conference on Small Area Estimation and Related Topics, Potomac, MD.

Wright, D. (2002a). State estimates of substance use from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume I. Findings (HHS Publication No. SMA 02-3731, NHSDA Series H-15). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Wright, D. (2002b). State estimates of substance use from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume II. Supplementary technical appendices (HHS Publication No. SMA 02-3732, NHSDA Series H-16). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Wright, D. (2003a). State estimates of substance use from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume I. Findings (HHS Publication No. SMA 03-3775, NHSDA Series H-19). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Wright, D. (2003b). State estimates of substance use from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume II. Individual state tables and technical appendices (HHS Publication No. SMA 03-3826, NHSDA Series H-20). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Wright, D. (2004). State estimates of substance use from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 04-3907, NSDUH Series H-23). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Wright, D., & Sathe, N. (2005). State estimates of substance use from the 2002-2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 05-3989, NSDUH Series H-26). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Wright, D., & Sathe, N. (2006). State estimates of substance use from the 2003-2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 06-4142, NSDUH Series H-29). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Wright, D., Sathe, N., & Spagnola, K. (2007). State estimates of substance use from the 2004-2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 07-4235, NSDUH Series H-31). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

Appendix A: State Estimation Methodology

This report includes estimates of 25 substance use and mental health measures (see Section A.2) using the combined data from the 2009 and 2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs). Also included in this report are comparisons between the 2008-2009 and the 2009-2010 combined-year State estimates. As discussed in Chapter 1 (Section 1.1), several changes were introduced to the survey in 2002; thus, estimates for 2001 and prior years are not comparable with estimates from 2002 and later years.

The survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes (SWHB) methodology used in the production of State estimates from the 1999 to 2009 surveys also was used in the production of the 2009-2010 State estimates. The SWHB methodology is described in Appendix E of the 2001 State report (Wright, 2003b) and by Folsom, Shah, and Vaish (1999). The goals of small area estimation (SAE) modeling and the implementation of SAE modeling remain the same and are described in Appendix E of the 2001 State report (Wright, 2003b). A general model description is given in Section A.1. A list of measures for which small area estimates are produced in this report is given in Section A.2. The list of predictors used in the 2009-2010 SAE modeling is given in Section A.3. Information on the updated population projections obtained from Claritas that were used for the first time in producing the 2007-2008 small area estimates and how they were used to create SAE model predictors is given in Section A.4. No new variable selection was done for any measure (as discussed in Section A.5).

Small area estimates obtained using the SWHB methodology are design consistent (i.e., the small area estimates for States with large sample sizes are close to the robust design-based estimates). The State small area estimates when aggregated using the appropriate population totals result in national small area estimates that are very close to the national design-based estimates. However, for numerous reasons (including internal consistency), it is desirable to have national small area estimates exactly match the national design-based estimates. Beginning in 2002, exact benchmarking was introduced as described in Section A.6.10 Tables of estimated numbers of persons associated with each measure (in thousands) are available on the Web (see http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/Index.aspx). An explanation of how these counts and their respective Bayesian confidence intervals11 are calculated can be found in Section A.7. The definition and explanation of the formula used in estimating the marijuana incidence rate is given in Section A.8.

For all measures except major depressive episode (i.e., depression), serious mental illness, any mental illness, and past year serious thoughts of suicide, the age groups for which estimates are provided in this report are 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older. Estimates for those aged 12 or older also are provided in this report. Because it was determined that States may find estimates for persons aged 18 or older useful, estimates for that age group are available on the Web (see http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/Index.aspx). Also included in this report are estimates of underage (aged 12 to 20) alcohol use and binge alcohol use. Alcohol consumption is expected to differ significantly across the 18 to 25 age group because of the legalization of alcohol at age 21. Therefore, it was decided that it would be useful to produce small area estimates for persons aged 12 to 20. A short description of the methodology used to produce underage drinking estimates is provided in Section A.9.

Section A.10 discusses the criteria used to define illicit drug and alcohol dependence and abuse and needing but not receiving treatment. Section A.11 discusses the production of estimates for major depressive episode (i.e., depression), serious mental illness, any mental illness, and suicidal thoughts. Note that for major depressive episode, there are no 12 or older estimates published; also, for serious mental illness, any mental illness, and serious thoughts of suicide, no 12 to 17 estimates are produced because youths are not asked these questions. Section A.12 discusses the method to compare prevalence rates of a particular measure between two States. The methodology used to compare the 2008-2009 and the 2009-2010 State estimates is described in Section A.13.

At the end of this appendix, tables showing the 2008, 2009, 2010, pooled 2008-2009, and pooled 2009-2010 survey sample sizes, population estimates, and response rates are included (Tables A.1 to A.14). Table A.15 lists all measures and the years for which small area estimates were produced going back to the 2002 NSDUH.

A.1 General Model Description

The model can be characterized as a complex mixed12 model (including both fixed and random effects) of the following form:

Equation A.1-1     D

where pi sub a, i, j, k is the probability of engaging in the behavior of interest (e.g., using marijuana in the past month) for person-k belonging to age group-a in grouped State sampling region (SSR)-j of State-i.13 Let x sub a, i, j, k denote a p sub a times 1 vector of auxiliary (predictor) variables associated with age group-a (12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 to 34, and 35 or older) and beta sub a denote the associated vector of regression parameters. The age group-specific vectors of auxiliary variables are defined for every block group in the Nation and also include person-level demographic variables, such as race/ethnicity and gender. The vectors of State-level random effects An eta sub i is a transposed vector of values eta sub 1, i and so on until eta sub A, i. and grouped SSR-level random effects A nu sub i, j is a vector of transposed values nu sub 1, i, j and so on until nu sub A, i, j. are assumed to be mutually independent with An eta sub i is normally distributed with mean 0 and variance denoted by matrix D sub eta. and A nu sub i, j is normally distributed with mean 0 and variance denoted by matrix D sub nu., where capital A is the total number of individual age groups modeled (generally, Capital A equals 4.). For hierarchical Bayes (HB) estimation purposes, an improper uniform prior distribution is assumed for beta sub a, and proper Wishart prior distributions are assumed for inverse of capital D sub eta and inverse of capital D sub nu. The HB solution for pi sub a, i, j, k involves a series of complex Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) steps to generate values of the desired fixed and random effects from the underlying joint posterior distribution. The basic process is described in Folsom et al. (1999), Shah, Barnwell, Folsom, and Vaish (2000), and Wright (2003a, 2003b).

Once the required number of MCMC samples for the parameters of interest are generated and tested for convergence properties (see Raftery & Lewis, 1992), the small area estimates for each age group × race/ethnicity × gender cell within a block group can be obtained. These block group-level small area estimates then can be aggregated using the appropriate population count projections to form State-level small area estimates for the desired age group(s). These State-level small area estimates are benchmarked to the national design-based estimates as described in Section A.6.

A.2 Variables Modeled

The 2010 NSDUH data were pooled with the 2009 NSDUH data, and age group-specific State prevalence estimates for 25 binary (0, 1) measures were produced and presented in this report in Appendix B. Estimates were produced for the following outcomes:

  1. past month use of illicit drugs,
  2. past year use of marijuana,
  3. past month use of marijuana,
  4. perception of great risk of smoking marijuana once a month,
  5. average annual rate of first use of marijuana,
  6. past month use of illicit drugs other than marijuana,
  7. past year use of cocaine,
  8. past year nonmedical use of pain relievers,
  9. past month use of alcohol,
  10. past month binge alcohol use,
  11. perception of great risk of having five or more drinks of an alcoholic beverage once or twice a week,
  12. past month use of tobacco products,
  13. past month use of cigarettes,
  14. perception of great risk of smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day,
  15. past year alcohol dependence or abuse,
  16. past year alcohol dependence,
  17. past year illicit drug dependence or abuse,
  18. past year illicit drug dependence,
  19. past year dependence or abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol,
  20. needing but not receiving treatment for illicit drug use in the past year,
  21. needing but not receiving treatment for alcohol use in the past year,
  22. serious mental illness in the past year,
  23. any mental illness in the past year,
  24. serious thoughts of suicide in the past year, and
  25. past year major depressive episode (i.e., depression).

Comparisons between the 2008-2009 and the 2009-2010 State estimates were produced for all of these measures and are included in this report in Appendix C.

A.3 Predictors Used in Mixed Logistic Regression Models

Local area data used as potential predictor variables in the mixed logistic regression models were obtained from several sources, including Claritas Inc., the U.S. Census Bureau, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (Uniform Crime Reports), Health Resources and Services Administration (Area Resource File), the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services [N-SSATS]), and the National Center for Health Statistics (mortality data). The values of these predictor variables are updated every year (when possible). Sources and potential data items used in the modeling are provided in the following text and lists.

The following lists provide the specific independent variables that were potential predictors in the models.

Claritas Data (Description) Claritas Data (Level)
% Population Aged 0 to 19 in Block Group Block Group
% Population Aged 20 to 24 in Block Group Block Group
% Population Aged 25 to 34 in Block Group Block Group
% Population Aged 35 to 44 in Block Group Block Group
% Population Aged 45 to 54 in Block Group Block Group
% Population Aged 55 to 64 in Block Group Block Group
% Population Aged 65 or Older in Block Group Block Group
% Non-Hispanic Blacks in Block Group Block Group
% Hispanics in Block Group Block Group
% Non-Hispanic Other Races in Block Group Block Group
% Non-Hispanic Whites in Block Group Block Group
% Males in Block Group Block Group
% Females in Block Group Block Group
% American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts in Tract Tract
% Asians, Pacific Islanders in Tract Tract
% Population Aged 0 to 19 in Tract Tract
% Population Aged 20 to 24 in Tract Tract
% Population Aged 25 to 34 in Tract Tract
% Population Aged 35 to 44 in Tract Tract
% Population Aged 45 to 54 in Tract Tract
% Population Aged 55 to 64 in Tract Tract
% Population Aged 65 or Older in Tract Tract
% Non-Hispanic Blacks in Tract Tract
% Hispanics in Tract Tract
% Non-Hispanic Other Races in Tract Tract
% Non-Hispanic Whites in Tract Tract
% Males in Tract Tract
% Females in Tract Tract
% Population Aged 0 to 19 in County County
% Population Aged 20 to 24 in County County
% Population Aged 25 to 34 in County County
% Population Aged 35 to 44 in County County
% Population Aged 45 to 54 in County County
% Population Aged 55 to 64 in County County
% Population Aged 65 or Older in County County
% Non-Hispanic Blacks in County County
% Hispanics in County County
% Non-Hispanic Other Races in County County
% Non-Hispanic Whites in County County
% Males in County County
% Females in County County

2000 Census Data (Description) 2000 Census Data (Level)
% Population Who Dropped Out of High School Tract
% Housing Units Built in 1940 to 1949 Tract
% Persons Aged 16 to 64 with a Work Disability Tract
% Hispanics Who Are Cuban Tract
% Females 16 Years or Older in Labor Force Tract
% Females Never Married Tract
% Females Separated, Divorced, Widowed, or Other Tract
% One-Person Households Tract
% Female Heads of Household, No Spouse, Child under 18 Tract
% Males 16 Years or Older in Labor Force Tract
% Males Never Married Tract
% Males Separated, Divorced, Widowed, or Other Tract
% Housing Units Built in 1939 or Earlier Tract
Average Persons per Room Tract
% Families below Poverty Level Tract
% Households with Public Assistance Income Tract
% Housing Units Rented Tract
% Population with 9 to 12 Years of School, No High School Diploma Tract
% Population with 0 to 8 Years of School Tract
% Population with Associate's Degree Tract
% Population with Some College and No Degree Tract
% Population with Bachelor's, Graduate, Professional Degree Tract
Median Rents for Rental Units Tract
Median Value of Owner-Occupied Housing Units Tract
Median Household Income Tract

Uniform Crime Report Data (Description) Uniform Crime Report Data
(Level)
Drug Possession Arrest Rate County
Drug Sale or Manufacture Arrest Rate County
Drug Violations' Arrest Rate County
Marijuana Possession Arrest Rate County
Marijuana Sale or Manufacture Arrest Rate County
Opium or Cocaine Possession Arrest Rate County
Opium or Cocaine Sale or Manufacture Arrest Rate County
Other Drug Possession Arrest Rate County
Other Dangerous Non-Narcotics Arrest Rate County
Serious Crime Arrest Rate County
Violent Crime Arrest Rate County
Driving under Influence Arrest Rate County

Other Categorical Data (Description) Other Categorical Data
(Source)
Other Categorical Data
(Level)
= 1 if Hispanic, = 0 Otherwise NSDUH Sample Person
= 1 if Non-Hispanic Black, = 0 Otherwise NSDUH Sample Person
= 1 if Non-Hispanic Other, = 0 Otherwise NSDUH Sample Person
= 1 if Male, = 0 if Female NSDUH Sample Person
= 1 if MSA with ≥ 1 Million, = 0 Otherwise 2000 Census County
= 1 if MSA with < 1 Million, = 0 Otherwise 2000 Census County
= 1 if Non-MSA Urban, = 0 Otherwise 2000 Census Tract
= 1 if Urban Area, = 0 if Rural Area 2000 Census Tract
= 1 if No Cubans in Tract, = 0 Otherwise 2000 Census Tract
= 1 if No Arrests for Dangerous Non-Narcotics, = 0 Otherwise UCR County

Miscellaneous Data (Description) Miscellaneous Data (Source) Miscellaneous Data
(Level)
Alcohol Death Rate, Underlying Cause NCHS-ICD-10 County
Cigarette Death Rate, Underlying Cause NCHS-ICD-10 County
Drug Death Rate, Underlying Cause NCHS-ICD-10 County
Alcohol Treatment Rate N-SSATS (Formerly Called UFDS) County
Alcohol and Drug Treatment Rate N-SSATS (Formerly Called UFDS) County
Drug Treatment Rate N-SSATS (Formerly Called UFDS) County
% Families below Poverty Level ARF County
Unemployment Rate BLS County
Per Capita Income (in Thousands) BEA County
Average Suicide Rate (per 10,000) NCHS-ICD-10 County
Food Stamp Participation Rate Census Bureau County
Single State Agency Maintenance of Effort National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors (NASADAD) State
Block Grant Awards SAMHSA State
Cost of Services Factor Index SAMHSA State
Total Taxable Resources per Capita Index U.S. Department of Treasury State

A.4 Updated Claritas Data

For the State and substate reports published using the 2002 to 2007 NSDUH data, Claritas data obtained in 2002 were used to produce the small area estimates. In reports published using the 2008, 2009, and 2010 NSDUH data, Claritas data obtained in 2008 were used. The 2002 Claritas data had 2000 and 2002 population counts, as well as 2007 population projections. The 2008 Claritas data had 2008 population counts, as well as 2012 population projections. Claritas data were used for the following in the NSDUH SAE process:

  1. Creating demographic predictor variables (age group, race × ethnicity, and gender) at the block group, tract, and county levels (predictors such as percentage of the population aged 0 to 19 in a block group, percentage of population who are males in a tract). There are 13 such variables defined for each of the census geographies (block group, tract, and county). See Section A.3 for a complete list of these predictors.
  2. Creating census block group-level population projections at the age group × race/ethnicity × gender level (4 age groups, 4 races/ethnicities, and 2 genders = 32 cells) that are used in aggregating the block group-level small area estimates to produce State and census region-level small area estimates.14

    1. In the 2008 SAE process (and subsequent years), new Claritas data with 2008 population counts and 2012 population projections were used. The new Claritas data will be henceforth referred to as the 2008-2012 Claritas data, and the 2002 Claritas data will be referred to as the 2002-2007 Claritas data. After exploring the 2008-2012 Claritas data and comparing them with the 2002-2007 Claritas data, some differences were observed when comparing the 2007 population counts (from the 2002-2007 Claritas data) with the 2008 population counts (from the 2008-2012 Claritas data). For example, the distributions of the population aged 20 to 24 in block groups were very different for the two datasets. Another difference was that there were more block groups that had a 0 population count for some of the 32 cells in 2008 as compared with the 32 cells in 2007.
    2. The format of the race/ethnicity data was also different for the two sets of Claritas data. To generate age group × race × Hispanicity × gender population counts at the block group level using the 2002-2007 Claritas data, two separate population distributions (age × gender × race and race × Hispanicity) at the block group level had to be used. The assumption was made that each of the age × gender cells within a race group had the same Hispanicity distribution. So, the data were manipulated to get the desired four-way cross of demographic domains. The 2008-2012 Claritas data had age group × race × Hispanicity × gender population distributions, so no assumptions or manipulations to the data had to be made.
  3. In State reports prior to 2008 when creating the 32 cells using the 2002-2007 Claritas data, the population from the two or more races category was distributed among the black, white, and other race categories. Starting in 2008 and subsequent years, a decision was made to merge the two or more races category with the other race category. This was based on a decision to discontinue creating a NSDUH sample variable that split the two or more races' respondents into black, white, or other. Because NSDUH respondents with two or more races were now being grouped into the other category, the same technique was used to produce the 32 cell counts.

Some of the data differences can be attributed to reasons (2b) and (3), and the rest are most likely attributed to the fact that the 2008-2012 Claritas projections are based on updated population information. Because of these differences in the 2007 population projections based on 2002-2007 Claritas data and the 2008 population counts based on 2008-2012 Claritas data, it was decided that "new" 2007 population projections would be obtained by "projecting back" the 2008-2012 Claritas data. Population projections for 2006 also were obtained in the same manner, so that they could be used in the 2006-2008 SAE reports.

Based on the information above, the following steps were taken for the 2009-2010 SAE process (for more information on the steps taken for the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 SAE processes, see Appendix A of Hughes et al., 2010, and Appendix A of Hughes et al., 2011, respectively):

  1. Using the 2008-2012 Claritas data, 2009 and 2010 population counts were obtained (the 2009 and 2010 counts were obtained by using linear interpolation between the 2008 and 2012 counts) and used to create the predictors that were merged onto the 2009 and 2010 sample and universe files (the universe file is a census block-group level file containing SAE predictor variables and population counts).
  2. All block group, tract, and county-level continuous predictors were converted into 10-category, semicontinuous variables by using the corresponding 2007-2008 decile values created by pooling the 2007 and 2008 NSDUH data. The same 2007-2008 decile values will be used for future SAE analyses until new Claritas data containing the 2013 population counts and projections are obtained. Using the same decile values year after year makes it possible to keep track of any temporal changes occurring in the predictor variables, which may help in detecting any changes in State prevalence rates across years in an efficient manner. The 10-category predictor variables subsequently were used to form linear, quadratic, and cubic orthogonal polynomials eventually used in the SAE modeling process. For all predictors other than the unemployment rate, the same 2007-2008 decile values were used in the 2009-2010 SAE process. Because of the recent large jumps in the unemployment rate, the decile values for the unemployment rate needed to be recreated using the 2009 and 2010 NSDUH data. Using the older set of decile values resulted in the distribution of the unemployment deciles to be very skewed. Hence, a decision was made to update the unemployment rate deciles based on 2009 and 2010 data. The predictor based on the unemployment deciles was used in the SAE model for the 35 or older age group for producing the small area estimates for the measure on needing but not receiving treatment for illicit drug use. Using this updated data is not expected to cause any inconsistencies in the estimation of trends for this measure.
  3. The updated population counts for the 32 cells (age group × race/ethnicity × gender population counts) were used to create the universe files for both years (i.e., 2009 and 2010).
  4. The 2008 sample and universe files based on the 2008-2012 Claritas data were used in simultaneous modeling (see Section A.13) to produce the correlations required to estimate change between the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 State prevalence rates.
  5. The 2002-2007 Claritas projections were used on the 2002-2003 sample and universe files, whereas the 2008-2012 Claritas projections were used on the 2009-2010 sample and universe files to produce the 2002-2003 versus 2009-2010 comparisons that will be available at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/Index.aspx.

A.5 Selection of Independent Variables for the Models

No new variable selection was done for any measure in 2009-2010. The updated versions of fixed-effect predictors that were used in modeling the 2008-2009 data were used to model the 2009-2010 data. Because the interest was to estimate change between the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 State estimates, the same set of fixed-effect predictors was used for producing both sets of estimates.

A.6 Benchmarking the Age Group-Specific Small Area Estimates

The self-calibration built into the SWHB solution ensures that the population-weighted average of the State small area estimates will closely match the national design-based estimates. The national design-based estimates in NSDUH are based entirely on survey-weighted data using a direct estimation approach, whereas the State and census region estimates in this report are model-based. Given the self-calibration ensured by the SWHB solution, for State reports prior to 2002, the standard Bayes prescription was followed; specifically, the posterior mean was used for the point estimate, and the tail percentiles of the posterior distribution were used for the Bayesian confidence interval limits.

Singh and Folsom (2001) extended Ghosh's (1992) results on constrained Bayes estimation to include exact benchmarking to design-based national estimates. In the simplest version of this constrained Bayes solution where only the design-based mean is imposed as a benchmarking constraint, each of the 2009-2010 State-by-age group small area estimates is adjusted by adding the common factor Delta sub a is defined as the national design-based estimate, capital D sub a, minus the national model-based small area estimate, P sub a., where capital D sub a is the design-based national prevalence estimate and capital P sub a is the population-weighted mean of the State small area estimates (capital P sub s and a) for age group-a. The exactly benchmarked State-s and age group-a small area estimates then are given by The benchmarked State-s and age group-a small area estimate, Theta sub s and a, is defined as the sum of capital P sub s and a and Delta sub a.. Experience with such additive adjustments suggests that the resulting exactly benchmarked State small area estimates will always be between 0 and 100 percent because the SWHB self-calibration ensures that the adjustment factor is small relative to the size of the State-level small area estimates.

Relative to the Bayes posterior mean, these benchmark-constrained State small area estimates are biased by the common additive adjustment factor. Therefore, the posterior mean-squared error for each benchmarked State small area estimate has the square of this adjustment factor added to its posterior variance. To achieve the desirable feature of exact benchmarking, this constrained Bayes adjustment factor was implemented for the State-by-age group small area estimates. The associated Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals can be recentered at the benchmarked small area estimates on the logit scale with the symmetric interval end points based on the posterior root mean-squared errors. The adjusted 95 percent Bayesian confidence intervals Lower sub s and a is the lower bound of the 95 percent Bayesian confidence interval of Theta sub s and a; upper sub s and a is the upper bound of the 95 confidence interval of Theta sub s and a. are defined below:

Equation A.6-1 ,     D

where

Equation A.6-2 ,     D

Equation A.6-3 , and     D

Equation A.6-4 .     D

The associated posterior coverage probabilities for these benchmarked intervals are very close to the prescribed 0.95 value because the State small area estimates have posterior distributions that can be approximated exceptionally well by a Gaussian distribution.

A.7 Calculation of Estimated Number of Persons Associated with Each Outcome

Tables 1 to 26, available at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/Index.aspx, show the estimated numbers of persons (in thousands) associated with each of the 25 outcomes of interest. To calculate these estimated numbers of persons, the benchmarked small area estimates and the associated 95 percent Bayesian confidence intervals are multiplied by the average population across the 2 years (in this case, 2009 and 2010) of the State by age group of interest.

For example, past month use of alcohol among 18 to 25 year olds in Alabama was 52.31 percent (see Table B.9 in Appendix B). The corresponding Bayesian confidence intervals ranged from 48.01 to 56.57 percent. The population count for 18 to 25 year olds averaged across 2009-2010 in Alabama was 515,510 (see Table A.10). Hence, the estimated number of 18 to 25 year olds using alcohol in the past month in Alabama was 0.5231 × 515,510, which is 269,663 (see Table 9). The associated Bayesian confidence intervals ranged from 0.4801 × 515,510 (i.e., 247,496) to 0.5657 × 515,510 (i.e., 291,624). Note that when estimates of the number of persons are calculated for Tables 1 to 26, the unrounded prevalence estimates and population counts are used, then the numbers are reported to the nearest thousand. Hence, the number obtained by multiplying the published prevalence rate with the published population estimate may not exactly match the counts that are published in these tables due to rounding differences.

A.8 Calculation of Average Annual Incidence of Marijuana Use

Incidence rates typically are calculated as the number of new initiates of a substance during a period of time (such as in the past year) divided by an estimate of the number of person-years of exposure (in thousands). The incidence definition used in this report employs a simpler form of the at-risk population based on the model-based methodology. This model-based average annual incidence rate is defined as follows:

Equation A.8-1 ,     D

where capital X sub 1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and capital X sub 2 is the number of persons who never used marijuana.

In this report, the incidence rate is expressed as a percentage or rate per 100 person-years of exposure. Note that this estimate uses a 2-year time period to accumulate incidence cases from each annual survey. By assuming further that the distribution of first use for the incidence cases is uniform across the 2-year interval, the total number of person-years of exposure is 1 year on average for the incidence cases plus 2 years for all the "never users" at the end of the time period. This approximation to the person-years of exposure permits one to recast the incidence rate as a function of two population prevalence rates, namely, the fraction of persons who first used marijuana in the past 2 years and the fraction who had never used marijuana. Both of these prevalence estimates were estimated using the SWHB estimation approach.

The count of persons who first used marijuana in the past 2 years is based on a "moving" 2-year period that ranges over 3 calendar years. Subjects were asked when they first used marijuana. If a person indicated first use of marijuana between the day of the interview and 2 years prior, the person was included in the count. Thus, it is possible for a person interviewed in the first part of 2010 to indicate first use as early as the first part of 2008 or as late as the first part of 2010. Similarly, a subject interviewed in the last part of 2010 could indicate first use as early as the last part of 2008 or as late as the last part of 2010. Therefore, in the 2010 survey, the reported period of first use ranged from early 2008 to late 2010 and was "centered" in 2009. For example, about half of the 12 to 17 year olds who reported first use in the past 24 months reported first use in 2009, while a quarter each reported first use in 2008 and 2010. Persons who responded in 2010 that they had never used marijuana were included in the count of "never used." Similarly, reports of first use in the past 24 months from the 2009 survey ranged from early 2007 to late 2009 and were centered in 2008. Half of the 12 to 17 year olds who reported first use in the past 24 months reported first use in 2008, while a quarter each reported first use in 2007 and 2009. Note that only incidence rates for marijuana use are provided in this report.

A.9 Underage Drinking

To obtain small area estimates for persons aged 12 to 20 for past month alcohol and binge alcohol use, a separate set of models was fit for these two outcomes for the 12 to 17 age group and the 18 to 20 age group. For the 2009-2010 models, no new variable selection was done. Updated versions of the predictors were used to produce the small area estimates.

Model-based estimates for persons aged 12 to 20 were produced by taking the population-weighted average of the individual age group (12 to 17 and 18 to 20) estimates. Estimates for underage drinking for past month alcohol and binge alcohol use were benchmarked to match national design-based estimates for that age group using the process described in Section A.6. Comparisons between the 2008-2009 and the 2009-2010 small area estimates for underage drinking in the States also are presented in this report.

A.10 Illicit Drug and Alcohol Dependence or Abuse / Needing But Not Receiving Treatment

The NSDUH computer-assisted interviewing (CAI) instrumentation includes questions that are designed to measure illicit drug and alcohol dependence and abuse. For these substances,15 dependence and abuse questions were based on the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994).

Specifically, for marijuana, hallucinogens, inhalants, and tranquilizers, a respondent was defined as having dependence if he or she met three or more of the following six dependence criteria:

  1. Spent a great deal of time over a period of a month getting, using, or getting over the effects of the substance.
  2. Used the substance more often than intended or was unable to keep set limits on the substance use.
  3. Needed to use the substance more than before to get desired effects or noticed that the same amount of substance use had less effect than before.
  4. Inability to cut down or stop using the substance every time tried or wanted to.
  5. Continued to use the substance even though it was causing problems with emotions, nerves, mental health, or physical problems.
  6. The substance use reduced or eliminated involvement or participation in important activities.

For alcohol, cocaine, heroin, pain relievers, sedatives, and stimulants, a seventh withdrawal criterion was added. A respondent was defined as having dependence if he or she met three or more of seven dependence criteria. The seventh withdrawal criterion is defined by a respondent reporting having experienced a certain number of withdrawal symptoms that vary by substance (e.g., having trouble sleeping, cramps, hands tremble).

For each illicit drug and alcohol, a respondent was defined as having abused that substance if he or she met one or more of the following four abuse criteria and was determined not to be dependent on the respective substance in the past year:

  1. Serious problems at home, work, or school caused by the substance, such as neglecting your children, missing work or school, doing a poor job at work or school, or losing a job or dropping out of school.
  2. Used the substance regularly and then did something that might have put you in physical danger.
  3. Use of the substance caused you to do things that repeatedly got you in trouble with the law.
  4. Had problems with family or friends that were probably caused by using the substance and continued to use the substance even though you thought the substance use caused these problems.

For additional details on how respondents were classified as having dependence or abuse of illicit drugs and alcohol, see Section B.4.2 in Appendix B of the 2010 NSDUH national findings report (CBHSQ, 2011, pp. 118-120).

Additionally, the NSDUH CAI instrument included a series of questions that are designed to measure treatment need for an alcohol or illicit drug use problem and to determine persons needing but not receiving treatment.

Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an alcohol use problem in the past year if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependence on alcohol; (2) abuse of alcohol; or (3) received treatment for alcohol use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient only], or mental health center). A respondent was classified as needing but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem if he or she met the criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year, but did not receive treatment at a specialty facility for an alcohol problem in the past year.

Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug use problem in the past year if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependence on illicit drugs; (2) abuse of illicit drugs; or (3) received treatment for illicit drug use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient only], or mental health center). A respondent was classified as needing but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem if he or she met the criteria for illicit drug dependence or abuse in the past year, but did not receive treatment at a specialty facility for an illicit drug problem in the past year.

A.11 Mental Health Measures

This section provides a summary of measurement issues associated with the four mental health outcome variables included in this report—serious mental illness, any mental illness, serious thoughts of suicide, and major depressive episode. Additional details can be found in Section B.4.7 of Appendix B in the 2008 NSDUH national findings report for major depressive episode (OAS, 2009) and in Sections B.4.2 to B.4.4 of Appendix B in the 2012 NSDUH mental health findings report for all four outcome variables (CBHSQ, in press).

A.11.1 Mental Illness

In the 2000-2001 and 2002-2003 NSDUH State reports, the Kessler-6 (K6) distress scale was used to measure serious mental illness (Kessler et al., 2003). However, SAMHSA discontinued producing State-level serious mental illness estimates beginning with the release of the 2003-2004 State report because of concerns about the validity of using only the K6 distress scale without an impairment scale; see Section B.4.4 of Appendix B in the 2004 NSDUH national findings report (OAS, 2005). The use of the K6 distress scale continued in the 2003-2004, 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and 2006-2007 State reports, not as a measure of serious mental illness, but as a measure of serious psychological distress because it was determined that the K6 scale only measured serious psychological distress and only contributed to measuring serious mental illness (see details below).

In December 2006, a technical advisory group meeting of expert consultants was convened by SAMHSA's Center for Mental Health Services to solicit recommendations for mental health surveillance data collection strategies among the U.S. population. The panel recommended that NSDUH should be used to produce estimates of serious mental illness among adults using NSDUH's mental health measures and a gold-standard clinical psychiatric interview.

In response, SAMHSA's CBHSQ initiated in 2008 a Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) under its NSDUH contract with RTI International to develop and implement methods to estimate serious mental illness. Based on recommendations from this panel, estimates of serious mental illness presented in this report for 2009 and 2010 are based on this revised methodology and, thus, are not comparable with estimates for serious mental illness or serious psychological distress shown in NSDUH State reports prior to 2009. They are, however, comparable with the 2008-2009 serious mental illness estimates; hence, comparisons between those estimates are provided in this report.

To develop methods for preparing the estimates of serious mental illness and any mental illness presented in this and other NSDUH reports, the MHSS was initiated as part of the 2008 NSDUH design and analysis. Because of constraints on the interview time in NSDUH and the need for trained mental health clinicians, it was not possible to administer a full structured diagnostic clinical interview to assess mental illness on approximately 45,000 adult respondents; therefore, the approach adopted by SAMHSA was to utilize short scales separately measuring psychological distress (K6) and functional impairment that could be used in a statistical model to accurately predict whether a respondent had a mental illness. Two impairment scales—the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS)—were included in the 2008 survey for evaluation. The collection of clinical psychiatric interview data was achieved using a subsample of approximately 1,500 adult NSDUH participants in 2008. These participants were recruited for a follow-up clinical interview consisting of a gold-standard diagnostic assessment for mental disorders and functional impairment. In order to determine the optimal scale to measure functional impairment, a split-sample design was incorporated into the full 2008 NSDUH data collection in which half of the adult respondents received the WHODAS and half received the SDS. The 2008 statistical models (subsequently referred to as the "2008 model") using the data from the subsample of respondents collected as part of the MHSS then were developed for each half sample in which the short scales (the K6 in combination with the WHODAS or the K6 in combination with the SDS) were used as predictors in models of mental illness assessed via the clinical interviews. The model parameter estimates then were used to predict serious mental illness in the full 2008 NSDUH sample. Serious mental illness probabilities and predicted values (as well as any mental illness values) were computed for respondents in the NSDUH sample from 2008 to 2010 using model parameter estimates from the 2008 sample.

In 2010, SAMHSA begin preliminary investigations to assess whether improvements to the model were warranted using all of the clinical data that been collected since 2008. In 2011 and 2012, the clinical sample was augmented to include 1,500 respondents per year, leading to a combined sample of approximately 5,000 clinical interviews for 2008 to 2012. SAMHSA determined that the 2008 model has some important shortcomings that had not been detected in the original model fitting because of the small number of respondents in the 2008 clinical subsample. Specifically, the 2008 model substantially overestimated serious mental illness and any mental illness among young adults relative to the clinical interview data. In addition, improvements were needed in the weighting procedures for the MHSS sample data to account better for nonresponse and undercoverage. Therefore, SAMHSA decided to modify the model for the 2012 estimates using the combined 2008-2012 clinical data (subsequently referred to as the "2012 model"). To reduce bias and improve prediction, additional mental health-related variables and an age variable were added in the 2012 model. To provide consistent data for trend assessment, State mental illness estimates for 2008-2009 to 2010-2011 were also recomputed using the new 2012 model (including the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 small area estimates shown in this report). Note that tables or maps showing estimates of serious mental illness and any mental illness based on these 2012 models include "Revised October 2013" in the source line. The next subsection describes the instruments and items used to measure the variables employed in the 2012 model. Specifically, the instrument used to measure mental illness in the clinical interviews is described, followed by descriptions of the scales and items in the main NSDUH interviews that were used as predictor variables in the model (e.g., the K6 and WHODAS total scores, age, and suicidal thoughts).16

MHSS Clinical Interviews

As described previously, a subsample of NSDUH participants completed follow-up clinical interviews to provide data for the statistical modeling of the NSDUH interview data of psychological distress and functional impairment on mental health status. The MHSS sample respondents were administered clinical interviews within 4 weeks of the NSDUH main interview to assess the presence of mental disorders and functional impairment. Specifically, each participant was assessed by a trained clinical interviewer (master's or doctoral-level clinician, counselor, or social worker) via paper-and-pencil interviewing (PAPI) over the telephone. The clinical interview used was an adapted version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP) (First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002). Past year disorders that were assessed through the SCID included mood disorders (e.g., major depressive episode, manic episode), anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder), eating disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa), intermittent explosive disorder, and adjustment disorder. In addition, the presence of psychotic symptoms was assessed. Substance use disorders also were assessed, although these disorders were not included in the estimates of mental illness.

Functional impairment ratings were assigned by clinical interviewers using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale (Endicott, Spitzer, Fleiss, & Cohen, 1976). Mental illness, measured using the SCID and differentiated by the level of functional impairment, was defined in the MHSS as follows:

The SCID and the GAF in combination were considered to be the gold standard for measuring mental illness.

Kessler-6 Distress Scale

The K6 in the main NSDUH interview consists of two sets of six questions that asked adult respondents how frequently they experienced symptoms of psychological distress during two different time periods: (1) during the past 30 days, and (2) if applicable, the one month in the past year when they were at their worst emotionally. Respondents were asked about the second time period only if they indicated that there was a month in the past 12 months when they felt more depressed, anxious, or emotionally stressed than they felt during the past 30 days.

The six questions comprising the K6 scale for the past month are as follows:

NERVE30
During the past 30 days, how often did you feel nervous?
1   All of the time
2   Most of the time
3   Some of the time
4   A little of the time
5   None of the time
Don't know/Refused

Response categories are the same for the remaining questions shown below.

HOPE30
During the past 30 days, how often did you feel hopeless?
FIDG30
During the past 30 days, how often did you feel restless or fidgety?
NOCHR30
During the past 30 days, how often did you feel so sad or depressed that nothing could cheer you up?
EFFORT30
During the past 30 days, how often did you feel that everything was an effort?
DOWN30
During the past 30 days, how often did you feel down on yourself, no good or worthless?

To create a score, the six items (NERVE30, HOPE30, FIDG30, NOCHR30, EFFORT30, and DOWN30) on the K6 scale were recoded from 0 to 4 so that "all of the time" was coded 4, "most of the time" 3, "some of the time" 2, "a little of the time" 1, and "none of the time" 0, with "don't know" and "refused" also coded as 0. Summing across the transformed responses in these six items resulted in a score with a range from 0 to 24.

If respondents were asked about a month in the past 12 months when they felt more depressed, anxious, or emotionally stressed than they felt during the past 30 days, they were asked comparable K6 items for that particular month in the past 12 months. The scoring procedures for these K6 items for the past 12 months were the same as those described above. The higher of the two K6 total scores for the past 30 days or past 12 months was used both for MHSS analysis purposes and in the adult respondents' final data.

An alternative K6 total score also was created in which K6 scores less than 8 were recoded as 0 and scores from 8 to 24 were recoded as 1 to 17. The rationale for creating the alternative past year K6 score was that serious mental illness prevalence was typically extremely low for respondents with past year K6 scores less than 8, and the prevalence rates started increasing only when scores were 8 or greater. This alternative K6 score was used in both the 2008 and 2012 SMI prediction models.

WHODAS

An initial step of the MHSS was to modify the WHODAS for use in a general population survey, including making minor changes to question wording and reducing its length (Novak, 2007). That is, a subset of 8 items was found to capture the information represented in the full 16-item scale with no significant loss of information.

These eight WHODAS items that were included in the main NSDUH interview were assessed on a 0 to 3 scale, with responses of "no difficulty," "don't know," and "refused" coded as 0; "mild difficulty" coded as 1; "moderate difficulty" coded as 2; and "severe difficulty" coded as 3. Some items had an additional category for respondents who did not engage in a particular activity (e.g., they did not leave the house on their own). Respondents who reported that they did not engage in an activity were asked a follow-up question to determine if they did not do so because of emotions, nerves, or mental health. Those who answered "yes" to this follow-up question were subsequently assigned to the "severe difficulty" category; otherwise (i.e., for responses of "no," "don't know," or "refused"), they were assigned to the "no difficulty" category. Summing across these codes for the eight responses resulted in a total score with a range from 0 to 24. More information about scoring of the WHODAS can be found in the 2011 NSDUH public use file codebook (CBHSQ, 2012a).

An alternative WHODAS total score was created in which individual WHODAS item scores of less than 2 were recoded as 0, and item scores of 2 to 3 were recoded as 1. The individual alternative item scores then were summed to yield a total alternative score ranging from 0 to 8. Creation of an alternative version of the WHODAS score was based on the assumption that a dichotomous measure dividing respondents into two groups (i.e., severely impaired vs. less severely impaired) might fit better than a linear continuous measure in models predicting serious mental illness. This alternative WHODAS score was the variable used in both the 2008 and 2012 serious mental illness prediction models.

Suicidal Thoughts, Major Depressive Episode, and Age

In addition to the K6 and WHODAS scales, the 2012 model included the following measures as predictors of serious mental illness: (a) serious thoughts of suicide in the past year; (b) having a past year major depressive episode; and (c) age. The first two variables were added to the model to decrease the error rate in the predictions (i.e., the sum of the false-negative and false-positive rates relative to the clinical interview results). A recoded age variable reduced the biases in estimates for particular age groups, especially 18 to 25 year olds.

Since 2008, all adult respondents in NSDUH have been asked the following question: "At any time in the past 12 months, that is from [DATEFILL] up to and including today, did you seriously think about killing yourself?"17 Definitions for major depressive episode in the lifetime and past year periods are discussed in Section B.4.4 of Appendix B in the 2012 mental health findings report (CBHSQ, in press). For respondents aged 18 to 30, an adjusted age was created by subtracting 18 from the respondent's current age, resulting in values ranging from 0 to 12. For a respondent aged 18, for example, the adjusted age was 0 (i.e., 18 minus 18), and for a respondent aged 30, the adjusted age was 12 (i.e., 30 minus 18). For respondents aged 31 or older, the adjusted age was assigned a value of 12.

2012 SMI Model

Statistical modeling involved developing separate weighted logistic regression prediction models for the K6 and for each of the two impairment scales. With serious mental illness status based on having a SCID diagnosis plus a GAF less than or equal to 50, the response variable Y was defined so that

Y = 1 when a serious mental illness diagnosis is positive; otherwise, Y = 0.

If X is a vector of explanatory variables, then the response probability Pi equals the probability of capital Y being 1 given capital X, where capital X is the vector of explanatory variables. can be estimated using weighted logistic regression models for the WHODAS and SDS half samples. The final 2012 WHODAS calibration model was determined as follows:

Equation (1)     D

where pi hat refers to an estimate of the serious mental illness response probability pi for the WHODAS models. These covariates in equation (1) come from the main NSDUH interview data:

As with the 2008 model, a cut point probability pi sub zero was determined, so that if Pi hat is greater than or equal to pi sub zero. for a particular respondent, then he or she was predicted to be serious mental illness positive; otherwise, he or she was predicted to be serious mental illness negative. The cut point (0.260573529) was chosen so that the weighted number of false positives and false negatives in the MHSS dataset were as close to equal as possible. The predicted serious mental illness status for all adult NSDUH respondents was used to compute serious mental illness small area estimates. A second cut point probability (0.0192519810) was determined so that any respondent with a serious mental illness probability greater than or equal to the cut point was predicted to be positive for any mental illness, and the remainder were predicted to be negative for any mental illness. The second cut point was chosen so that the weighted numbers of any mental illness false positives and false negatives were as close to equal as possible.

Alternative 2012 Model for the SDS Half Sample

In 2008, approximately half of the respondents in the adult NSDUH sample were assigned to receive questions about impairment based on the WHODAS, and the other half were assigned to receive questions based on the SDS. As noted previously, the purpose of this split sample was to determine whether the SDS or WHODAS impairment scale was a better predictor of serious mental illness. The WHODAS scale was identified as the better predictor.

For the clinical interview respondents who had been administered the SDS in the main survey, an alternative serious mental illness model was fit using the complete MHSS dataset of clinical interviews from 2008 through 2012. Serious mental illness and any mental illness estimates were obtained using the same cut point methodology described previously but was applied to the alternative model.

The modified 2012 SMI prediction model for the SDS half sample was

Equation (2)     D

All of the covariates in equation (2) appeared in equation (1) as well.

As noted previously, serious mental illness estimates for 2008 were based on both the WHODAS and SDS half samples because estimates of serious mental illness were comparable between the half samples. Using the 2012 model allows any mental illness estimates for 2008 to be created based on both the half samples as well. Previous 2008 any mental illness estimates using the 2008 model, on the other hand, were based on only the WHODAS half sample.

A.11.2 Serious Thoughts of Suicide

Responding to a need for national data on the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behavior, a set of questions was added beginning with the 2008 NSDUH questionnaire (and those sets of questions were continued to be asked in 2009 and 2010). These questions asked all adult respondents aged 18 or older if at any time during the past 12 months they had serious thoughts of suicide (suicidal ideation). State-level estimates of suicidal ideation are included in this report.

A.11.3 Major Depressive Episode (Depression)

According to the DSM-IV, a person is defined as having had major depressive episode in his or her lifetime if he or she has had at least five or more of the following nine symptoms nearly every day in the same 2-week period, where at least one of the symptoms is a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities (APA, 1994): (1) depressed mood most of the day; (2) markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all or almost all activities most of the day; (3) significant weight loss when not sick or dieting, or weight gain when not pregnant or growing, or decrease or increase in appetite; (4) insomnia or hypersomnia; (5) psychomotor agitation or retardation; (6) fatigue or loss of energy; (7) feelings of worthlessness; (8) diminished ability to think or concentrate or indecisiveness; and (9) recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation. Respondents who have had a major depressive episode in their lifetime are asked if, during the past 12 months, they had a period of depression lasting 2 weeks or longer while also having some of the other symptoms mentioned. Those reporting that they have are defined as having had major depressive episode in the past year and then are asked questions from the SDS to measure the level of functional impairment in major life activities reported to be caused by the major depressive episode in the past 12 months (Leon, Olfson, Portera, Farber, & Sheehan, 1997).

Beginning in 2004, modules related to major depressive episode, derived from DSM-IV (APA, 1994) criteria for major depression, were included in the questionnaire. These questions permit prevalence estimates of major depressive episode to be calculated. Separate modules were administered to adults aged 18 or older and youths aged 12 to 17. The adult questions were adapted from the depression section of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), and the questions for youths were adapted from the depression section of the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent (NCS-A) (see http://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/ncs/). To make the modules developmentally appropriate for youths, there are minor wording differences in a few questions between the adult and youth modules. Revisions to the questions in both modules were made primarily to reduce its length and to modify the NCS questions, which are interviewer-administered, to the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) format used in NSDUH. In addition, some revisions, based on cognitive testing, were made to improve comprehension.

Since 2004, the NSDUH questions that determine major depressive episode have remained unchanged. In the 2008 questionnaire, however, changes were made in other mental health items that precede the major depressive episode questions for adults (K6, suicide, and impairment). Questions also were retained in 2009 and 2010 for the WHODAS impairment scale, and the questions for the SDS impairment scale were deleted; see Sections B.4.2 and B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2010 NSDUH mental health findings report (CBHSQ, 2012b) for further details about these questionnaire changes. These questionnaire changes in 2008 appear to have affected the reporting on major depressive episode questions among adults.

Because the WHODAS was selected to be used in the 2009 and subsequent surveys, model-based adjustments were applied to major depressive episode estimates from the SDS half sample in 2008 to remove the context effect differential between the two half samples. Additionally, model-based adjustments were made to the 2005, 2006, and 2007 adult major depressive episode estimates to make them comparable with the 2008 through 2010 major depressive episode estimates (for more information on these adjustments, see Aldworth, Kott, Yu, Mosquin, & Barnett-Walker, 2012). Thus, estimates of major depressive episode were produced for the 2008-2009 SAE report using the adjusted 2008 major depressive episode variable along with the unadjusted 2009 major depressive episode variable.

In addition, changes to the youth mental health service utilization module questions in 2009 that preceded the questions about adolescent depression could have affected adolescents' responses to the adolescent depression questions and estimates of adolescent major depressive episode. However, these changes in 2009 did not appear to affect the estimates of adolescent major depressive episode. Therefore, data on trends in past year major depressive episode from 2004 to 2010 are available for adolescents aged 12 to 17.

A.12 Comparison of Two 2009-2010 Small Area Estimates

This section describes a method for determining whether differences between two 2009-2010 State estimates are statistically significant. This procedure can be used for any two State estimates representing the same age group (e.g., young adults aged 18 to 25) and time period (e.g., 2009-2010).

Let pi 1 sub a and pi 2 sub a denote the 2009-2010 age group-a specific prevalence rates for two different States, State 1 and State 2, respectively. The null hypothesis of no difference, that is, Pi 1 sub a is equal to pi 2 sub a. , is equivalent to the log-odds ratio equal to zero, that is, Log-odds ratio lor sub a is equal to zero., where lor sub a is defined as The log-odds ratio, lor sub a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is pi 2 sub a divided by 1 minus pi 2 sub a. The denominator of the ratio is pi 1 sub a divided by 1 minus pi 1 sub a. ,

where ln denotes the natural logarithm. An estimate of lor sub a is given by The estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is p 2 sub a divided by 1 minus p 2 sub a. The denominator of the ratio is p 1 sub a divided by 1 minus p 1 sub a. ,

where p 1 sub a and p 2 sub a are the 2009-2010 State estimates given in Appendix B. To compute the variance of estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a, that is, variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a, let Theta 1 hat is defined as the ratio of p 1 sub a and 1 minus p 1 sub a. and Theta 2 hat is defined as the ratio of p 2 sub a and 1 minus p 2 sub a. ,

then Variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a, is a function of three quantities: q1, q2, and q3. It is expressed as the sum of q1 and q2 minus q3. Quantity q1 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat, quantity q2 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat, and quantity q3 is 2 times the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat., where covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation A.12-1 .     D

The quantities variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat can be obtained by using the 95 percent Bayesian confidence intervals given in Appendix B. For this purpose, let lower sub 1 and upper sub 1 and lower sub 2 and upper sub 2 denote the 95 percent Bayesian confidence intervals for the two States, State 1 and State 2, respectively. Then

Equation A.12-2     D

where Capital U sub i is the natural logarithm of upper sub i divided by 1 minus upper sub i, and capital L sub i is the natural logarithm of lower sub i divided by 1 minus lower sub i. .

For all practical purposes, the correlation between natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat is assumed to be negligible; hence, variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a can be approximated by sum of the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.. The correlation is assumed to be negligible because each State was a stratum in the first level of stratification; therefore, each State sample is selected independently. However, the correlation between the two State estimates is theoretically nonzero because State estimates share common fixed-effect parameters in the SAE models. Hence, the test statistic quantity z (defined below) might result in a different conclusion in a few cases when the correlation between the State estimates is incorporated in calculating variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a. To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference (Log-odds ratio, lor sub a, is equal to zero.), it is assumed that the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio, lor sub a is normal with Mean is equal to the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a. and Variance is equal to the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a.. With the null value of Log-odds ratio, lor sub a, is equal to zero., the Bayes p value or posterior probability of no difference is The p value is equal to 2 times the probability of realizing a standard normal variate capital Z greater than or equal to the absolute value of a quantity z., where capital Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub a, divided by the square root of the sum of the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat., and absolute value of quantity z denotes the absolute value of quantity z.


When comparing prevalence rates for two States, it is tempting and often convenient to look at their 95 percent Bayesian confidence intervals to decide whether the difference in the State prevalence rates is significant. If the two Bayesian confidence intervals overlap, one would conclude that the difference is not statistically significant. If the two Bayesian confidence intervals do not overlap, it implies that the State prevalence rates are significantly different from each other. However, the type-I error for the overlapping 95 percent Bayesian confidence intervals test is 0.6 percent (assuming that the two State estimates are uncorrelated and have the same variances) as compared with the 5 percent type-I error of the test based on the quantity z statistics defined above (Payton, Greenstone, & Schenker, 2003). Thus, using the overlap method with 95 percent Bayesian confidence intervals implies a type-I error that is much less than the 5 percent level that is typically prescribed for such tests.

As discussed in Schenker and Gentleman (2001), the method of overlapping Bayesian confidence intervals is more conservative (i.e., it rejects the null hypothesis of no difference less often) than the standard method based on quantity z statistics when the null hypothesis is true. Even if Bayesian confidence intervals for two States overlap, the two prevalence rates may be declared significantly different by the test based on quantity z statistics. Hence, the method of overlapping Bayesian confidence intervals is not recommended to test the equivalence of two State prevalence rates. A detailed description of the method of overlapping confidence intervals and its comparison with the standard methods for testing of a hypothesis is given in Schenker and Gentleman (2001) and Payton et al. (2003).

Example. The prevalence rates for past month alcohol use among 12 to 17 year olds in Minnesota and North Dakota are shown in the exhibit below and also in Table B.9 in Appendix B. Looking at the two 95 percent Bayesian confidence intervals, it would appear that the Minnesota and North Dakota prevalence rates for past month alcohol use are not statistically different at the 5 percent level of significance because the two Bayesian confidence intervals overlap:

State Point Estimate (%) 95% Bayesian Confidence Interval (%)
Minnesota 13.16 (11.10, 15.55)
North Dakota 16.58 (14.25, 19.20)

However, in the following example, the test based on the quantity z statistic described earlier concludes that they are significantly different at the 5 percent level of significance.

Let p 1 sub a equal 0.1316, lower sub 1 equal 0.1110, upper sub 1 equal 0.1555, p 2 sub a equal 0.1658, lower sub 2 equal 0.1425, upper sub 2 equal 0.1920. Then,

Equation A.12-3 ,     D

Equation A.12-4 ,     D

Equation A.12-5 ,     D

Equation A.12-6 ,     D

Equation A.12-7 , and     D

Equation A.12-8 .     D

Because the computed absolute value of quantity z is greater than or equal to 1.96 (the critical value of the quantity z statistic), then at the 5 percent level of significance, the hypothesis of no difference (Minnesota prevalence rate = North Dakota prevalence rate) is rejected. Thus, the two State prevalence rates are statistically different. The Bayes p value or posterior probability of no difference is The Bayes p value or posterior probability of no difference is calculated as 2 times the probability that capital Z is greater than or equal to 2.0134. The p value is equal to 0.044..

A.13 Comparison of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 Small Area Estimates

Comparisons between State small area estimates displayed in Appendix C are based on the 2008 through 2010 NSDUHs. The State estimates for 2008-2009 were recalculated after removing erroneous data (for more details, see Section 1.5 in the Introduction). Hence, the 2008-2009 small area estimates listed here may not match previously published 2008-2009 model-based small area estimates (Hughes et al., 2011). The State estimates for 2009-2010 are the small area estimates given in Appendix B. The moving average State prevalence estimates for the overlapping 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 time periods were obtained from independent applications of SWHB methodology; that is, the 2009-2010 models were fit independently of the previously fitted 2008-2009 models. This independent analysis approach was followed because there was no desire to revise the previously published 2008-2009 estimates. Moreover, the same fixed predictor variables were used in the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 models, but annual updates were made when more current versions became available (see Section A.3 for details). The age group-specific fixed predictor variables were defined at five levels (namely, person-level, census block group-level, tract-level, county-level, and State-level). Also, each age group model had 51 State-level random effects and 300 "within-State" area-level random effects.

To estimate change in State estimates, let pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a denote 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 prevalence rates, respectively, for State-s and age group-a. The change between pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a is defined in terms of the log-odds ratio (lor sub s and a) as opposed to the simple difference because the posterior distribution of the log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a is closer to Gaussian than the posterior distribution of the simple difference (Pi 2 sub s and a minus pi 1 sub s and a represents the simple difference between the 2009-2010 and 2008-2009 prevalence rates.). The log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a is defined as

Equation A.13-1 ,     D

where ln denotes the natural logarithm. The p value given in the Appendix C tables is computed to test the null hypothesis of no change (i.e., Pi 2 sub s and a is equal to pi 1 sub s and a. or equivalently Log-odds ratio lor sub s and a is equal to zero.). An estimate of log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a is given by

Equation A.13-2 ,     D

where the p 1 sub s and a are previously published 2008-2009 State estimates and the p 2 sub s and a are the 2009-2010 State estimates presented in this report (see Appendix B). To compute the variance of estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, that is, variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, let Theta 1 hat equal the ratio of p 1 sub s and a and 1 minus p 1 sub s and a and Theta 2 hat equal the ratio of p 2 sub s and a and 1 minus p 2 sub s and a, then

Equation A.13-3 ,     D

where covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation A.13-4 .     D

Note that variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat used here to calculate variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a are the same variances used in calculating the previously published 2008-2009 Bayesian confidence intervals and the 2009-2010 Bayesian confidence intervals given in this report, respectively.

The correlation between natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat was obtained by simultaneously modeling the 2008, 2009, and 2010 NSDUH data. This simultaneous modeling approach was adopted based on the results of the validation study (see Appendix E, Section E.2, of Wright, 2003b) conducted for measuring change in the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 State estimates. For this simultaneous model, 4 age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 to 34, and 35 or older) by 3 years (2008, 2009, and 2010), that is, 12 subpopulation-specific models, were fitted, each with its own set of fixed and random effects. In this case, the general covariance matrices for the State and within-State random effects were 12 × 12 matrices corresponding to the 12 element (age group × year) vectors of random effects. Note that the survey-weighted, Bernoulli-type log likelihood employed in the SWHB methodology was appropriate for this simultaneous model because the 12 age group × year subpopulations were nonoverlapping. The correlation the correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat was approximated by the correlation calculated using the posterior distributions of natural logarithm of pi 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 1 sub s and a and natural logarithm of pi 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 2 sub s and a from the simultaneous model.

Note that the small area estimates for serious mental illness and any mental illness were revised based on the new 2012 model variables in 2013 (for details, see Section A.11.1). A decision was made by SAMHSA not to produce revised correlations based on the revised variables. It was expected that the correlations would not be too affected by changes to the modeling procedures used to produce estimates for serious mental illness and any mental illness. Hence, in the calculation of p values mentioned below, the correlations for the these two outcomes were based on calculations done using the 2008 model variables; however, updated estimates and variances based on the 2012 model variables were used.

To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero.), it is assumed that the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio lor is normal with Mean is equal to estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a. and Variance is equal to variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a.. With the null value of (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero.), the Bayes p value or posterior probability of no difference is The p value is equal to 2 times the probability of realizing a standard normal variate capital Z greater than or equal to the absolute value of a quantity z., where capital Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, divided by the square root of the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a. ,

and absolute value of quantity z denotes the absolute value of quantity z.

Table A.1 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2008
State Total
Selected DUs
Total
Eligible
DUs
Total
Completed
Screeners
Weighted DU
Screening
Response Rate
Total
Selected
Total
Responded
Population
Estimate
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Weighted
Overall
Response
Rate
DU = dwelling unit.
NOTE: The 2008 numbers may differ from the previously published numbers due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 194,815 160,114 142,159 88.62% 85,711 67,928 249,815,089 74.24% 65.79%
Northeast 41,088 34,126 28,544 82.73% 16,706 12,923 46,098,527 71.79% 59.40%
Midwest 52,794 44,490 39,977 90.15% 24,383 19,314 54,957,186 74.93% 67.55%
South 59,559 47,799 43,224 91.01% 25,547 20,740 90,962,960 76.37% 69.50%
West 41,374 33,699 30,414 88.10% 19,075 14,951 57,796,416 72.24% 63.64%
Alabama 2,946 2,329 2,140 92.06% 1,173 929 3,843,374 71.78% 66.09%
Alaska 2,628 1,763 1,597 90.64% 1,147 908 541,167 76.32% 69.18%
Arizona 2,899 2,071 1,820 88.20% 1,131 908 5,239,324 76.87% 67.79%
Arkansas 2,699 2,130 2,000 93.82% 1,122 933 2,332,677 77.25% 72.48%
California 9,128 8,079 6,843 84.56% 5,036 3,830 30,012,612 69.66% 58.90%
Colorado 2,963 2,366 2,149 90.78% 1,195 949 4,035,628 76.15% 69.13%
Connecticut 2,744 2,426 2,158 88.84% 1,162 938 2,919,630 75.10% 66.72%
Delaware 2,547 2,123 1,858 87.67% 1,166 943 721,693 78.71% 69.01%
District of Columbia 4,070 3,307 2,720 82.08% 1,078 900 505,593 78.87% 64.74%
Florida 11,058 8,486 7,704 90.84% 4,388 3,590 15,343,888 76.52% 69.51%
Georgia 2,610 2,026 1,836 90.56% 1,089 877 7,753,524 73.73% 66.77%
Hawaii 3,047 2,373 2,038 84.44% 1,277 897 1,052,720 65.04% 54.92%
Idaho 2,393 1,943 1,842 94.82% 1,147 942 1,219,776 78.15% 74.11%
Illinois 10,542 9,213 7,350 79.73% 5,045 3,743 10,598,573 68.66% 54.74%
Indiana 2,314 1,947 1,815 93.21% 1,147 914 5,225,927 77.75% 72.47%
Iowa 2,470 2,154 2,004 92.98% 1,152 945 2,484,297 80.80% 75.12%
Kansas 2,163 1,864 1,746 93.67% 1,100 884 2,269,597 76.83% 71.97%
Kentucky 2,644 2,163 2,040 94.34% 1,097 884 3,524,562 73.21% 69.06%
Louisiana 2,414 1,820 1,717 94.31% 1,082 881 3,581,692 78.79% 74.30%
Maine 3,212 2,374 2,196 92.46% 1,102 915 1,126,276 77.15% 71.33%
Maryland 2,526 2,217 1,770 79.33% 1,087 844 4,660,360 72.92% 57.84%
Massachusetts 2,562 2,159 1,908 88.09% 1,112 897 5,476,618 76.63% 67.50%
Michigan 10,246 8,222 7,299 88.81% 4,587 3,675 8,341,138 75.18% 66.77%
Minnesota 2,238 1,918 1,805 94.08% 1,073 881 4,323,170 78.86% 74.19%
Mississippi 2,109 1,677 1,587 94.69% 1,074 883 2,358,646 78.01% 73.87%
Missouri 2,613 2,186 2,045 93.58% 1,131 914 4,864,752 76.30% 71.40%
Montana 2,869 2,340 2,211 94.50% 1,139 919 808,201 77.02% 72.78%
Nebraska 2,316 1,915 1,805 94.26% 1,105 888 1,451,290 76.82% 72.41%
Nevada 2,778 2,256 2,121 94.20% 1,124 887 2,115,107 74.07% 69.77%
New Hampshire 2,585 2,006 1,761 87.82% 1,113 904 1,115,443 79.14% 69.50%
New Jersey 2,757 2,336 2,054 88.06% 1,247 974 7,225,089 73.12% 64.39%
New Mexico 2,591 1,946 1,835 94.30% 1,073 876 1,616,007 79.35% 74.83%
New York 11,715 9,885 7,693 77.90% 4,928 3,570 16,365,125 66.90% 52.12%
North Carolina 2,433 2,039 1,874 92.06% 1,084 890 7,496,430 78.16% 71.95%
North Dakota 2,818 2,293 2,158 94.19% 1,142 932 530,391 78.87% 74.29%
Ohio 10,373 8,808 8,239 93.53% 4,641 3,692 9,526,405 73.94% 69.15%
Oklahoma 2,192 1,775 1,602 90.43% 1,117 897 2,941,713 78.99% 71.43%
Oregon 2,756 2,353 2,170 92.31% 1,242 1,011 3,173,495 71.54% 66.04%
Pennsylvania 10,033 8,599 6,830 79.31% 3,811 2,930 10,448,312 72.73% 57.68%
Rhode Island 2,653 2,197 1,966 89.44% 1,080 881 887,019 77.68% 69.48%
South Carolina 2,806 2,167 1,977 91.00% 1,113 938 3,667,059 82.06% 74.68%
South Dakota 2,297 1,907 1,821 95.55% 1,143 963 653,933 78.42% 74.93%
Tennessee 2,418 1,978 1,822 92.15% 1,181 937 5,136,799 75.26% 69.35%
Texas 8,122 6,682 6,215 93.03% 4,367 3,556 19,229,370 76.81% 71.45%
Utah 1,730 1,521 1,440 94.74% 1,155 961 2,113,331 78.29% 74.17%
Vermont 2,827 2,144 1,978 92.26% 1,151 914 535,016 75.19% 69.37%
Virginia 2,592 2,142 1,878 87.62% 1,152 926 6,328,752 75.92% 66.52%
Washington 2,758 2,397 2,213 92.43% 1,197 920 5,431,264 73.35% 67.79%
West Virginia 3,373 2,738 2,484 90.51% 1,177 932 1,536,829 76.20% 68.97%
Wisconsin 2,404 2,063 1,890 91.53% 1,117 883 4,687,712 76.91% 70.39%
Wyoming 2,834 2,291 2,135 93.20% 1,212 943 437,785 72.21% 67.30%
Table A.2 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2008
State 12-17
Total
Selected
12-17
Total
Responded
12-17
Population
Estimate
12-17
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
18-25
Total
Selected
18-25
Total
Responded
18-25
Population
Estimate
18-25
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
26+
Total
Selected
26+
Total
Responded
26+
Population
Estimate
26+
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
NOTE: The 2008 numbers may differ from the previously published numbers due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report).
NOTE: Computations in this table are based on a respondent's age at screening. Thus, the data in the Total Responded column(s) could differ from data in other NSDUH tables that use the respondent's age recorded during the interview.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 26,228 22,261 24,892,326 84.51% 28,793 23,140 32,938,183 80.38% 30,690 22,527 191,984,580 71.81%
Northeast 5,009 4,184 4,374,575 82.21% 5,608 4,389 5,986,651 77.34% 6,089 4,350 35,737,300 69.61%
Midwest 7,439 6,305 5,508,681 84.56% 8,217 6,591 7,275,820 79.57% 8,727 6,418 42,172,686 72.85%
South 7,890 6,801 9,050,269 86.06% 8,623 7,113 11,764,906 82.98% 9,034 6,826 70,147,785 73.92%
West 5,890 4,971 5,958,801 83.78% 6,345 5,047 7,910,806 79.52% 6,840 4,933 43,926,809 69.31%
Alabama 340 292 380,937 86.23% 410 341 501,390 83.71% 423 296 2,961,047 67.68%
Alaska 370 300 61,212 80.19% 374 301 75,989 81.95% 403 307 403,966 74.55%
Arizona 352 307 538,925 87.29% 384 311 675,594 79.95% 395 290 4,024,805 74.78%
Arkansas 354 324 231,729 91.17% 398 328 293,143 84.25% 370 281 1,807,805 74.19%
California 1,471 1,223 3,178,553 82.21% 1,748 1,372 4,276,022 79.29% 1,817 1,235 22,558,037 66.03%
Colorado 398 341 385,509 85.87% 361 279 522,146 77.78% 436 329 3,127,973 74.54%
Connecticut 306 270 289,686 90.03% 443 359 358,342 79.84% 413 309 2,271,601 72.79%
Delaware 351 290 69,446 82.91% 437 354 92,890 81.55% 378 299 559,357 77.54%
District of Columbia 300 273 36,326 92.35% 398 336 84,963 84.30% 380 291 384,303 76.47%
Florida 1,383 1,197 1,353,763 86.91% 1,399 1,176 1,779,426 83.78% 1,606 1,217 12,210,699 74.30%
Georgia 364 313 823,565 85.83% 335 282 1,002,141 84.62% 390 282 5,927,818 69.89%
Hawaii 360 276 94,033 77.53% 431 317 130,031 72.11% 486 304 828,656 62.56%
Idaho 356 314 132,813 88.57% 360 301 163,669 82.85% 431 327 923,294 76.09%
Illinois 1,515 1,235 1,074,628 81.78% 1,689 1,272 1,455,604 74.87% 1,841 1,236 8,068,342 65.78%
Indiana 389 324 532,430 84.25% 370 289 675,007 78.93% 388 301 4,018,491 76.71%
Iowa 351 300 242,215 85.63% 372 304 339,024 82.29% 429 341 1,903,058 79.95%
Kansas 304 259 230,579 84.49% 395 317 320,106 82.00% 401 308 1,718,912 74.93%
Kentucky 361 314 338,183 85.31% 359 299 425,780 81.01% 377 271 2,760,600 70.28%
Louisiana 328 276 372,486 83.41% 361 301 519,209 84.62% 393 304 2,689,997 76.84%
Maine 321 286 101,011 88.64% 372 314 125,017 83.72% 409 315 900,248 75.00%
Maryland 343 287 463,837 84.32% 358 284 603,272 80.92% 386 273 3,593,251 69.76%
Massachusetts 352 301 501,071 85.22% 365 294 745,429 80.99% 395 302 4,230,117 74.93%
Michigan 1,381 1,192 855,511 86.10% 1,591 1,299 1,083,355 81.49% 1,615 1,184 6,402,273 72.60%
Minnesota 343 301 424,864 87.96% 360 290 572,788 80.73% 370 290 3,325,519 77.33%
Mississippi 330 289 254,843 87.98% 353 296 330,023 83.47% 391 298 1,773,779 75.80%
Missouri 358 315 484,594 85.58% 360 284 622,228 76.74% 413 315 3,757,931 74.90%
Montana 383 318 77,182 83.49% 371 312 105,186 84.56% 385 289 625,834 74.91%
Nebraska 346 299 145,878 86.01% 358 291 207,730 79.46% 401 298 1,097,683 75.01%
Nevada 367 320 213,611 87.72% 382 302 243,004 79.89% 375 265 1,658,492 71.42%
New Hampshire 336 285 107,937 84.98% 361 297 132,623 82.48% 416 322 874,884 78.02%
New Jersey 390 316 708,395 80.08% 488 394 861,235 80.20% 369 264 5,655,459 71.02%
New Mexico 316 281 165,144 87.61% 346 275 225,333 79.50% 411 320 1,225,529 78.27%
New York 1,418 1,155 1,548,677 80.19% 1,675 1,213 2,240,017 72.47% 1,835 1,202 12,576,431 64.26%
North Carolina 375 330 728,418 87.95% 312 256 936,723 83.17% 397 304 5,831,288 75.89%
North Dakota 346 296 49,073 85.02% 392 324 88,206 82.80% 404 312 393,112 77.23%
Ohio 1,498 1,262 948,248 84.14% 1,480 1,214 1,208,122 82.55% 1,663 1,216 7,370,036 71.18%
Oklahoma 324 276 293,748 84.67% 397 311 406,525 79.30% 396 310 2,241,440 78.22%
Oregon 369 312 293,880 84.04% 468 407 383,593 86.15% 405 292 2,496,022 67.47%
Pennsylvania 1,199 984 987,054 81.74% 1,182 931 1,329,112 78.89% 1,430 1,015 8,132,146 70.67%
Rhode Island 319 283 82,028 88.85% 354 289 126,487 82.24% 407 309 678,503 75.29%
South Carolina 350 302 357,713 86.20% 375 314 464,802 84.79% 388 322 2,844,544 81.14%
South Dakota 325 289 65,489 88.07% 399 351 90,410 87.27% 419 323 498,034 75.88%
Tennessee 316 263 495,488 83.78% 433 357 616,859 80.88% 432 317 4,024,452 73.37%
Texas 1,318 1,135 2,109,558 86.02% 1,475 1,232 2,706,388 83.77% 1,574 1,189 14,413,424 74.07%
Utah 378 337 251,154 86.62% 337 271 374,827 80.56% 440 353 1,487,351 76.52%
Vermont 368 304 48,716 81.63% 368 298 68,388 81.06% 415 312 417,912 73.53%
Virginia 360 307 607,065 85.38% 420 332 825,136 80.33% 372 287 4,896,552 73.98%
Washington 396 329 524,495 84.17% 383 290 675,978 77.04% 418 301 4,230,791 71.36%
West Virginia 393 333 133,164 85.61% 403 314 176,237 77.96% 381 285 1,227,428 74.83%
Wisconsin 283 233 455,175 83.70% 451 356 613,242 79.48% 383 294 3,619,295 75.54%
Wyoming 374 313 42,291 84.01% 400 309 59,434 76.96% 438 321 336,059 69.82%
Table A.3 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2009
State Total
Selected DUs
Total
Eligible
DUs
Total
Completed
Screeners
Weighted DU
Screening
Response Rate
Total
Selected
Total
Responded
Population
Estimate
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Weighted
Overall
Response
Rate
DU = dwelling unit.
NOTE: The 2009 numbers may differ from the previously published numbers due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 195,132 161,377 142,933 88.40% 84,785 68,007 251,815,533 75.56% 66.79%
Northeast 42,197 35,012 28,978 81.91% 16,907 13,130 46,385,613 72.81% 59.63%
Midwest 53,123 44,770 40,360 90.34% 23,827 19,133 55,167,183 75.97% 68.64%
South 60,898 49,144 44,583 91.33% 25,512 20,925 92,048,862 77.36% 70.65%
West 38,914 32,451 29,012 87.11% 18,539 14,819 58,213,876 74.50% 64.90%
Alabama 2,831 2,286 2,128 92.98% 1,174 944 3,876,035 78.44% 72.93%
Alaska 2,303 1,768 1,631 92.08% 1,110 902 554,006 79.33% 73.05%
Arizona 2,723 2,050 1,778 82.93% 1,110 916 5,310,817 79.47% 65.91%
Arkansas 2,574 2,104 1,965 93.31% 1,133 914 2,358,363 77.30% 72.13%
California 8,934 7,761 6,499 83.86% 4,734 3,660 30,079,762 71.83% 60.24%
Colorado 2,727 2,272 2,088 92.12% 1,195 984 4,096,077 77.36% 71.26%
Connecticut 2,331 2,061 1,805 87.50% 1,147 915 2,937,125 76.43% 66.87%
Delaware 2,595 2,135 1,862 87.26% 1,129 920 731,769 73.59% 64.21%
District of Columbia 4,322 3,511 2,851 80.59% 1,042 886 510,289 83.69% 67.45%
Florida 11,388 8,721 8,040 91.93% 4,407 3,648 15,484,832 76.74% 70.54%
Georgia 2,295 1,864 1,716 91.79% 1,082 907 7,846,856 78.24% 71.82%
Hawaii 3,209 2,718 2,154 76.85% 1,321 960 1,052,232 67.00% 51.49%
Idaho 2,252 1,765 1,671 94.66% 1,119 916 1,235,558 77.15% 73.04%
Illinois 10,108 8,781 7,097 80.81% 4,786 3,655 10,592,235 71.70% 57.94%
Indiana 2,719 2,226 2,087 93.64% 1,119 904 5,261,391 79.31% 74.27%
Iowa 2,567 2,203 2,049 93.14% 1,099 924 2,486,476 81.80% 76.19%
Kansas 2,364 2,053 1,906 92.80% 1,132 909 2,279,789 76.12% 70.64%
Kentucky 2,411 1,946 1,828 93.94% 1,118 912 3,550,066 76.64% 72.00%
Louisiana 2,615 2,125 1,993 93.91% 1,143 923 3,640,052 78.89% 74.08%
Maine 3,209 2,339 2,150 92.05% 1,132 964 1,128,941 82.64% 76.07%
Maryland 2,231 1,905 1,544 81.00% 1,002 836 4,705,966 79.72% 64.57%
Massachusetts 3,277 2,813 2,385 84.82% 1,239 969 5,563,652 73.77% 62.57%
Michigan 10,360 8,303 7,345 88.44% 4,530 3,639 8,323,828 76.86% 67.98%
Minnesota 2,334 1,984 1,854 93.46% 1,132 925 4,356,171 77.67% 72.60%
Mississippi 2,084 1,619 1,527 94.27% 1,090 891 2,365,526 77.67% 73.22%
Missouri 2,529 2,077 1,933 93.09% 1,112 889 4,926,491 75.54% 70.32%
Montana 2,513 2,148 2,026 94.20% 1,119 909 814,381 75.98% 71.57%
Nebraska 2,274 1,940 1,830 94.35% 1,125 911 1,457,382 78.61% 74.16%
Nevada 2,605 2,063 1,941 94.25% 1,149 930 2,144,323 72.30% 68.14%
New Hampshire 2,786 2,255 2,004 88.82% 1,190 944 1,125,160 74.46% 66.14%
New Jersey 2,317 1,990 1,766 88.80% 1,172 906 7,241,791 72.36% 64.25%
New Mexico 2,548 2,032 1,916 94.26% 1,115 918 1,628,498 77.27% 72.83%
New York 13,014 10,782 8,289 76.73% 5,021 3,707 16,380,098 70.67% 54.23%
North Carolina 2,517 2,090 1,919 91.91% 1,112 929 7,612,327 79.41% 72.98%
North Dakota 2,919 2,427 2,290 94.35% 1,149 929 534,362 76.67% 72.33%
Ohio 9,800 8,405 7,847 93.27% 4,392 3,585 9,581,963 74.92% 69.88%
Oklahoma 2,648 2,142 1,964 91.82% 1,124 908 2,970,916 74.49% 68.40%
Oregon 2,802 2,379 2,184 91.95% 1,170 947 3,199,775 79.93% 73.49%
Pennsylvania 9,705 8,367 6,610 79.12% 3,795 2,915 10,583,566 72.92% 57.69%
Rhode Island 2,779 2,343 2,061 87.87% 1,155 913 889,360 76.51% 67.23%
South Carolina 3,097 2,362 2,145 90.20% 1,153 954 3,730,181 76.22% 68.75%
South Dakota 2,417 2,030 1,942 95.66% 1,088 920 659,093 81.15% 77.63%
Tennessee 3,023 2,465 2,298 93.13% 1,172 949 5,196,019 73.45% 68.40%
Texas 8,652 7,178 6,591 91.91% 4,388 3,596 19,519,442 77.65% 71.37%
Utah 1,539 1,376 1,306 94.90% 1,101 918 2,144,172 80.38% 76.28%
Vermont 2,779 2,062 1,908 92.57% 1,056 897 535,921 79.32% 73.43%
Virginia 2,499 2,171 1,924 88.59% 1,125 918 6,410,227 77.07% 68.28%
Washington 2,359 2,098 1,913 91.14% 1,158 936 5,509,332 77.01% 70.19%
West Virginia 3,116 2,520 2,288 90.81% 1,118 890 1,539,997 73.90% 67.11%
Wisconsin 2,732 2,341 2,180 93.19% 1,163 943 4,708,003 76.66% 71.44%
Wyoming 2,400 2,021 1,905 94.26% 1,138 923 444,942 78.67% 74.16%
Table A.4 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2009
State 12-17
Total
Selected
12-17
Total
Responded
12-17
Population
Estimate
12-17
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
18-25
Total
Selected
18-25
Total
Responded
18-25
Population
Estimate
18-25
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
26+
Total
Selected
26+
Total
Responded
26+
Population
Estimate
26+
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
NOTE: The 2009 numbers may differ from the previously published numbers due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report).
NOTE: Computations in this table are based on a respondent's age at screening. Thus, the data in the Total Responded column(s) could differ from data in other NSDUH tables that use the respondent's age recorded during the interview.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 26,157 22,416 24,608,987 85.60% 28,158 22,930 33,579,988 81.48% 30,470 22,661 193,626,558 73.23%
Northeast 5,185 4,362 4,305,676 83.00% 5,638 4,401 6,120,620 77.62% 6,084 4,367 35,959,317 70.73%
Midwest 7,451 6,398 5,410,447 85.51% 7,803 6,325 7,337,646 80.48% 8,573 6,410 42,419,090 73.94%
South 7,811 6,767 9,008,998 87.12% 8,567 7,210 12,022,931 84.47% 9,134 6,948 71,016,933 74.89%
West 5,710 4,889 5,883,867 85.24% 6,150 4,994 8,098,792 80.90% 6,679 4,936 44,231,217 71.90%
Alabama 390 326 377,817 84.54% 345 281 510,045 81.35% 439 337 2,988,173 77.25%
Alaska 348 302 60,144 87.18% 363 298 78,273 84.24% 399 302 415,589 77.37%
Arizona 343 300 538,805 87.04% 400 326 696,689 81.36% 367 290 4,075,324 78.18%
Arkansas 348 306 231,302 89.27% 376 302 298,338 82.71% 409 306 1,828,723 74.91%
California 1,379 1,169 3,117,227 84.22% 1,567 1,240 4,383,689 79.48% 1,788 1,251 22,578,845 68.69%
Colorado 404 365 383,909 88.69% 417 336 533,064 82.80% 374 283 3,179,105 74.49%
Connecticut 367 308 286,054 84.72% 381 312 368,953 82.06% 399 295 2,282,118 74.52%
Delaware 358 310 68,377 86.67% 419 350 94,723 83.22% 352 260 568,669 70.42%
District of Columbia 288 250 35,126 86.53% 402 344 88,250 85.28% 352 292 386,914 83.03%
Florida 1,312 1,126 1,343,518 84.99% 1,538 1,328 1,829,604 85.43% 1,557 1,194 12,311,710 74.51%
Georgia 344 306 821,827 89.76% 342 295 1,025,485 84.40% 396 306 5,999,543 75.62%
Hawaii 391 311 92,363 77.48% 397 285 131,979 70.91% 533 364 827,890 65.27%
Idaho 331 284 133,111 86.64% 351 305 165,070 87.02% 437 327 937,376 74.28%
Illinois 1,406 1,177 1,056,872 83.68% 1,555 1,187 1,467,611 75.72% 1,825 1,291 8,067,752 69.43%
Indiana 332 285 527,261 87.20% 356 287 683,131 80.52% 431 332 4,051,000 78.03%
Iowa 339 302 237,996 90.33% 376 308 340,764 82.02% 384 314 1,907,716 80.77%
Kansas 347 303 227,693 87.71% 415 322 323,487 76.46% 370 284 1,728,609 74.44%
Kentucky 307 267 335,609 88.29% 396 328 431,390 82.52% 415 317 2,783,068 74.53%
Louisiana 338 284 369,414 83.73% 366 308 528,427 83.76% 439 331 2,742,211 77.34%
Maine 379 337 98,248 88.85% 394 334 125,394 84.97% 359 293 905,299 81.60%
Maryland 315 277 456,071 87.92% 334 280 618,887 85.95% 353 279 3,631,008 77.34%
Massachusetts 351 288 496,369 82.35% 428 349 771,025 81.73% 460 332 4,296,258 71.38%
Michigan 1,463 1,243 829,913 84.40% 1,470 1,200 1,090,449 81.26% 1,597 1,196 6,403,467 75.07%
Minnesota 355 307 417,528 85.64% 396 320 575,857 80.13% 381 298 3,362,786 76.19%
Mississippi 300 255 250,210 85.65% 372 318 332,057 86.26% 418 318 1,783,258 75.16%
Missouri 374 306 480,290 81.76% 352 294 630,416 82.92% 386 289 3,815,785 73.41%
Montana 350 295 75,210 85.30% 403 334 105,702 82.72% 366 280 633,469 73.66%
Nebraska 338 290 143,848 87.86% 375 304 209,977 80.99% 412 317 1,103,557 76.98%
Nevada 363 312 214,441 85.95% 391 334 250,525 86.82% 395 284 1,679,357 68.38%
New Hampshire 387 327 105,079 84.57% 356 286 134,825 81.03% 447 331 885,256 72.36%
New Jersey 345 290 697,510 82.70% 408 317 881,986 77.63% 419 299 5,662,295 70.27%
New Mexico 346 305 161,883 89.05% 368 310 230,548 86.27% 401 303 1,236,068 74.09%
New York 1,460 1,203 1,521,667 81.80% 1,718 1,249 2,285,210 73.89% 1,843 1,255 12,573,221 68.68%
North Carolina 309 273 727,521 88.60% 416 358 958,312 87.15% 387 298 5,926,494 77.09%
North Dakota 370 325 48,044 88.03% 356 286 89,285 81.04% 423 318 397,033 74.33%
Ohio 1,393 1,211 931,091 86.54% 1,425 1,206 1,217,923 84.04% 1,574 1,168 7,432,949 71.92%
Oklahoma 365 309 292,731 85.44% 349 287 412,462 82.00% 410 312 2,265,722 71.56%
Oregon 419 336 290,722 80.11% 316 264 390,321 84.79% 435 347 2,518,733 79.14%
Pennsylvania 1,195 988 973,827 83.33% 1,222 959 1,356,120 79.03% 1,378 968 8,253,618 70.58%
Rhode Island 382 333 80,228 87.98% 366 275 128,448 75.86% 407 305 680,684 75.29%
South Carolina 406 351 354,659 85.95% 371 321 474,729 84.77% 376 282 2,900,794 73.28%
South Dakota 322 292 64,477 90.52% 385 329 91,186 85.79% 381 299 503,430 79.03%
Tennessee 394 351 492,599 89.05% 348 289 627,894 84.29% 430 309 4,075,526 69.38%
Texas 1,342 1,182 2,118,403 88.34% 1,439 1,196 2,768,449 83.76% 1,607 1,218 14,632,591 74.99%
Utah 357 318 253,766 89.75% 362 300 377,293 81.68% 382 300 1,513,113 78.55%
Vermont 319 288 46,695 90.40% 365 320 68,659 87.37% 372 289 420,568 76.79%
Virginia 348 297 602,602 84.65% 385 330 846,780 86.18% 392 291 4,960,846 74.49%
Washington 357 311 520,243 87.01% 397 326 694,724 81.30% 404 299 4,294,365 75.18%
West Virginia 347 297 131,213 86.38% 369 295 177,100 78.81% 402 298 1,231,684 71.85%
Wisconsin 412 357 445,433 86.36% 342 282 617,562 81.33% 409 304 3,645,007 74.69%
Wyoming 322 281 42,044 84.77% 418 336 60,915 80.40% 398 306 341,983 77.62%
Table A.5 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2010
State Total
Selected DUs
Total
Eligible
DUs
Total
Completed
Screeners
Weighted DU
Screening
Response Rate
Total
Selected
Total
Responded
Population
Estimate
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Weighted
Overall
Response
Rate
DU = dwelling unit.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 201,865 166,532 147,010 88.42% 84,997 67,804 253,619,107 74.57% 65.94%
Northeast 43,420 36,033 29,645 81.63% 16,782 13,017 46,535,320 72.81% 59.44%
Midwest 54,767 45,892 41,118 89.86% 24,139 19,301 55,345,459 74.81% 67.22%
South 63,813 51,533 46,241 90.54% 25,597 20,769 92,961,895 76.24% 69.03%
West 39,865 33,074 30,006 89.17% 18,479 14,717 58,776,433 73.17% 65.24%
Alabama 2,879 2,284 2,099 91.94% 1,121 878 3,893,688 71.86% 66.07%
Alaska 2,226 1,719 1,583 92.02% 1,057 868 555,964 77.75% 71.55%
Arizona 2,655 2,059 1,861 90.14% 1,149 925 5,386,782 72.97% 65.77%
Arkansas 2,595 2,108 1,948 92.51% 1,123 899 2,375,992 75.16% 69.53%
California 9,282 8,087 6,910 85.48% 4,739 3,715 30,322,142 71.96% 61.52%
Colorado 2,529 2,084 1,912 92.20% 1,117 904 4,151,930 79.29% 73.11%
Connecticut 2,474 2,158 1,812 83.73% 1,151 926 2,951,217 75.17% 62.94%
Delaware 2,621 2,118 1,857 87.67% 1,099 889 737,571 77.52% 67.96%
District of Columbia 5,113 4,192 3,403 79.88% 1,110 935 517,942 81.34% 64.97%
Florida 13,206 9,961 8,891 89.01% 4,460 3,655 15,611,774 77.37% 68.87%
Georgia 2,385 1,978 1,804 91.21% 1,131 910 7,940,651 75.51% 68.88%
Hawaii 2,861 2,443 2,098 85.56% 1,296 974 1,047,745 66.88% 57.22%
Idaho 2,624 2,046 1,932 94.43% 1,113 912 1,250,238 78.24% 73.88%
Illinois 10,614 9,121 7,392 80.95% 4,762 3,609 10,629,517 70.77% 57.29%
Indiana 2,743 2,281 2,104 91.97% 1,142 916 5,286,018 73.88% 67.95%
Iowa 2,574 2,187 2,069 94.61% 1,113 925 2,502,115 78.90% 74.65%
Kansas 2,340 1,988 1,824 91.75% 1,101 885 2,296,286 74.78% 68.61%
Kentucky 2,583 2,147 1,991 92.73% 1,109 900 3,574,784 76.88% 71.29%
Louisiana 2,605 2,092 1,955 93.42% 1,112 906 3,661,821 77.97% 72.84%
Maine 3,327 2,404 2,197 90.98% 1,100 924 1,127,285 80.65% 73.37%
Maryland 2,415 2,061 1,692 82.13% 1,096 883 4,737,806 77.66% 63.78%
Massachusetts 3,116 2,716 2,365 87.32% 1,149 930 5,605,641 78.23% 68.31%
Michigan 10,828 8,669 7,623 87.81% 4,561 3,690 8,313,433 75.65% 66.43%
Minnesota 2,532 2,087 1,949 93.42% 1,149 946 4,382,130 78.32% 73.17%
Mississippi 2,485 1,976 1,839 93.07% 1,087 893 2,373,593 76.50% 71.20%
Missouri 2,642 2,170 2,031 93.58% 1,142 921 4,952,896 75.89% 71.01%
Montana 2,713 2,255 2,128 94.34% 1,137 919 820,115 76.91% 72.56%
Nebraska 2,336 1,996 1,883 94.30% 1,120 906 1,469,129 73.19% 69.02%
Nevada 2,674 2,063 1,935 94.68% 1,183 958 2,155,405 71.81% 67.99%
New Hampshire 3,232 2,558 2,219 86.80% 1,160 918 1,128,997 74.48% 64.65%
New Jersey 2,382 2,061 1,831 88.85% 1,157 923 7,269,834 78.46% 69.72%
New Mexico 2,610 2,078 1,959 94.26% 1,117 912 1,641,892 77.09% 72.66%
New York 13,218 11,170 8,452 75.25% 5,061 3,626 16,410,083 66.82% 50.28%
North Carolina 2,674 2,303 2,118 92.18% 1,103 904 7,679,126 76.53% 70.54%
North Dakota 3,053 2,567 2,420 94.30% 1,188 954 540,202 76.32% 71.97%
Ohio 10,268 8,717 7,947 91.17% 4,633 3,731 9,580,362 74.81% 68.20%
Oklahoma 2,626 2,122 1,903 89.71% 1,173 923 2,995,565 73.17% 65.64%
Oregon 2,603 2,293 2,146 93.61% 1,134 907 3,229,211 74.87% 70.09%
Pennsylvania 10,193 8,715 6,952 79.79% 3,853 2,985 10,607,311 73.24% 58.44%
Rhode Island 2,574 2,094 1,866 89.19% 1,117 915 896,384 74.52% 66.46%
South Carolina 2,616 2,152 1,927 89.56% 1,138 927 3,760,624 75.68% 67.78%
South Dakota 2,399 2,048 1,945 95.06% 1,115 929 666,589 80.45% 76.47%
Tennessee 2,588 2,149 1,968 91.41% 1,117 901 5,238,574 73.38% 67.08%
Texas 8,885 7,290 6,697 91.78% 4,431 3,590 19,847,501 76.61% 70.31%
Utah 1,507 1,324 1,252 94.58% 1,105 919 2,180,889 79.81% 75.48%
Vermont 2,904 2,157 1,951 90.39% 1,034 870 538,568 82.45% 74.53%
Virginia 2,609 2,284 2,037 89.17% 1,096 888 6,471,190 76.48% 68.20%
Washington 2,636 2,288 2,103 91.87% 1,194 897 5,585,609 70.16% 64.45%
West Virginia 2,928 2,316 2,112 91.30% 1,091 888 1,543,694 78.37% 71.55%
Wisconsin 2,438 2,061 1,931 93.62% 1,113 889 4,726,785 76.78% 71.88%
Wyoming 2,945 2,335 2,187 93.74% 1,138 907 448,513 73.07% 68.50%
Table A.6 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2010
State 12-17
Total
Selected
12-17
Total
Responded
12-17
Population
Estimate
12-17
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
18-25
Total
Selected
18-25
Total
Responded
18-25
Population
Estimate
18-25
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
26+
Total
Selected
26+
Total
Responded
26+
Population
Estimate
26+
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
NOTE: Computations in this table are based on a respondent's age at screening. Thus, the data in the Total Responded column(s) could differ from data in other NSDUH tables that use the respondent's age recorded during the interview.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 25,908 21,992 24,346,528 84.65% 28,164 23,026 34,072,349 81.20% 30,925 22,786 195,200,229 72.14%
Northeast 4,966 4,105 4,234,758 81.31% 5,612 4,412 6,045,018 77.44% 6,204 4,500 36,255,544 71.05%
Midwest 7,357 6,264 5,334,556 85.18% 8,035 6,589 7,496,530 81.44% 8,747 6,448 42,514,373 72.34%
South 8,029 6,858 8,956,559 85.57% 8,407 7,027 12,418,811 83.30% 9,161 6,884 71,586,525 73.79%
West 5,556 4,765 5,820,656 85.19% 6,110 4,998 8,111,990 80.57% 6,813 4,954 44,843,787 70.31%
Alabama 369 307 374,067 82.98% 345 286 520,974 81.37% 407 285 2,998,646 68.80%
Alaska 312 266 57,362 85.56% 362 310 85,086 85.36% 383 292 413,516 75.09%
Arizona 333 292 538,540 87.31% 428 351 701,269 79.13% 388 282 4,146,973 70.30%
Arkansas 334 284 232,460 84.94% 362 296 305,518 82.20% 427 319 1,838,015 72.68%
California 1,526 1,303 3,086,730 84.79% 1,416 1,151 4,268,110 80.94% 1,797 1,261 22,967,302 68.62%
Colorado 273 231 379,157 82.92% 424 345 566,389 81.41% 420 328 3,206,384 78.51%
Connecticut 331 288 281,757 88.09% 400 326 381,359 81.42% 420 312 2,288,101 72.46%
Delaware 319 268 67,234 83.34% 340 288 93,677 85.05% 440 333 576,660 75.64%
District of Columbia 356 324 34,240 91.90% 384 320 84,993 82.39% 370 291 398,709 80.13%
Florida 1,424 1,215 1,329,956 85.86% 1,419 1,212 1,870,501 85.10% 1,617 1,228 12,411,317 75.23%
Georgia 371 313 818,462 84.43% 355 301 1,076,087 84.73% 405 296 6,046,102 72.53%
Hawaii 400 338 89,846 83.34% 439 335 130,340 78.06% 457 301 827,559 63.29%
Idaho 353 294 130,819 83.21% 356 305 177,534 85.11% 404 313 941,886 76.19%
Illinois 1,357 1,122 1,049,679 82.64% 1,615 1,232 1,453,014 76.32% 1,790 1,255 8,126,824 68.31%
Indiana 389 341 523,789 88.17% 343 280 719,041 81.57% 410 295 4,043,187 70.81%
Iowa 336 287 234,049 85.14% 385 321 359,379 81.94% 392 317 1,908,687 77.57%
Kansas 331 296 225,398 89.33% 357 285 338,453 81.23% 413 304 1,732,436 71.72%
Kentucky 352 299 333,232 85.21% 370 304 461,899 82.16% 387 297 2,779,654 75.08%
Louisiana 382 328 365,624 86.45% 345 285 526,082 82.60% 385 293 2,770,114 75.99%
Maine 325 284 94,501 87.86% 356 302 130,971 85.20% 419 338 901,813 79.28%
Maryland 315 268 448,006 86.14% 367 300 613,529 79.93% 414 315 3,676,271 76.21%
Massachusetts 360 296 491,663 80.42% 392 324 761,003 81.71% 397 310 4,352,974 77.40%
Michigan 1,432 1,212 814,296 84.10% 1,453 1,220 1,105,211 84.44% 1,676 1,258 6,393,926 73.01%
Minnesota 337 296 409,292 87.51% 410 340 590,704 82.82% 402 310 3,382,134 76.41%
Mississippi 333 290 247,423 87.78% 368 316 340,138 85.71% 386 287 1,786,033 73.21%
Missouri 341 288 472,583 85.51% 386 320 656,859 82.72% 415 313 3,823,454 73.55%
Montana 348 302 72,261 86.91% 343 280 114,819 81.70% 446 337 633,035 75.07%
Nebraska 335 300 141,249 88.32% 372 306 218,880 82.98% 413 300 1,108,999 69.37%
Nevada 298 264 210,434 90.50% 405 339 263,872 83.13% 480 355 1,681,099 67.89%
New Hampshire 300 250 101,483 84.76% 467 387 145,527 82.81% 393 281 881,988 71.74%
New Jersey 387 324 692,595 83.33% 334 264 865,591 81.47% 436 335 5,711,649 77.39%
New Mexico 364 327 161,227 89.38% 370 303 226,963 83.54% 383 282 1,253,702 74.21%
New York 1,457 1,141 1,498,050 77.55% 1,709 1,234 2,188,721 71.54% 1,895 1,251 12,723,312 64.80%
North Carolina 346 311 719,819 89.83% 375 304 1,014,496 82.27% 382 289 5,944,811 73.67%
North Dakota 357 300 46,378 83.63% 393 340 96,560 86.92% 438 314 397,264 72.96%
Ohio 1,395 1,191 918,549 85.27% 1,634 1,371 1,210,150 83.56% 1,604 1,169 7,451,663 72.00%
Oklahoma 394 337 291,436 84.66% 355 278 425,691 76.96% 424 308 2,278,438 71.09%
Oregon 376 318 285,470 83.17% 361 296 412,163 82.85% 397 293 2,531,579 72.45%
Pennsylvania 1,165 955 951,061 82.17% 1,203 946 1,365,550 78.58% 1,485 1,084 8,290,700 71.31%
Rhode Island 322 292 79,082 90.34% 418 350 129,842 83.67% 377 273 687,461 70.69%
South Carolina 351 292 349,533 83.84% 376 325 487,235 85.47% 411 310 2,923,856 73.12%
South Dakota 365 309 62,886 85.00% 338 296 96,018 88.02% 412 324 507,684 78.44%
Tennessee 370 319 489,539 86.92% 364 302 664,620 83.99% 383 280 4,084,416 69.67%
Texas 1,329 1,125 2,131,714 84.76% 1,532 1,288 2,858,101 83.62% 1,570 1,177 14,857,686 74.07%
Utah 283 250 255,595 88.81% 420 357 381,486 85.32% 402 312 1,543,809 77.17%
Vermont 319 275 44,568 87.55% 333 279 76,455 82.92% 382 316 417,546 81.80%
Virginia 349 295 594,024 85.00% 360 301 884,909 83.26% 387 292 4,992,257 74.20%
Washington 365 301 512,686 83.53% 377 280 719,040 71.68% 452 316 4,353,883 68.27%
West Virginia 335 283 129,792 83.49% 390 321 190,362 81.95% 366 284 1,223,540 77.18%
Wisconsin 382 322 436,408 84.04% 349 278 652,261 78.40% 382 289 3,638,115 75.54%
Wyoming 325 279 40,531 85.48% 409 346 64,920 83.34% 404 282 343,061 69.61%
Table A.7 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2008 and 2009
State Total
Selected DUs
Total
Eligible
DUs
Total
Completed
Screeners
Weighted DU
Screening
Response Rate
Total
Selected
Total
Responded
Population
Estimate
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Weighted
Overall
Response
Rate
DU = dwelling unit.
NOTE: The 2008-2009 numbers may differ from the previously published numbers due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report).
NOTE: To compute the pooled 2008-2009 weighted response rates, two samples were combined, and the individual year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the 2008 and 2009 individual response rates. The 2008-2009 population estimate is the average of the 2008 and the 2009 population.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008 and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 389,947 321,491 285,092 88.51% 170,496 135,935 250,815,311 74.90% 66.29%
Northeast 83,285 69,138 57,522 82.32% 33,613 26,053 46,242,070 72.30% 59.51%
Midwest 105,917 89,260 80,337 90.24% 48,210 38,447 55,062,184 75.45% 68.09%
South 120,457 96,943 87,807 91.17% 51,059 41,665 91,505,911 76.87% 70.08%
West 80,288 66,150 59,426 87.61% 37,614 29,770 58,005,146 73.38% 64.29%
Alabama 5,777 4,615 4,268 92.54% 2,347 1,873 3,859,705 75.28% 69.66%
Alaska 4,931 3,531 3,228 91.41% 2,257 1,810 547,587 77.90% 71.21%
Arizona 5,622 4,121 3,598 85.29% 2,241 1,824 5,275,070 78.21% 66.71%
Arkansas 5,273 4,234 3,965 93.56% 2,255 1,847 2,345,520 77.28% 72.30%
California 18,062 15,840 13,342 84.22% 9,770 7,490 30,046,187 70.76% 59.59%
Colorado 5,690 4,638 4,237 91.46% 2,390 1,933 4,065,853 76.73% 70.18%
Connecticut 5,075 4,487 3,963 88.18% 2,309 1,853 2,928,377 75.74% 66.79%
Delaware 5,142 4,258 3,720 87.47% 2,295 1,863 726,731 75.98% 66.46%
District of Columbia 8,392 6,818 5,571 81.33% 2,120 1,786 507,941 81.22% 66.05%
Florida 22,446 17,207 15,744 91.37% 8,795 7,238 15,414,360 76.63% 70.02%
Georgia 4,905 3,890 3,552 91.19% 2,171 1,784 7,800,190 76.11% 69.41%
Hawaii 6,256 5,091 4,192 80.76% 2,598 1,857 1,052,476 66.03% 53.33%
Idaho 4,645 3,708 3,513 94.74% 2,266 1,858 1,227,667 77.66% 73.58%
Illinois 20,650 17,994 14,447 80.27% 9,831 7,398 10,595,404 70.19% 56.34%
Indiana 5,033 4,173 3,902 93.43% 2,266 1,818 5,243,659 78.52% 73.36%
Iowa 5,037 4,357 4,053 93.06% 2,251 1,869 2,485,386 81.30% 75.66%
Kansas 4,527 3,917 3,652 93.24% 2,232 1,793 2,274,693 76.49% 71.32%
Kentucky 5,055 4,109 3,868 94.14% 2,215 1,796 3,537,314 75.04% 70.64%
Louisiana 5,029 3,945 3,710 94.10% 2,225 1,804 3,610,872 78.84% 74.19%
Maine 6,421 4,713 4,346 92.25% 2,234 1,879 1,127,608 79.87% 73.68%
Maryland 4,757 4,122 3,314 80.14% 2,089 1,680 4,683,163 76.30% 61.15%
Massachusetts 5,839 4,972 4,293 86.38% 2,351 1,866 5,520,135 75.20% 64.96%
Michigan 20,606 16,525 14,644 88.62% 9,117 7,314 8,332,483 76.02% 67.37%
Minnesota 4,572 3,902 3,659 93.78% 2,205 1,806 4,339,670 78.27% 73.40%
Mississippi 4,193 3,296 3,114 94.49% 2,164 1,774 2,362,086 77.84% 73.55%
Missouri 5,142 4,263 3,978 93.34% 2,243 1,803 4,895,621 75.91% 70.86%
Montana 5,382 4,488 4,237 94.35% 2,258 1,828 811,291 76.50% 72.17%
Nebraska 4,590 3,855 3,635 94.30% 2,230 1,799 1,454,336 77.73% 73.30%
Nevada 5,383 4,319 4,062 94.22% 2,273 1,817 2,129,715 73.16% 68.94%
New Hampshire 5,371 4,261 3,765 88.32% 2,303 1,848 1,120,302 76.83% 67.86%
New Jersey 5,074 4,326 3,820 88.43% 2,419 1,880 7,233,440 72.73% 64.32%
New Mexico 5,139 3,978 3,751 94.28% 2,188 1,794 1,622,253 78.31% 73.83%
New York 24,729 20,667 15,982 77.31% 9,949 7,277 16,372,612 68.77% 53.17%
North Carolina 4,950 4,129 3,793 91.98% 2,196 1,819 7,554,378 78.81% 72.50%
North Dakota 5,737 4,720 4,448 94.27% 2,291 1,861 532,376 77.76% 73.31%
Ohio 20,173 17,213 16,086 93.40% 9,033 7,277 9,554,184 74.43% 69.52%
Oklahoma 4,840 3,917 3,566 91.14% 2,241 1,805 2,956,314 76.81% 70.01%
Oregon 5,558 4,732 4,354 92.13% 2,412 1,958 3,186,635 75.86% 69.89%
Pennsylvania 19,738 16,966 13,440 79.21% 7,606 5,845 10,515,939 72.82% 57.68%
Rhode Island 5,432 4,540 4,027 88.68% 2,235 1,794 888,190 77.08% 68.35%
South Carolina 5,903 4,529 4,122 90.62% 2,266 1,892 3,698,620 79.29% 71.85%
South Dakota 4,714 3,937 3,763 95.61% 2,231 1,883 656,513 79.72% 76.22%
Tennessee 5,441 4,443 4,120 92.65% 2,353 1,886 5,166,409 74.40% 68.93%
Texas 16,774 13,860 12,806 92.46% 8,755 7,152 19,374,406 77.24% 71.41%
Utah 3,269 2,897 2,746 94.82% 2,256 1,879 2,128,752 79.32% 75.21%
Vermont 5,606 4,206 3,886 92.42% 2,207 1,811 535,469 77.24% 71.38%
Virginia 5,091 4,313 3,802 88.10% 2,277 1,844 6,369,490 76.49% 67.39%
Washington 5,117 4,495 4,126 91.79% 2,355 1,856 5,470,298 75.24% 69.06%
West Virginia 6,489 5,258 4,772 90.66% 2,295 1,822 1,538,413 75.03% 68.03%
Wisconsin 5,136 4,404 4,070 92.35% 2,280 1,826 4,697,857 76.78% 70.91%
Wyoming 5,234 4,312 4,040 93.73% 2,350 1,866 441,363 75.50% 70.77%
Table A.8 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2008 and 2009
State 12-17
Total
Selected
12-17
Total
Responded
12-17
Population
Estimate
12-17
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
18-25
Total
Selected
18-25
Total
Responded
18-25
Population
Estimate
18-25
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
26+
Total
Selected
26+
Total
Responded
26+
Population
Estimate
26+
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
NOTE: The 2008-2009 numbers may differ from the previously published numbers due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report).
NOTE: Computations in this table are based on a respondent's age at screening. Thus, the data in the Total Responded column(s) could differ from data in other NSDUH tables that use the respondent's age recorded during the interview.
NOTE: To compute the pooled 2008-2009 weighted response rates, two samples were combined, and the individual year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the 2008 and 2009 individual response rates. The 2008-2009 population estimate is the average of the 2008 and the 2009 population.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008 and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 52,385 44,677 24,750,657 85.05% 56,951 46,070 33,259,086 80.94% 61,160 45,188 192,805,569 72.52%
Northeast 10,194 8,546 4,340,126 82.60% 11,246 8,790 6,053,636 77.48% 12,173 8,717 35,848,309 70.16%
Midwest 14,890 12,703 5,459,564 85.03% 16,020 12,916 7,306,733 80.03% 17,300 12,828 42,295,888 73.40%
South 15,701 13,568 9,029,633 86.59% 17,190 14,323 11,893,918 83.74% 18,168 13,774 70,582,359 74.42%
West 11,600 9,860 5,921,334 84.50% 12,495 10,041 8,004,799 80.23% 13,519 9,869 44,079,013 70.62%
Alabama 730 618 379,377 85.40% 755 622 505,718 82.51% 862 633 2,974,610 72.76%
Alaska 718 602 60,678 83.59% 737 599 77,131 83.11% 802 609 409,778 76.06%
Arizona 695 607 538,865 87.17% 784 637 686,141 80.67% 762 580 4,050,064 76.55%
Arkansas 702 630 231,516 90.22% 774 630 295,741 83.49% 779 587 1,818,264 74.55%
California 2,850 2,392 3,147,890 83.21% 3,315 2,612 4,329,856 79.39% 3,605 2,486 22,568,441 67.38%
Colorado 802 706 384,709 87.27% 778 615 527,605 80.34% 810 612 3,153,539 74.52%
Connecticut 673 578 287,870 87.35% 824 671 363,648 80.97% 812 604 2,276,860 73.61%
Delaware 709 600 68,911 84.77% 856 704 93,807 82.39% 730 559 564,013 73.67%
District of Columbia 588 523 35,726 89.49% 800 680 86,607 84.80% 732 583 385,608 79.62%
Florida 2,695 2,323 1,348,640 85.95% 2,937 2,504 1,804,515 84.62% 3,163 2,411 12,261,205 74.40%
Georgia 708 619 822,696 87.79% 677 577 1,013,813 84.51% 786 588 5,963,681 72.94%
Hawaii 751 587 93,198 77.51% 828 602 131,005 71.50% 1,019 668 828,273 63.93%
Idaho 687 598 132,962 87.60% 711 606 164,370 84.94% 868 654 930,335 75.20%
Illinois 2,921 2,412 1,065,750 82.73% 3,244 2,459 1,461,607 75.30% 3,666 2,527 8,068,047 67.62%
Indiana 721 609 529,845 85.72% 726 576 679,069 79.73% 819 633 4,034,745 77.35%
Iowa 690 602 240,105 87.93% 748 612 339,894 82.15% 813 655 1,905,387 80.37%
Kansas 651 562 229,136 86.11% 810 639 321,796 79.19% 771 592 1,723,761 74.70%
Kentucky 668 581 336,896 86.79% 755 627 428,585 81.76% 792 588 2,771,834 72.59%
Louisiana 666 560 370,950 83.57% 727 609 523,818 84.20% 832 635 2,716,104 77.11%
Maine 700 623 99,629 88.75% 766 648 125,205 84.36% 768 608 902,774 78.26%
Maryland 658 564 459,954 86.09% 692 564 611,079 83.48% 739 552 3,612,130 73.52%
Massachusetts 703 589 498,720 83.77% 793 643 758,227 81.36% 855 634 4,263,188 73.17%
Michigan 2,844 2,435 842,712 85.26% 3,061 2,499 1,086,902 81.38% 3,212 2,380 6,402,870 73.83%
Minnesota 698 608 421,196 86.79% 756 610 574,322 80.44% 751 588 3,344,152 76.76%
Mississippi 630 544 252,527 86.81% 725 614 331,040 84.88% 809 616 1,778,519 75.48%
Missouri 732 621 482,442 83.69% 712 578 626,322 79.87% 799 604 3,786,858 74.14%
Montana 733 613 76,196 84.40% 774 646 105,444 83.64% 751 569 629,651 74.29%
Nebraska 684 589 144,863 86.92% 733 595 208,854 80.23% 813 615 1,100,620 76.03%
Nevada 730 632 214,026 86.83% 773 636 246,764 83.45% 770 549 1,668,924 69.86%
New Hampshire 723 612 106,508 84.78% 717 583 133,724 81.75% 863 653 880,070 75.24%
New Jersey 735 606 702,953 81.36% 896 711 871,610 78.88% 788 563 5,658,877 70.63%
New Mexico 662 586 163,513 88.33% 714 585 227,941 82.94% 812 623 1,230,799 76.20%
New York 2,878 2,358 1,535,172 80.98% 3,393 2,462 2,262,614 73.21% 3,678 2,457 12,574,826 66.44%
North Carolina 684 603 727,969 88.27% 728 614 947,518 85.18% 784 602 5,878,891 76.53%
North Dakota 716 621 48,559 86.50% 748 610 88,745 81.90% 827 630 395,073 75.77%
Ohio 2,891 2,473 939,669 85.33% 2,905 2,420 1,213,022 83.30% 3,237 2,384 7,401,492 71.55%
Oklahoma 689 585 293,240 85.06% 746 598 409,494 80.65% 806 622 2,253,581 75.03%
Oregon 788 648 292,301 82.08% 784 671 386,957 85.47% 840 639 2,507,377 73.53%
Pennsylvania 2,394 1,972 980,441 82.54% 2,404 1,890 1,342,616 78.96% 2,808 1,983 8,192,882 70.63%
Rhode Island 701 616 81,128 88.42% 720 564 127,468 78.97% 814 614 679,594 75.29%
South Carolina 756 653 356,186 86.08% 746 635 469,765 84.78% 764 604 2,872,669 77.49%
South Dakota 647 581 64,983 89.29% 784 680 90,798 86.51% 800 622 500,732 77.36%
Tennessee 710 614 494,043 86.40% 781 646 622,376 82.60% 862 626 4,049,989 71.52%
Texas 2,660 2,317 2,113,980 87.19% 2,914 2,428 2,737,418 83.77% 3,181 2,407 14,523,007 74.54%
Utah 735 655 252,460 88.21% 699 571 376,060 81.12% 822 653 1,500,232 77.51%
Vermont 687 592 47,705 85.92% 733 618 68,523 84.23% 787 601 419,240 75.14%
Virginia 708 604 604,833 85.01% 805 662 835,958 83.27% 764 578 4,928,699 74.24%
Washington 753 640 522,369 85.55% 780 616 685,351 79.28% 822 600 4,262,578 73.34%
West Virginia 740 630 132,189 85.99% 772 609 176,668 78.37% 783 583 1,229,556 73.30%
Wisconsin 695 590 450,304 84.98% 793 638 615,402 80.41% 792 598 3,632,151 75.11%
Wyoming 696 594 42,168 84.39% 818 645 60,175 78.67% 836 627 339,021 73.82%
Table A.9 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Screening and Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State, for Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2009 and 2010
State Total
Selected DUs
Total
Eligible
DUs
Total
Completed
Screeners
Weighted DU
Screening
Response Rate
Total
Selected
Total
Responded
Population
Estimate
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
Weighted
Overall
Response
Rate
DU = dwelling unit.
NOTE: To compute the pooled 2009-2010 weighted response rates, two samples were combined, and the individual year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the 2009 and 2010 individual response rates. The 2009-2010 population estimate is the average of the 2009 and the 2010 population.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 396,997 327,909 289,943 88.41% 169,782 135,811 252,717,320 75.06% 66.36%
Northeast 85,617 71,045 58,623 81.77% 33,689 26,147 46,460,466 72.81% 59.54%
Midwest 107,890 90,662 81,478 90.10% 47,966 38,434 55,256,321 75.39% 67.92%
South 124,711 100,677 90,824 90.92% 51,109 41,694 92,505,378 76.80% 69.83%
West 78,779 65,525 59,018 88.16% 37,018 29,536 58,495,154 73.83% 65.08%
Alabama 5,710 4,570 4,227 92.46% 2,295 1,822 3,884,861 75.20% 69.53%
Alaska 4,529 3,487 3,214 92.05% 2,167 1,770 554,985 78.55% 72.31%
Arizona 5,378 4,109 3,639 86.23% 2,259 1,841 5,348,799 76.07% 65.60%
Arkansas 5,169 4,212 3,913 92.90% 2,256 1,813 2,367,178 76.23% 70.82%
California 18,216 15,848 13,409 84.68% 9,473 7,375 30,200,952 71.90% 60.88%
Colorado 5,256 4,356 4,000 92.16% 2,312 1,888 4,124,003 78.41% 72.27%
Connecticut 4,805 4,219 3,617 85.61% 2,298 1,841 2,944,171 75.81% 64.90%
Delaware 5,216 4,253 3,719 87.48% 2,228 1,809 734,670 75.59% 66.13%
District of Columbia 9,435 7,703 6,254 80.24% 2,152 1,821 514,116 82.50% 66.19%
Florida 24,594 18,682 16,931 90.42% 8,867 7,303 15,548,303 77.05% 69.67%
Georgia 4,680 3,842 3,520 91.50% 2,213 1,817 7,893,753 76.92% 70.38%
Hawaii 6,070 5,161 4,252 81.28% 2,617 1,934 1,049,989 66.94% 54.41%
Idaho 4,876 3,811 3,603 94.55% 2,232 1,828 1,242,898 77.67% 73.44%
Illinois 20,722 17,902 14,489 80.88% 9,548 7,264 10,610,876 71.24% 57.62%
Indiana 5,462 4,507 4,191 92.80% 2,261 1,820 5,273,705 76.51% 71.00%
Iowa 5,141 4,390 4,118 93.87% 2,212 1,849 2,494,295 80.38% 75.46%
Kansas 4,704 4,041 3,730 92.28% 2,233 1,794 2,288,038 75.43% 69.60%
Kentucky 4,994 4,093 3,819 93.34% 2,227 1,812 3,562,425 76.76% 71.64%
Louisiana 5,220 4,217 3,948 93.67% 2,255 1,829 3,650,936 78.43% 73.47%
Maine 6,536 4,743 4,347 91.50% 2,232 1,888 1,128,113 81.63% 74.69%
Maryland 4,646 3,966 3,236 81.58% 2,098 1,719 4,721,886 78.64% 64.15%
Massachusetts 6,393 5,529 4,750 86.07% 2,388 1,899 5,584,646 76.02% 65.42%
Michigan 21,188 16,972 14,968 88.12% 9,091 7,329 8,318,631 76.25% 67.20%
Minnesota 4,866 4,071 3,803 93.44% 2,281 1,871 4,369,150 78.00% 72.88%
Mississippi 4,569 3,595 3,366 93.67% 2,177 1,784 2,369,559 77.09% 72.21%
Missouri 5,171 4,247 3,964 93.34% 2,254 1,810 4,939,693 75.72% 70.67%
Montana 5,226 4,403 4,154 94.27% 2,256 1,828 817,248 76.46% 72.08%
Nebraska 4,610 3,936 3,713 94.32% 2,245 1,817 1,463,255 75.92% 71.61%
Nevada 5,279 4,126 3,876 94.53% 2,332 1,888 2,149,864 72.06% 68.11%
New Hampshire 6,018 4,813 4,223 87.84% 2,350 1,862 1,127,079 74.47% 65.41%
New Jersey 4,699 4,051 3,597 88.82% 2,329 1,829 7,255,812 75.41% 66.99%
New Mexico 5,158 4,110 3,875 94.26% 2,232 1,830 1,635,195 77.18% 72.75%
New York 26,232 21,952 16,741 75.99% 10,082 7,333 16,395,090 68.69% 52.20%
North Carolina 5,191 4,393 4,037 92.05% 2,215 1,833 7,645,726 78.04% 71.83%
North Dakota 5,972 4,994 4,710 94.32% 2,337 1,883 537,282 76.49% 72.15%
Ohio 20,068 17,122 15,794 92.21% 9,025 7,316 9,581,162 74.86% 69.03%
Oklahoma 5,274 4,264 3,867 90.79% 2,297 1,831 2,983,240 73.81% 67.01%
Oregon 5,405 4,672 4,330 92.80% 2,304 1,854 3,214,493 77.46% 71.88%
Pennsylvania 19,898 17,082 13,562 79.45% 7,648 5,900 10,595,438 73.08% 58.06%
Rhode Island 5,353 4,437 3,927 88.51% 2,272 1,828 892,872 75.54% 66.85%
South Carolina 5,713 4,514 4,072 89.88% 2,291 1,881 3,745,403 75.94% 68.25%
South Dakota 4,816 4,078 3,887 95.36% 2,203 1,849 662,841 80.79% 77.04%
Tennessee 5,611 4,614 4,266 92.24% 2,289 1,850 5,217,297 73.41% 67.72%
Texas 17,537 14,468 13,288 91.84% 8,819 7,186 19,683,472 77.13% 70.84%
Utah 3,046 2,700 2,558 94.73% 2,206 1,837 2,162,531 80.09% 75.87%
Vermont 5,683 4,219 3,859 91.46% 2,090 1,767 537,245 80.87% 73.96%
Virginia 5,108 4,455 3,961 88.89% 2,221 1,806 6,440,709 76.78% 68.24%
Washington 4,995 4,386 4,016 91.51% 2,352 1,833 5,547,471 73.61% 67.35%
West Virginia 6,044 4,836 4,400 91.05% 2,209 1,778 1,541,846 76.08% 69.27%
Wisconsin 5,170 4,402 4,111 93.41% 2,276 1,832 4,717,394 76.72% 71.66%
Wyoming 5,345 4,356 4,092 94.00% 2,276 1,830 446,727 75.87% 71.31%
Table A.10 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates, by State and Three Age Groups: 2009 and 2010
State 12-17
Total
Selected
12-17
Total
Responded
12-17
Population
Estimate
12-17
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
18-25
Total
Selected
18-25
Total
Responded
18-25
Population
Estimate
18-25
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
26+
Total
Selected
26+
Total
Responded
26+
Population
Estimate
26+
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
NOTE: Computations in this table are based on a respondent's age at screening. Thus, the data in the Total Responded column(s) could differ from data in other NSDUH tables that use the respondent's age recorded during the interview.
NOTE: To compute the pooled 2009-2010 weighted response rates, two samples were combined, and the individual year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the 2009 and 2010 individual response rates. The 2009-2010 population estimate is the average of the 2009 and the 2010 population.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 52,065 44,408 24,477,758 85.13% 56,322 45,956 33,826,169 81.34% 61,395 45,447 194,413,393 72.68%
Northeast 10,151 8,467 4,270,217 82.16% 11,250 8,813 6,082,819 77.53% 12,288 8,867 36,107,431 70.89%
Midwest 14,808 12,662 5,372,501 85.35% 15,838 12,914 7,417,088 80.97% 17,320 12,858 42,466,732 73.14%
South 15,840 13,625 8,982,778 86.35% 16,974 14,237 12,220,871 83.88% 18,295 13,832 71,301,729 74.34%
West 11,266 9,654 5,852,262 85.21% 12,260 9,992 8,105,391 80.74% 13,492 9,890 44,537,502 71.09%
Alabama 759 633 375,942 83.76% 690 567 515,510 81.36% 846 622 2,993,410 73.13%
Alaska 660 568 58,753 86.39% 725 608 81,679 84.83% 782 594 414,553 76.26%
Arizona 676 592 538,672 87.18% 828 677 698,979 80.25% 755 572 4,111,148 74.02%
Arkansas 682 590 231,881 87.09% 738 598 301,928 82.45% 836 625 1,833,369 73.79%
California 2,905 2,472 3,101,979 84.51% 2,983 2,391 4,325,900 80.19% 3,585 2,512 22,773,074 68.65%
Colorado 677 596 381,533 85.87% 841 681 549,726 82.10% 794 611 3,192,744 76.74%
Connecticut 698 596 283,906 86.38% 781 638 375,156 81.73% 819 607 2,285,109 73.51%
Delaware 677 578 67,805 85.01% 759 638 94,200 84.15% 792 593 572,665 73.09%
District of Columbia 644 574 34,683 89.17% 786 664 86,622 83.83% 722 583 392,811 81.55%
Florida 2,736 2,341 1,336,737 85.42% 2,957 2,540 1,850,052 85.26% 3,174 2,422 12,361,513 74.87%
Georgia 715 619 820,145 87.07% 697 596 1,050,786 84.56% 801 602 6,022,823 74.13%
Hawaii 791 649 91,104 80.44% 836 620 131,160 74.46% 990 665 827,725 64.29%
Idaho 684 578 131,965 84.90% 707 610 171,302 86.06% 841 640 939,631 75.18%
Illinois 2,763 2,299 1,053,276 83.16% 3,170 2,419 1,460,312 76.02% 3,615 2,546 8,097,288 68.87%
Indiana 721 626 525,525 87.68% 699 567 701,086 81.07% 841 627 4,047,093 74.29%
Iowa 675 589 236,022 87.73% 761 629 350,071 81.98% 776 631 1,908,202 79.22%
Kansas 678 599 226,545 88.52% 772 607 330,970 78.85% 783 588 1,730,522 73.02%
Kentucky 659 566 334,420 86.76% 766 632 446,645 82.33% 802 614 2,781,361 74.80%
Louisiana 720 612 367,519 85.09% 711 593 527,254 83.19% 824 624 2,756,163 76.67%
Maine 704 621 96,374 88.37% 750 636 128,182 85.09% 778 631 903,556 80.42%
Maryland 630 545 452,038 87.03% 701 580 616,208 82.95% 767 594 3,653,639 76.74%
Massachusetts 711 584 494,016 81.38% 820 673 766,014 81.72% 857 642 4,324,616 74.42%
Michigan 2,895 2,455 822,105 84.26% 2,923 2,420 1,097,830 82.89% 3,273 2,454 6,398,696 74.03%
Minnesota 692 603 413,410 86.54% 806 660 583,280 81.49% 783 608 3,372,460 76.30%
Mississippi 633 545 248,816 86.72% 740 634 336,097 85.98% 804 605 1,784,646 74.21%
Missouri 715 594 476,436 83.59% 738 614 643,637 82.82% 801 602 3,819,620 73.48%
Montana 698 597 73,735 86.08% 746 614 110,260 82.19% 812 617 633,252 74.40%
Nebraska 673 590 142,549 88.08% 747 610 214,428 82.01% 825 617 1,106,278 73.22%
Nevada 661 576 212,438 88.15% 796 673 257,198 84.96% 875 639 1,680,228 68.13%
New Hampshire 687 577 103,281 84.66% 823 673 140,176 81.96% 840 612 883,622 72.07%
New Jersey 732 614 695,052 83.02% 742 581 873,788 79.50% 855 634 5,686,972 73.83%
New Mexico 710 632 161,555 89.22% 738 613 228,756 84.91% 784 585 1,244,885 74.15%
New York 2,917 2,344 1,509,858 79.67% 3,427 2,483 2,236,966 72.75% 3,738 2,506 12,648,267 66.66%
North Carolina 655 584 723,670 89.21% 791 662 986,404 84.66% 769 587 5,935,653 75.49%
North Dakota 727 625 47,211 85.91% 749 626 92,922 84.11% 861 632 397,148 73.64%
Ohio 2,788 2,402 924,820 85.90% 3,059 2,577 1,214,036 83.80% 3,178 2,337 7,442,306 71.96%
Oklahoma 759 646 292,084 85.05% 704 565 419,077 79.42% 834 620 2,272,080 71.31%
Oregon 795 654 288,096 81.63% 677 560 401,242 83.81% 832 640 2,525,156 75.91%
Pennsylvania 2,360 1,943 962,444 82.77% 2,425 1,905 1,360,835 78.80% 2,863 2,052 8,272,159 70.95%
Rhode Island 704 625 79,655 89.14% 784 625 129,145 79.80% 784 578 684,072 73.06%
South Carolina 757 643 352,096 84.90% 747 646 480,982 85.11% 787 592 2,912,325 73.20%
South Dakota 687 601 63,682 87.84% 723 625 93,602 86.97% 793 623 505,557 78.72%
Tennessee 764 670 491,069 87.97% 712 591 646,257 84.14% 813 589 4,079,971 69.53%
Texas 2,671 2,307 2,125,058 86.57% 2,971 2,484 2,813,275 83.69% 3,177 2,395 14,745,138 74.53%
Utah 640 568 254,680 89.28% 782 657 379,390 83.54% 784 612 1,528,461 77.83%
Vermont 638 563 45,631 89.01% 698 599 72,557 85.03% 754 605 419,057 79.23%
Virginia 697 592 598,313 84.83% 745 631 865,844 84.69% 779 583 4,976,551 74.34%
Washington 722 612 516,464 85.23% 774 606 706,882 76.50% 856 615 4,324,124 71.76%
West Virginia 682 580 130,503 84.95% 759 616 183,731 80.47% 768 582 1,227,612 74.42%
Wisconsin 794 679 440,921 85.20% 691 560 634,912 79.83% 791 593 3,641,561 75.10%
Wyoming 647 560 41,288 85.11% 827 682 62,918 81.96% 802 588 342,522 73.63%
Table A.11 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: 2008, 2009, and 2010
State 2008
Total
Selected
2008
Total
Responded
2008
Population
Estimate
2008
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
2009
Total
Selected
2009
Total
Responded
2009
Population
Estimate
2009
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
2010
Total
Selected
2010
Total
Responded
2010
Population
Estimate
2010
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
NOTE: The 2008 and 2009 numbers may differ from the previously published numbers due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report).
NOTE: Computations in this table are based on a respondent's age at screening. Thus, the data in the Total Responded column(s) could differ from data in other NSDUH tables that use the respondent's age recorded during the interview.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 36,999 31,238 38,081,341 84.29% 37,009 31,560 38,241,242 85.21% 36,493 30,926 37,977,621 84.37%
Northeast 7,122 5,920 6,707,117 82.07% 7,329 6,098 6,785,606 82.08% 7,068 5,812 6,622,750 80.74%
Midwest 10,526 8,854 8,356,484 83.74% 10,586 9,034 8,472,393 84.90% 10,415 8,841 8,359,258 84.73%
South 11,102 9,542 13,858,227 86.15% 11,053 9,595 13,893,364 87.36% 11,208 9,600 14,070,149 85.73%
West 8,249 6,922 9,159,513 83.60% 8,041 6,833 9,089,879 84.55% 7,802 6,673 8,925,464 84.62%
Alabama 493 427 581,262 86.76% 530 447 599,028 85.17% 510 425 587,014 82.65%
Alaska 515 414 92,180 80.10% 488 416 91,611 85.87% 433 370 86,119 86.09%
Arizona 481 413 810,336 85.49% 514 437 824,443 84.93% 509 441 834,235 85.27%
Arkansas 513 454 350,656 88.83% 469 407 342,551 88.11% 458 380 334,786 82.16%
California 2,120 1,761 4,938,568 82.75% 1,946 1,634 4,775,356 83.65% 2,058 1,755 4,745,134 84.60%
Colorado 530 444 568,813 83.19% 564 494 585,652 86.73% 406 337 551,247 81.84%
Connecticut 453 396 422,896 88.56% 481 407 408,896 85.77% 494 422 446,654 85.63%
Delaware 495 410 104,894 83.20% 518 446 108,455 86.09% 439 375 105,183 85.49%
District of Columbia 410 368 58,497 90.11% 398 346 59,345 85.42% 442 401 56,178 91.06%
Florida 1,953 1,691 2,132,876 86.69% 1,921 1,662 2,133,592 86.01% 2,038 1,759 2,165,742 86.98%
Georgia 512 438 1,242,605 84.97% 474 420 1,182,593 88.73% 508 430 1,222,236 84.71%
Hawaii 525 408 141,555 77.46% 538 426 150,940 76.75% 561 468 142,051 82.88%
Idaho 477 418 193,450 87.15% 468 402 201,917 86.93% 479 409 202,052 85.98%
Illinois 2,113 1,719 1,626,682 81.62% 2,021 1,676 1,681,199 82.87% 1,948 1,593 1,638,431 81.51%
Indiana 540 447 818,888 83.63% 472 406 824,402 86.59% 511 445 808,335 87.62%
Iowa 484 413 367,032 86.07% 484 417 362,489 86.00% 464 400 369,554 85.30%
Kansas 441 367 343,518 83.67% 523 445 362,101 84.25% 452 397 349,540 87.74%
Kentucky 486 423 515,913 86.34% 465 411 533,285 89.41% 508 430 515,140 84.34%
Louisiana 466 404 615,972 86.94% 470 395 559,359 83.59% 507 431 567,474 85.18%
Maine 484 423 154,462 86.37% 515 448 141,437 87.04% 458 405 152,571 89.02%
Maryland 484 407 708,080 85.30% 445 391 679,353 88.22% 428 367 671,790 86.29%
Massachusetts 475 405 783,464 85.33% 503 407 756,845 80.42% 474 387 730,933 80.15%
Michigan 2,027 1,730 1,325,437 84.95% 2,054 1,735 1,286,421 84.14% 1,998 1,690 1,266,567 84.36%
Minnesota 452 390 620,418 86.35% 523 444 687,929 83.63% 496 425 635,101 85.43%
Mississippi 464 401 385,041 86.31% 464 396 401,760 86.27% 483 422 393,379 87.64%
Missouri 483 410 713,872 82.22% 496 410 701,234 83.00% 474 400 741,708 85.70%
Montana 525 442 121,269 85.39% 497 421 116,223 85.63% 480 416 118,731 86.51%
Nebraska 483 417 225,154 85.63% 498 429 240,816 87.71% 469 415 227,519 87.62%
Nevada 490 423 301,339 86.56% 500 438 312,307 88.06% 467 410 329,077 89.28%
New Hampshire 494 418 172,605 84.97% 525 437 162,423 83.24% 485 406 163,192 85.20%
New Jersey 579 474 1,042,888 81.60% 502 418 1,060,608 81.69% 518 429 1,033,688 82.93%
New Mexico 442 382 252,364 85.83% 476 418 255,788 89.54% 502 447 255,942 88.87%
New York 2,028 1,630 2,425,431 79.44% 2,121 1,721 2,486,753 80.92% 2,091 1,629 2,367,030 76.92%
North Carolina 480 420 1,102,143 88.11% 452 402 1,094,206 89.32% 487 434 1,158,894 89.02%
North Dakota 494 417 83,543 83.50% 494 431 82,565 87.52% 516 438 84,291 85.53%
Ohio 2,087 1,757 1,463,023 84.33% 2,014 1,745 1,474,740 86.21% 2,085 1,791 1,450,314 85.68%
Oklahoma 457 385 440,291 84.06% 502 427 460,633 85.55% 510 430 445,994 83.55%
Oregon 583 507 481,595 86.18% 534 429 445,204 81.09% 510 425 435,243 82.04%
Pennsylvania 1,641 1,343 1,497,043 81.72% 1,675 1,384 1,558,771 82.99% 1,641 1,344 1,529,660 81.90%
Rhode Island 448 398 130,107 88.98% 530 447 130,746 83.09% 472 419 127,717 88.13%
South Carolina 488 422 547,282 86.74% 540 471 539,722 86.26% 498 421 554,128 84.56%
South Dakota 497 447 106,030 89.70% 486 439 103,873 90.23% 500 429 98,463 86.31%
Tennessee 456 378 699,714 82.76% 534 473 778,937 88.58% 521 448 783,233 87.28%
Texas 1,906 1,645 3,243,147 86.32% 1,869 1,641 3,208,416 88.06% 1,918 1,638 3,337,978 85.37%
Utah 501 434 395,972 84.14% 483 426 400,057 88.25% 412 364 375,829 88.48%
Vermont 520 433 78,221 82.77% 477 429 79,128 89.98% 435 371 71,307 85.97%
Virginia 502 428 931,139 86.21% 507 441 1,007,100 87.39% 489 415 974,776 85.04%
Washington 538 446 795,765 84.12% 540 464 859,380 85.46% 501 410 783,258 81.66%
West Virginia 537 441 198,715 82.69% 495 419 205,027 84.86% 464 394 196,221 84.13%
Wisconsin 425 340 662,888 81.80% 521 457 664,624 87.47% 502 418 689,435 82.92%
Wyoming 522 430 66,307 81.99% 493 428 71,000 84.56% 484 421 66,546 86.75%
Table A.12 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: 2008-2009 and 2009-2010
State 2008-2009
Total
Selected
2008-2009
Total
Responded
2008-2009
Population
Estimate
2008-2009
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
2009-2010
Total
Selected
2009-2010
Total
Responded
2009-2010
Population
Estimate
2009-2010
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
NOTE: The 2008-2009 numbers may differ from the previously published numbers due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report).
NOTE: Computations in this table are based on a respondent's age at screening. Thus, the data in the Total Responded column(s) could differ from data in other NSDUH tables that use the respondent's age recorded during the interview.
NOTE: To compute the pooled weighted response rates, the two samples were combined, and the individual-year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the individual response rates. The population estimate is the average of the population across the 2 years.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 74,008 62,798 38,161,292 84.75% 73,502 62,486 38,109,432 84.79%
Northeast 14,451 12,018 6,746,362 82.08% 14,397 11,910 6,704,178 81.42%
Midwest 21,112 17,888 8,414,438 84.32% 21,001 17,875 8,415,825 84.82%
South 22,155 19,137 13,875,795 86.76% 22,261 19,195 13,981,756 86.54%
West 16,290 13,755 9,124,696 84.07% 15,843 13,506 9,007,672 84.58%
Alabama 1,023 874 590,145 85.97% 1,040 872 593,021 83.90%
Alaska 1,003 830 91,895 82.95% 921 786 88,865 85.97%
Arizona 995 850 817,390 85.20% 1,023 878 829,339 85.10%
Arkansas 982 861 346,604 88.49% 927 787 338,668 85.08%
California 4,066 3,395 4,856,962 83.20% 4,004 3,389 4,760,245 84.12%
Colorado 1,094 938 577,232 84.98% 970 831 568,449 84.43%
Connecticut 934 803 415,896 87.17% 975 829 427,775 85.69%
Delaware 1,013 856 106,674 84.66% 957 821 106,819 85.79%
District of Columbia 808 714 58,921 87.72% 840 747 57,762 88.14%
Florida 3,874 3,353 2,133,234 86.36% 3,959 3,421 2,149,667 86.51%
Georgia 986 858 1,212,599 86.81% 982 850 1,202,415 86.71%
Hawaii 1,063 834 146,248 77.10% 1,099 894 146,495 79.79%
Idaho 945 820 197,683 87.04% 947 811 201,984 86.46%
Illinois 4,134 3,395 1,653,940 82.26% 3,969 3,269 1,659,815 82.20%
Indiana 1,012 853 821,645 85.10% 983 851 816,369 87.10%
Iowa 968 830 364,761 86.04% 948 817 366,022 85.65%
Kansas 964 812 352,809 83.97% 975 842 355,820 85.93%
Kentucky 951 834 524,599 87.89% 973 841 524,213 86.87%
Louisiana 936 799 587,665 85.29% 977 826 563,417 84.38%
Maine 999 871 147,950 86.70% 973 853 147,004 88.02%
Maryland 929 798 693,717 86.74% 873 758 675,572 87.28%
Massachusetts 978 812 770,154 82.80% 977 794 743,889 80.29%
Michigan 4,081 3,465 1,305,929 84.55% 4,052 3,425 1,276,494 84.25%
Minnesota 975 834 654,173 84.92% 1,019 869 661,515 84.49%
Mississippi 928 797 393,401 86.29% 947 818 397,570 86.95%
Missouri 979 820 707,553 82.60% 970 810 721,471 84.36%
Montana 1,022 863 118,746 85.51% 977 837 117,477 86.07%
Nebraska 981 846 232,985 86.69% 967 844 234,167 87.67%
Nevada 990 861 306,823 87.33% 967 848 320,692 88.67%
New Hampshire 1,019 855 167,514 84.14% 1,010 843 162,808 84.20%
New Jersey 1,081 892 1,051,748 81.64% 1,020 847 1,047,148 82.32%
New Mexico 918 800 254,076 87.70% 978 865 255,865 89.20%
New York 4,149 3,351 2,456,092 80.19% 4,212 3,350 2,426,892 78.94%
North Carolina 932 822 1,098,175 88.72% 939 836 1,126,550 89.17%
North Dakota 988 848 83,054 85.45% 1,010 869 83,428 86.49%
Ohio 4,101 3,502 1,468,881 85.28% 4,099 3,536 1,462,527 85.95%
Oklahoma 959 812 450,462 84.83% 1,012 857 453,313 84.57%
Oregon 1,117 936 463,400 83.73% 1,044 854 440,223 81.56%
Pennsylvania 3,316 2,727 1,527,907 82.37% 3,316 2,728 1,544,215 82.45%
Rhode Island 978 845 130,426 85.99% 1,002 866 129,231 85.53%
South Carolina 1,028 893 543,502 86.50% 1,038 892 546,925 85.40%
South Dakota 983 886 104,952 89.97% 986 868 101,168 88.32%
Tennessee 990 851 739,326 85.78% 1,055 921 781,085 87.92%
Texas 3,775 3,286 3,225,782 87.18% 3,787 3,279 3,273,197 86.70%
Utah 984 860 398,014 86.22% 895 790 387,943 88.36%
Vermont 997 862 78,674 86.39% 912 800 75,217 88.07%
Virginia 1,009 869 969,120 86.84% 996 856 990,938 86.24%
Washington 1,078 910 827,573 84.82% 1,041 874 821,319 83.64%
West Virginia 1,032 860 201,871 83.78% 959 813 200,624 84.50%
Wisconsin 946 797 663,756 84.54% 1,023 875 677,030 85.16%
Wyoming 1,015 858 68,653 83.30% 977 849 68,773 85.64%
Table A.13 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: 2008, 2009, and 2010
State 2008
Total
Selected
2008
Total
Responded
2008
Population
Estimate
2008
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
2009
Total
Selected
2009
Total
Responded
2009
Population
Estimate
2009
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
2010
Total
Selected
2010
Total
Responded
2010
Population
Estimate
2010
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
NOTE: The 2008 and 2009 numbers may differ from the previously published numbers due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report).
NOTE: Computations in this table are based on a respondent's age at screening. Thus, the data in the Total Responded column(s) could differ from data in other NSDUH tables that use the respondent's age recorded during the interview.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 59,483 45,667 224,922,763 73.08% 58,628 45,591 227,206,545 74.46% 59,089 45,812 229,272,578 73.49%
Northeast 11,697 8,739 41,723,952 70.70% 11,722 8,768 42,079,937 71.75% 11,816 8,912 42,300,562 71.96%
Midwest 16,944 13,009 49,448,506 73.84% 16,376 12,735 49,756,736 74.91% 16,782 13,037 50,010,904 73.71%
South 17,657 13,939 81,912,691 75.27% 17,701 14,158 83,039,864 76.29% 17,568 13,911 84,005,336 75.22%
West 13,185 9,980 51,837,615 70.89% 12,829 9,930 52,330,008 73.31% 12,923 9,952 52,955,777 71.84%
Alabama 833 637 3,462,438 70.09% 784 618 3,498,218 77.82% 752 571 3,519,621 70.68%
Alaska 777 608 479,955 75.78% 762 600 493,862 78.40% 745 602 498,602 76.86%
Arizona 779 601 4,700,399 75.56% 767 616 4,772,012 78.64% 816 633 4,848,242 71.45%
Arkansas 768 609 2,100,948 75.70% 785 608 2,127,061 76.02% 789 615 2,143,532 74.10%
California 3,565 2,607 26,834,059 68.17% 3,355 2,491 26,962,535 70.44% 3,213 2,412 27,235,412 70.49%
Colorado 797 608 3,650,120 75.05% 791 619 3,712,168 75.96% 844 673 3,772,773 78.94%
Connecticut 856 668 2,629,944 73.64% 780 607 2,651,071 75.54% 820 638 2,669,460 73.79%
Delaware 815 653 652,247 78.20% 771 610 663,392 72.25% 780 621 670,337 76.96%
District of Columbia 778 627 469,267 77.83% 754 636 475,164 83.47% 754 611 483,703 80.56%
Florida 3,005 2,393 13,990,125 75.51% 3,095 2,522 14,141,314 75.95% 3,036 2,440 14,281,818 76.56%
Georgia 725 564 6,929,959 72.18% 738 601 7,025,028 76.93% 760 597 7,122,189 74.41%
Hawaii 917 621 958,686 63.83% 930 649 959,869 66.03% 896 636 957,899 65.29%
Idaho 791 628 1,086,964 77.02% 788 632 1,102,446 76.10% 760 618 1,119,419 77.60%
Illinois 3,530 2,508 9,523,946 67.16% 3,380 2,478 9,535,363 70.37% 3,405 2,487 9,579,838 69.50%
Indiana 758 590 4,693,498 77.02% 787 619 4,734,130 78.39% 753 575 4,762,228 72.40%
Iowa 801 645 2,242,082 80.29% 760 622 2,248,480 80.95% 777 638 2,268,066 78.26%
Kansas 796 625 2,039,018 76.01% 785 606 2,052,096 74.78% 770 589 2,070,889 73.21%
Kentucky 736 570 3,186,380 71.84% 811 645 3,214,458 75.52% 757 601 3,241,553 76.04%
Louisiana 754 605 3,209,206 78.22% 805 639 3,270,638 78.34% 730 578 3,296,197 77.01%
Maine 781 629 1,025,265 76.07% 753 627 1,030,693 82.04% 775 640 1,032,784 80.01%
Maryland 744 557 4,196,523 71.53% 687 559 4,249,895 78.75% 781 615 4,289,800 76.76%
Massachusetts 760 596 4,975,546 75.82% 888 681 5,067,283 72.94% 789 634 5,113,977 78.02%
Michigan 3,206 2,483 7,485,628 73.93% 3,067 2,396 7,493,915 75.99% 3,129 2,478 7,499,137 74.75%
Minnesota 730 580 3,898,306 77.85% 777 618 3,938,642 76.78% 812 650 3,972,838 77.37%
Mississippi 744 594 2,103,803 76.92% 790 636 2,115,316 76.79% 754 603 2,126,170 75.20%
Missouri 773 599 4,380,159 75.18% 738 583 4,446,201 74.83% 801 633 4,480,314 74.91%
Montana 756 601 731,019 76.33% 769 614 739,171 74.99% 789 617 747,854 76.00%
Nebraska 759 589 1,305,413 75.74% 787 621 1,313,534 77.60% 785 606 1,327,879 71.62%
Nevada 757 567 1,901,495 72.53% 786 618 1,929,882 70.81% 885 694 1,944,971 69.92%
New Hampshire 777 619 1,007,507 78.56% 803 617 1,020,081 73.47% 860 668 1,027,514 73.45%
New Jersey 857 658 6,516,694 72.31% 827 616 6,544,280 71.29% 770 599 6,577,240 77.93%
New Mexico 757 595 1,450,863 78.45% 769 613 1,466,616 75.96% 753 585 1,480,665 75.70%
New York 3,510 2,415 14,816,448 65.48% 3,561 2,504 14,858,432 69.52% 3,604 2,485 14,912,033 65.77%
North Carolina 709 560 6,768,012 76.99% 803 656 6,884,806 78.46% 757 593 6,959,307 75.02%
North Dakota 796 636 481,318 78.24% 779 604 486,318 75.56% 831 654 493,824 75.68%
Ohio 3,143 2,430 8,578,157 72.79% 2,999 2,374 8,650,872 73.65% 3,238 2,540 8,661,813 73.64%
Oklahoma 793 621 2,647,965 78.37% 759 599 2,678,184 73.20% 779 586 2,704,129 71.96%
Oregon 873 699 2,879,615 70.16% 751 611 2,909,054 79.91% 758 589 2,943,741 73.99%
Pennsylvania 2,612 1,946 9,461,258 71.79% 2,600 1,927 9,609,739 71.80% 2,688 2,030 9,656,250 72.35%
Rhode Island 761 598 804,991 76.44% 773 580 809,132 75.38% 795 623 817,303 72.92%
South Carolina 763 636 3,309,346 81.64% 747 603 3,375,522 75.12% 787 635 3,411,091 74.84%
South Dakota 818 674 588,444 77.44% 766 628 594,616 80.10% 750 620 603,702 80.01%
Tennessee 865 674 4,641,311 74.35% 778 598 4,703,420 71.59% 747 582 4,749,036 71.83%
Texas 3,049 2,421 17,119,812 75.65% 3,046 2,414 17,401,039 76.35% 3,102 2,465 17,715,787 75.65%
Utah 777 624 1,862,178 77.28% 744 600 1,890,406 79.16% 822 669 1,925,295 78.73%
Vermont 783 610 486,299 74.56% 737 609 489,227 78.26% 715 595 494,001 81.98%
Virginia 792 619 5,721,688 74.92% 777 621 5,807,626 76.24% 747 593 5,877,166 75.57%
Washington 801 591 4,906,769 72.13% 801 625 4,989,090 76.03% 829 596 5,072,923 68.75%
West Virginia 784 599 1,403,665 75.25% 771 593 1,408,784 72.70% 756 605 1,413,902 77.86%
Wisconsin 834 650 4,232,537 76.11% 751 586 4,262,569 75.65% 731 567 4,290,376 75.98%
Wyoming 838 630 395,493 70.94% 816 642 402,898 78.03% 813 628 407,981 71.88%
Table A.14 – Sample Sizes, Weighted Interview Response Rates, and Population Estimates among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: 2008-2009 and 2009-2010
State 2008-2009
Total
Selected
2008-2009
Total
Responded
2008-2009
Population
Estimate
2008-2009
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
2009-2010
Total
Selected
2009-2010
Total
Responded
2009-2010
Population
Estimate
2009-2010
Weighted
Interview
Response
Rate
NOTE: The 2008-2009 numbers may differ from the previously published numbers due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report).
NOTE: Computations in this table are based on a respondent's age at screening. Thus, the data in the Total Responded column(s) could differ from data in other NSDUH tables that use the respondent's age recorded during the interview.
NOTE: To compute the pooled weighted response rates, the two samples were combined, and the individual-year weights were used for the pooled sample. Thus, the response rates presented here are weighted across 2 years of data rather than being a simple average of the individual response rates. The population estimate is the average of the population across the 2 years.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 118,111 91,258 226,064,654 73.78% 117,717 91,403 228,239,562 73.97%
Northeast 23,419 17,507 41,901,944 71.23% 23,538 17,680 42,190,250 71.86%
Midwest 33,320 25,744 49,602,621 74.38% 33,158 25,772 49,883,820 74.31%
South 35,358 28,097 82,476,278 75.79% 35,269 28,069 83,522,600 75.76%
West 26,014 19,910 52,083,811 72.12% 25,752 19,882 52,642,893 72.57%
Alabama 1,617 1,255 3,480,328 74.18% 1,536 1,189 3,508,919 74.32%
Alaska 1,539 1,208 486,909 77.17% 1,507 1,202 496,232 77.64%
Arizona 1,546 1,217 4,736,205 77.16% 1,583 1,249 4,810,127 74.88%
Arkansas 1,553 1,217 2,114,004 75.86% 1,574 1,223 2,135,297 75.05%
California 6,920 5,098 26,898,297 69.32% 6,568 4,903 27,098,973 70.46%
Colorado 1,588 1,227 3,681,144 75.48% 1,635 1,292 3,742,471 77.60%
Connecticut 1,636 1,275 2,640,507 74.56% 1,600 1,245 2,660,265 74.68%
Delaware 1,586 1,263 657,820 75.00% 1,551 1,231 666,864 74.66%
District of Columbia 1,532 1,263 472,215 80.57% 1,508 1,247 479,433 81.99%
Florida 6,100 4,915 14,065,719 75.73% 6,131 4,962 14,211,566 76.26%
Georgia 1,463 1,165 6,977,493 74.70% 1,498 1,198 7,073,609 75.72%
Hawaii 1,847 1,270 959,278 64.94% 1,826 1,285 958,884 65.66%
Idaho 1,579 1,260 1,094,705 76.56% 1,548 1,250 1,110,933 76.82%
Illinois 6,910 4,986 9,529,654 68.78% 6,785 4,965 9,557,601 69.94%
Indiana 1,545 1,209 4,713,814 77.69% 1,540 1,194 4,748,179 75.29%
Iowa 1,561 1,267 2,245,281 80.62% 1,537 1,260 2,258,273 79.64%
Kansas 1,581 1,231 2,045,557 75.42% 1,555 1,195 2,061,492 73.97%
Kentucky 1,547 1,215 3,200,419 73.81% 1,568 1,246 3,228,005 75.77%
Louisiana 1,559 1,244 3,239,922 78.28% 1,535 1,217 3,283,417 77.68%
Maine 1,534 1,256 1,027,979 79.02% 1,528 1,267 1,031,739 81.01%
Maryland 1,431 1,116 4,223,209 75.13% 1,468 1,174 4,269,848 77.70%
Massachusetts 1,648 1,277 5,021,415 74.39% 1,677 1,315 5,090,630 75.50%
Michigan 6,273 4,879 7,489,772 74.95% 6,196 4,874 7,496,526 75.36%
Minnesota 1,507 1,198 3,918,474 77.31% 1,589 1,268 3,955,740 77.08%
Mississippi 1,534 1,230 2,109,559 76.85% 1,544 1,239 2,120,743 76.01%
Missouri 1,511 1,182 4,413,180 75.00% 1,539 1,216 4,463,257 74.87%
Montana 1,525 1,215 735,095 75.66% 1,558 1,231 743,513 75.52%
Nebraska 1,546 1,210 1,309,473 76.70% 1,572 1,227 1,320,707 74.62%
Nevada 1,543 1,185 1,915,689 71.65% 1,671 1,312 1,937,426 70.36%
New Hampshire 1,580 1,236 1,013,794 76.05% 1,663 1,285 1,023,798 73.46%
New Jersey 1,684 1,274 6,530,487 71.78% 1,597 1,215 6,560,760 74.60%
New Mexico 1,526 1,208 1,458,739 77.21% 1,522 1,198 1,473,640 75.83%
New York 7,071 4,919 14,837,440 67.49% 7,165 4,989 14,885,232 67.58%
North Carolina 1,512 1,216 6,826,409 77.77% 1,560 1,249 6,922,057 76.83%
North Dakota 1,575 1,240 483,818 76.89% 1,610 1,258 490,071 75.62%
Ohio 6,142 4,804 8,614,515 73.22% 6,237 4,914 8,656,342 73.65%
Oklahoma 1,552 1,220 2,663,075 75.88% 1,538 1,185 2,691,157 72.55%
Oregon 1,624 1,310 2,894,334 75.20% 1,509 1,200 2,926,397 77.03%
Pennsylvania 5,212 3,873 9,535,498 71.80% 5,288 3,957 9,632,994 72.08%
Rhode Island 1,534 1,178 807,061 75.89% 1,568 1,203 813,218 74.18%
South Carolina 1,510 1,239 3,342,434 78.56% 1,534 1,238 3,393,307 74.98%
South Dakota 1,584 1,302 591,530 78.71% 1,516 1,248 599,159 80.05%
Tennessee 1,643 1,272 4,672,365 73.05% 1,525 1,180 4,726,228 71.71%
Texas 6,095 4,835 17,260,426 76.00% 6,148 4,879 17,558,413 76.00%
Utah 1,521 1,224 1,876,292 78.20% 1,566 1,269 1,907,850 78.93%
Vermont 1,520 1,219 487,763 76.40% 1,452 1,204 491,614 80.10%
Virginia 1,569 1,240 5,764,657 75.58% 1,524 1,214 5,842,396 75.90%
Washington 1,602 1,216 4,947,930 74.16% 1,630 1,221 5,031,007 72.42%
West Virginia 1,555 1,192 1,406,225 73.95% 1,527 1,198 1,411,343 75.22%
Wisconsin 1,585 1,236 4,247,553 75.88% 1,482 1,153 4,276,473 75.81%
Wyoming 1,654 1,272 399,196 74.56% 1,629 1,270 405,440 74.94%
Table A.15 – Outcomes, by Survey Year, for Which Small Area Estimates Are Available
Measure 2002-
2003
2003-
2004
2004-
2005
2005-
2006
2006-
2007
2007-
2008
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
1 Estimates for these outcomes were not included in the 2002-2003 State report (Wright & Sathe, 2005), but the 2002-2003 estimates are included in the 2003-2004 State report as part of the comparison tables (see Wright & Sathe, 2006). However, the Bayesian confidence intervals associated with these were not published.
2 Estimates for serious psychological distress (SPD) in the years 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 are not comparable with the 2004-2005 and subsequent SPD estimates. For more details, see Section A.8 in Appendix A of the 2005-2006 State report (Hughes et al., 2008). Note, in 2002-2003, SPD was referred to as "serious mental illness."
3 Questions used to determine a major depressive episode (MDE) were added in 2004. Only estimates for youths aged 12 to 17 are shown in the 2007-2008 report. Estimates for adults aged 18 or older were produced later and are in a separate table; for more details, see Section A.11 in Appendix A of this report. Note that the adult MDE estimates shown in the 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and 2006-2007 reports are not comparable with this report's adult MDE estimates. However, the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 adult-adjusted MDE estimates available at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH.aspx are comparable with this report's adult MDE estimates.
Yes = available, No = not available.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2010.
Illicit Drug Use in Past Month Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Marijuana Use in Past Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Marijuana Use in Past Month Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
First Use of Marijuana Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Cocaine Use in Past Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year No1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Alcohol Use in Past Month Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Underage Past Month Use of Alcohol No1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Underage Past Month Binge Alcohol Use No1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage
Once or Twice a Week
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tobacco Product Use in Past Month Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Cigarette Use in Past Month Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Past Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Alcohol Dependence in Past Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in Past Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Illicit Drug Dependence in Past Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in Past Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in Past Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in Past Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Serious Psychological Distress in Past Year2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in Past Year3 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Serious Mental Illness in Past Year No No No No No No Yes Yes
Any Mental Illness in Past Year No No No No No No Yes Yes
Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in Past Year No No No No No No Yes Yes

Appendix B: Tables of Model-Based Estimates
(50 States and the District of Columbia)

120320
Table B.1 – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 8.82 (8.56 - 9.09) 10.12   (9.73 - 10.51) 21.46 (20.89 - 22.05) 6.46 (6.16 - 6.76)
Northeast 9.49 (9.00 - 9.99) 10.50   (9.82 - 11.21) 24.77 (23.46 - 26.13) 6.79 (6.22 - 7.41)
Midwest 8.10 (7.75 - 8.46) 9.76   (9.23 - 10.32) 20.34 (19.28 - 21.44) 5.75 (5.33 - 6.21)
South 7.86 (7.51 - 8.23) 9.25 (8.74 - 9.79) 19.33 (18.29 - 20.40) 5.72 (5.28 - 6.19)
West 10.48   (9.92 - 11.07) 11.49 (10.67 - 12.37) 23.24 (21.89 - 24.65) 8.03 (7.36 - 8.76)
Alabama 7.25 (6.05 - 8.68) 9.28   (7.66 - 11.21) 17.60 (14.68 - 20.96) 5.22 (4.00 - 6.77)
Alaska 14.15 (12.04 - 16.54) 10.59   (8.69 - 12.84) 27.65 (23.88 - 31.77) 12.00   (9.55 - 14.98)
Arizona 9.53   (7.88 - 11.48) 10.87   (8.85 - 13.28) 20.02 (17.00 - 23.44) 7.58 (5.81 - 9.83)
Arkansas 7.80 (6.54 - 9.29) 9.73   (7.98 - 11.81) 18.04 (15.01 - 21.54) 5.87 (4.58 - 7.49)
California 10.43   (9.56 - 11.36) 11.91 (10.66 - 13.29) 23.10 (21.15 - 25.16) 7.82 (6.81 - 8.96)
Colorado 13.48 (11.63 - 15.57) 12.63 (10.52 - 15.09) 29.88 (26.28 - 33.75) 10.75   (8.69 - 13.23)
Connecticut 9.52   (8.06 - 11.23) 10.54   (8.63 - 12.82) 26.07 (22.51 - 29.97) 6.70 (5.17 - 8.64)
Delaware 8.48   (7.13 - 10.05) 11.33   (9.37 - 13.63) 23.45 (20.16 - 27.10) 5.67 (4.30 - 7.44)
District of Columbia 12.28 (10.46 - 14.37) 13.54 (11.19 - 16.30) 24.01 (20.48 - 27.95) 9.60   (7.55 - 12.13)
Florida 8.42 (7.62 - 9.30) 9.77   (8.64 - 11.04) 20.02 (18.21 - 21.95) 6.52 (5.61 - 7.57)
Georgia 7.32 (6.10 - 8.75) 8.91   (7.37 - 10.74) 17.84 (14.90 - 21.22) 5.26 (4.03 - 6.85)
Hawaii 9.69   (8.05 - 11.61) 10.33   (8.35 - 12.72) 23.44 (19.70 - 27.65) 7.43 (5.74 - 9.57)
Idaho 9.56   (8.00 - 11.38) 10.06   (8.30 - 12.14) 20.56 (17.56 - 23.93) 7.48 (5.77 - 9.66)
Illinois 8.35 (7.64 - 9.12) 10.18   (9.06 - 11.41) 22.07 (20.25 - 24.01) 5.64 (4.84 - 6.56)
Indiana 8.44 (7.12 - 9.97) 9.66   (7.91 - 11.74) 20.56 (17.56 - 23.93) 6.18 (4.80 - 7.92)
Iowa 5.82 (4.84 - 6.98) 9.72   (7.89 - 11.91) 15.51 (12.82 - 18.64) 3.60 (2.67 - 4.83)
Kansas 7.07 (5.88 - 8.47) 9.24   (7.60 - 11.20) 17.43 (14.46 - 20.86) 4.81 (3.65 - 6.31)
Kentucky 7.01 (5.84 - 8.39) 8.39   (6.82 - 10.29) 17.91 (15.07 - 21.16) 5.10 (3.91 - 6.63)
Louisiana 7.52 (6.31 - 8.95) 7.95 (6.44 - 9.79) 19.87 (16.87 - 23.26) 5.11 (3.91 - 6.66)
Maine 11.79 (10.08 - 13.74) 10.79   (8.94 - 12.96) 31.36 (27.69 - 35.27) 9.11   (7.24 - 11.41)
Maryland 8.11 (6.76 - 9.71) 10.12   (8.28 - 12.32) 21.44 (18.05 - 25.26) 5.61 (4.28 - 7.31)
Massachusetts 12.12 (10.52 - 13.92) 12.42 (10.41 - 14.75) 31.15 (27.50 - 35.05) 8.71   (7.01 - 10.77)
Michigan 10.37   (9.52 - 11.29) 10.64   (9.53 - 11.86) 22.70 (20.92 - 24.59) 8.21 (7.19 - 9.36)
Minnesota 6.97 (5.84 - 8.29) 8.14   (6.50 - 10.14) 18.60 (15.82 - 21.75) 4.83 (3.69 - 6.29)
Mississippi 6.95 (5.82 - 8.29) 9.26   (7.56 - 11.30) 16.67 (13.97 - 19.77) 4.81 (3.65 - 6.33)
Missouri 7.70 (6.42 - 9.21) 8.55   (7.03 - 10.37) 20.12 (17.01 - 23.63) 5.50 (4.20 - 7.16)
Montana 10.77   (9.22 - 12.53) 11.66   (9.73 - 13.91) 25.61 (22.29 - 29.24) 8.08   (6.41 - 10.14)
Nebraska 7.01 (5.88 - 8.33) 8.27   (6.71 - 10.15) 17.61 (14.79 - 20.83) 4.80 (3.68 - 6.24)
Nevada 9.70   (8.14 - 11.51) 11.33   (9.28 - 13.78) 22.23 (19.00 - 25.84) 7.56 (5.89 - 9.66)
New Hampshire 12.15 (10.37 - 14.18) 13.17 (10.96 - 15.76) 31.96 (28.33 - 35.82) 8.89   (6.95 - 11.31)
New Jersey 7.33 (6.12 - 8.74) 8.83   (7.23 - 10.74) 20.28 (17.10 - 23.89) 5.14 (3.93 - 6.69)
New Mexico 10.07   (8.51 - 11.88) 12.36 (10.22 - 14.87) 22.69 (19.52 - 26.21) 7.47 (5.78 - 9.59)
New York 9.82   (8.97 - 10.74) 10.86   (9.68 - 12.16) 24.39 (22.51 - 26.36) 7.12 (6.14 - 8.24)
North Carolina 8.88   (7.47 - 10.53) 9.79   (8.04 - 11.88) 22.23 (19.14 - 25.66) 6.54 (5.07 - 8.39)
North Dakota 5.30 (4.32 - 6.50) 7.45 (5.90 - 9.36) 11.98   (9.65 - 14.79) 3.51 (2.55 - 4.82)
Ohio 7.87 (7.16 - 8.64) 10.33   (9.24 - 11.54) 20.86 (19.17 - 22.67) 5.44 (4.63 - 6.38)
Oklahoma 9.66   (8.07 - 11.53) 9.99   (8.21 - 12.09) 21.82 (18.36 - 25.72) 7.38 (5.69 - 9.51)
Oregon 12.63 (10.84 - 14.67) 12.86 (10.77 - 15.30) 28.03 (24.43 - 31.93) 10.13   (8.15 - 12.53)
Pennsylvania 7.99 (7.20 - 8.86) 9.51   (8.40 - 10.74) 21.70 (19.75 - 23.79) 5.55 (4.70 - 6.56)
Rhode Island 13.21 (11.34 - 15.34) 12.85 (10.70 - 15.36) 32.35 (28.31 - 36.68) 9.64   (7.64 - 12.10)
South Carolina 8.88   (7.41 - 10.61) 8.70   (7.11 - 10.61) 21.11 (18.03 - 24.56) 6.87 (5.29 - 8.89)
South Dakota 6.07 (4.93 - 7.45) 8.62   (6.91 - 10.72) 15.03 (12.19 - 18.39) 4.12 (3.01 - 5.60)
Tennessee 7.07 (5.87 - 8.50) 8.31   (6.86 - 10.02) 17.60 (14.75 - 20.87) 5.27 (4.03 - 6.85)
Texas 7.32 (6.65 - 8.05) 9.09   (8.02 - 10.28) 17.98 (16.31 - 19.79) 5.03 (4.28 - 5.92)
Utah 5.60 (4.59 - 6.82) 6.89 (5.47 - 8.64) 12.14   (9.73 - 15.04) 3.80 (2.80 - 5.12)
Vermont 13.73 (11.87 - 15.83) 12.80 (10.69 - 15.24) 35.09 (31.28 - 39.09) 10.15   (8.09 - 12.66)
Virginia 7.53 (6.38 - 8.87) 9.13   (7.42 - 11.18) 19.68 (16.77 - 22.96) 5.22 (4.06 - 6.68)
Washington 10.82   (9.30 - 12.55) 10.81   (8.99 - 12.94) 26.07 (22.65 - 29.81) 8.32   (6.70 - 10.30)
West Virginia 8.40   (7.03 - 10.00) 9.36   (7.68 - 11.37) 22.12 (18.89 - 25.73) 6.22 (4.79 - 8.04)
Wisconsin 7.77 (6.52 - 9.24) 10.04   (8.31 - 12.08) 19.95 (16.82 - 23.49) 5.37 (4.13 - 6.97)
Wyoming 7.07 (5.93 - 8.41) 10.46   (8.60 - 12.67) 18.14 (15.33 - 21.34) 4.63 (3.47 - 6.16)
120320
Table B.2 – Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 11.47 (11.17 - 11.79) 13.84 (13.38 - 14.32) 30.39 (29.70 - 31.09) 7.88 (7.54 - 8.24)
Northeast 12.87 (12.31 - 13.45) 14.77 (13.94 - 15.64) 35.60 (34.25 - 36.97) 8.81 (8.16 - 9.51)
Midwest 10.79 (10.40 - 11.19) 13.04 (12.44 - 13.66) 29.66 (28.59 - 30.76) 7.21 (6.75 - 7.70)
South 9.94   (9.54 - 10.35) 12.60 (12.00 - 13.23) 26.58 (25.52 - 27.67) 6.75 (6.28 - 7.26)
West 13.44 (12.83 - 14.06) 15.81 (14.87 - 16.79) 32.87 (31.47 - 34.30) 9.59   (8.86 - 10.37)
Alabama 9.01   (7.67 - 10.57) 10.80   (8.97 - 12.94) 22.93 (19.76 - 26.44) 6.40 (5.00 - 8.15)
Alaska 17.51 (15.28 - 19.99) 16.11 (13.51 - 19.09) 36.77 (32.81 - 40.92) 13.92 (11.36 - 16.96)
Arizona 11.26   (9.54 - 13.25) 15.01 (12.64 - 17.73) 27.76 (24.19 - 31.65) 7.98   (6.17 - 10.27)
Arkansas 9.38   (7.96 - 11.04) 11.89   (9.86 - 14.27) 23.77 (20.61 - 27.24) 6.69 (5.19 - 8.58)
California 13.74 (12.77 - 14.76) 15.88 (14.42 - 17.46) 32.87 (30.79 - 35.02) 9.81   (8.65 - 11.10)
Colorado 16.93 (14.82 - 19.27) 19.05 (16.20 - 22.27) 40.92 (37.07 - 44.89) 12.54 (10.20 - 15.32)
Connecticut 13.79 (12.01 - 15.78) 16.77 (14.21 - 19.68) 39.03 (34.90 - 43.32) 9.31   (7.42 - 11.63)
Delaware 12.42 (10.79 - 14.26) 16.71 (14.18 - 19.58) 35.65 (31.95 - 39.54) 8.09   (6.37 - 10.23)
District of Columbia 16.14 (14.07 - 18.45) 16.66 (14.02 - 19.69) 34.39 (30.59 - 38.41) 12.08   (9.80 - 14.81)
Florida 10.76   (9.88 - 11.70) 14.10 (12.81 - 15.51) 28.67 (26.66 - 30.77) 7.70 (6.71 - 8.82)
Georgia 10.44   (8.89 - 12.22) 13.25 (11.12 - 15.72) 26.24 (22.88 - 29.91) 7.29 (5.67 - 9.34)
Hawaii 11.62   (9.89 - 13.59) 13.86 (11.41 - 16.73) 31.46 (27.40 - 35.83) 8.22   (6.46 - 10.42)
Idaho 12.30 (10.65 - 14.17) 13.96 (11.79 - 16.46) 29.75 (26.25 - 33.50) 8.89   (7.10 - 11.07)
Illinois 11.27 (10.44 - 12.15) 13.40 (12.15 - 14.77) 31.15 (29.18 - 33.20) 7.40 (6.47 - 8.46)
Indiana 10.18   (8.77 - 11.79) 12.38 (10.44 - 14.62) 28.29 (24.88 - 31.96) 6.76 (5.32 - 8.56)
Iowa 8.86   (7.52 - 10.42) 13.13 (10.95 - 15.67) 24.46 (21.15 - 28.10) 5.53 (4.19 - 7.25)
Kansas 9.71   (8.35 - 11.26) 12.59 (10.51 - 15.00) 26.91 (23.43 - 30.70) 6.04 (4.68 - 7.77)
Kentucky 8.10 (6.87 - 9.52) 11.19   (9.22 - 13.52) 22.88 (19.64 - 26.48) 5.37 (4.14 - 6.95)
Louisiana 8.73   (7.44 - 10.21) 10.55   (8.71 - 12.74) 24.09 (20.97 - 27.52) 5.55 (4.22 - 7.27)
Maine 14.68 (12.86 - 16.72) 15.28 (12.88 - 18.04) 41.89 (38.04 - 45.84) 10.76   (8.76 - 13.15)
Maryland 10.09   (8.58 - 11.82) 13.72 (11.42 - 16.40) 30.94 (26.99 - 35.18) 6.12 (4.62 - 8.06)
Massachusetts 16.73 (14.88 - 18.76) 17.38 (14.82 - 20.27) 44.29 (40.32 - 48.35) 11.77   (9.75 - 14.15)
Michigan 13.05 (12.10 - 14.06) 14.30 (13.02 - 15.67) 32.59 (30.60 - 34.64) 9.53   (8.42 - 10.77)
Minnesota 10.61   (9.21 - 12.19) 11.90   (9.97 - 14.15) 30.02 (26.67 - 33.61) 7.11 (5.63 - 8.94)
Mississippi 8.50 (7.23 - 9.96) 10.65   (8.76 - 12.89) 21.70 (18.79 - 24.92) 5.73 (4.41 - 7.42)
Missouri 10.23   (8.73 - 11.95) 12.15 (10.11 - 14.53) 27.60 (24.20 - 31.28) 7.06 (5.51 - 9.00)
Montana 14.61 (12.81 - 16.62) 16.83 (14.35 - 19.63) 37.60 (33.76 - 41.60) 10.35   (8.38 - 12.72)
Nebraska 9.55   (8.23 - 11.06) 10.81   (8.90 - 13.07) 26.28 (22.92 - 29.93) 6.16 (4.81 - 7.85)
Nevada 11.25   (9.58 - 13.16) 15.02 (12.50 - 17.95) 28.03 (24.57 - 31.78) 8.19   (6.41 - 10.41)
New Hampshire 15.26 (13.38 - 17.35) 18.45 (15.68 - 21.58) 41.74 (37.94 - 45.64) 10.70   (8.62 - 13.21)
New Jersey 10.62   (9.12 - 12.34) 13.61 (11.42 - 16.14) 31.78 (27.98 - 35.84) 7.00 (5.46 - 8.92)
New Mexico 12.50 (10.87 - 14.33) 18.12 (15.54 - 21.03) 31.97 (28.40 - 35.77) 8.21   (6.44 - 10.41)
New York 13.00 (12.04 - 14.03) 14.32 (12.94 - 15.82) 34.56 (32.48 - 36.70) 9.03   (7.93 - 10.27)
North Carolina 10.67   (9.23 - 12.30) 12.38 (10.38 - 14.71) 30.26 (26.82 - 33.94) 7.19 (5.68 - 9.07)
North Dakota 8.35 (7.15 - 9.74) 9.84   (8.09 - 11.93) 22.55 (19.56 - 25.85) 4.89 (3.71 - 6.41)
Ohio 10.37   (9.60 - 11.19) 13.13 (11.90 - 14.47) 30.67 (28.83 - 32.58) 6.71 (5.83 - 7.70)
Oklahoma 11.09   (9.41 - 13.04) 13.92 (11.63 - 16.58) 27.95 (24.16 - 32.08) 7.62 (5.92 - 9.76)
Oregon 15.79 (13.82 - 17.99) 19.53 (16.96 - 22.39) 38.90 (34.92 - 43.03) 11.66   (9.51 - 14.23)
Pennsylvania 10.97 (10.09 - 11.92) 13.62 (12.27 - 15.09) 31.43 (29.35 - 33.60) 7.29 (6.31 - 8.41)
Rhode Island 16.10 (14.08 - 18.35) 17.03 (14.45 - 19.97) 42.69 (38.49 - 47.00) 10.98   (8.81 - 13.59)
South Carolina 10.52   (8.95 - 12.32) 12.07 (10.13 - 14.33) 28.75 (25.17 - 32.61) 7.31 (5.68 - 9.36)
South Dakota 8.79   (7.49 - 10.29) 11.22   (9.15 - 13.68) 25.66 (22.17 - 29.50) 5.40 (4.15 - 7.01)
Tennessee 9.49   (8.08 - 11.13) 11.08   (9.30 - 13.16) 25.96 (22.58 - 29.65) 6.71 (5.24 - 8.56)
Texas 9.19   (8.42 - 10.01) 12.38 (11.14 - 13.74) 23.83 (22.01 - 25.75) 5.93 (5.07 - 6.93)
Utah 6.94 (5.87 - 8.19) 9.27   (7.48 - 11.43) 18.52 (15.55 - 21.91) 3.70 (2.69 - 5.07)
Vermont 16.99 (15.06 - 19.11) 17.88 (15.29 - 20.80) 46.35 (42.30 - 50.44) 11.83   (9.66 - 14.41)
Virginia 10.35   (8.93 - 11.97) 13.10 (11.04 - 15.48) 29.32 (25.88 - 33.02) 6.71 (5.25 - 8.54)
Washington 13.98 (12.22 - 15.95) 15.32 (12.99 - 17.99) 38.50 (34.66 - 42.48) 9.81   (7.92 - 12.09)
West Virginia 10.28   (8.79 - 11.99) 12.36 (10.29 - 14.77) 27.49 (24.03 - 31.23) 7.47 (5.91 - 9.39)
Wisconsin 10.50   (9.05 - 12.15) 13.94 (11.78 - 16.41) 29.61 (26.09 - 33.39) 6.75 (5.29 - 8.58)
Wyoming 9.27   (7.93 - 10.82) 13.83 (11.52 - 16.52) 25.60 (22.34 - 29.17) 5.72 (4.37 - 7.47)
120320
Table B.3 – Marijuana Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 6.77 (6.55 - 7.00) 7.38 (7.05 - 7.73) 18.39 (17.84 - 18.95) 4.68 (4.43 - 4.94)
Northeast 7.55 (7.13 - 7.99) 8.43 (7.81 - 9.08) 21.98 (20.73 - 23.28) 5.01 (4.54 - 5.53)
Midwest 6.34 (6.03 - 6.66) 7.13 (6.69 - 7.60) 17.55 (16.53 - 18.61) 4.28 (3.94 - 4.66)
South 5.73 (5.44 - 6.04) 6.44 (6.00 - 6.91) 16.18 (15.19 - 17.21) 3.85 (3.52 - 4.22)
West 8.21 (7.72 - 8.73) 8.32 (7.65 - 9.04) 19.80 (18.53 - 21.13) 6.09 (5.52 - 6.72)
Alabama 4.94 (3.99 - 6.10) 5.75 (4.50 - 7.31) 13.90 (11.28 - 17.02) 3.30 (2.41 - 4.48)
Alaska 11.84   (9.89 - 14.12) 8.64   (6.79 - 10.93) 24.46 (21.06 - 28.21) 9.82   (7.62 - 12.57)
Arizona 6.52 (5.25 - 8.06) 7.58 (5.95 - 9.61) 15.95 (13.19 - 19.16) 4.78 (3.49 - 6.52)
Arkansas 5.47 (4.43 - 6.73) 6.38 (4.92 - 8.25) 13.88 (11.39 - 16.80) 3.96 (2.94 - 5.32)
California 8.23 (7.46 - 9.07) 8.60 (7.55 - 9.77) 19.94 (18.14 - 21.88) 5.96 (5.09 - 6.97)
Colorado 11.29   (9.55 - 13.30) 9.91   (7.91 - 12.34) 26.35 (22.93 - 30.07) 8.86   (6.96 - 11.20)
Connecticut 7.69 (6.37 - 9.24) 8.86   (7.12 - 10.98) 23.56 (20.22 - 27.26) 4.96 (3.65 - 6.71)
Delaware 6.98 (5.75 - 8.44) 8.49   (6.76 - 10.63) 21.05 (17.92 - 24.57) 4.48 (3.29 - 6.07)
District of Columbia 10.04   (8.47 - 11.86) 9.31   (7.34 - 11.74) 21.14 (17.77 - 24.94) 7.67 (5.93 - 9.86)
Florida 6.10 (5.45 - 6.82) 6.92 (6.01 - 7.95) 17.22 (15.53 - 19.06) 4.33 (3.63 - 5.17)
Georgia 5.50 (4.46 - 6.76) 6.42 (5.05 - 8.13) 14.91 (12.34 - 17.90) 3.73 (2.72 - 5.09)
Hawaii 7.88 (6.37 - 9.70) 7.90   (6.16 - 10.07) 19.89 (16.45 - 23.86) 5.97 (4.44 - 7.97)
Idaho 7.29 (5.96 - 8.87) 7.63 (6.10 - 9.50) 16.49 (13.85 - 19.51) 5.56 (4.16 - 7.39)
Illinois 6.50 (5.91 - 7.14) 7.53 (6.57 - 8.61) 18.79 (17.14 - 20.56) 4.15 (3.51 - 4.90)
Indiana 6.10 (5.05 - 7.34) 6.68 (5.31 - 8.38) 17.50 (14.65 - 20.76) 4.05 (3.04 - 5.37)
Iowa 4.92 (3.99 - 6.05) 6.94 (5.46 - 8.79) 14.27 (11.71 - 17.29) 2.99 (2.16 - 4.13)
Kansas 5.33 (4.33 - 6.54) 6.42 (5.02 - 8.18) 14.07 (11.53 - 17.07) 3.52 (2.58 - 4.78)
Kentucky 4.58 (3.70 - 5.65) 5.44 (4.17 - 7.07) 14.26 (11.73 - 17.22) 2.93 (2.12 - 4.03)
Louisiana 5.19 (4.24 - 6.35) 5.28 (4.08 - 6.80) 15.76 (13.20 - 18.72) 3.17 (2.28 - 4.39)
Maine 9.77   (8.17 - 11.65) 8.94   (7.22 - 11.01) 27.34 (23.84 - 31.14) 7.36 (5.65 - 9.54)
Maryland 6.11 (4.98 - 7.48) 7.07 (5.51 - 9.04) 19.01 (15.85 - 22.62) 3.81 (2.77 - 5.23)
Massachusetts 10.11   (8.70 - 11.71) 10.27   (8.42 - 12.47) 27.98 (24.57 - 31.66) 6.92 (5.49 - 8.70)
Michigan 8.43 (7.64 - 9.29) 8.09 (7.11 - 9.19) 20.06 (18.35 - 21.88) 6.47 (5.56 - 7.52)
Minnesota 5.93 (4.87 - 7.20) 6.09 (4.77 - 7.75) 16.76 (14.08 - 19.82) 4.05 (3.01 - 5.42)
Mississippi 4.69 (3.78 - 5.82) 5.22 (4.04 - 6.73) 12.57 (10.25 - 15.33) 3.15 (2.27 - 4.34)
Missouri 6.13 (5.00 - 7.50) 6.42 (5.05 - 8.13) 17.44 (14.63 - 20.66) 4.18 (3.09 - 5.64)
Montana 9.24   (7.80 - 10.90) 9.61   (7.80 - 11.78) 22.71 (19.67 - 26.07) 6.84 (5.31 - 8.79)
Nebraska 5.88 (4.83 - 7.13) 6.30 (4.92 - 8.03) 15.44 (12.81 - 18.51) 3.98 (2.97 - 5.32)
Nevada 7.01 (5.75 - 8.54) 7.61 (6.00 - 9.61) 18.16 (15.38 - 21.32) 5.22 (3.92 - 6.93)
New Hampshire 9.96   (8.38 - 11.81) 11.51   (9.35 - 14.10) 28.29 (24.97 - 31.87) 6.88 (5.21 - 9.05)
New Jersey 5.66 (4.67 - 6.86) 7.21 (5.71 - 9.06) 17.95 (14.99 - 21.36) 3.58 (2.66 - 4.79)
New Mexico 7.73 (6.40 - 9.29) 9.34   (7.50 - 11.57) 19.25 (16.34 - 22.53) 5.41 (4.05 - 7.20)
New York 7.75 (7.02 - 8.54) 8.58 (7.55 - 9.73) 21.46 (19.64 - 23.41) 5.22 (4.42 - 6.16)
North Carolina 7.07 (5.84 - 8.53) 7.10 (5.69 - 8.83) 19.72 (16.84 - 22.96) 4.96 (3.72 - 6.57)
North Dakota 4.10 (3.30 - 5.08) 4.40 (3.29 - 5.86) 9.98   (7.94 - 12.48) 2.71 (1.95 - 3.76)
Ohio 6.03 (5.45 - 6.66) 7.61 (6.70 - 8.64) 18.34 (16.74 - 20.05) 3.81 (3.19 - 4.55)
Oklahoma 6.90 (5.57 - 8.52) 7.17 (5.62 - 9.10) 17.36 (14.31 - 20.91) 4.94 (3.62 - 6.70)
Oregon 10.21   (8.58 - 12.11) 9.46   (7.71 - 11.56) 23.88 (20.68 - 27.41) 8.11   (6.33 - 10.33)
Pennsylvania 6.17 (5.53 - 6.88) 7.40 (6.41 - 8.54) 19.18 (17.35 - 21.16) 3.88 (3.22 - 4.67)
Rhode Island 10.80   (9.16 - 12.69) 9.63   (7.74 - 11.92) 29.83 (26.08 - 33.88) 7.34 (5.68 - 9.45)
South Carolina 5.99 (4.89 - 7.32) 5.74 (4.44 - 7.39) 17.59 (14.65 - 20.99) 4.10 (3.03 - 5.52)
South Dakota 4.92 (3.93 - 6.15) 5.51 (4.24 - 7.13) 13.31 (10.73 - 16.39) 3.32 (2.38 - 4.61)
Tennessee 4.67 (3.78 - 5.75) 5.34 (4.19 - 6.77) 14.17 (11.64 - 17.15) 3.09 (2.26 - 4.22)
Texas 5.40 (4.84 - 6.02) 6.49 (5.62 - 7.49) 14.74 (13.17 - 16.46) 3.46 (2.87 - 4.18)
Utah 3.11 (2.43 - 3.98) 3.68 (2.64 - 5.10) 7.74   (5.86 - 10.16) 1.90 (1.30 - 2.77)
Vermont 11.57   (9.89 - 13.50) 10.65   (8.62 - 13.08) 32.01 (28.39 - 35.86) 8.15   (6.37 - 10.38)
Virginia 5.85 (4.84 - 7.07) 6.74 (5.40 - 8.39) 17.40 (14.68 - 20.50) 3.73 (2.78 - 5.01)
Washington 8.86   (7.46 - 10.50) 8.01 (6.47 - 9.87) 22.74 (19.54 - 26.29) 6.69 (5.24 - 8.52)
West Virginia 5.99 (4.90 - 7.32) 6.14 (4.78 - 7.85) 18.89 (15.95 - 22.22) 4.03 (2.97 - 5.46)
Wisconsin 5.67 (4.63 - 6.94) 6.87 (5.47 - 8.60) 15.81 (13.14 - 18.90) 3.76 (2.76 - 5.10)
Wyoming 5.37 (4.38 - 6.57) 7.07 (5.56 - 8.97) 15.26 (12.71 - 18.22) 3.35 (2.40 - 4.67)
120320
Table B.4 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 33.57 (33.03 - 34.11) 29.93 (29.35 - 30.52) 19.24 (18.69 - 19.79) 36.52 (35.84 - 37.21)
Northeast 31.35 (30.34 - 32.38) 26.17 (25.05 - 27.33) 16.00 (15.03 - 17.01) 34.55 (33.29 - 35.84)
Midwest 31.95 (31.15 - 32.76) 31.09 (30.20 - 32.00) 17.48 (16.68 - 18.31) 34.59 (33.60 - 35.59)
South 37.98 (37.15 - 38.82) 32.77 (31.85 - 33.70) 22.15 (21.27 - 23.06) 41.35 (40.31 - 42.40)
West 29.89 (28.86 - 30.94) 27.27 (26.12 - 28.45) 18.88 (17.75 - 20.07) 32.24 (30.93 - 33.57)
Alabama 41.00 (37.78 - 44.29) 40.12 (36.41 - 43.95) 28.46 (24.96 - 32.23) 43.26 (39.28 - 47.33)
Alaska 24.37 (21.41 - 27.59) 25.56 (21.86 - 29.65) 14.70 (12.14 - 17.69) 26.10 (22.41 - 30.16)
Arizona 31.99 (28.72 - 35.45) 27.03 (23.34 - 31.08) 21.41 (18.45 - 24.70) 34.42 (30.34 - 38.74)
Arkansas 37.94 (34.65 - 41.35) 34.01 (30.27 - 37.96) 21.21 (18.28 - 24.48) 41.20 (37.16 - 45.35)
California 31.22 (29.63 - 32.87) 26.14 (24.35 - 28.02) 20.22 (18.55 - 22.00) 34.01 (31.97 - 36.11)
Colorado 22.32 (19.64 - 25.25) 23.10 (19.90 - 26.65) 13.21 (11.00 - 15.78) 23.80 (20.54 - 27.39)
Connecticut 31.35 (28.16 - 34.72) 23.45 (20.12 - 27.15) 15.41 (12.95 - 18.25) 34.91 (30.97 - 39.08)
Delaware 30.69 (27.53 - 34.04) 28.07 (24.65 - 31.75) 15.46 (13.21 - 18.01) 33.51 (29.66 - 37.59)
District of Columbia 26.77 (23.90 - 29.85) 24.44 (20.79 - 28.49) 15.44 (12.97 - 18.28) 29.47 (25.95 - 33.25)
Florida 40.76 (39.01 - 42.53) 31.86 (29.89 - 33.90) 21.77 (20.10 - 23.55) 44.57 (42.42 - 46.74)
Georgia 35.37 (32.28 - 38.59) 30.20 (26.79 - 33.85) 21.30 (18.48 - 24.41) 38.54 (34.71 - 42.51)
Hawaii 31.75 (28.62 - 35.06) 26.38 (22.82 - 30.28) 18.90 (16.00 - 22.18) 34.38 (30.61 - 38.35)
Idaho 33.15 (30.21 - 36.23) 32.33 (28.84 - 36.04) 20.91 (18.13 - 23.98) 35.50 (31.81 - 39.38)
Illinois 32.81 (31.22 - 34.44) 29.72 (27.79 - 31.73) 18.69 (17.15 - 20.33) 35.76 (33.75 - 37.82)
Indiana 33.20 (30.33 - 36.21) 34.29 (30.80 - 37.96) 17.84 (15.35 - 20.64) 35.72 (32.16 - 39.44)
Iowa 33.24 (30.11 - 36.52) 33.37 (29.87 - 37.06) 17.70 (15.22 - 20.48) 36.03 (32.14 - 40.11)
Kansas 34.85 (31.67 - 38.18) 31.61 (28.05 - 35.40) 17.94 (15.27 - 20.96) 38.51 (34.54 - 42.64)
Kentucky 38.14 (35.00 - 41.39) 39.48 (35.54 - 43.57) 24.10 (21.05 - 27.43) 40.22 (36.41 - 44.14)
Louisiana 40.54 (37.35 - 43.82) 35.14 (31.62 - 38.83) 24.59 (21.66 - 27.77) 44.31 (40.31 - 48.38)
Maine 25.13 (22.28 - 28.22) 26.52 (23.34 - 29.97) 12.79 (10.64 - 15.29) 26.74 (23.34 - 30.43)
Maryland 33.01 (29.52 - 36.70) 26.54 (22.95 - 30.47) 16.80 (14.11 - 19.88) 36.55 (32.23 - 41.09)
Massachusetts 24.96 (22.15 - 28.01) 20.44 (17.49 - 23.76) 11.03   (9.03 - 13.41) 27.95 (24.47 - 31.72)
Michigan 29.36 (27.80 - 30.98) 28.40 (26.64 - 30.23) 16.21 (14.78 - 17.74) 31.75 (29.77 - 33.80)
Minnesota 27.72 (24.84 - 30.80) 28.73 (25.40 - 32.31) 15.82 (13.52 - 18.43) 29.65 (26.11 - 33.44)
Mississippi 45.18 (41.96 - 48.45) 41.61 (37.57 - 45.77) 27.86 (24.56 - 31.41) 48.92 (44.87 - 52.99)
Missouri 34.16 (31.14 - 37.31) 31.67 (28.33 - 35.21) 19.19 (16.57 - 22.11) 36.99 (33.24 - 40.91)
Montana 27.58 (24.77 - 30.58) 26.18 (23.03 - 29.60) 13.20 (11.05 - 15.70) 30.24 (26.78 - 33.95)
Nebraska 34.47 (31.32 - 37.76) 36.34 (32.54 - 40.32) 17.72 (15.22 - 20.53) 37.46 (33.52 - 41.58)
Nevada 31.64 (28.54 - 34.93) 29.66 (25.78 - 33.86) 19.31 (16.57 - 22.37) 33.79 (29.99 - 37.82)
New Hampshire 24.05 (21.25 - 27.09) 22.33 (19.22 - 25.77) 10.99   (9.08 - 13.24) 26.32 (22.88 - 30.07)
New Jersey 34.07 (30.89 - 37.39) 26.87 (23.65 - 30.36) 17.03 (14.39 - 20.03) 37.57 (33.71 - 41.59)
New Mexico 36.17 (32.88 - 39.59) 26.49 (23.14 - 30.14) 19.16 (16.40 - 22.25) 40.53 (36.42 - 44.79)
New York 32.77 (31.10 - 34.49) 26.59 (24.69 - 28.58) 17.92 (16.33 - 19.62) 36.14 (34.04 - 38.29)
North Carolina 33.32 (30.25 - 36.53) 27.56 (24.23 - 31.15) 19.21 (16.56 - 22.19) 36.37 (32.58 - 40.33)
North Dakota 35.80 (32.83 - 38.87) 35.51 (31.77 - 39.43) 20.10 (17.50 - 22.98) 39.48 (35.69 - 43.40)
Ohio 32.47 (30.78 - 34.20) 31.33 (29.47 - 33.26) 17.18 (15.79 - 18.66) 35.11 (32.99 - 37.29)
Oklahoma 36.43 (33.25 - 39.74) 33.30 (29.59 - 37.24) 20.60 (17.76 - 23.75) 39.76 (35.78 - 43.88)
Oregon 22.71 (20.01 - 25.66) 24.28 (21.19 - 27.66) 11.75   (9.67 - 14.21) 24.29 (21.03 - 27.87)
Pennsylvania 32.93 (31.17 - 34.75) 29.41 (27.43 - 31.47) 16.62 (15.08 - 18.28) 36.03 (33.83 - 38.29)
Rhode Island 26.90 (23.84 - 30.20) 24.53 (21.15 - 28.26) 12.09   (9.90 - 14.68) 29.97 (26.15 - 34.10)
South Carolina 38.58 (35.20 - 42.08) 30.94 (27.58 - 34.52) 20.86 (18.03 - 24.02) 42.44 (38.27 - 46.71)
South Dakota 35.85 (32.62 - 39.21) 34.30 (30.45 - 38.37) 18.54 (15.80 - 21.64) 39.21 (35.21 - 43.35)
Tennessee 37.04 (33.57 - 40.64) 31.96 (28.61 - 35.51) 18.65 (15.93 - 21.72) 40.53 (36.26 - 44.95)
Texas 40.40 (38.66 - 42.16) 35.65 (33.58 - 37.76) 25.32 (23.61 - 27.12) 43.96 (41.71 - 46.24)
Utah 37.59 (34.69 - 40.58) 44.80 (40.81 - 48.85) 25.32 (22.15 - 28.77) 39.42 (35.63 - 43.35)
Vermont 22.73 (19.93 - 25.80) 23.35 (20.16 - 26.88) 10.51   (8.60 - 12.79) 24.77 (21.32 - 28.59)
Virginia 32.65 (29.53 - 35.94) 26.95 (23.68 - 30.49) 18.40 (15.76 - 21.36) 35.82 (31.96 - 39.89)
Washington 24.31 (21.50 - 27.37) 28.04 (24.73 - 31.60) 13.77 (11.57 - 16.31) 25.59 (22.18 - 29.34)
West Virginia 39.95 (36.69 - 43.31) 35.75 (32.14 - 39.53) 21.16 (18.41 - 24.18) 43.22 (39.23 - 47.31)
Wisconsin 29.91 (27.00 - 33.00) 32.53 (29.15 - 36.10) 15.91 (13.52 - 18.64) 32.04 (28.45 - 35.85)
Wyoming 33.76 (30.68 - 36.99) 36.98 (33.04 - 41.10) 20.06 (17.23 - 23.23) 35.88 (32.02 - 39.94)
120320
Table B.5 – First Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Average annual marijuana initiation rate = 100 × {[X1 ÷ (0.5 × X1 + X2)] ÷ 2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of persons who never used marijuana. Both of the computation components, X1 and X2, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach. Note that the age group is based on a respondent's age at the time of the interview, not his or her age at first use.
NOTE: The State and census region Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals presented above use a simultaneous solution for the First Use of Marijuana and Never Used Marijuana outcomes, which had age group-specific random effects that were allowed to be correlated across the two outcomes. The associated Markov Chain Monte Carlo chains were used to calculate the posterior variance. For the "Total U.S." row, design based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 1.82 (1.76 - 1.89) 5.93 (5.69 - 6.17) 7.29 (6.94 - 7.66) 0.16 (0.12 - 0.20)
Northeast 1.94 (1.84 - 2.06) 6.24 (5.87 - 6.63) 8.43 (7.82 - 9.09) 0.15 (0.11 - 0.21)
Midwest 1.83 (1.75 - 1.92) 5.71 (5.44 - 6.00) 7.46 (7.03 - 7.91) 0.14 (0.10 - 0.19)
South 1.62 (1.54 - 1.70) 5.34 (5.08 - 5.62) 6.58 (6.19 - 7.00) 0.14 (0.10 - 0.20)
West 2.07 (1.95 - 2.20) 6.82 (6.39 - 7.28) 7.49 (6.90 - 8.13) 0.20 (0.14 - 0.28)
Alabama 1.42 (1.22 - 1.66) 4.54 (3.76 - 5.47) 5.74 (4.64 - 7.08) 0.13 (0.09 - 0.20)
Alaska 2.57 (2.20 - 3.01) 6.87 (5.73 - 8.21) 8.16   (6.47 - 10.24) 0.24 (0.15 - 0.38)
Arizona 1.79 (1.54 - 2.08) 6.33 (5.24 - 7.62) 6.35 (5.16 - 7.81) 0.17 (0.11 - 0.27)
Arkansas 1.49 (1.29 - 1.73) 5.00 (4.11 - 6.08) 6.25 (5.05 - 7.71) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.21)
California 2.09 (1.92 - 2.28) 6.88 (6.24 - 7.58) 7.40 (6.53 - 8.39) 0.20 (0.13 - 0.31)
Colorado 2.78 (2.39 - 3.22) 9.31   (7.83 - 11.03) 9.61   (7.77 - 11.83) 0.21 (0.13 - 0.34)
Connecticut 2.27 (1.96 - 2.64) 7.23 (6.06 - 8.60) 10.51   (8.60 - 12.78) 0.15 (0.09 - 0.24)
Delaware 2.19 (1.90 - 2.52) 7.25 (6.10 - 8.58) 9.24   (7.64 - 11.14) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.22)
District of Columbia 2.44 (2.11 - 2.82) 7.53 (6.27 - 9.02) 9.44   (7.75 - 11.46) 0.20 (0.13 - 0.32)
Florida 1.46 (1.33 - 1.60) 5.69 (5.11 - 6.33) 6.40 (5.64 - 7.26) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.21)
Georgia 1.88 (1.64 - 2.17) 6.09 (5.10 - 7.26) 6.58 (5.41 - 7.98) 0.15 (0.10 - 0.23)
Hawaii 1.87 (1.58 - 2.23) 6.85 (5.54 - 8.43) 8.24   (6.49 - 10.40) 0.21 (0.10 - 0.43)
Idaho 1.97 (1.72 - 2.26) 5.71 (4.77 - 6.83) 7.52 (6.18 - 9.12) 0.16 (0.11 - 0.25)
Illinois 1.84 (1.68 - 2.01) 5.67 (5.09 - 6.30) 7.69 (6.82 - 8.66) 0.14 (0.10 - 0.20)
Indiana 1.73 (1.50 - 1.99) 5.64 (4.69 - 6.76) 7.02 (5.72 - 8.59) 0.13 (0.09 - 0.20)
Iowa 1.79 (1.55 - 2.06) 5.97 (4.99 - 7.12) 7.04 (5.78 - 8.56) 0.13 (0.09 - 0.20)
Kansas 1.71 (1.47 - 1.99) 5.61 (4.67 - 6.72) 6.48 (5.22 - 8.03) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.22)
Kentucky 1.50 (1.29 - 1.74) 5.15 (4.23 - 6.26) 6.18 (5.01 - 7.60) 0.15 (0.10 - 0.24)
Louisiana 1.36 (1.17 - 1.58) 4.11 (3.34 - 5.04) 5.59 (4.50 - 6.91) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.23)
Maine 1.82 (1.58 - 2.10) 5.93 (4.99 - 7.05) 9.05   (7.39 - 11.04) 0.16 (0.10 - 0.24)
Maryland 1.83 (1.56 - 2.14) 5.59 (4.59 - 6.80) 8.01 (6.49 - 9.85) 0.12 (0.08 - 0.19)
Massachusetts 2.45 (2.12 - 2.82) 8.02 (6.84 - 9.38) 9.82   (7.96 - 12.07) 0.18 (0.12 - 0.29)
Michigan 2.19 (2.01 - 2.38) 6.04 (5.46 - 6.67) 8.93 (7.99 - 9.96) 0.15 (0.10 - 0.22)
Minnesota 1.85 (1.60 - 2.15) 5.42 (4.49 - 6.53) 7.65 (6.27 - 9.30) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.22)
Mississippi 1.38 (1.19 - 1.61) 4.16 (3.40 - 5.08) 5.29 (4.29 - 6.51) 0.13 (0.08 - 0.22)
Missouri 1.66 (1.44 - 1.92) 5.61 (4.71 - 6.67) 6.50 (5.29 - 7.97) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.22)
Montana 2.53 (2.20 - 2.91) 7.53 (6.40 - 8.83) 11.68   (9.70 - 14.01) 0.18 (0.12 - 0.30)
Nebraska 1.55 (1.34 - 1.80) 4.52 (3.74 - 5.45) 6.44 (5.24 - 7.89) 0.13 (0.08 - 0.22)
Nevada 1.80 (1.55 - 2.09) 6.51 (5.40 - 7.84) 6.37 (5.12 - 7.91) 0.18 (0.12 - 0.27)
New Hampshire 2.53 (2.17 - 2.95) 7.42 (6.23 - 8.81) 10.61   (8.71 - 12.87) 0.17 (0.10 - 0.27)
New Jersey 1.85 (1.61 - 2.13) 6.00 (5.05 - 7.12) 8.72   (7.10 - 10.66) 0.15 (0.09 - 0.22)
New Mexico 2.22 (1.92 - 2.56) 8.27 (7.02 - 9.73) 8.12 (6.61 - 9.94) 0.24 (0.13 - 0.42)
New York 1.82 (1.66 - 1.99) 5.71 (5.13 - 6.34) 7.43 (6.54 - 8.43) 0.16 (0.11 - 0.24)
North Carolina 1.60 (1.39 - 1.85) 5.36 (4.46 - 6.43) 6.85 (5.59 - 8.37) 0.13 (0.09 - 0.20)
North Dakota 1.60 (1.37 - 1.86) 4.52 (3.70 - 5.52) 6.14 (4.98 - 7.53) 0.13 (0.08 - 0.21)
Ohio 1.81 (1.67 - 1.96) 5.68 (5.14 - 6.27) 7.59 (6.81 - 8.45) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.20)
Oklahoma 1.60 (1.37 - 1.87) 5.55 (4.56 - 6.74) 6.07 (4.87 - 7.54) 0.16 (0.10 - 0.25)
Oregon 2.23 (1.92 - 2.57) 7.49 (6.37 - 8.78) 9.06   (7.30 - 11.19) 0.20 (0.13 - 0.30)
Pennsylvania 1.79 (1.64 - 1.96) 5.81 (5.23 - 6.45) 8.27 (7.31 - 9.35) 0.13 (0.08 - 0.19)
Rhode Island 2.42 (2.07 - 2.83) 7.17 (6.00 - 8.56) 10.13   (8.09 - 12.61) 0.19 (0.11 - 0.32)
South Carolina 1.54 (1.33 - 1.79) 4.89 (4.01 - 5.93) 7.07 (5.75 - 8.66) 0.13 (0.08 - 0.20)
South Dakota 1.62 (1.39 - 1.89) 4.84 (3.95 - 5.90) 7.04 (5.72 - 8.64) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.22)
Tennessee 1.39 (1.20 - 1.61) 4.26 (3.52 - 5.14) 6.65 (5.43 - 8.14) 0.13 (0.09 - 0.21)
Texas 1.75 (1.60 - 1.91) 5.48 (4.91 - 6.11) 6.48 (5.76 - 7.29) 0.16 (0.11 - 0.24)
Utah 1.36 (1.13 - 1.62) 4.03 (3.20 - 5.06) 3.96 (3.02 - 5.18) 0.16 (0.08 - 0.32)
Vermont 2.70 (2.32 - 3.15) 8.21 (6.91 - 9.72) 12.47 (10.16 - 15.20) 0.17 (0.10 - 0.29)
Virginia 1.81 (1.58 - 2.09) 5.64 (4.74 - 6.70) 7.65 (6.28 - 9.27) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.21)
Washington 2.10 (1.81 - 2.43) 6.21 (5.16 - 7.45) 9.37   (7.65 - 11.43) 0.19 (0.13 - 0.29)
West Virginia 1.42 (1.22 - 1.64) 5.56 (4.62 - 6.67) 6.40 (5.16 - 7.92) 0.14 (0.09 - 0.23)
Wisconsin 1.82 (1.59 - 2.10) 6.36 (5.37 - 7.52) 7.04 (5.69 - 8.68) 0.13 (0.09 - 0.21)
Wyoming 2.03 (1.76 - 2.35) 6.59 (5.51 - 7.87) 7.97 (6.49 - 9.75) 0.16 (0.10 - 0.25)
120320
Table B.6 – Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 3.60 (3.45 - 3.77) 4.52 (4.26 - 4.79) 8.16 (7.81 - 8.53) 2.69 (2.51 - 2.89)
Northeast 3.65 (3.35 - 3.98) 4.02 (3.62 - 4.47) 8.96 (8.26 - 9.71) 2.71 (2.37 - 3.10)
Midwest 3.31 (3.09 - 3.56) 4.49 (4.14 - 4.87) 8.00 (7.48 - 8.55) 2.35 (2.09 - 2.64)
South 3.51 (3.28 - 3.75) 4.47 (4.14 - 4.83) 7.60 (7.10 - 8.12) 2.69 (2.42 - 2.98)
West 3.98 (3.63 - 4.37) 4.99 (4.49 - 5.54) 8.56 (7.84 - 9.33) 3.02 (2.61 - 3.49)
Alabama 3.31 (2.58 - 4.24) 4.96 (3.90 - 6.30) 7.53 (5.74 - 9.82) 2.38 (1.64 - 3.44)
Alaska 3.98 (3.04 - 5.20) 3.79 (2.88 - 4.98) 7.91   (6.01 - 10.35) 3.24 (2.23 - 4.68)
Arizona 4.31 (3.32 - 5.59) 4.87 (3.75 - 6.31) 8.63   (6.68 - 11.08) 3.51 (2.43 - 5.05)
Arkansas 4.00 (3.14 - 5.08) 5.01 (3.93 - 6.38) 8.58   (6.72 - 10.90) 3.11 (2.20 - 4.39)
California 3.80 (3.29 - 4.38) 5.22 (4.47 - 6.08) 7.99 (6.94 - 9.19) 2.81 (2.24 - 3.52)
Colorado 4.17 (3.30 - 5.27) 4.63 (3.58 - 5.96) 9.75   (7.83 - 12.07) 3.16 (2.24 - 4.43)
Connecticut 3.77 (2.91 - 4.88) 4.16 (3.20 - 5.39) 9.07   (7.08 - 11.54) 2.86 (1.97 - 4.14)
Delaware 3.66 (2.85 - 4.70) 4.69 (3.64 - 6.02) 8.75   (6.88 - 11.07) 2.70 (1.85 - 3.92)
District of Columbia 4.65 (3.57 - 6.04) 4.37 (3.32 - 5.72) 7.80   (6.03 - 10.04) 3.99 (2.79 - 5.66)
Florida 3.47 (2.98 - 4.03) 4.47 (3.79 - 5.26) 7.13 (6.10 - 8.30) 2.81 (2.27 - 3.48)
Georgia 3.26 (2.53 - 4.19) 4.01 (3.12 - 5.14) 7.23 (5.61 - 9.29) 2.46 (1.69 - 3.59)
Hawaii 3.56 (2.70 - 4.68) 4.59 (3.40 - 6.16) 7.88   (5.87 - 10.52) 2.76 (1.88 - 4.05)
Idaho 3.91 (3.08 - 4.95) 4.61 (3.60 - 5.90) 8.49   (6.72 - 10.67) 2.98 (2.09 - 4.22)
Illinois 3.27 (2.85 - 3.77) 4.62 (3.93 - 5.43) 8.02 (6.97 - 9.21) 2.24 (1.77 - 2.84)
Indiana 3.45 (2.70 - 4.39) 4.77 (3.72 - 6.11) 7.91   (6.18 - 10.07) 2.51 (1.74 - 3.60)
Iowa 2.38 (1.80 - 3.14) 4.90 (3.70 - 6.46) 5.78 (4.26 - 7.81) 1.46 (0.90 - 2.36)
Kansas 3.41 (2.68 - 4.33) 4.42 (3.43 - 5.67) 8.11   (6.29 - 10.39) 2.38 (1.64 - 3.43)
Kentucky 3.42 (2.68 - 4.34) 4.62 (3.55 - 5.99) 8.17   (6.40 - 10.37) 2.52 (1.76 - 3.59)
Louisiana 4.14 (3.29 - 5.19) 4.20 (3.18 - 5.53) 9.56   (7.59 - 11.97) 3.09 (2.19 - 4.35)
Maine 3.65 (2.91 - 4.58) 4.30 (3.35 - 5.49) 10.90   (8.75 - 13.50) 2.56 (1.80 - 3.62)
Maryland 3.20 (2.39 - 4.27) 4.25 (3.24 - 5.57) 6.44 (4.78 - 8.63) 2.52 (1.68 - 3.76)
Massachusetts 4.24 (3.38 - 5.30) 4.25 (3.26 - 5.51) 11.20   (9.06 - 13.78) 3.00 (2.12 - 4.23)
Michigan 3.77 (3.29 - 4.31) 4.41 (3.77 - 5.16) 8.53 (7.50 - 9.69) 2.87 (2.32 - 3.53)
Minnesota 2.84 (2.18 - 3.69) 3.60 (2.74 - 4.71) 7.09 (5.49 - 9.11) 2.01 (1.35 - 3.00)
Mississippi 3.38 (2.66 - 4.30) 5.47 (4.24 - 7.02) 7.62 (5.96 - 9.68) 2.30 (1.56 - 3.39)
Missouri 2.99 (2.30 - 3.86) 4.15 (3.25 - 5.30) 7.46 (5.76 - 9.61) 2.09 (1.40 - 3.11)
Montana 3.15 (2.46 - 4.02) 4.59 (3.60 - 5.83) 7.68 (5.98 - 9.80) 2.19 (1.49 - 3.21)
Nebraska 2.98 (2.29 - 3.88) 4.07 (3.14 - 5.27) 6.51 (4.98 - 8.48) 2.16 (1.46 - 3.20)
Nevada 4.70 (3.68 - 5.99) 5.10 (3.89 - 6.66) 10.40   (8.29 - 12.98) 3.78 (2.66 - 5.35)
New Hampshire 4.65 (3.69 - 5.84) 4.39 (3.35 - 5.73) 12.60 (10.33 - 15.29) 3.42 (2.41 - 4.83)
New Jersey 3.33 (2.55 - 4.33) 3.56 (2.67 - 4.73) 8.26   (6.45 - 10.52) 2.54 (1.73 - 3.72)
New Mexico 4.00 (3.14 - 5.08) 5.48 (4.29 - 6.97) 8.74   (6.84 - 11.11) 2.94 (2.03 - 4.23)
New York 3.70 (3.18 - 4.29) 4.01 (3.36 - 4.78) 8.44 (7.34 - 9.68) 2.82 (2.24 - 3.54)
North Carolina 3.42 (2.68 - 4.37) 4.15 (3.23 - 5.32) 7.72 (6.03 - 9.83) 2.62 (1.83 - 3.74)
North Dakota 2.37 (1.79 - 3.13) 4.28 (3.20 - 5.70) 5.12 (3.75 - 6.95) 1.50 (0.94 - 2.39)
Ohio 3.48 (3.04 - 3.98) 4.64 (3.99 - 5.39) 8.70 (7.71 - 9.80) 2.48 (1.98 - 3.09)
Oklahoma 4.57 (3.59 - 5.80) 4.60 (3.54 - 5.96) 10.43   (8.15 - 13.26) 3.48 (2.46 - 4.91)
Oregon 4.38 (3.44 - 5.55) 5.52 (4.30 - 7.06) 9.95   (7.85 - 12.53) 3.35 (2.36 - 4.74)
Pennsylvania 3.21 (2.75 - 3.75) 4.07 (3.44 - 4.82) 7.99 (6.89 - 9.25) 2.33 (1.83 - 2.96)
Rhode Island 4.75 (3.71 - 6.05) 5.05 (3.92 - 6.49) 11.24   (8.89 - 14.11) 3.48 (2.41 - 5.02)
South Carolina 3.90 (2.92 - 5.19) 4.01 (3.05 - 5.25) 6.96 (5.20 - 9.25) 3.37 (2.29 - 4.94)
South Dakota 2.39 (1.78 - 3.22) 4.41 (3.27 - 5.93) 5.27 (3.77 - 7.33) 1.62 (1.00 - 2.60)
Tennessee 3.70 (2.87 - 4.77) 4.52 (3.55 - 5.73) 8.16   (6.34 - 10.44) 2.91 (2.03 - 4.15)
Texas 3.26 (2.83 - 3.76) 4.67 (3.96 - 5.49) 6.87 (5.92 - 7.96) 2.37 (1.89 - 2.98)
Utah 3.65 (2.89 - 4.60) 3.97 (3.05 - 5.14) 7.94   (6.23 - 10.06) 2.54 (1.75 - 3.67)
Vermont 4.57 (3.66 - 5.69) 4.10 (3.16 - 5.30) 12.73 (10.35 - 15.56) 3.21 (2.27 - 4.52)
Virginia 3.54 (2.75 - 4.54) 4.28 (3.34 - 5.46) 8.06   (6.35 - 10.19) 2.66 (1.84 - 3.85)
Washington 4.42 (3.48 - 5.60) 4.40 (3.39 - 5.69) 10.29   (8.18 - 12.87) 3.47 (2.47 - 4.85)
West Virginia 4.18 (3.29 - 5.30) 4.57 (3.53 - 5.89) 10.61   (8.57 - 13.06) 3.17 (2.24 - 4.48)
Wisconsin 3.71 (2.92 - 4.71) 4.87 (3.80 - 6.22) 9.68   (7.57 - 12.30) 2.53 (1.74 - 3.67)
Wyoming 3.27 (2.55 - 4.20) 4.98 (3.84 - 6.42) 7.41 (5.71 - 9.56) 2.31 (1.56 - 3.40)
120320
Table B.7 – Cocaine Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 1.85 (1.74 - 1.97) 0.98 (0.86 - 1.12) 5.00 (4.73 - 5.29) 1.41 (1.28 - 1.55)
Northeast 2.26 (2.02 - 2.52) 0.96 (0.80 - 1.15) 6.34 (5.72 - 7.02) 1.72 (1.46 - 2.03)
Midwest 1.54 (1.39 - 1.71) 0.93 (0.79 - 1.09) 4.27 (3.87 - 4.71) 1.14 (0.97 - 1.35)
South 1.66 (1.51 - 1.83) 0.89 (0.76 - 1.04) 4.25 (3.84 - 4.69) 1.32 (1.14 - 1.52)
West 2.10 (1.87 - 2.36) 1.20 (0.98 - 1.46) 5.80 (5.20 - 6.48) 1.55 (1.29 - 1.85)
Alabama 1.04 (0.66 - 1.61) 0.67 (0.45 - 1.01) 2.61 (1.68 - 4.04) 0.81 (0.45 - 1.46)
Alaska 2.31 (1.64 - 3.25) 0.88 (0.57 - 1.36) 5.90 (4.29 - 8.07) 1.81 (1.10 - 2.97)
Arizona 1.95 (1.36 - 2.80) 1.11 (0.77 - 1.60) 5.62 (4.08 - 7.69) 1.44 (0.88 - 2.37)
Arkansas 1.14 (0.76 - 1.71) 0.85 (0.57 - 1.27) 2.84 (1.89 - 4.24) 0.90 (0.52 - 1.53)
California 2.11 (1.75 - 2.53) 1.28 (0.96 - 1.70) 5.64 (4.73 - 6.72) 1.55 (1.17 - 2.04)
Colorado 3.06 (2.29 - 4.07) 1.15 (0.78 - 1.70) 8.44   (6.52 - 10.87) 2.36 (1.58 - 3.51)
Connecticut 1.69 (1.18 - 2.42) 1.04 (0.70 - 1.53) 5.13 (3.68 - 7.11) 1.21 (0.72 - 2.01)
Delaware 1.80 (1.26 - 2.57) 0.87 (0.59 - 1.27) 4.88 (3.50 - 6.78) 1.41 (0.88 - 2.25)
District of Columbia 3.13 (2.21 - 4.42) 0.38 (0.24 - 0.60) 4.26 (3.03 - 5.96) 3.13 (2.06 - 4.73)
Florida 1.85 (1.51 - 2.26) 0.88 (0.66 - 1.16) 5.05 (4.21 - 6.04) 1.47 (1.11 - 1.95)
Georgia 1.40 (0.94 - 2.08) 0.68 (0.46 - 1.01) 3.42 (2.35 - 4.94) 1.15 (0.69 - 1.91)
Hawaii 1.58 (1.08 - 2.32) 0.87 (0.55 - 1.38) 4.36 (2.99 - 6.31) 1.22 (0.73 - 2.03)
Idaho 1.07 (0.74 - 1.55) 1.03 (0.69 - 1.54) 3.55 (2.45 - 5.11) 0.63 (0.35 - 1.13)
Illinois 1.73 (1.42 - 2.09) 0.86 (0.65 - 1.14) 4.48 (3.75 - 5.34) 1.34 (1.01 - 1.77)
Indiana 1.16 (0.79 - 1.71) 0.90 (0.61 - 1.32) 3.37 (2.32 - 4.86) 0.82 (0.47 - 1.42)
Iowa 1.02 (0.69 - 1.51) 1.12 (0.72 - 1.71) 3.02 (2.04 - 4.47) 0.65 (0.35 - 1.19)
Kansas 1.58 (1.12 - 2.25) 1.07 (0.74 - 1.54) 4.56 (3.25 - 6.36) 1.08 (0.66 - 1.79)
Kentucky 1.26 (0.86 - 1.84) 1.05 (0.70 - 1.58) 3.71 (2.56 - 5.35) 0.89 (0.52 - 1.53)
Louisiana 1.65 (1.15 - 2.37) 0.72 (0.49 - 1.06) 3.68 (2.60 - 5.19) 1.39 (0.87 - 2.22)
Maine 1.99 (1.47 - 2.70) 1.05 (0.71 - 1.55) 6.94 (5.24 - 9.12) 1.39 (0.89 - 2.16)
Maryland 1.78 (1.20 - 2.64) 0.80 (0.54 - 1.20) 4.28 (2.99 - 6.08) 1.48 (0.90 - 2.44)
Massachusetts 2.97 (2.22 - 3.95) 0.99 (0.67 - 1.47) 8.12   (6.31 - 10.40) 2.28 (1.53 - 3.39)
Michigan 1.66 (1.36 - 2.02) 0.86 (0.67 - 1.12) 4.54 (3.80 - 5.42) 1.27 (0.95 - 1.70)
Minnesota 1.25 (0.86 - 1.82) 0.91 (0.61 - 1.34) 3.65 (2.56 - 5.19) 0.88 (0.51 - 1.50)
Mississippi 1.62 (1.11 - 2.37) 0.61 (0.41 - 0.92) 3.40 (2.38 - 4.85) 1.43 (0.89 - 2.30)
Missouri 1.69 (1.19 - 2.39) 0.92 (0.63 - 1.34) 4.58 (3.30 - 6.32) 1.30 (0.82 - 2.07)
Montana 1.84 (1.34 - 2.54) 1.03 (0.71 - 1.50) 5.76 (4.27 - 7.72) 1.25 (0.79 - 1.98)
Nebraska 1.39 (0.97 - 2.00) 1.02 (0.69 - 1.50) 3.89 (2.71 - 5.55) 0.96 (0.58 - 1.59)
Nevada 2.41 (1.74 - 3.33) 1.06 (0.70 - 1.58) 6.59 (5.00 - 8.64) 1.93 (1.25 - 2.98)
New Hampshire 2.73 (2.05 - 3.61) 1.08 (0.72 - 1.61) 8.63   (6.77 - 10.96) 1.98 (1.31 - 2.99)
New Jersey 2.21 (1.58 - 3.09) 0.93 (0.62 - 1.38) 5.99 (4.39 - 8.11) 1.79 (1.15 - 2.77)
New Mexico 2.42 (1.79 - 3.26) 1.29 (0.87 - 1.92) 6.75 (5.09 - 8.89) 1.77 (1.15 - 2.71)
New York 2.25 (1.87 - 2.71) 0.97 (0.73 - 1.28) 6.42 (5.46 - 7.54) 1.67 (1.26 - 2.20)
North Carolina 1.82 (1.27 - 2.60) 0.83 (0.57 - 1.21) 4.37 (3.17 - 5.99) 1.51 (0.95 - 2.40)
North Dakota 0.97 (0.65 - 1.45) 1.00 (0.63 - 1.57) 2.69 (1.79 - 4.03) 0.58 (0.31 - 1.08)
Ohio 1.48 (1.20 - 1.83) 0.96 (0.73 - 1.25) 4.12 (3.44 - 4.92) 1.11 (0.81 - 1.54)
Oklahoma 1.37 (0.92 - 2.03) 1.05 (0.71 - 1.54) 4.02 (2.74 - 5.86) 0.92 (0.52 - 1.62)
Oregon 1.95 (1.43 - 2.66) 1.24 (0.86 - 1.78) 6.25 (4.63 - 8.39) 1.34 (0.86 - 2.08)
Pennsylvania 1.96 (1.60 - 2.39) 0.88 (0.66 - 1.17) 5.17 (4.26 - 6.25) 1.55 (1.17 - 2.06)
Rhode Island 2.90 (2.10 - 3.98) 1.07 (0.73 - 1.57) 7.41 (5.59 - 9.77) 2.26 (1.45 - 3.50)
South Carolina 2.11 (1.46 - 3.05) 0.68 (0.45 - 1.02) 4.14 (2.95 - 5.76) 1.95 (1.24 - 3.04)
South Dakota 1.14 (0.75 - 1.71) 0.88 (0.57 - 1.34) 3.27 (2.20 - 4.85) 0.78 (0.44 - 1.38)
Tennessee 1.22 (0.80 - 1.86) 0.91 (0.61 - 1.34) 2.99 (1.99 - 4.47) 0.98 (0.57 - 1.70)
Texas 1.76 (1.45 - 2.14) 1.13 (0.87 - 1.47) 4.70 (3.91 - 5.64) 1.30 (0.97 - 1.74)
Utah 1.31 (0.91 - 1.88) 1.08 (0.72 - 1.62) 3.43 (2.36 - 4.95) 0.83 (0.48 - 1.45)
Vermont 3.05 (2.34 - 3.98) 1.22 (0.80 - 1.85) 9.96   (7.81 - 12.62) 2.06 (1.37 - 3.11)
Virginia 1.84 (1.34 - 2.54) 0.85 (0.59 - 1.23) 4.99 (3.71 - 6.67) 1.42 (0.92 - 2.18)
Washington 2.10 (1.52 - 2.91) 1.05 (0.74 - 1.51) 6.31 (4.69 - 8.42) 1.54 (0.98 - 2.42)
West Virginia 1.86 (1.34 - 2.58) 0.95 (0.63 - 1.41) 5.86 (4.41 - 7.76) 1.36 (0.86 - 2.14)
Wisconsin 2.01 (1.45 - 2.79) 1.00 (0.69 - 1.46) 5.93 (4.39 - 7.96) 1.45 (0.92 - 2.30)
Wyoming 1.39 (0.96 - 2.01) 0.99 (0.67 - 1.46) 4.50 (3.20 - 6.31) 0.87 (0.47 - 1.57)
120320
Table B.8 – Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 4.89 (4.70 - 5.07) 6.43 (6.13 - 6.75) 11.54 (11.12 - 11.97) 3.53 (3.32 - 3.76)
Northeast 4.50 (4.20 - 4.83) 5.41 (4.91 - 5.95) 11.99 (11.27 - 12.75) 3.13 (2.80 - 3.50)
Midwest 4.80 (4.55 - 5.08) 6.58 (6.16 - 7.02) 11.99 (11.38 - 12.63) 3.33 (3.04 - 3.64)
South 4.77 (4.50 - 5.05) 6.48 (6.06 - 6.92) 11.28 (10.71 - 11.87) 3.44 (3.14 - 3.76)
West 5.45 (5.05 - 5.89) 6.98 (6.37 - 7.63) 11.17 (10.41 - 11.98) 4.21 (3.73 - 4.74)
Alabama 4.62 (3.76 - 5.67) 7.29 (5.95 - 8.90) 11.08   (8.96 - 13.64) 3.18 (2.33 - 4.31)
Alaska 5.41 (4.38 - 6.65) 6.71 (5.23 - 8.58) 11.36   (9.20 - 13.96) 4.05 (2.98 - 5.48)
Arizona 6.31 (5.04 - 7.87) 7.58 (6.04 - 9.49) 12.68 (10.38 - 15.41) 5.07 (3.69 - 6.92)
Arkansas 5.51 (4.47 - 6.78) 7.48 (6.02 - 9.27) 12.39 (10.23 - 14.93) 4.13 (3.05 - 5.58)
California 4.95 (4.38 - 5.58) 6.61 (5.74 - 7.61) 9.68   (8.54 - 10.95) 3.82 (3.18 - 4.58)
Colorado 6.23 (5.06 - 7.65) 7.23 (5.80 - 8.98) 13.51 (11.25 - 16.15) 4.86 (3.61 - 6.51)
Connecticut 4.12 (3.29 - 5.15) 5.00 (3.91 - 6.38) 11.08   (9.00 - 13.58) 2.88 (2.06 - 4.01)
Delaware 5.56 (4.50 - 6.85) 6.19 (4.95 - 7.71) 13.70 (11.42 - 16.36) 4.14 (3.04 - 5.63)
District of Columbia 4.29 (3.37 - 5.44) 4.67 (3.59 - 6.06) 8.23   (6.55 - 10.30) 3.39 (2.43 - 4.70)
Florida 4.37 (3.82 - 4.99) 6.00 (5.19 - 6.92) 9.76   (8.57 - 11.10) 3.38 (2.78 - 4.10)
Georgia 4.27 (3.47 - 5.25) 6.04 (4.83 - 7.51) 10.47   (8.53 - 12.79) 2.95 (2.16 - 4.01)
Hawaii 4.22 (3.29 - 5.39) 5.35 (4.03 - 7.05) 9.25   (7.29 - 11.67) 3.30 (2.33 - 4.65)
Idaho 6.09 (5.01 - 7.39) 7.52 (6.08 - 9.26) 13.20 (10.96 - 15.81) 4.59 (3.43 - 6.13)
Illinois 3.94 (3.48 - 4.46) 5.47 (4.69 - 6.37) 10.04   (8.92 - 11.28) 2.64 (2.15 - 3.24)
Indiana 5.73 (4.75 - 6.89) 7.57 (6.14 - 9.29) 14.75 (12.34 - 17.53) 3.93 (2.95 - 5.21)
Iowa 3.69 (2.97 - 4.59) 6.41 (5.08 - 8.06) 9.10   (7.19 - 11.46) 2.39 (1.69 - 3.36)
Kansas 4.71 (3.87 - 5.71) 6.81 (5.48 - 8.44) 11.15   (9.02 - 13.71) 3.20 (2.37 - 4.29)
Kentucky 5.36 (4.42 - 6.49) 7.54 (6.09 - 9.30) 13.67 (11.37 - 16.36) 3.78 (2.83 - 5.02)
Louisiana 5.67 (4.68 - 6.86) 6.39 (5.10 - 7.96) 13.93 (11.61 - 16.63) 4.00 (2.99 - 5.33)
Maine 4.51 (3.66 - 5.55) 6.01 (4.77 - 7.55) 13.81 (11.42 - 16.62) 3.03 (2.20 - 4.16)
Maryland 4.23 (3.33 - 5.36) 5.80 (4.60 - 7.29) 10.17   (8.12 - 12.66) 3.03 (2.14 - 4.26)
Massachusetts 5.07 (4.17 - 6.15) 5.61 (4.45 - 7.04) 13.12 (10.89 - 15.73) 3.58 (2.69 - 4.75)
Michigan 5.53 (4.93 - 6.20) 6.40 (5.58 - 7.33) 13.41 (12.16 - 14.78) 4.06 (3.38 - 4.88)
Minnesota 4.09 (3.29 - 5.09) 5.73 (4.53 - 7.22) 10.79   (8.76 - 13.23) 2.74 (1.96 - 3.83)
Mississippi 5.10 (4.16 - 6.24) 8.52   (6.88 - 10.52) 11.06   (8.99 - 13.53) 3.51 (2.56 - 4.80)
Missouri 5.13 (4.23 - 6.22) 6.77 (5.47 - 8.34) 13.22 (10.90 - 15.96) 3.57 (2.66 - 4.76)
Montana 5.07 (4.17 - 6.16) 7.09 (5.74 - 8.72) 12.31 (10.15 - 14.85) 3.58 (2.65 - 4.82)
Nebraska 3.91 (3.16 - 4.83) 5.61 (4.44 - 7.06) 9.38   (7.57 - 11.58) 2.64 (1.92 - 3.62)
Nevada 5.96 (4.85 - 7.30) 7.74 (6.11 - 9.77) 13.22 (10.94 - 15.89) 4.62 (3.45 - 6.17)
New Hampshire 5.38 (4.39 - 6.57) 6.20 (4.88 - 7.85) 14.90 (12.52 - 17.65) 3.78 (2.77 - 5.12)
New Jersey 4.15 (3.35 - 5.13) 4.95 (3.86 - 6.33) 11.97   (9.80 - 14.54) 2.85 (2.06 - 3.92)
New Mexico 5.78 (4.66 - 7.15) 8.29   (6.68 - 10.25) 11.17   (9.15 - 13.56) 4.47 (3.26 - 6.09)
New York 4.45 (3.94 - 5.02) 5.26 (4.47 - 6.18) 11.55 (10.33 - 12.91) 3.09 (2.54 - 3.75)
North Carolina 4.54 (3.67 - 5.60) 6.89 (5.58 - 8.47) 10.58   (8.64 - 12.90) 3.25 (2.38 - 4.41)
North Dakota 4.11 (3.33 - 5.07) 6.66 (5.32 - 8.31) 9.05   (7.27 - 11.22) 2.66 (1.90 - 3.70)
Ohio 5.48 (4.93 - 6.09) 7.62 (6.74 - 8.61) 13.59 (12.34 - 14.95) 3.89 (3.27 - 4.62)
Oklahoma 7.01 (5.71 - 8.58) 7.94 (6.39 - 9.83) 15.65 (12.93 - 18.82) 5.30 (3.94 - 7.10)
Oregon 6.68 (5.46 - 8.15) 7.86 (6.39 - 9.64) 14.71 (12.26 - 17.55) 5.26 (3.96 - 6.97)
Pennsylvania 4.40 (3.87 - 5.00) 5.75 (4.94 - 6.68) 11.55 (10.30 - 12.94) 3.07 (2.50 - 3.76)
Rhode Island 5.93 (4.82 - 7.28) 6.29 (4.99 - 7.91) 14.64 (12.13 - 17.57) 4.24 (3.12 - 5.74)
South Carolina 5.06 (4.08 - 6.26) 6.06 (4.87 - 7.51) 12.30 (10.07 - 14.95) 3.74 (2.74 - 5.09)
South Dakota 3.64 (2.88 - 4.59) 6.08 (4.76 - 7.72) 8.48   (6.66 - 10.74) 2.45 (1.71 - 3.51)
Tennessee 4.44 (3.60 - 5.46) 6.19 (4.99 - 7.65) 11.90   (9.72 - 14.50) 3.05 (2.22 - 4.18)
Texas 4.62 (4.09 - 5.21) 6.10 (5.26 - 7.07) 10.60   (9.40 - 11.93) 3.26 (2.68 - 3.96)
Utah 4.92 (4.06 - 5.96) 6.57 (5.19 - 8.29) 10.31   (8.33 - 12.69) 3.31 (2.45 - 4.47)
Vermont 4.85 (3.94 - 5.95) 6.00 (4.81 - 7.45) 13.34 (11.11 - 15.94) 3.26 (2.36 - 4.50)
Virginia 5.13 (4.21 - 6.23) 6.97 (5.63 - 8.61) 12.48 (10.34 - 14.98) 3.62 (2.70 - 4.85)
Washington 6.20 (5.11 - 7.51) 7.48 (6.09 - 9.15) 14.44 (12.11 - 17.13) 4.70 (3.54 - 6.22)
West Virginia 5.61 (4.59 - 6.84) 7.25 (5.85 - 8.95) 14.39 (12.12 - 17.00) 4.11 (3.06 - 5.51)
Wisconsin 4.56 (3.68 - 5.64) 7.12 (5.75 - 8.79) 11.64   (9.42 - 14.31) 3.01 (2.14 - 4.21)
Wyoming 4.56 (3.69 - 5.64) 7.05 (5.61 - 8.83) 10.61   (8.64 - 12.98) 3.15 (2.27 - 4.36)
120320
Table B.9 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 51.84 (51.29 - 52.39) 14.23 (13.78 - 14.70) 61.59 (60.84 - 62.34) 54.88 (54.19 - 55.56)
Northeast 57.12 (55.79 - 58.44) 16.17 (15.31 - 17.07) 67.64 (65.81 - 69.41) 60.19 (58.65 - 61.71)
Midwest 54.66 (53.48 - 55.84) 14.20 (13.59 - 14.83) 64.95 (63.28 - 66.59) 57.98 (56.63 - 59.32)
South 47.78 (46.61 - 48.95) 13.40 (12.80 - 14.04) 57.73 (56.06 - 59.39) 50.41 (49.09 - 51.72)
West 51.40 (50.02 - 52.78) 14.12 (13.26 - 15.03) 59.80 (57.89 - 61.68) 54.77 (53.15 - 56.38)
Alabama 43.09 (39.90 - 46.34) 12.12 (10.23 - 14.29) 52.31 (48.01 - 56.57) 45.39 (41.57 - 49.27)
Alaska 52.81 (49.30 - 56.30) 13.67 (11.36 - 16.36) 59.18 (54.88 - 63.34) 57.10 (52.75 - 61.34)
Arizona 48.13 (44.47 - 51.82) 13.61 (11.34 - 16.25) 55.58 (51.47 - 59.62) 51.36 (46.91 - 55.80)
Arkansas 41.23 (37.94 - 44.60) 14.26 (12.00 - 16.87) 54.67 (50.58 - 58.70) 42.43 (38.44 - 46.52)
California 50.34 (48.43 - 52.25) 13.99 (12.69 - 15.41) 60.99 (58.47 - 63.46) 53.27 (50.91 - 55.62)
Colorado 62.68 (59.31 - 65.93) 17.66 (14.95 - 20.74) 69.60 (65.75 - 73.20) 66.87 (62.77 - 70.73)
Connecticut 59.38 (55.89 - 62.78) 17.75 (15.15 - 20.69) 68.76 (64.76 - 72.49) 62.98 (58.72 - 67.04)
Delaware 56.60 (53.04 - 60.08) 16.14 (13.79 - 18.80) 66.70 (62.86 - 70.33) 59.73 (55.40 - 63.92)
District of Columbia 61.58 (58.27 - 64.78) 14.09 (11.66 - 16.93) 71.99 (68.16 - 75.53) 63.51 (59.44 - 67.39)
Florida 50.70 (48.75 - 52.65) 14.36 (13.02 - 15.81) 56.80 (54.21 - 59.35) 53.73 (51.41 - 56.03)
Georgia 48.05 (44.62 - 51.50) 14.20 (12.03 - 16.69) 57.92 (53.82 - 61.91) 50.94 (46.75 - 55.11)
Hawaii 47.89 (44.42 - 51.39) 12.92 (10.58 - 15.69) 59.80 (55.21 - 64.22) 49.83 (45.73 - 53.93)
Idaho 47.46 (44.17 - 50.77) 13.15 (11.13 - 15.46) 54.67 (50.73 - 58.55) 50.98 (46.90 - 55.04)
Illinois 54.21 (52.39 - 56.02) 13.75 (12.41 - 15.20) 66.68 (64.24 - 69.03) 57.23 (55.02 - 59.41)
Indiana 49.42 (46.13 - 52.71) 12.70 (10.71 - 15.00) 60.22 (56.20 - 64.11) 52.31 (48.32 - 56.27)
Iowa 56.27 (52.89 - 59.59) 17.30 (14.82 - 20.09) 68.25 (64.36 - 71.90) 58.85 (54.74 - 62.85)
Kansas 55.54 (52.25 - 58.79) 15.69 (13.40 - 18.28) 63.16 (59.09 - 67.06) 59.31 (55.26 - 63.25)
Kentucky 39.06 (35.88 - 42.33) 13.02 (10.84 - 15.58) 49.56 (45.46 - 53.67) 40.49 (36.72 - 44.38)
Louisiana 46.83 (43.48 - 50.20) 15.07 (12.69 - 17.81) 59.37 (55.34 - 63.27) 48.66 (44.59 - 52.76)
Maine 56.20 (52.92 - 59.43) 13.73 (11.49 - 16.31) 65.13 (61.11 - 68.94) 59.47 (55.54 - 63.28)
Maryland 51.89 (48.23 - 55.53) 12.81 (10.74 - 15.20) 59.09 (54.58 - 63.44) 55.51 (51.11 - 59.83)
Massachusetts 63.62 (60.58 - 66.56) 15.58 (13.23 - 18.26) 74.33 (70.66 - 77.69) 67.23 (63.53 - 70.72)
Michigan 54.73 (52.86 - 56.59) 13.35 (12.11 - 14.70) 62.62 (60.18 - 64.98) 58.70 (56.42 - 60.93)
Minnesota 58.87 (55.52 - 62.14) 13.16 (11.10 - 15.55) 66.69 (62.77 - 70.40) 63.09 (59.00 - 67.00)
Mississippi 41.05 (37.87 - 44.31) 12.39 (10.37 - 14.74) 52.93 (48.95 - 56.87) 42.80 (38.90 - 46.80)
Missouri 50.71 (47.38 - 54.04) 15.16 (13.00 - 17.61) 60.50 (56.47 - 64.39) 53.50 (49.42 - 57.53)
Montana 58.05 (54.65 - 61.37) 19.15 (16.46 - 22.17) 65.92 (62.00 - 69.64) 61.19 (57.04 - 65.18)
Nebraska 51.86 (48.45 - 55.25) 13.66 (11.52 - 16.13) 63.37 (59.50 - 67.07) 54.55 (50.29 - 58.75)
Nevada 54.57 (50.94 - 58.16) 14.47 (12.02 - 17.32) 58.45 (54.25 - 62.52) 59.05 (54.64 - 63.32)
New Hampshire 63.77 (60.53 - 66.90) 17.64 (15.15 - 20.44) 74.09 (70.50 - 77.39) 67.52 (63.60 - 71.20)
New Jersey 55.69 (52.36 - 58.98) 15.27 (12.98 - 17.88) 64.60 (60.54 - 68.47) 59.27 (55.23 - 63.18)
New Mexico 45.75 (42.26 - 49.27) 14.49 (12.23 - 17.10) 56.25 (52.24 - 60.17) 47.87 (43.62 - 52.15)
New York 55.58 (53.62 - 57.52) 16.75 (15.24 - 18.38) 66.60 (64.17 - 68.93) 58.28 (55.90 - 60.61)
North Carolina 48.98 (45.64 - 52.33) 12.26 (10.26 - 14.58) 59.20 (55.28 - 63.01) 51.76 (47.67 - 55.83)
North Dakota 59.91 (56.63 - 63.09) 16.58 (14.25 - 19.20) 70.28 (66.69 - 73.64) 62.64 (58.44 - 66.66)
Ohio 52.73 (50.81 - 54.64) 13.78 (12.52 - 15.14) 65.40 (63.13 - 67.60) 55.51 (53.17 - 57.81)
Oklahoma 47.16 (43.58 - 50.77) 14.72 (12.41 - 17.38) 60.82 (56.60 - 64.87) 48.82 (44.42 - 53.24)
Oregon 61.02 (57.77 - 64.17) 17.31 (14.97 - 19.92) 67.14 (63.19 - 70.85) 65.03 (61.10 - 68.77)
Pennsylvania 55.23 (53.12 - 57.32) 15.78 (14.34 - 17.35) 66.28 (63.69 - 68.77) 58.01 (55.47 - 60.50)
Rhode Island 61.05 (57.38 - 64.59) 16.00 (13.48 - 18.90) 70.13 (65.79 - 74.12) 64.59 (60.12 - 68.82)
South Carolina 46.00 (42.62 - 49.42) 12.21 (10.30 - 14.42) 55.21 (51.13 - 59.21) 48.57 (44.51 - 52.66)
South Dakota 57.83 (54.43 - 61.16) 15.52 (13.01 - 18.42) 69.92 (65.95 - 73.60) 60.90 (56.74 - 64.91)
Tennessee 40.39 (36.94 - 43.94) 11.28   (9.53 - 13.31) 51.37 (47.16 - 55.56) 42.14 (37.99 - 46.39)
Texas 49.15 (47.24 - 51.05) 13.35 (12.04 - 14.79) 59.23 (56.83 - 61.59) 52.38 (50.04 - 54.71)
Utah 26.42 (23.60 - 29.45) 7.58 (5.79 - 9.86) 32.45 (28.63 - 36.51) 28.08 (24.43 - 32.03)
Vermont 61.68 (58.40 - 64.86) 17.44 (14.93 - 20.28) 72.67 (68.98 - 76.08) 64.59 (60.59 - 68.39)
Virginia 52.00 (48.63 - 55.34) 13.51 (11.42 - 15.91) 64.47 (60.51 - 68.25) 54.46 (50.35 - 58.51)
Washington 56.89 (53.55 - 60.16) 13.61 (11.45 - 16.09) 61.60 (57.52 - 65.53) 61.28 (57.27 - 65.15)
West Virginia 40.26 (36.86 - 43.76) 14.46 (12.17 - 17.09) 53.94 (50.04 - 57.79) 40.94 (36.89 - 45.12)
Wisconsin 64.11 (61.01 - 67.10) 16.78 (14.51 - 19.32) 70.45 (66.50 - 74.12) 68.75 (64.94 - 72.31)
Wyoming 52.91 (49.46 - 56.34) 16.70 (14.22 - 19.51) 59.33 (55.28 - 63.27) 56.13 (51.90 - 60.27)
120320
Table B.10 – Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 23.39 (22.97 - 23.82) 8.38 (8.03 - 8.74) 41.15 (40.39 - 41.91) 22.19 (21.67 - 22.72)
Northeast 24.83 (23.99 - 25.69) 9.40   (8.72 - 10.13) 45.23 (43.95 - 46.53) 23.22 (22.19 - 24.28)
Midwest 25.54 (24.89 - 26.21) 8.71 (8.22 - 9.23) 44.88 (43.83 - 45.93) 24.29 (23.48 - 25.12)
South 21.58 (20.96 - 22.21) 7.54 (7.10 - 8.00) 37.65 (36.66 - 38.66) 20.59 (19.82 - 21.39)
West 23.08 (22.28 - 23.90) 8.61 (7.90 - 9.37) 39.95 (38.64 - 41.29) 21.91 (20.91 - 22.94)
Alabama 20.82 (18.43 - 23.44) 6.88 (5.57 - 8.46) 32.78 (29.01 - 36.79) 20.52 (17.65 - 23.72)
Alaska 24.69 (22.22 - 27.33) 9.08   (7.28 - 11.28) 40.80 (36.79 - 44.93) 23.73 (20.74 - 27.00)
Arizona 23.62 (20.98 - 26.48) 8.72   (7.03 - 10.78) 38.71 (34.86 - 42.71) 23.01 (19.85 - 26.51)
Arkansas 18.94 (16.78 - 21.31) 7.83 (6.35 - 9.63) 34.33 (30.59 - 38.27) 17.81 (15.25 - 20.69)
California 22.83 (21.55 - 24.17) 8.57 (7.49 - 9.79) 39.89 (37.81 - 42.00) 21.54 (19.94 - 23.23)
Colorado 26.21 (23.58 - 29.02) 9.64   (7.89 - 11.71) 46.39 (42.63 - 50.19) 24.72 (21.60 - 28.12)
Connecticut 26.35 (23.73 - 29.15) 11.19   (9.17 - 13.59) 48.82 (44.57 - 53.09) 24.56 (21.43 - 27.98)
Delaware 24.30 (21.73 - 27.06) 9.24   (7.27 - 11.69) 45.48 (41.70 - 49.31) 22.59 (19.53 - 25.98)
District of Columbia 29.52 (26.82 - 32.36) 6.92 (5.10 - 9.33) 46.74 (42.89 - 50.62) 27.72 (24.46 - 31.24)
Florida 20.68 (19.39 - 22.03) 7.64 (6.68 - 8.72) 35.63 (33.55 - 37.77) 19.85 (18.29 - 21.50)
Georgia 20.14 (17.94 - 22.54) 7.25 (5.89 - 8.91) 37.10 (33.46 - 40.88) 18.94 (16.27 - 21.93)
Hawaii 23.72 (21.24 - 26.40) 8.29   (6.49 - 10.54) 40.81 (36.48 - 45.29) 22.70 (19.77 - 25.91)
Idaho 21.89 (19.60 - 24.37) 8.08 (6.59 - 9.87) 37.30 (33.69 - 41.06) 21.03 (18.25 - 24.10)
Illinois 26.01 (24.68 - 27.38) 8.73 (7.70 - 9.89) 46.63 (44.50 - 48.76) 24.54 (22.88 - 26.27)
Indiana 22.55 (20.26 - 25.03) 7.87 (6.46 - 9.56) 40.75 (36.90 - 44.71) 21.31 (18.58 - 24.32)
Iowa 27.47 (24.95 - 30.15) 10.65   (8.74 - 12.92) 48.97 (45.23 - 52.71) 25.64 (22.62 - 28.93)
Kansas 25.79 (23.24 - 28.51) 9.34   (7.67 - 11.33) 42.85 (38.78 - 47.02) 24.68 (21.59 - 28.04)
Kentucky 21.61 (19.36 - 24.04) 8.19   (6.66 - 10.04) 39.04 (35.31 - 42.90) 20.43 (17.79 - 23.35)
Louisiana 23.01 (20.62 - 25.59) 7.39 (6.05 - 9.00) 38.18 (34.67 - 41.82) 22.20 (19.30 - 25.40)
Maine 22.99 (20.62 - 25.54) 8.34   (6.74 - 10.27) 46.14 (42.18 - 50.14) 21.27 (18.51 - 24.30)
Maryland 20.17 (17.76 - 22.82) 7.74 (6.27 - 9.52) 36.12 (32.09 - 40.36) 19.01 (16.16 - 22.24)
Massachusetts 25.57 (23.18 - 28.12) 9.40   (7.74 - 11.36) 48.63 (44.72 - 52.55) 23.33 (20.49 - 26.45)
Michigan 26.41 (25.00 - 27.87) 7.99 (7.09 - 9.00) 43.17 (41.21 - 45.16) 25.90 (24.15 - 27.73)
Minnesota 25.85 (23.36 - 28.52) 7.92 (6.48 - 9.65) 45.56 (41.84 - 49.32) 24.65 (21.66 - 27.90)
Mississippi 20.14 (17.93 - 22.55) 6.78 (5.38 - 8.52) 33.02 (29.55 - 36.70) 19.58 (16.93 - 22.54)
Missouri 23.95 (21.57 - 26.52) 9.55   (7.86 - 11.56) 39.61 (36.09 - 43.24) 23.11 (20.22 - 26.28)
Montana 28.02 (25.51 - 30.68) 12.67 (10.43 - 15.30) 50.04 (46.22 - 53.85) 25.97 (22.94 - 29.24)
Nebraska 24.76 (22.30 - 27.40) 8.77   (7.15 - 10.71) 46.14 (42.47 - 49.84) 22.69 (19.74 - 25.94)
Nevada 26.64 (23.82 - 29.66) 8.33   (6.61 - 10.44) 41.92 (37.96 - 45.98) 26.61 (23.24 - 30.28)
New Hampshire 24.01 (21.52 - 26.70) 10.27   (8.45 - 12.42) 48.29 (44.32 - 52.28) 21.78 (18.84 - 25.04)
New Jersey 25.38 (22.82 - 28.12) 8.80   (7.10 - 10.86) 45.84 (41.86 - 49.87) 24.25 (21.21 - 27.58)
New Mexico 22.33 (19.96 - 24.90) 9.23   (7.50 - 11.30) 37.43 (33.71 - 41.30) 21.26 (18.40 - 24.44)
New York 24.01 (22.54 - 25.54) 9.60   (8.47 - 10.85) 42.22 (40.15 - 44.31) 22.51 (20.71 - 24.41)
North Carolina 20.66 (18.38 - 23.14) 6.89 (5.58 - 8.48) 37.27 (33.60 - 41.10) 19.58 (16.89 - 22.58)
North Dakota 29.80 (27.34 - 32.38) 10.36   (8.40 - 12.72) 51.26 (47.52 - 54.98) 27.11 (24.09 - 30.37)
Ohio 23.60 (22.30 - 24.96) 8.29 (7.37 - 9.32) 44.78 (42.89 - 46.68) 22.05 (20.44 - 23.74)
Oklahoma 21.65 (19.26 - 24.25) 8.80   (7.10 - 10.85) 39.13 (35.10 - 43.32) 20.08 (17.28 - 23.21)
Oregon 22.40 (20.18 - 24.78) 8.54   (7.00 - 10.38) 42.62 (38.75 - 46.59) 20.74 (18.11 - 23.63)
Pennsylvania 24.99 (23.57 - 26.47) 9.04   (7.96 - 10.26) 46.13 (43.90 - 48.39) 23.37 (21.65 - 25.17)
Rhode Island 26.41 (23.68 - 29.33) 8.98   (7.33 - 10.96) 45.81 (41.70 - 49.99) 24.77 (21.49 - 28.38)
South Carolina 22.20 (19.67 - 24.95) 6.12 (4.84 - 7.72) 36.06 (32.28 - 40.03) 21.85 (18.84 - 25.19)
South Dakota 27.68 (25.12 - 30.39) 9.45   (7.62 - 11.67) 49.52 (45.43 - 53.62) 25.96 (22.90 - 29.28)
Tennessee 17.57 (15.29 - 20.11) 6.67 (5.39 - 8.23) 31.85 (28.35 - 35.55) 16.63 (13.91 - 19.75)
Texas 23.98 (22.67 - 25.33) 7.79 (6.86 - 8.83) 39.55 (37.58 - 41.56) 23.34 (21.67 - 25.09)
Utah 13.23 (11.34 - 15.38) 5.66 (4.26 - 7.48) 23.58 (20.30 - 27.22) 11.95   (9.60 - 14.76)
Vermont 26.42 (23.91 - 29.10) 9.97   (8.16 - 12.12) 51.28 (47.42 - 55.12) 23.92 (20.95 - 27.16)
Virginia 23.68 (21.28 - 26.26) 8.36   (6.83 - 10.19) 45.42 (41.44 - 49.46) 21.74 (18.92 - 24.87)
Washington 23.89 (21.49 - 26.47) 8.74   (7.18 - 10.60) 42.69 (38.91 - 46.56) 22.62 (19.76 - 25.78)
West Virginia 20.40 (18.07 - 22.94) 8.51   (6.84 - 10.55) 38.41 (34.76 - 42.19) 18.95 (16.23 - 22.00)
Wisconsin 29.89 (27.20 - 32.73) 10.06   (8.36 - 12.06) 50.05 (46.02 - 54.08) 28.78 (25.53 - 32.26)
Wyoming 22.90 (20.65 - 25.33) 10.85   (8.39 - 13.92) 40.75 (37.06 - 44.54) 21.09 (18.41 - 24.05)
120320
Table B.11 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 42.59 (42.07 - 43.10) 40.02 (39.41 - 40.63) 33.44 (32.78 - 34.11) 44.50 (43.85 - 45.15)
Northeast 40.52 (39.51 - 41.54) 38.66 (37.47 - 39.85) 30.82 (29.70 - 31.96) 42.37 (41.13 - 43.63)
Midwest 38.97 (38.17 - 39.77) 38.07 (37.16 - 38.99) 29.51 (28.67 - 30.37) 40.73 (39.74 - 41.74)
South 44.97 (44.17 - 45.77) 41.81 (40.90 - 42.72) 36.36 (35.50 - 37.24) 46.84 (45.83 - 47.84)
West 43.88 (42.82 - 44.94) 40.06 (38.80 - 41.34) 34.60 (33.38 - 35.83) 46.07 (44.73 - 47.42)
Alabama 45.62 (42.52 - 48.75) 44.37 (40.98 - 47.82) 39.31 (35.80 - 42.93) 46.86 (43.02 - 50.74)
Alaska 42.44 (39.22 - 45.72) 42.30 (38.59 - 46.10) 31.10 (27.49 - 34.96) 44.69 (40.67 - 48.78)
Arizona 43.94 (40.70 - 47.24) 42.17 (38.49 - 45.94) 36.72 (33.12 - 40.47) 45.40 (41.40 - 49.45)
Arkansas 45.47 (42.36 - 48.61) 43.66 (40.02 - 47.37) 35.74 (32.34 - 39.29) 47.30 (43.49 - 51.14)
California 45.31 (43.64 - 46.98) 40.42 (38.46 - 42.41) 36.55 (34.56 - 38.59) 47.64 (45.50 - 49.78)
Colorado 39.04 (35.77 - 42.41) 35.96 (32.43 - 39.64) 28.76 (25.58 - 32.16) 41.18 (37.17 - 45.31)
Connecticut 42.38 (39.13 - 45.70) 40.28 (36.69 - 43.97) 30.82 (27.43 - 34.44) 44.52 (40.51 - 48.60)
Delaware 40.74 (37.58 - 43.97) 38.96 (35.41 - 42.63) 32.31 (28.75 - 36.09) 42.34 (38.51 - 46.26)
District of Columbia 41.44 (38.35 - 44.60) 45.67 (41.84 - 49.57) 32.85 (29.12 - 36.82) 42.96 (39.12 - 46.89)
Florida 47.25 (45.51 - 48.99) 42.50 (40.52 - 44.50) 37.87 (35.93 - 39.86) 49.17 (47.04 - 51.30)
Georgia 45.88 (42.75 - 49.05) 43.59 (40.17 - 47.07) 36.09 (32.85 - 39.47) 47.90 (44.01 - 51.83)
Hawaii 41.12 (37.80 - 44.51) 43.75 (39.86 - 47.72) 35.40 (31.40 - 39.61) 41.74 (37.73 - 45.85)
Idaho 38.65 (35.67 - 41.73) 37.07 (33.80 - 40.45) 30.82 (27.73 - 34.09) 40.31 (36.56 - 44.18)
Illinois 41.47 (39.76 - 43.20) 40.28 (38.26 - 42.33) 31.39 (29.60 - 33.23) 43.44 (41.29 - 45.62)
Indiana 39.33 (36.36 - 42.38) 39.17 (35.74 - 42.70) 30.12 (26.93 - 33.52) 40.95 (37.31 - 44.68)
Iowa 36.96 (33.94 - 40.09) 36.87 (33.55 - 40.32) 27.18 (24.22 - 30.35) 38.74 (35.01 - 42.60)
Kansas 38.62 (35.65 - 41.67) 35.98 (32.68 - 39.42) 28.45 (25.27 - 31.87) 40.91 (37.24 - 44.68)
Kentucky 41.65 (38.67 - 44.70) 40.94 (37.50 - 44.48) 34.34 (30.95 - 37.91) 42.90 (39.29 - 46.59)
Louisiana 45.47 (42.35 - 48.62) 44.21 (40.86 - 47.61) 39.60 (36.32 - 42.97) 46.76 (42.87 - 50.69)
Maine 37.65 (34.56 - 40.85) 33.39 (30.22 - 36.71) 27.29 (24.23 - 30.58) 39.57 (35.88 - 43.38)
Maryland 43.75 (40.46 - 47.09) 42.35 (38.73 - 46.05) 35.95 (32.31 - 39.76) 45.24 (41.21 - 49.33)
Massachusetts 37.59 (34.63 - 40.65) 35.61 (32.31 - 39.06) 27.72 (24.65 - 31.01) 39.57 (35.98 - 43.28)
Michigan 39.47 (37.84 - 41.11) 38.91 (36.97 - 40.88) 32.96 (31.14 - 34.83) 40.66 (38.61 - 42.74)
Minnesota 37.02 (34.01 - 40.13) 36.31 (32.98 - 39.79) 26.36 (23.43 - 29.53) 38.93 (35.20 - 42.79)
Mississippi 48.25 (45.21 - 51.30) 47.55 (43.96 - 51.16) 41.49 (38.12 - 44.93) 49.62 (45.80 - 53.44)
Missouri 39.57 (36.62 - 42.60) 38.27 (34.96 - 41.71) 31.50 (28.32 - 34.86) 41.10 (37.49 - 44.80)
Montana 36.58 (33.68 - 39.59) 33.14 (30.00 - 36.45) 26.61 (23.56 - 29.89) 38.72 (35.13 - 42.43)
Nebraska 37.35 (34.34 - 40.47) 36.94 (33.52 - 40.50) 25.59 (22.64 - 28.79) 39.68 (35.93 - 43.55)
Nevada 42.67 (39.41 - 46.00) 39.68 (36.11 - 43.37) 33.55 (30.11 - 37.18) 44.45 (40.49 - 48.48)
New Hampshire 38.21 (35.20 - 41.32) 34.64 (31.36 - 38.07) 24.71 (21.85 - 27.81) 40.76 (37.09 - 44.53)
New Jersey 41.49 (38.32 - 44.73) 36.91 (33.45 - 40.51) 32.88 (29.36 - 36.60) 43.38 (39.54 - 47.29)
New Mexico 47.80 (44.63 - 51.00) 39.69 (36.28 - 43.20) 36.55 (33.20 - 40.04) 50.91 (46.95 - 54.86)
New York 42.20 (40.42 - 43.99) 41.41 (39.38 - 43.46) 32.55 (30.67 - 34.49) 44.00 (41.78 - 46.25)
North Carolina 43.95 (40.77 - 47.19) 38.07 (34.71 - 41.54) 34.33 (31.16 - 37.65) 46.27 (42.35 - 50.24)
North Dakota 35.78 (32.96 - 38.70) 34.79 (31.64 - 38.09) 24.64 (21.70 - 27.84) 38.50 (34.96 - 42.17)
Ohio 39.51 (37.87 - 41.17) 38.15 (36.39 - 39.95) 27.88 (26.27 - 29.55) 41.57 (39.53 - 43.65)
Oklahoma 42.00 (38.83 - 45.23) 39.07 (35.39 - 42.88) 33.82 (30.31 - 37.52) 43.88 (39.96 - 47.89)
Oregon 39.94 (37.09 - 42.85) 37.14 (33.91 - 40.48) 28.12 (25.03 - 31.44) 42.15 (38.70 - 45.68)
Pennsylvania 39.26 (37.46 - 41.09) 38.13 (36.15 - 40.15) 29.89 (28.01 - 31.84) 40.94 (38.69 - 43.22)
Rhode Island 37.76 (34.65 - 40.97) 36.48 (32.96 - 40.15) 29.72 (26.48 - 33.18) 39.43 (35.62 - 43.37)
South Carolina 46.79 (43.55 - 50.05) 42.43 (39.02 - 45.92) 39.53 (36.19 - 42.97) 48.51 (44.52 - 52.53)
South Dakota 33.62 (30.50 - 36.89) 31.31 (27.96 - 34.87) 25.04 (21.86 - 28.52) 35.48 (31.63 - 39.53)
Tennessee 45.00 (41.78 - 48.25) 41.51 (38.39 - 44.70) 34.52 (31.28 - 37.91) 47.06 (43.11 - 51.04)
Texas 44.59 (42.95 - 46.24) 41.22 (39.21 - 43.27) 36.77 (34.96 - 38.63) 46.57 (44.47 - 48.67)
Utah 50.82 (47.71 - 53.93) 48.74 (44.84 - 52.64) 38.09 (34.43 - 41.89) 54.33 (50.23 - 58.37)
Vermont 36.60 (33.53 - 39.78) 32.15 (28.90 - 35.59) 22.93 (19.99 - 26.16) 39.43 (35.65 - 43.35)
Virginia 42.61 (39.55 - 45.73) 40.23 (36.83 - 43.73) 32.45 (29.24 - 35.82) 44.67 (40.87 - 48.53)
Washington 41.84 (38.81 - 44.94) 37.23 (33.86 - 40.73) 29.55 (26.36 - 32.94) 44.40 (40.69 - 48.17)
West Virginia 44.09 (40.89 - 47.34) 38.93 (35.39 - 42.59) 34.02 (30.55 - 37.67) 46.15 (42.28 - 50.06)
Wisconsin 35.03 (32.10 - 38.07) 34.60 (31.35 - 38.00) 27.12 (24.06 - 30.41) 36.46 (32.90 - 40.18)
Wyoming 39.10 (36.08 - 42.21) 39.63 (36.18 - 43.18) 29.18 (25.66 - 32.97) 40.86 (37.09 - 44.75)
120320
Table B.12 – Alcohol Use and Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(Estimate)
Alcohol Use in Past Month
(95% Confidence Interval)
Binge Alcohol Use
in Past Month
(Estimate)
Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month
(95% Confidence Interval)
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 26.67 (26.06 - 27.28) 17.54 (17.01 - 18.09)
Northeast 30.58 (29.65 - 31.52) 19.92 (19.08 - 20.79)
Midwest 27.16 (26.50 - 27.84) 18.78 (18.12 - 19.45)
South 25.17 (24.53 - 25.82) 15.90 (15.30 - 16.52)
West 25.62 (24.69 - 26.58) 17.15 (16.28 - 18.06)
Alabama 22.30 (19.92 - 24.88) 13.62 (11.79 - 15.67)
Alaska 25.86 (23.19 - 28.72) 18.54 (16.32 - 20.99)
Arizona 23.50 (21.06 - 26.13) 16.36 (14.25 - 18.71)
Arkansas 22.27 (19.79 - 24.96) 13.27 (11.43 - 15.35)
California 25.40 (23.92 - 26.93) 16.93 (15.61 - 18.35)
Colorado 29.89 (27.12 - 32.81) 18.30 (16.14 - 20.68)
Connecticut 31.94 (29.08 - 34.94) 22.26 (19.59 - 25.17)
Delaware 31.67 (28.95 - 34.52) 21.77 (19.31 - 24.45)
District of Columbia 29.22 (25.84 - 32.85) 16.72 (14.06 - 19.76)
Florida 25.55 (24.13 - 27.03) 15.32 (14.11 - 16.61)
Georgia 23.33 (20.95 - 25.90) 14.62 (12.80 - 16.64)
Hawaii 25.48 (22.60 - 28.60) 17.57 (15.13 - 20.32)
Idaho 25.79 (23.30 - 28.45) 16.85 (14.87 - 19.04)
Illinois 28.76 (27.34 - 30.22) 19.60 (18.34 - 20.94)
Indiana 23.51 (21.06 - 26.14) 16.44 (14.43 - 18.67)
Iowa 29.46 (26.71 - 32.36) 20.99 (18.66 - 23.52)
Kansas 29.01 (26.34 - 31.82) 19.67 (17.36 - 22.22)
Kentucky 24.07 (21.69 - 26.63) 17.07 (15.07 - 19.29)
Louisiana 27.19 (24.70 - 29.84) 16.20 (14.16 - 18.47)
Maine 25.09 (22.61 - 27.75) 17.52 (15.45 - 19.81)
Maryland 25.14 (22.63 - 27.83) 15.61 (13.55 - 17.93)
Massachusetts 31.35 (28.79 - 34.03) 21.06 (18.83 - 23.49)
Michigan 24.93 (23.58 - 26.33) 16.80 (15.58 - 18.09)
Minnesota 27.28 (24.93 - 29.77) 19.89 (17.76 - 22.21)
Mississippi 24.96 (22.49 - 27.61) 15.23 (13.30 - 17.39)
Missouri 25.12 (22.57 - 27.86) 16.39 (14.29 - 18.74)
Montana 32.13 (29.36 - 35.04) 22.95 (20.38 - 25.74)
Nebraska 26.58 (23.87 - 29.47) 19.22 (16.99 - 21.66)
Nevada 25.34 (22.77 - 28.09) 17.72 (15.59 - 20.07)
New Hampshire 32.93 (30.23 - 35.74) 21.77 (19.42 - 24.32)
New Jersey 28.41 (25.79 - 31.18) 19.36 (17.14 - 21.78)
New Mexico 25.18 (22.51 - 28.06) 16.49 (14.42 - 18.80)
New York 31.64 (30.10 - 33.23) 19.21 (17.85 - 20.65)
North Carolina 24.22 (21.79 - 26.84) 14.54 (12.64 - 16.67)
North Dakota 33.57 (30.64 - 36.64) 24.20 (21.76 - 26.82)
Ohio 27.41 (26.06 - 28.81) 19.20 (18.01 - 20.45)
Oklahoma 25.55 (22.86 - 28.44) 15.87 (13.74 - 18.26)
Oregon 30.14 (27.36 - 33.07) 17.75 (15.60 - 20.13)
Pennsylvania 29.47 (27.94 - 31.06) 19.88 (18.50 - 21.34)
Rhode Island 33.12 (30.28 - 36.09) 21.71 (19.27 - 24.36)
South Carolina 22.84 (20.44 - 25.43) 14.19 (12.28 - 16.34)
South Dakota 30.60 (27.90 - 33.44) 20.63 (18.31 - 23.15)
Tennessee 21.83 (19.35 - 24.54) 14.87 (12.93 - 17.04)
Texas 26.13 (24.75 - 27.55) 16.95 (15.73 - 18.25)
Utah 16.48 (14.04 - 19.26) 12.68 (10.60 - 15.10)
Vermont 34.62 (31.82 - 37.52) 24.10 (21.58 - 26.82)
Virginia 29.66 (27.11 - 32.35) 19.75 (17.60 - 22.09)
Washington 26.92 (24.36 - 29.64) 18.91 (16.82 - 21.20)
West Virginia 24.64 (22.17 - 27.29) 16.45 (14.35 - 18.79)
Wisconsin 30.09 (27.50 - 32.81) 21.05 (18.76 - 23.55)
Wyoming 30.21 (27.24 - 33.35) 21.26 (18.75 - 24.02)
120320
Table B.13 – Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 27.60 (27.12 - 28.08) 11.25 (10.84 - 11.67) 41.27 (40.56 - 41.98) 27.28 (26.70 - 27.87)
Northeast 26.27 (25.32 - 27.25) 10.90 (10.21 - 11.63) 40.90 (39.66 - 42.14) 25.62 (24.43 - 26.86)
Midwest 30.10 (29.27 - 30.94) 12.56 (11.96 - 13.19) 45.79 (44.77 - 46.80) 29.58 (28.52 - 30.66)
South 29.04 (28.22 - 29.88) 11.29 (10.76 - 11.85) 41.64 (40.64 - 42.65) 29.12 (28.06 - 30.20)
West 24.00 (23.03 - 25.00) 10.22   (9.51 - 10.98) 36.86 (35.57 - 38.16) 23.48 (22.23 - 24.77)
Alabama 32.68 (29.89 - 35.60) 11.89   (9.98 - 14.10) 44.30 (40.57 - 48.09) 33.29 (29.91 - 36.84)
Alaska 31.93 (28.91 - 35.11) 13.27 (11.05 - 15.84) 45.63 (41.51 - 49.80) 31.89 (28.17 - 35.85)
Arizona 26.04 (23.35 - 28.93) 11.52   (9.50 - 13.91) 37.75 (34.12 - 41.53) 25.96 (22.76 - 29.42)
Arkansas 33.53 (30.77 - 36.40) 13.76 (11.60 - 16.24) 45.35 (41.58 - 49.18) 34.08 (30.73 - 37.58)
California 21.72 (20.33 - 23.18) 9.06   (8.00 - 10.23) 33.93 (31.97 - 35.95) 21.13 (19.37 - 23.01)
Colorado 26.91 (24.31 - 29.67) 12.37 (10.30 - 14.79) 42.57 (38.75 - 46.49) 25.94 (22.86 - 29.29)
Connecticut 25.07 (22.37 - 27.98) 10.81   (8.92 - 13.04) 41.34 (37.62 - 45.16) 24.18 (20.95 - 27.72)
Delaware 29.01 (26.21 - 31.99) 12.53 (10.55 - 14.82) 42.17 (38.49 - 45.94) 28.80 (25.43 - 32.41)
District of Columbia 27.50 (24.79 - 30.38) 9.08   (7.32 - 11.21) 35.49 (31.85 - 39.31) 27.37 (24.13 - 30.87)
Florida 26.24 (24.78 - 27.76) 10.43   (9.35 - 11.62) 37.56 (35.47 - 39.70) 26.24 (24.46 - 28.11)
Georgia 26.80 (24.16 - 29.61) 11.52   (9.58 - 13.79) 40.39 (36.70 - 44.20) 26.51 (23.34 - 29.94)
Hawaii 22.62 (20.16 - 25.29) 10.04   (8.07 - 12.43) 36.80 (32.76 - 41.03) 21.74 (18.89 - 24.90)
Idaho 27.73 (25.13 - 30.49) 11.85 (10.02 - 13.97) 41.70 (38.10 - 45.39) 27.43 (24.25 - 30.85)
Illinois 28.74 (27.25 - 30.29) 10.94   (9.78 - 12.21) 44.05 (42.03 - 46.09) 28.30 (26.43 - 30.25)
Indiana 30.63 (28.04 - 33.35) 12.22 (10.32 - 14.42) 47.39 (43.67 - 51.14) 30.12 (27.00 - 33.44)
Iowa 30.87 (28.10 - 33.79) 13.33 (11.27 - 15.69) 45.03 (41.28 - 48.85) 30.45 (27.11 - 34.02)
Kansas 30.66 (27.95 - 33.50) 13.48 (11.33 - 15.96) 44.15 (40.19 - 48.18) 30.33 (27.08 - 33.79)
Kentucky 35.51 (32.60 - 38.52) 15.04 (12.83 - 17.55) 48.42 (44.73 - 52.13) 35.88 (32.36 - 39.56)
Louisiana 30.09 (27.43 - 32.89) 10.86   (9.09 - 12.92) 41.88 (38.36 - 45.48) 30.41 (27.13 - 33.89)
Maine 28.92 (26.19 - 31.82) 12.46 (10.40 - 14.86) 47.07 (43.34 - 50.83) 28.10 (24.89 - 31.55)
Maryland 24.16 (21.32 - 27.23) 9.26   (7.49 - 11.40) 35.94 (32.05 - 40.03) 24.01 (20.66 - 27.71)
Massachusetts 24.27 (21.85 - 26.87) 10.39   (8.66 - 12.42) 42.39 (38.58 - 46.30) 22.65 (19.83 - 25.74)
Michigan 30.06 (28.53 - 31.64) 11.91 (10.76 - 13.17) 45.35 (43.37 - 47.34) 29.77 (27.85 - 31.76)
Minnesota 27.33 (24.92 - 29.87) 11.18   (9.37 - 13.28) 46.96 (43.47 - 50.47) 25.92 (23.04 - 29.03)
Mississippi 34.57 (31.68 - 37.58) 13.54 (11.39 - 16.03) 46.86 (43.18 - 50.58) 35.19 (31.62 - 38.93)
Missouri 34.45 (31.53 - 37.48) 15.85 (13.50 - 18.51) 47.58 (43.78 - 51.41) 34.55 (31.05 - 38.23)
Montana 32.12 (29.35 - 35.02) 16.34 (14.02 - 18.96) 47.95 (44.42 - 51.50) 31.19 (27.84 - 34.74)
Nebraska 29.00 (26.39 - 31.75) 12.12 (10.20 - 14.35) 42.20 (38.69 - 45.79) 28.62 (25.43 - 32.04)
Nevada 27.41 (24.54 - 30.47) 9.93   (7.93 - 12.36) 39.62 (35.92 - 43.45) 27.74 (24.31 - 31.45)
New Hampshire 28.98 (26.29 - 31.83) 13.66 (11.51 - 16.14) 46.77 (43.19 - 50.38) 27.95 (24.74 - 31.40)
New Jersey 25.55 (22.98 - 28.30) 9.74   (7.90 - 11.96) 42.22 (38.41 - 46.14) 24.91 (21.86 - 28.24)
New Mexico 27.12 (24.42 - 29.99) 13.06 (10.95 - 15.51) 42.99 (39.31 - 46.75) 26.03 (22.77 - 29.59)
New York 24.21 (22.75 - 25.73) 9.98   (8.86 - 11.21) 36.42 (34.39 - 38.50) 23.75 (21.94 - 25.67)
North Carolina 30.27 (27.56 - 33.13) 11.09   (9.31 - 13.15) 43.42 (39.76 - 47.15) 30.42 (27.15 - 33.90)
North Dakota 28.77 (26.17 - 31.50) 13.10 (10.90 - 15.67) 42.36 (38.85 - 45.95) 27.47 (24.31 - 30.89)
Ohio 31.20 (29.65 - 32.80) 14.01 (12.75 - 15.37) 47.62 (45.72 - 49.53) 30.65 (28.72 - 32.65)
Oklahoma 36.51 (33.48 - 39.66) 14.35 (12.05 - 17.01) 51.53 (47.50 - 55.54) 36.60 (32.90 - 40.46)
Oregon 28.45 (25.84 - 31.22) 12.91 (10.95 - 15.16) 42.81 (39.05 - 46.65) 27.92 (24.82 - 31.23)
Pennsylvania 30.69 (29.05 - 32.38) 12.94 (11.65 - 14.35) 45.03 (42.86 - 47.21) 30.39 (28.37 - 32.49)
Rhode Island 26.81 (24.06 - 29.74) 10.85   (8.97 - 13.06) 41.87 (37.96 - 45.87) 25.83 (22.61 - 29.33)
South Carolina 30.47 (27.72 - 33.36) 11.62   (9.78 - 13.74) 44.51 (40.71 - 48.37) 30.42 (27.14 - 33.91)
South Dakota 31.42 (28.57 - 34.41) 13.59 (11.40 - 16.11) 47.66 (43.70 - 51.65) 30.67 (27.24 - 34.33)
Tennessee 34.61 (31.63 - 37.71) 13.28 (11.29 - 15.56) 48.90 (45.22 - 52.59) 34.90 (31.32 - 38.66)
Texas 26.34 (24.89 - 27.85) 9.91   (8.86 - 11.05) 38.35 (36.40 - 40.35) 26.43 (24.57 - 28.37)
Utah 16.82 (14.63 - 19.26) 7.28 (5.55 - 9.50) 25.10 (21.80 - 28.71) 16.40 (13.68 - 19.52)
Vermont 27.08 (24.42 - 29.92) 12.52 (10.48 - 14.90) 43.42 (39.68 - 47.24) 25.84 (22.66 - 29.29)
Virginia 27.47 (24.88 - 30.21) 10.90   (9.12 - 12.97) 42.64 (39.09 - 46.26) 26.82 (23.73 - 30.16)
Washington 26.91 (24.43 - 29.55) 11.24   (9.38 - 13.43) 44.31 (40.61 - 48.06) 25.94 (23.00 - 29.11)
West Virginia 40.22 (37.02 - 43.50) 17.35 (14.89 - 20.12) 51.73 (48.00 - 55.44) 40.89 (37.05 - 44.85)
Wisconsin 28.03 (25.44 - 30.78) 11.85 (10.01 - 13.99) 45.09 (41.29 - 48.95) 27.02 (23.95 - 30.32)
Wyoming 33.67 (30.78 - 36.68) 17.44 (14.82 - 20.41) 49.52 (46.00 - 53.04) 32.73 (29.22 - 36.44)
120320
Table B.14 – Cigarette Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 23.16 (22.71 - 23.62) 8.69 (8.32 - 9.08) 35.09 (34.42 - 35.76) 22.91 (22.35 - 23.47)
Northeast 22.22 (21.33 - 23.14) 8.54 (7.93 - 9.20) 35.34 (34.06 - 36.64) 21.62 (20.49 - 22.81)
Midwest 25.11 (24.34 - 25.90) 9.87   (9.34 - 10.43) 38.84 (37.83 - 39.85) 24.65 (23.63 - 25.69)
South 24.26 (23.49 - 25.06) 8.70 (8.20 - 9.22) 35.25 (34.22 - 36.29) 24.34 (23.32 - 25.39)
West 20.31 (19.38 - 21.28) 7.72 (7.08 - 8.41) 31.24 (29.95 - 32.57) 19.98 (18.78 - 21.25)
Alabama 27.07 (24.64 - 29.65) 9.01   (7.39 - 10.93) 37.14 (33.40 - 41.04) 27.60 (24.63 - 30.79)
Alaska 26.21 (23.49 - 29.12) 8.20   (6.48 - 10.32) 38.94 (34.93 - 43.11) 26.26 (22.92 - 29.91)
Arizona 22.39 (19.95 - 25.03) 9.92   (7.95 - 12.30) 31.53 (27.99 - 35.30) 22.47 (19.55 - 25.67)
Arkansas 28.16 (25.58 - 30.89) 10.30   (8.42 - 12.55) 39.29 (35.54 - 43.16) 28.58 (25.46 - 31.91)
California 18.54 (17.21 - 19.94) 6.83 (5.91 - 7.88) 28.85 (26.88 - 30.91) 18.18 (16.52 - 19.98)
Colorado 21.15 (18.88 - 23.61) 8.77   (7.05 - 10.87) 34.01 (30.44 - 37.77) 20.41 (17.72 - 23.39)
Connecticut 21.31 (18.90 - 23.93) 8.76   (7.07 - 10.82) 35.47 (31.80 - 39.33) 20.54 (17.70 - 23.71)
Delaware 23.63 (21.17 - 26.27) 9.31   (7.59 - 11.36) 35.59 (32.08 - 39.25) 23.35 (20.41 - 26.57)
District of Columbia 23.41 (20.82 - 26.22) 6.53 (5.04 - 8.43) 29.33 (25.88 - 33.05) 23.61 (20.49 - 27.05)
Florida 22.34 (20.94 - 23.81) 7.95 (6.97 - 9.05) 31.73 (29.80 - 33.71) 22.48 (20.76 - 24.30)
Georgia 22.43 (19.98 - 25.08) 9.25   (7.50 - 11.36) 34.10 (30.48 - 37.92) 22.19 (19.23 - 25.46)
Hawaii 19.75 (17.45 - 22.27) 7.16 (5.47 - 9.33) 32.61 (28.67 - 36.81) 19.08 (16.40 - 22.09)
Idaho 23.67 (21.36 - 26.15) 8.85   (7.22 - 10.82) 36.38 (32.94 - 39.97) 23.45 (20.62 - 26.54)
Illinois 24.38 (23.03 - 25.78) 8.67 (7.64 - 9.84) 38.10 (36.18 - 40.06) 23.95 (22.24 - 25.75)
Indiana 25.85 (23.47 - 28.38) 9.41   (7.70 - 11.45) 40.22 (36.48 - 44.08) 25.50 (22.63 - 28.59)
Iowa 25.45 (22.98 - 28.09) 10.83   (8.93 - 13.09) 37.59 (33.94 - 41.38) 25.04 (22.04 - 28.30)
Kansas 23.94 (21.68 - 26.35) 10.64   (8.81 - 12.79) 35.89 (32.21 - 39.74) 23.40 (20.66 - 26.39)
Kentucky 29.93 (27.26 - 32.76) 11.01   (9.06 - 13.33) 40.50 (36.79 - 44.32) 30.50 (27.27 - 33.92)
Louisiana 25.90 (23.34 - 28.65) 8.69   (7.04 - 10.68) 36.76 (33.21 - 40.47) 26.13 (23.00 - 29.53)
Maine 24.73 (22.28 - 27.36) 9.47   (7.66 - 11.65) 40.62 (36.96 - 44.39) 24.09 (21.22 - 27.22)
Maryland 19.72 (17.33 - 22.35) 7.43 (5.90 - 9.32) 30.21 (26.43 - 34.26) 19.47 (16.64 - 22.65)
Massachusetts 20.64 (18.52 - 22.92) 7.88 (6.37 - 9.72) 36.23 (32.64 - 39.98) 19.33 (16.84 - 22.09)
Michigan 25.91 (24.51 - 27.36) 9.49   (8.47 - 10.61) 39.17 (37.20 - 41.17) 25.74 (23.97 - 27.60)
Minnesota 23.21 (20.96 - 25.62) 8.89   (7.27 - 10.83) 40.41 (36.93 - 43.98) 22.00 (19.29 - 24.96)
Mississippi 27.48 (24.98 - 30.13) 10.22   (8.36 - 12.43) 38.98 (35.28 - 42.82) 27.73 (24.67 - 31.01)
Missouri 27.42 (24.92 - 30.08) 11.61   (9.57 - 14.02) 39.61 (35.92 - 43.41) 27.34 (24.32 - 30.59)
Montana 24.95 (22.59 - 27.46) 12.16 (10.06 - 14.63) 37.05 (33.53 - 40.71) 24.32 (21.47 - 27.41)
Nebraska 24.07 (21.72 - 26.60) 9.13   (7.44 - 11.15) 37.42 (33.82 - 41.16) 23.42 (20.56 - 26.56)
Nevada 23.69 (21.08 - 26.52) 7.39 (5.80 - 9.36) 33.17 (29.60 - 36.93) 24.30 (21.14 - 27.76)
New Hampshire 24.23 (21.82 - 26.82) 10.66   (8.78 - 12.88) 41.42 (37.76 - 45.18) 23.09 (20.22 - 26.23)
New Jersey 21.19 (18.85 - 23.75) 7.66 (6.16 - 9.48) 37.35 (33.52 - 41.35) 20.36 (17.57 - 23.46)
New Mexico 22.57 (20.23 - 25.08) 10.17   (8.33 - 12.37) 36.14 (32.64 - 39.79) 21.69 (18.88 - 24.79)
New York 21.18 (19.83 - 22.59) 7.79 (6.78 - 8.94) 31.70 (29.68 - 33.79) 20.91 (19.23 - 22.70)
North Carolina 26.03 (23.48 - 28.74) 8.22   (6.62 - 10.16) 38.30 (34.68 - 42.05) 26.15 (23.09 - 29.47)
North Dakota 22.74 (20.48 - 25.18) 10.27   (8.38 - 12.53) 33.53 (30.18 - 37.05) 21.73 (18.94 - 24.82)
Ohio 25.79 (24.35 - 27.29) 11.22 (10.04 - 12.52) 39.74 (37.79 - 41.72) 25.32 (23.51 - 27.23)
Oklahoma 28.98 (26.24 - 31.87) 10.80   (8.88 - 13.08) 43.60 (39.39 - 47.90) 28.62 (25.29 - 32.21)
Oregon 23.94 (21.59 - 26.46) 9.53   (7.75 - 11.67) 37.77 (34.05 - 41.64) 23.36 (20.57 - 26.39)
Pennsylvania 25.05 (23.55 - 26.61) 10.28   (9.09 - 11.61) 38.18 (35.99 - 40.42) 24.60 (22.75 - 26.56)
Rhode Island 23.22 (20.82 - 25.80) 8.46   (6.80 - 10.47) 35.82 (31.96 - 39.86) 22.56 (19.71 - 25.70)
South Carolina 26.50 (23.88 - 29.29) 9.02   (7.38 - 10.97) 37.92 (34.29 - 41.68) 26.72 (23.55 - 30.15)
South Dakota 25.14 (22.61 - 27.85) 10.29   (8.43 - 12.50) 38.80 (34.92 - 42.82) 24.50 (21.46 - 27.82)
Tennessee 27.81 (25.14 - 30.66) 9.25   (7.63 - 11.17) 39.70 (35.86 - 43.66) 28.15 (24.92 - 31.62)
Texas 22.02 (20.64 - 23.45) 8.00 (6.96 - 9.17) 32.62 (30.67 - 34.62) 22.03 (20.28 - 23.88)
Utah 15.83 (13.75 - 18.16) 5.86 (4.36 - 7.85) 23.51 (20.15 - 27.23) 15.63 (13.05 - 18.63)
Vermont 22.37 (20.04 - 24.88) 9.34   (7.53 - 11.53) 37.89 (34.22 - 41.72) 21.10 (18.36 - 24.11)
Virginia 22.76 (20.52 - 25.17) 8.60   (6.98 - 10.55) 35.11 (31.65 - 38.74) 22.32 (19.65 - 25.23)
Washington 22.66 (20.44 - 25.03) 7.95 (6.44 - 9.78) 37.56 (33.89 - 41.39) 21.97 (19.35 - 24.84)
West Virginia 32.00 (29.12 - 35.03) 11.85   (9.74 - 14.34) 43.86 (40.11 - 47.68) 32.34 (28.87 - 36.02)
Wisconsin 23.51 (21.22 - 25.97) 9.43   (7.70 - 11.49) 37.95 (34.19 - 41.86) 22.70 (19.99 - 25.65)
Wyoming 25.72 (23.26 - 28.35) 13.47 (11.12 - 16.22) 39.62 (35.98 - 43.36) 24.66 (21.68 - 27.90)
120320
Table B.15 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 71.21 (70.74 - 71.67) 65.41 (64.78 - 66.05) 65.15 (64.53 - 65.76) 72.99 (72.40 - 73.57)
Northeast 73.50 (72.54 - 74.44) 68.09 (66.90 - 69.25) 67.01 (65.72 - 68.27) 75.23 (74.09 - 76.34)
Midwest 67.42 (66.54 - 68.28) 64.34 (63.38 - 65.29) 61.07 (59.99 - 62.14) 68.91 (67.87 - 69.94)
South 70.96 (70.16 - 71.75) 64.12 (63.22 - 65.00) 64.72 (63.71 - 65.72) 72.89 (71.92 - 73.84)
West 73.36 (72.35 - 74.35) 66.44 (65.18 - 67.68) 68.12 (66.76 - 69.45) 75.22 (73.98 - 76.42)
Alabama 67.33 (64.37 - 70.15) 60.26 (56.77 - 63.65) 60.46 (56.67 - 64.14) 69.40 (65.77 - 72.80)
Alaska 67.21 (64.17 - 70.10) 66.75 (63.16 - 70.16) 62.65 (58.85 - 66.30) 68.17 (64.33 - 71.77)
Arizona 71.76 (68.72 - 74.61) 65.07 (61.35 - 68.61) 66.03 (62.39 - 69.50) 73.59 (69.88 - 77.00)
Arkansas 70.18 (67.37 - 72.84) 63.20 (59.71 - 66.55) 60.97 (57.24 - 64.57) 72.58 (69.15 - 75.76)
California 75.39 (73.87 - 76.84) 66.60 (64.66 - 68.47) 71.14 (69.09 - 73.10) 77.39 (75.50 - 79.19)
Colorado 72.37 (69.46 - 75.09) 66.71 (63.14 - 70.10) 66.40 (62.96 - 69.68) 74.07 (70.52 - 77.33)
Connecticut 73.11 (70.22 - 75.81) 68.65 (65.22 - 71.89) 66.24 (62.55 - 69.73) 74.77 (71.20 - 78.04)
Delaware 73.29 (70.43 - 75.98) 66.85 (63.46 - 70.08) 66.11 (62.77 - 69.30) 75.24 (71.68 - 78.49)
District of Columbia 75.29 (72.66 - 77.75) 65.22 (61.66 - 68.62) 69.73 (66.33 - 72.92) 77.42 (74.16 - 80.38)
Florida 74.85 (73.35 - 76.28) 66.55 (64.62 - 68.43) 68.97 (66.98 - 70.90) 76.63 (74.82 - 78.34)
Georgia 71.37 (68.65 - 73.95) 64.22 (60.82 - 67.47) 66.68 (63.30 - 69.90) 73.17 (69.79 - 76.30)
Hawaii 72.05 (69.06 - 74.85) 67.01 (63.15 - 70.65) 66.61 (62.67 - 70.34) 73.46 (69.83 - 76.80)
Idaho 65.77 (62.89 - 68.54) 64.43 (60.89 - 67.82) 60.34 (56.68 - 63.88) 66.95 (63.34 - 70.37)
Illinois 69.14 (67.52 - 70.71) 65.15 (63.20 - 67.05) 62.26 (60.25 - 64.22) 70.90 (68.88 - 72.84)
Indiana 66.16 (63.26 - 68.94) 64.61 (61.31 - 67.78) 59.06 (55.51 - 62.53) 67.59 (63.99 - 70.99)
Iowa 65.32 (62.27 - 68.25) 61.65 (58.18 - 65.01) 58.43 (54.84 - 61.92) 67.01 (63.23 - 70.58)
Kansas 64.89 (61.92 - 67.74) 58.79 (55.12 - 62.36) 61.61 (57.89 - 65.20) 66.31 (62.60 - 69.83)
Kentucky 62.29 (59.18 - 65.30) 63.41 (59.93 - 66.75) 55.85 (52.22 - 59.42) 63.18 (59.40 - 66.80)
Louisiana 71.96 (69.21 - 74.56) 65.08 (61.54 - 68.46) 65.06 (61.68 - 68.31) 74.20 (70.75 - 77.37)
Maine 68.71 (65.81 - 71.47) 67.35 (64.11 - 70.43) 60.95 (57.42 - 64.37) 69.95 (66.45 - 73.23)
Maryland 74.90 (71.98 - 77.60) 65.98 (62.46 - 69.33) 69.66 (66.02 - 73.07) 76.89 (73.36 - 80.07)
Massachusetts 75.91 (73.40 - 78.26) 70.34 (67.07 - 73.42) 68.40 (64.82 - 71.78) 77.89 (74.78 - 80.71)
Michigan 68.24 (66.60 - 69.83) 64.08 (62.22 - 65.89) 62.54 (60.63 - 64.41) 69.75 (67.72 - 71.71)
Minnesota 68.10 (65.04 - 71.01) 67.41 (63.95 - 70.69) 60.77 (57.31 - 64.12) 69.44 (65.71 - 72.94)
Mississippi 69.22 (66.35 - 71.94) 60.99 (57.43 - 64.43) 63.50 (60.15 - 66.73) 71.42 (67.84 - 74.76)
Missouri 66.34 (63.36 - 69.20) 61.97 (58.37 - 65.44) 58.80 (55.19 - 62.32) 68.16 (64.45 - 71.66)
Montana 67.99 (65.07 - 70.77) 64.27 (60.93 - 67.47) 60.50 (57.05 - 63.86) 69.73 (66.11 - 73.12)
Nebraska 67.08 (64.22 - 69.83) 62.38 (58.96 - 65.67) 60.22 (56.67 - 63.66) 69.02 (65.41 - 72.41)
Nevada 70.59 (67.60 - 73.41) 65.85 (62.19 - 69.33) 67.69 (64.01 - 71.16) 71.64 (68.01 - 75.00)
New Hampshire 69.68 (66.67 - 72.54) 64.70 (61.23 - 68.02) 64.34 (60.83 - 67.71) 71.11 (67.43 - 74.53)
New Jersey 73.89 (71.18 - 76.43) 67.23 (63.88 - 70.41) 68.95 (65.30 - 72.37) 75.46 (72.17 - 78.49)
New Mexico 72.63 (69.96 - 75.14) 63.49 (60.07 - 66.78) 64.48 (60.87 - 67.94) 75.30 (71.99 - 78.34)
New York 76.41 (74.84 - 77.90) 71.09 (69.06 - 73.05) 69.63 (67.63 - 71.56) 78.24 (76.33 - 80.04)
North Carolina 68.97 (66.04 - 71.75) 66.79 (63.33 - 70.07) 63.56 (60.09 - 66.90) 70.14 (66.54 - 73.50)
North Dakota 68.20 (65.32 - 70.94) 65.63 (62.30 - 68.83) 63.90 (60.40 - 67.26) 69.51 (65.84 - 72.95)
Ohio 66.37 (64.75 - 67.95) 64.16 (62.28 - 65.99) 60.54 (58.60 - 62.44) 67.60 (65.58 - 69.55)
Oklahoma 66.20 (63.20 - 69.08) 58.74 (55.01 - 62.37) 59.93 (55.91 - 63.82) 68.32 (64.62 - 71.81)
Oregon 70.35 (67.40 - 73.13) 65.20 (61.92 - 68.35) 60.47 (56.83 - 64.00) 72.51 (68.90 - 75.86)
Pennsylvania 68.78 (66.99 - 70.52) 63.44 (61.32 - 65.52) 61.85 (59.64 - 64.01) 70.55 (68.35 - 72.65)
Rhode Island 71.55 (68.55 - 74.37) 65.34 (61.72 - 68.79) 67.26 (63.64 - 70.69) 73.08 (69.43 - 76.45)
South Carolina 70.33 (67.43 - 73.07) 62.06 (58.54 - 65.45) 63.05 (59.52 - 66.43) 72.53 (68.96 - 75.83)
South Dakota 66.42 (63.35 - 69.36) 64.35 (60.66 - 67.88) 62.17 (58.44 - 65.76) 67.45 (63.64 - 71.06)
Tennessee 66.02 (62.80 - 69.10) 61.01 (57.58 - 64.33) 57.95 (54.19 - 61.63) 67.89 (63.94 - 71.60)
Texas 72.12 (70.57 - 73.61) 63.54 (61.60 - 65.44) 65.76 (63.77 - 67.70) 74.57 (72.59 - 76.44)
Utah 73.78 (71.30 - 76.12) 72.63 (69.29 - 75.74) 68.59 (64.93 - 72.03) 75.27 (72.06 - 78.22)
Vermont 70.96 (68.07 - 73.69) 65.59 (62.08 - 68.94) 64.50 (60.87 - 67.97) 72.66 (69.14 - 75.91)
Virginia 71.93 (69.09 - 74.60) 66.41 (63.06 - 69.60) 65.70 (62.22 - 69.01) 73.68 (70.22 - 76.87)
Washington 71.23 (68.60 - 73.72) 66.20 (62.85 - 69.40) 63.17 (59.66 - 66.55) 73.14 (69.94 - 76.12)
West Virginia 64.61 (61.53 - 67.58) 61.44 (57.99 - 64.79) 56.98 (53.28 - 60.59) 66.09 (62.33 - 69.66)
Wisconsin 68.62 (65.77 - 71.34) 67.47 (64.27 - 70.52) 62.45 (58.81 - 65.95) 69.84 (66.32 - 73.14)
Wyoming 68.92 (66.12 - 71.58) 66.90 (63.60 - 70.04) 60.67 (57.13 - 64.09) 70.68 (67.23 - 73.91)
120320
Table B.16 – Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 7.27 (7.04 - 7.50) 4.59 (4.32 - 4.87) 15.91 (15.42 - 16.42) 6.10 (5.83 - 6.39)
Northeast 7.25 (6.83 - 7.69) 4.61 (4.18 - 5.08) 16.96 (15.95 - 18.02) 5.92 (5.43 - 6.46)
Midwest 7.46 (7.12 - 7.81) 4.58 (4.25 - 4.94) 16.81 (15.96 - 17.69) 6.19 (5.78 - 6.62)
South 6.82 (6.50 - 7.17) 4.18 (3.83 - 4.56) 14.60 (13.80 - 15.45) 5.82 (5.43 - 6.25)
West 7.80 (7.33 - 8.31) 5.20 (4.69 - 5.77) 16.28 (15.22 - 17.39) 6.61 (6.03 - 7.23)
Alabama 6.82 (5.68 - 8.18) 4.30 (3.32 - 5.54) 13.69 (11.46 - 16.28) 5.96 (4.69 - 7.55)
Alaska 7.80 (6.52 - 9.30) 4.91 (3.79 - 6.33) 15.52 (13.05 - 18.38) 6.69 (5.26 - 8.47)
Arizona 7.74 (6.46 - 9.26) 4.88 (3.77 - 6.30) 17.00 (14.41 - 19.94) 6.55 (5.12 - 8.34)
Arkansas 6.58 (5.50 - 7.86) 4.54 (3.50 - 5.87) 14.23 (11.92 - 16.91) 5.57 (4.38 - 7.06)
California 8.02 (7.28 - 8.82) 5.39 (4.58 - 6.33) 15.93 (14.40 - 17.59) 6.88 (6.00 - 7.87)
Colorado 8.71   (7.37 - 10.26) 5.68 (4.38 - 7.33) 20.07 (17.44 - 22.99) 7.11 (5.63 - 8.95)
Connecticut 7.85 (6.60 - 9.31) 4.82 (3.73 - 6.20) 18.62 (15.78 - 21.84) 6.46 (5.10 - 8.17)
Delaware 7.27 (6.06 - 8.71) 4.76 (3.67 - 6.14) 16.65 (14.20 - 19.42) 6.02 (4.69 - 7.69)
District of Columbia 9.48   (8.00 - 11.21) 3.32 (2.46 - 4.46) 17.21 (14.67 - 20.10) 8.34   (6.68 - 10.36)
Florida 6.78 (6.09 - 7.55) 4.44 (3.75 - 5.24) 13.80 (12.40 - 15.33) 5.98 (5.17 - 6.90)
Georgia 6.31 (5.25 - 7.58) 3.65 (2.76 - 4.81) 14.13 (11.95 - 16.62) 5.31 (4.13 - 6.81)
Hawaii 7.71 (6.32 - 9.38) 5.49 (4.04 - 7.42) 17.14 (14.18 - 20.58) 6.46 (4.96 - 8.36)
Idaho 7.53 (6.38 - 8.86) 5.23 (4.11 - 6.62) 16.51 (14.07 - 19.28) 6.21 (4.93 - 7.80)
Illinois 7.21 (6.52 - 7.97) 4.11 (3.46 - 4.88) 16.91 (15.42 - 18.52) 5.86 (5.05 - 6.80)
Indiana 7.22 (6.09 - 8.53) 4.41 (3.45 - 5.61) 15.99 (13.59 - 18.72) 6.06 (4.82 - 7.61)
Iowa 8.25 (7.03 - 9.66) 5.44 (4.25 - 6.93) 19.82 (17.07 - 22.88) 6.51 (5.18 - 8.15)
Kansas 7.94 (6.76 - 9.30) 5.35 (4.22 - 6.77) 17.92 (15.37 - 20.79) 6.37 (5.06 - 8.00)
Kentucky 6.14 (5.12 - 7.35) 4.08 (3.11 - 5.34) 14.03 (11.76 - 16.67) 5.13 (4.02 - 6.52)
Louisiana 6.60 (5.50 - 7.89) 3.40 (2.53 - 4.56) 14.20 (11.98 - 16.77) 5.58 (4.34 - 7.13)
Maine 6.45 (5.39 - 7.69) 4.09 (3.09 - 5.40) 16.64 (14.11 - 19.53) 5.25 (4.12 - 6.67)
Maryland 6.41 (5.21 - 7.86) 3.30 (2.45 - 4.43) 13.82 (11.37 - 16.70) 5.54 (4.24 - 7.21)
Massachusetts 8.30 (7.08 - 9.71) 5.16 (4.04 - 6.55) 19.91 (17.26 - 22.85) 6.60 (5.28 - 8.24)
Michigan 7.69 (6.95 - 8.50) 4.49 (3.82 - 5.28) 15.76 (14.30 - 17.34) 6.72 (5.85 - 7.70)
Minnesota 7.81 (6.62 - 9.19) 4.86 (3.78 - 6.21) 17.57 (15.12 - 20.32) 6.49 (5.17 - 8.12)
Mississippi 6.49 (5.44 - 7.74) 3.75 (2.88 - 4.89) 13.54 (11.43 - 15.96) 5.56 (4.36 - 7.06)
Missouri 6.63 (5.53 - 7.93) 4.62 (3.61 - 5.88) 14.82 (12.44 - 17.56) 5.50 (4.29 - 7.02)
Montana 9.25   (7.89 - 10.82) 6.65 (5.16 - 8.52) 22.93 (19.92 - 26.26) 7.17 (5.67 - 9.03)
Nebraska 7.63 (6.46 - 8.98) 4.60 (3.55 - 5.94) 18.00 (15.43 - 20.90) 6.02 (4.76 - 7.59)
Nevada 8.44   (7.08 - 10.04) 5.38 (4.14 - 6.97) 18.13 (15.53 - 21.05) 7.34 (5.80 - 9.25)
New Hampshire 7.49 (6.31 - 8.87) 5.24 (4.09 - 6.71) 18.73 (16.14 - 21.63) 5.97 (4.68 - 7.58)
New Jersey 6.40 (5.30 - 7.71) 3.92 (2.99 - 5.13) 14.52 (12.29 - 17.07) 5.45 (4.23 - 6.99)
New Mexico 7.66 (6.43 - 9.09) 5.45 (4.23 - 7.00) 16.23 (13.75 - 19.07) 6.37 (5.02 - 8.06)
New York 7.35 (6.61 - 8.15) 4.97 (4.22 - 5.84) 16.60 (15.11 - 18.20) 5.99 (5.14 - 6.97)
North Carolina 6.27 (5.24 - 7.50) 3.62 (2.77 - 4.73) 13.80 (11.66 - 16.26) 5.34 (4.19 - 6.79)
North Dakota 8.37 (7.22 - 9.68) 4.55 (3.55 - 5.82) 19.76 (17.20 - 22.59) 6.18 (4.92 - 7.74)
Ohio 7.37 (6.68 - 8.12) 4.64 (3.99 - 5.39) 16.92 (15.51 - 18.43) 6.15 (5.32 - 7.08)
Oklahoma 7.69 (6.48 - 9.10) 4.76 (3.69 - 6.13) 16.32 (13.66 - 19.38) 6.48 (5.14 - 8.13)
Oregon 7.98 (6.72 - 9.44) 5.13 (3.98 - 6.60) 16.52 (14.07 - 19.31) 6.93 (5.51 - 8.68)
Pennsylvania 6.84 (6.11 - 7.66) 4.16 (3.49 - 4.95) 16.58 (14.98 - 18.32) 5.55 (4.71 - 6.53)
Rhode Island 8.75   (7.26 - 10.52) 4.59 (3.50 - 6.00) 18.09 (15.33 - 21.23) 7.48 (5.83 - 9.54)
South Carolina 8.05 (6.66 - 9.71) 3.88 (2.98 - 5.05) 14.50 (12.16 - 17.22) 7.49 (5.87 - 9.50)
South Dakota 9.14   (7.74 - 10.76) 6.44 (4.98 - 8.29) 20.26 (17.37 - 23.50) 7.44 (5.90 - 9.35)
Tennessee 6.39 (5.29 - 7.69) 3.70 (2.85 - 4.79) 14.00 (11.79 - 16.56) 5.51 (4.28 - 7.05)
Texas 6.91 (6.25 - 7.64) 4.58 (3.88 - 5.40) 14.74 (13.35 - 16.26) 5.76 (4.98 - 6.65)
Utah 5.71 (4.70 - 6.93) 4.00 (3.02 - 5.29) 11.53   (9.42 - 14.05) 4.58 (3.45 - 6.05)
Vermont 7.97 (6.76 - 9.37) 4.85 (3.76 - 6.24) 19.85 (17.13 - 22.88) 6.25 (4.92 - 7.93)
Virginia 8.12 (6.90 - 9.53) 5.02 (3.90 - 6.43) 18.83 (16.26 - 21.69) 6.63 (5.26 - 8.31)
Washington 6.40 (5.34 - 7.65) 4.29 (3.28 - 5.58) 15.16 (12.77 - 17.90) 5.22 (4.08 - 6.66)
West Virginia 6.06 (5.02 - 7.29) 4.25 (3.28 - 5.47) 14.16 (11.92 - 16.74) 5.02 (3.90 - 6.44)
Wisconsin 7.53 (6.35 - 8.90) 4.53 (3.53 - 5.80) 16.81 (14.30 - 19.65) 6.27 (4.97 - 7.88)
Wyoming 7.86 (6.68 - 9.23) 5.86 (4.54 - 7.53) 17.94 (15.41 - 20.78) 6.26 (4.95 - 7.90)
120320
Table B.17 – Alcohol Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 3.42 (3.26 - 3.59) 1.81 (1.65 - 1.98) 6.58 (6.27 - 6.91) 3.07 (2.88 - 3.28)
Northeast 3.37 (3.08 - 3.70) 1.84 (1.59 - 2.13) 6.99 (6.41 - 7.62) 2.95 (2.59 - 3.36)
Midwest 3.38 (3.15 - 3.62) 1.76 (1.56 - 1.97) 7.01 (6.55 - 7.49) 2.95 (2.66 - 3.27)
South 3.23 (2.99 - 3.49) 1.65 (1.46 - 1.87) 5.98 (5.56 - 6.43) 2.96 (2.66 - 3.29)
West 3.79 (3.45 - 4.18) 2.07 (1.75 - 2.45) 6.80 (6.17 - 7.48) 3.47 (3.04 - 3.97)
Alabama 3.21 (2.53 - 4.07) 1.57 (1.12 - 2.19) 5.82 (4.51 - 7.48) 2.97 (2.15 - 4.08)
Alaska 3.73 (2.95 - 4.71) 1.68 (1.20 - 2.37) 6.33 (4.86 - 8.20) 3.51 (2.56 - 4.80)
Arizona 3.83 (2.98 - 4.90) 1.95 (1.37 - 2.76) 7.42 (5.78 - 9.49) 3.46 (2.46 - 4.86)
Arkansas 3.17 (2.52 - 3.98) 1.91 (1.34 - 2.71) 6.27 (4.87 - 8.03) 2.81 (2.05 - 3.85)
California 3.99 (3.45 - 4.62) 2.15 (1.67 - 2.76) 6.58 (5.64 - 7.67) 3.75 (3.08 - 4.57)
Colorado 3.71 (2.94 - 4.66) 2.02 (1.46 - 2.79) 6.90 (5.42 - 8.75) 3.36 (2.45 - 4.58)
Connecticut 3.24 (2.54 - 4.13) 1.93 (1.34 - 2.76) 6.74 (5.21 - 8.68) 2.84 (2.03 - 3.95)
Delaware 3.20 (2.53 - 4.05) 1.92 (1.37 - 2.68) 6.69 (5.29 - 8.43) 2.78 (1.98 - 3.89)
District of Columbia 4.64 (3.69 - 5.80) 1.34 (0.89 - 2.00) 7.19 (5.71 - 9.02) 4.37 (3.22 - 5.90)
Florida 3.42 (2.90 - 4.02) 1.76 (1.37 - 2.26) 5.62 (4.76 - 6.62) 3.26 (2.64 - 4.03)
Georgia 2.89 (2.21 - 3.78) 1.40 (0.95 - 2.04) 5.32 (4.07 - 6.91) 2.67 (1.84 - 3.87)
Hawaii 3.50 (2.70 - 4.52) 2.07 (1.35 - 3.14) 7.44 (5.67 - 9.71) 3.03 (2.13 - 4.29)
Idaho 3.48 (2.82 - 4.29) 1.93 (1.40 - 2.65) 7.21 (5.73 - 9.03) 3.02 (2.23 - 4.08)
Illinois 3.34 (2.87 - 3.87) 1.57 (1.21 - 2.02) 7.57 (6.57 - 8.70) 2.80 (2.25 - 3.49)
Indiana 3.22 (2.58 - 4.02) 1.90 (1.37 - 2.64) 7.32 (5.81 - 9.18) 2.69 (1.93 - 3.73)
Iowa 3.42 (2.73 - 4.28) 2.13 (1.54 - 2.95) 7.67 (6.11 - 9.58) 2.81 (2.00 - 3.93)
Kansas 3.24 (2.62 - 4.01) 1.91 (1.37 - 2.66) 7.45 (5.88 - 9.39) 2.62 (1.89 - 3.61)
Kentucky 2.88 (2.22 - 3.75) 1.61 (1.10 - 2.33) 5.76 (4.42 - 7.48) 2.58 (1.80 - 3.67)
Louisiana 3.13 (2.48 - 3.95) 1.47 (1.04 - 2.07) 5.88 (4.61 - 7.47) 2.83 (2.05 - 3.90)
Maine 2.99 (2.32 - 3.85) 1.58 (1.09 - 2.29) 6.43 (5.06 - 8.13) 2.65 (1.88 - 3.73)
Maryland 3.34 (2.59 - 4.30) 1.52 (1.06 - 2.18) 5.77 (4.42 - 7.48) 3.16 (2.26 - 4.40)
Massachusetts 3.64 (2.94 - 4.50) 1.95 (1.41 - 2.70) 7.82 (6.28 - 9.70) 3.09 (2.27 - 4.20)
Michigan 3.66 (3.16 - 4.23) 1.73 (1.38 - 2.19) 6.05 (5.23 - 7.01) 3.49 (2.88 - 4.23)
Minnesota 3.82 (3.05 - 4.76) 1.96 (1.41 - 2.70) 7.46 (5.95 - 9.33) 3.42 (2.51 - 4.64)
Mississippi 3.15 (2.51 - 3.96) 1.41 (0.98 - 2.01) 5.93 (4.66 - 7.52) 2.88 (2.09 - 3.95)
Missouri 3.14 (2.48 - 3.97) 1.74 (1.25 - 2.41) 6.05 (4.70 - 7.76) 2.82 (2.04 - 3.90)
Montana 3.71 (2.98 - 4.60) 2.54 (1.75 - 3.68) 9.76   (7.82 - 12.12) 2.79 (1.97 - 3.93)
Nebraska 3.16 (2.50 - 3.99) 1.70 (1.21 - 2.38) 6.54 (5.12 - 8.31) 2.70 (1.93 - 3.76)
Nevada 3.71 (2.94 - 4.68) 2.01 (1.41 - 2.85) 7.77 (6.15 - 9.78) 3.30 (2.39 - 4.56)
New Hampshire 3.31 (2.64 - 4.14) 2.11 (1.51 - 2.94) 7.39 (5.82 - 9.33) 2.80 (2.05 - 3.83)
New Jersey 3.05 (2.37 - 3.92) 1.63 (1.15 - 2.30) 5.91 (4.57 - 7.61) 2.78 (1.98 - 3.89)
New Mexico 3.93 (3.10 - 4.98) 2.22 (1.58 - 3.12) 7.62 (6.07 - 9.53) 3.48 (2.50 - 4.82)
New York 3.62 (3.11 - 4.21) 2.05 (1.61 - 2.61) 7.48 (6.49 - 8.61) 3.12 (2.50 - 3.89)
North Carolina 3.15 (2.51 - 3.95) 1.53 (1.08 - 2.18) 5.77 (4.50 - 7.39) 2.91 (2.14 - 3.94)
North Dakota 3.64 (2.98 - 4.45) 1.85 (1.32 - 2.58) 7.91 (6.37 - 9.78) 2.86 (2.09 - 3.92)
Ohio 3.18 (2.74 - 3.69) 1.65 (1.30 - 2.07) 6.97 (6.11 - 7.94) 2.76 (2.23 - 3.40)
Oklahoma 3.11 (2.48 - 3.89) 1.67 (1.17 - 2.36) 6.69 (5.17 - 8.62) 2.63 (1.91 - 3.63)
Oregon 4.09 (3.19 - 5.24) 2.09 (1.48 - 2.94) 6.68 (5.25 - 8.47) 3.90 (2.83 - 5.36)
Pennsylvania 3.10 (2.63 - 3.66) 1.56 (1.20 - 2.03) 6.46 (5.52 - 7.55) 2.73 (2.16 - 3.44)
Rhode Island 3.94 (3.11 - 4.97) 1.87 (1.33 - 2.63) 7.32 (5.66 - 9.43) 3.54 (2.57 - 4.86)
South Carolina 3.97 (3.04 - 5.16) 1.41 (0.95 - 2.09) 5.42 (4.17 - 7.02) 4.03 (2.88 - 5.61)
South Dakota 3.69 (2.95 - 4.62) 2.35 (1.65 - 3.32) 7.96   (6.29 - 10.02) 3.08 (2.21 - 4.29)
Tennessee 3.21 (2.51 - 4.09) 1.54 (1.09 - 2.16) 5.71 (4.40 - 7.38) 3.01 (2.18 - 4.14)
Texas 3.14 (2.71 - 3.65) 1.82 (1.44 - 2.31) 6.03 (5.20 - 6.98) 2.79 (2.25 - 3.44)
Utah 2.94 (2.32 - 3.71) 1.88 (1.31 - 2.68) 5.44 (4.13 - 7.13) 2.50 (1.76 - 3.55)
Vermont 3.74 (2.98 - 4.69) 1.85 (1.31 - 2.61) 7.19 (5.66 - 9.10) 3.35 (2.44 - 4.59)
Virginia 3.34 (2.69 - 4.15) 1.81 (1.30 - 2.51) 7.87 (6.31 - 9.78) 2.74 (1.99 - 3.76)
Washington 3.06 (2.42 - 3.86) 1.83 (1.28 - 2.60) 6.85 (5.41 - 8.64) 2.59 (1.85 - 3.61)
West Virginia 3.17 (2.46 - 4.09) 1.74 (1.22 - 2.48) 6.12 (4.76 - 7.85) 2.88 (2.04 - 4.05)
Wisconsin 3.42 (2.72 - 4.29) 1.78 (1.28 - 2.47) 6.94 (5.48 - 8.77) 3.01 (2.19 - 4.12)
Wyoming 3.58 (2.89 - 4.43) 2.14 (1.53 - 2.98) 7.96 (6.40 - 9.87) 2.95 (2.14 - 4.05)
120320
Table B.18 – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 2.82 (2.69 - 2.95) 4.52 (4.27 - 4.78) 7.80 (7.46 - 8.15) 1.74 (1.60 - 1.90)
Northeast 2.94 (2.71 - 3.18) 4.54 (4.11 - 5.00) 8.78 (8.13 - 9.48) 1.76 (1.52 - 2.04)
Midwest 2.68 (2.50 - 2.87) 4.41 (4.06 - 4.79) 7.53 (7.06 - 8.03) 1.61 (1.42 - 1.83)
South 2.70 (2.52 - 2.88) 4.21 (3.88 - 4.57) 7.15 (6.71 - 7.62) 1.74 (1.55 - 1.96)
West 3.06 (2.80 - 3.35) 5.07 (4.58 - 5.62) 8.28 (7.60 - 9.01) 1.85 (1.57 - 2.18)
Alabama 2.68 (2.10 - 3.41) 3.94 (2.99 - 5.17) 6.81 (5.27 - 8.75) 1.81 (1.24 - 2.63)
Alaska 2.79 (2.22 - 3.50) 4.48 (3.37 - 5.95) 7.19 (5.53 - 9.29) 1.68 (1.15 - 2.46)
Arizona 3.06 (2.41 - 3.87) 4.87 (3.65 - 6.46) 8.15   (6.46 - 10.25) 1.96 (1.32 - 2.88)
Arkansas 2.63 (2.09 - 3.30) 4.25 (3.24 - 5.57) 6.52 (5.12 - 8.26) 1.78 (1.25 - 2.55)
California 3.15 (2.75 - 3.60) 5.11 (4.35 - 6.00) 8.20 (7.17 - 9.37) 1.92 (1.49 - 2.46)
Colorado 3.19 (2.55 - 3.99) 6.25 (4.82 - 8.08) 9.38   (7.52 - 11.65) 1.76 (1.17 - 2.65)
Connecticut 2.91 (2.30 - 3.67) 4.42 (3.37 - 5.79) 9.05   (7.19 - 11.34) 1.72 (1.15 - 2.55)
Delaware 2.77 (2.21 - 3.47) 4.89 (3.72 - 6.41) 8.33   (6.64 - 10.40) 1.60 (1.07 - 2.40)
District of Columbia 3.85 (2.97 - 4.98) 3.76 (2.74 - 5.14) 7.10 (5.53 - 9.08) 3.15 (2.18 - 4.53)
Florida 2.71 (2.34 - 3.14) 4.33 (3.64 - 5.15) 7.39 (6.43 - 8.47) 1.83 (1.43 - 2.35)
Georgia 2.22 (1.71 - 2.88) 3.86 (2.86 - 5.20) 5.80 (4.44 - 7.55) 1.37 (0.87 - 2.16)
Hawaii 2.57 (1.97 - 3.34) 4.07 (2.97 - 5.54) 7.40 (5.60 - 9.70) 1.65 (1.07 - 2.52)
Idaho 3.14 (2.52 - 3.91) 4.56 (3.46 - 5.98) 8.30   (6.62 - 10.36) 2.00 (1.39 - 2.87)
Illinois 2.67 (2.33 - 3.07) 4.32 (3.63 - 5.13) 7.99 (6.96 - 9.16) 1.50 (1.15 - 1.96)
Indiana 2.98 (2.38 - 3.72) 4.21 (3.20 - 5.54) 8.04   (6.39 - 10.07) 1.94 (1.34 - 2.79)
Iowa 2.09 (1.59 - 2.74) 4.85 (3.61 - 6.49) 5.48 (4.05 - 7.38) 1.14 (0.69 - 1.88)
Kansas 2.52 (1.99 - 3.18) 3.93 (2.95 - 5.22) 7.41 (5.81 - 9.41) 1.40 (0.92 - 2.12)
Kentucky 2.68 (2.15 - 3.34) 4.71 (3.58 - 6.17) 7.83 (6.28 - 9.71) 1.62 (1.11 - 2.36)
Louisiana 2.70 (2.15 - 3.37) 3.73 (2.86 - 4.85) 7.29 (5.78 - 9.16) 1.68 (1.14 - 2.47)
Maine 2.60 (2.06 - 3.27) 3.99 (3.01 - 5.29) 9.75   (7.78 - 12.15) 1.43 (0.96 - 2.15)
Maryland 2.95 (2.31 - 3.75) 3.93 (2.94 - 5.22) 8.45   (6.65 - 10.68) 1.90 (1.29 - 2.80)
Massachusetts 3.31 (2.65 - 4.14) 5.27 (4.07 - 6.82) 9.24   (7.38 - 11.51) 2.04 (1.40 - 2.95)
Michigan 2.75 (2.39 - 3.15) 4.40 (3.74 - 5.17) 7.62 (6.68 - 8.68) 1.70 (1.32 - 2.17)
Minnesota 2.49 (1.98 - 3.12) 4.15 (3.14 - 5.48) 7.37 (5.87 - 9.21) 1.45 (0.98 - 2.15)
Mississippi 2.98 (2.39 - 3.71) 3.97 (2.99 - 5.26) 7.45 (5.96 - 9.27) 2.01 (1.41 - 2.86)
Missouri 2.67 (2.14 - 3.34) 4.18 (3.19 - 5.45) 7.87 (6.22 - 9.91) 1.61 (1.10 - 2.35)
Montana 2.70 (2.17 - 3.37) 4.97 (3.82 - 6.43) 7.99 (6.41 - 9.92) 1.52 (1.02 - 2.26)
Nebraska 2.24 (1.73 - 2.89) 3.90 (2.93 - 5.17) 5.64 (4.31 - 7.34) 1.37 (0.88 - 2.11)
Nevada 2.90 (2.25 - 3.74) 4.37 (3.21 - 5.94) 7.04 (5.48 - 9.00) 2.08 (1.41 - 3.06)
New Hampshire 3.41 (2.74 - 4.24) 6.49 (4.95 - 8.47) 10.58   (8.63 - 12.91) 1.92 (1.28 - 2.86)
New Jersey 2.59 (2.04 - 3.28) 3.93 (2.96 - 5.21) 7.75 (6.09 - 9.82) 1.63 (1.10 - 2.40)
New Mexico 3.17 (2.54 - 3.95) 6.80 (5.29 - 8.69) 8.31   (6.64 - 10.36) 1.76 (1.17 - 2.65)
New York 2.99 (2.60 - 3.44) 4.49 (3.76 - 5.35) 8.97   (7.87 - 10.21) 1.75 (1.35 - 2.27)
North Carolina 2.76 (2.18 - 3.50) 4.10 (3.14 - 5.34) 7.75 (6.16 - 9.71) 1.77 (1.21 - 2.59)
North Dakota 2.03 (1.55 - 2.66) 3.88 (2.83 - 5.28) 5.24 (3.90 - 6.99) 1.06 (0.64 - 1.77)
Ohio 2.85 (2.49 - 3.26) 4.57 (3.89 - 5.36) 8.03 (7.09 - 9.08) 1.79 (1.40 - 2.28)
Oklahoma 3.09 (2.45 - 3.91) 4.83 (3.61 - 6.43) 8.06   (6.29 - 10.28) 1.95 (1.33 - 2.85)
Oregon 3.18 (2.54 - 3.97) 5.53 (4.32 - 7.06) 9.14   (7.28 - 11.42) 1.95 (1.34 - 2.84)
Pennsylvania 2.83 (2.45 - 3.28) 4.50 (3.75 - 5.38) 8.24 (7.18 - 9.44) 1.75 (1.35 - 2.27)
Rhode Island 3.42 (2.72 - 4.28) 5.14 (3.90 - 6.73) 10.35   (8.25 - 12.92) 1.91 (1.27 - 2.84)
South Carolina 2.84 (2.24 - 3.61) 4.02 (3.03 - 5.32) 7.03 (5.52 - 8.92) 2.01 (1.39 - 2.90)
South Dakota 2.38 (1.85 - 3.05) 4.93 (3.67 - 6.58) 5.91 (4.51 - 7.71) 1.42 (0.92 - 2.18)
Tennessee 2.60 (2.05 - 3.28) 4.05 (3.08 - 5.30) 6.52 (5.07 - 8.35) 1.81 (1.25 - 2.60)
Texas 2.62 (2.28 - 3.01) 4.35 (3.65 - 5.18) 6.57 (5.68 - 7.58) 1.62 (1.25 - 2.08)
Utah 2.97 (2.40 - 3.66) 4.73 (3.66 - 6.08) 7.24 (5.69 - 9.17) 1.62 (1.10 - 2.38)
Vermont 3.17 (2.58 - 3.89) 4.52 (3.46 - 5.88) 10.97   (8.96 - 13.38) 1.68 (1.14 - 2.47)
Virginia 2.86 (2.28 - 3.58) 4.65 (3.57 - 6.03) 8.06   (6.42 - 10.06) 1.74 (1.18 - 2.55)
Washington 2.72 (2.17 - 3.41) 4.25 (3.23 - 5.57) 9.03   (7.20 - 11.26) 1.51 (1.01 - 2.25)
West Virginia 2.70 (2.10 - 3.46) 3.47 (2.51 - 4.79) 8.79   (7.02 - 10.95) 1.70 (1.13 - 2.56)
Wisconsin 2.70 (2.13 - 3.40) 5.16 (3.95 - 6.72) 6.96 (5.41 - 8.92) 1.65 (1.12 - 2.43)
Wyoming 2.31 (1.78 - 2.99) 4.99 (3.76 - 6.59) 6.02 (4.59 - 7.87) 1.30 (0.81 - 2.09)
120320
Table B.19 – Illicit Drug Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 1.93 (1.82 - 2.03) 2.44 (2.26 - 2.63) 5.43 (5.14 - 5.73) 1.25 (1.13 - 1.38)
Northeast 2.13 (1.93 - 2.35) 2.51 (2.20 - 2.86) 6.41 (5.83 - 7.05) 1.36 (1.15 - 1.61)
Midwest 1.85 (1.70 - 2.01) 2.37 (2.12 - 2.65) 5.14 (4.74 - 5.57) 1.21 (1.04 - 1.39)
South 1.82 (1.67 - 1.98) 2.27 (2.04 - 2.52) 4.93 (4.54 - 5.36) 1.22 (1.06 - 1.42)
West 2.02 (1.82 - 2.24) 2.70 (2.36 - 3.09) 5.70 (5.13 - 6.32) 1.26 (1.04 - 1.51)
Alabama 1.78 (1.36 - 2.32) 2.11 (1.51 - 2.94) 4.85 (3.57 - 6.55) 1.20 (0.82 - 1.78)
Alaska 1.93 (1.50 - 2.48) 2.61 (1.85 - 3.67) 4.85 (3.54 - 6.62) 1.26 (0.86 - 1.84)
Arizona 1.94 (1.50 - 2.51) 2.63 (1.85 - 3.74) 5.63 (4.18 - 7.55) 1.23 (0.83 - 1.81)
Arkansas 1.86 (1.42 - 2.43) 2.36 (1.68 - 3.32) 4.45 (3.22 - 6.11) 1.37 (0.95 - 1.98)
California 2.05 (1.76 - 2.40) 2.62 (2.11 - 3.24) 5.76 (4.88 - 6.78) 1.27 (0.98 - 1.66)
Colorado 1.84 (1.42 - 2.38) 3.49 (2.46 - 4.92) 5.04 (3.70 - 6.83) 1.09 (0.71 - 1.68)
Connecticut 2.02 (1.55 - 2.63) 2.40 (1.70 - 3.37) 6.01 (4.53 - 7.93) 1.32 (0.88 - 1.97)
Delaware 2.09 (1.65 - 2.66) 2.90 (2.04 - 4.10) 6.72 (5.08 - 8.84) 1.24 (0.84 - 1.82)
District of Columbia 2.55 (1.92 - 3.38) 2.09 (1.41 - 3.10) 4.70 (3.38 - 6.49) 2.12 (1.46 - 3.08)
Florida 1.66 (1.39 - 1.98) 2.21 (1.76 - 2.78) 4.92 (4.13 - 5.85) 1.11 (0.84 - 1.47)
Georgia 1.45 (1.05 - 2.00) 2.11 (1.44 - 3.07) 3.48 (2.40 - 5.01) 1.00 (0.62 - 1.62)
Hawaii 1.55 (1.15 - 2.09) 2.04 (1.38 - 3.02) 4.56 (3.18 - 6.49) 1.02 (0.65 - 1.60)
Idaho 2.18 (1.72 - 2.77) 2.80 (2.01 - 3.91) 5.80 (4.38 - 7.64) 1.44 (0.99 - 2.09)
Illinois 1.87 (1.59 - 2.20) 2.20 (1.69 - 2.86) 5.67 (4.82 - 6.66) 1.14 (0.86 - 1.52)
Indiana 2.08 (1.60 - 2.70) 2.45 (1.75 - 3.42) 5.66 (4.18 - 7.61) 1.41 (0.97 - 2.07)
Iowa 1.41 (1.04 - 1.91) 2.84 (1.98 - 4.06) 3.42 (2.36 - 4.94) 0.87 (0.53 - 1.44)
Kansas 1.63 (1.24 - 2.14) 2.12 (1.47 - 3.04) 4.46 (3.18 - 6.22) 1.03 (0.68 - 1.55)
Kentucky 1.99 (1.56 - 2.55) 2.36 (1.67 - 3.31) 6.13 (4.64 - 8.05) 1.29 (0.89 - 1.87)
Louisiana 1.99 (1.54 - 2.57) 2.28 (1.60 - 3.22) 5.25 (3.93 - 6.99) 1.33 (0.91 - 1.94)
Maine 2.05 (1.61 - 2.60) 2.36 (1.67 - 3.32) 7.69 (5.93 - 9.93) 1.21 (0.83 - 1.77)
Maryland 2.12 (1.62 - 2.78) 2.18 (1.52 - 3.10) 6.04 (4.44 - 8.18) 1.45 (0.98 - 2.14)
Massachusetts 2.38 (1.87 - 3.03) 2.98 (2.14 - 4.14) 6.87 (5.21 - 9.00) 1.52 (1.04 - 2.21)
Michigan 1.88 (1.61 - 2.20) 2.33 (1.88 - 2.88) 5.46 (4.64 - 6.41) 1.21 (0.93 - 1.58)
Minnesota 1.51 (1.15 - 1.97) 2.17 (1.52 - 3.08) 4.09 (2.91 - 5.71) 0.98 (0.66 - 1.46)
Mississippi 2.03 (1.59 - 2.58) 2.10 (1.48 - 2.99) 5.10 (3.83 - 6.76) 1.44 (1.00 - 2.06)
Missouri 1.88 (1.47 - 2.41) 2.36 (1.68 - 3.32) 5.57 (4.19 - 7.38) 1.20 (0.83 - 1.74)
Montana 1.92 (1.51 - 2.44) 2.52 (1.82 - 3.49) 5.51 (4.12 - 7.32) 1.23 (0.85 - 1.77)
Nebraska 1.60 (1.21 - 2.13) 2.39 (1.67 - 3.40) 3.79 (2.68 - 5.34) 1.08 (0.71 - 1.65)
Nevada 1.87 (1.42 - 2.45) 2.60 (1.83 - 3.68) 4.86 (3.57 - 6.57) 1.31 (0.88 - 1.95)
New Hampshire 2.35 (1.83 - 3.01) 3.38 (2.40 - 4.74) 7.28 (5.62 - 9.38) 1.45 (0.97 - 2.16)
New Jersey 1.79 (1.37 - 2.33) 2.04 (1.42 - 2.93) 5.52 (4.07 - 7.43) 1.18 (0.80 - 1.74)
New Mexico 1.98 (1.54 - 2.54) 3.53 (2.50 - 4.96) 5.80 (4.31 - 7.78) 1.08 (0.71 - 1.63)
New York 2.22 (1.89 - 2.60) 2.44 (1.94 - 3.07) 6.59 (5.61 - 7.73) 1.42 (1.08 - 1.86)
North Carolina 1.95 (1.51 - 2.51) 2.30 (1.66 - 3.19) 5.65 (4.28 - 7.42) 1.29 (0.88 - 1.89)
North Dakota 1.47 (1.08 - 1.99) 2.28 (1.57 - 3.30) 3.57 (2.50 - 5.07) 0.88 (0.54 - 1.44)
Ohio 2.04 (1.74 - 2.39) 2.40 (1.94 - 2.97) 5.64 (4.84 - 6.56) 1.41 (1.09 - 1.82)
Oklahoma 1.99 (1.53 - 2.58) 2.50 (1.75 - 3.55) 5.10 (3.74 - 6.92) 1.35 (0.92 - 1.98)
Oregon 2.32 (1.81 - 2.98) 2.99 (2.16 - 4.12) 6.82 (5.20 - 8.91) 1.53 (1.05 - 2.22)
Pennsylvania 2.08 (1.75 - 2.45) 2.59 (2.06 - 3.25) 6.19 (5.23 - 7.32) 1.34 (1.01 - 1.76)
Rhode Island 2.42 (1.87 - 3.13) 3.18 (2.26 - 4.45) 7.03 (5.25 - 9.36) 1.47 (0.99 - 2.18)
South Carolina 1.76 (1.35 - 2.31) 1.93 (1.35 - 2.74) 4.54 (3.30 - 6.21) 1.28 (0.87 - 1.90)
South Dakota 1.61 (1.19 - 2.16) 2.80 (1.94 - 4.02) 3.88 (2.68 - 5.58) 1.04 (0.66 - 1.63)
Tennessee 1.75 (1.35 - 2.27) 2.05 (1.45 - 2.88) 4.48 (3.27 - 6.10) 1.28 (0.89 - 1.86)
Texas 1.77 (1.50 - 2.09) 2.38 (1.92 - 2.95) 4.60 (3.84 - 5.51) 1.14 (0.87 - 1.51)
Utah 1.99 (1.57 - 2.50) 2.45 (1.74 - 3.44) 4.79 (3.58 - 6.39) 1.22 (0.85 - 1.75)
Vermont 2.28 (1.80 - 2.89) 2.51 (1.77 - 3.56) 7.82   (6.03 - 10.08) 1.30 (0.88 - 1.92)
Virginia 1.94 (1.52 - 2.48) 2.50 (1.79 - 3.48) 5.31 (3.97 - 7.07) 1.29 (0.89 - 1.87)
Washington 2.03 (1.60 - 2.57) 2.57 (1.86 - 3.54) 6.52 (4.98 - 8.50) 1.23 (0.84 - 1.80)
West Virginia 2.18 (1.69 - 2.80) 2.13 (1.47 - 3.10) 7.50 (5.76 - 9.72) 1.38 (0.93 - 2.04)
Wisconsin 1.84 (1.41 - 2.39) 2.71 (1.95 - 3.76) 4.54 (3.30 - 6.20) 1.26 (0.86 - 1.85)
Wyoming 1.55 (1.15 - 2.09) 2.68 (1.88 - 3.81) 3.76 (2.60 - 5.40) 1.01 (0.64 - 1.60)
120320
Table B.20 – Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 8.87 (8.62 - 9.13) 7.20 (6.88 - 7.54) 20.04 (19.49 - 20.60) 7.14 (6.84 - 7.46)
Northeast 9.07 (8.62 - 9.54) 7.38 (6.81 - 8.00) 21.50 (20.44 - 22.61) 7.18 (6.64 - 7.76)
Midwest 8.98 (8.60 - 9.38) 7.15 (6.73 - 7.61) 20.57 (19.69 - 21.49) 7.19 (6.72 - 7.69)
South 8.31 (7.95 - 8.68) 6.55 (6.14 - 7.00) 18.66 (17.81 - 19.54) 6.76 (6.32 - 7.22)
West 9.51   (9.00 - 10.04) 8.10 (7.45 - 8.81) 20.53 (19.41 - 21.69) 7.69 (7.08 - 8.35)
Alabama 8.29 (7.08 - 9.69) 6.64 (5.30 - 8.27) 17.65 (15.07 - 20.57) 6.89 (5.53 - 8.55)
Alaska 9.14   (7.82 - 10.64) 7.16 (5.60 - 9.11) 19.22 (16.47 - 22.32) 7.43 (5.97 - 9.23)
Arizona 9.38   (8.01 - 10.96) 7.55 (5.94 - 9.55) 21.64 (18.72 - 24.88) 7.55 (6.03 - 9.42)
Arkansas 7.86 (6.66 - 9.26) 6.65 (5.27 - 8.36) 17.52 (15.03 - 20.33) 6.42 (5.11 - 8.02)
California 9.84   (9.03 - 10.72) 8.30 (7.29 - 9.45) 20.31 (18.62 - 22.11) 8.07 (7.10 - 9.16)
Colorado 10.21   (8.76 - 11.88) 9.45   (7.58 - 11.72) 23.73 (20.86 - 26.87) 7.97 (6.39 - 9.90)
Connecticut 9.36   (8.00 - 10.94) 7.18 (5.67 - 9.04) 22.66 (19.86 - 25.73) 7.47 (5.96 - 9.33)
Delaware 8.91   (7.59 - 10.43) 7.89 (6.22 - 9.95) 22.02 (19.29 - 25.02) 6.87 (5.41 - 8.68)
District of Columbia 12.03 (10.32 - 13.97) 5.74 (4.43 - 7.41) 20.29 (17.64 - 23.22) 10.77   (8.78 - 13.14)
Florida 8.32 (7.57 - 9.14) 6.93 (6.02 - 7.96) 17.63 (16.12 - 19.25) 7.07 (6.19 - 8.07)
Georgia 7.49 (6.36 - 8.81) 5.86 (4.61 - 7.41) 18.31 (15.86 - 21.03) 5.83 (4.57 - 7.40)
Hawaii 8.81   (7.46 - 10.37) 8.17   (6.24 - 10.62) 20.38 (17.46 - 23.65) 7.04 (5.58 - 8.85)
Idaho 9.66   (8.38 - 11.12) 8.02 (6.44 - 9.96) 21.40 (18.71 - 24.36) 7.75 (6.31 - 9.50)
Illinois 8.75 (7.99 - 9.57) 6.71 (5.79 - 7.75) 20.96 (19.30 - 22.73) 6.81 (5.93 - 7.81)
Indiana 8.85   (7.63 - 10.23) 6.56 (5.23 - 8.20) 19.97 (17.28 - 22.96) 7.22 (5.87 - 8.86)
Iowa 9.17   (7.92 - 10.59) 8.06 (6.52 - 9.93) 21.82 (19.03 - 24.89) 7.02 (5.66 - 8.67)
Kansas 9.05   (7.84 - 10.43) 7.50 (6.04 - 9.28) 20.76 (18.05 - 23.75) 7.02 (5.68 - 8.65)
Kentucky 7.66 (6.52 - 8.98) 6.58 (5.20 - 8.29) 18.23 (15.68 - 21.09) 6.10 (4.86 - 7.63)
Louisiana 8.24 (7.03 - 9.63) 5.61 (4.38 - 7.15) 19.00 (16.42 - 21.88) 6.53 (5.19 - 8.18)
Maine 7.96 (6.78 - 9.31) 6.36 (4.99 - 8.09) 20.84 (18.15 - 23.80) 6.30 (5.02 - 7.86)
Maryland 8.17 (6.88 - 9.69) 5.64 (4.34 - 7.31) 18.57 (15.84 - 21.65) 6.73 (5.32 - 8.49)
Massachusetts 10.75   (9.30 - 12.39) 8.46   (6.82 - 10.47) 25.05 (22.09 - 28.27) 8.48   (6.87 - 10.42)
Michigan 9.30   (8.52 - 10.14) 7.21 (6.36 - 8.15) 19.72 (18.17 - 21.36) 7.78 (6.84 - 8.83)
Minnesota 9.05   (7.77 - 10.52) 7.04 (5.64 - 8.75) 20.70 (18.09 - 23.58) 7.29 (5.87 - 9.01)
Mississippi 7.82 (6.65 - 9.19) 6.11 (4.82 - 7.71) 17.18 (14.78 - 19.87) 6.32 (5.00 - 7.95)
Missouri 7.98 (6.80 - 9.34) 6.84 (5.46 - 8.53) 18.48 (15.98 - 21.26) 6.35 (5.05 - 7.95)
Montana 10.63   (9.21 - 12.23) 9.95   (8.03 - 12.26) 25.89 (22.91 - 29.12) 8.05 (6.47 - 9.97)
Nebraska 9.08   (7.81 - 10.53) 6.51 (5.19 - 8.14) 20.87 (18.17 - 23.85) 7.13 (5.72 - 8.86)
Nevada 9.85   (8.41 - 11.50) 7.89   (6.19 - 10.01) 21.29 (18.48 - 24.39) 8.34   (6.72 - 10.30)
New Hampshire 9.79   (8.39 - 11.39) 9.86   (7.94 - 12.18) 24.04 (21.16 - 27.17) 7.53 (5.98 - 9.43)
New Jersey 7.79 (6.64 - 9.12) 6.08 (4.77 - 7.71) 18.61 (16.03 - 21.49) 6.33 (5.05 - 7.91)
New Mexico 9.48   (8.17 - 10.99) 9.77   (7.94 - 11.97) 20.04 (17.43 - 22.93) 7.52 (6.03 - 9.33)
New York 9.14 (8.36 - 9.98) 7.76 (6.75 - 8.91) 21.45 (19.77 - 23.22) 7.13 (6.21 - 8.17)
North Carolina 7.82 (6.62 - 9.21) 5.89 (4.64 - 7.45) 17.94 (15.49 - 20.68) 6.37 (5.03 - 8.03)
North Dakota 9.38   (8.19 - 10.74) 6.69 (5.33 - 8.38) 21.62 (18.99 - 24.50) 6.87 (5.54 - 8.48)
Ohio 9.08 (8.30 - 9.92) 7.37 (6.48 - 8.36) 21.43 (19.87 - 23.07) 7.27 (6.35 - 8.31)
Oklahoma 9.54   (8.12 - 11.19) 7.38 (5.83 - 9.30) 20.48 (17.55 - 23.77) 7.80 (6.23 - 9.73)
Oregon 9.67   (8.27 - 11.29) 8.79   (7.14 - 10.79) 20.54 (17.87 - 23.49) 8.03 (6.46 - 9.95)
Pennsylvania 8.74 (7.91 - 9.65) 7.02 (6.08 - 8.08) 20.58 (18.79 - 22.49) 6.99 (6.04 - 8.07)
Rhode Island 10.78   (9.19 - 12.61) 7.59 (6.01 - 9.55) 23.07 (20.04 - 26.40) 8.84   (7.04 - 11.03)
South Carolina 9.45   (7.99 - 11.15) 6.33 (5.02 - 7.96) 18.62 (16.08 - 21.46) 8.31   (6.63 - 10.37)
South Dakota 10.25   (8.85 - 11.85) 8.74   (6.94 - 10.96) 22.38 (19.53 - 25.52) 8.22   (6.68 - 10.09)
Tennessee 8.06 (6.83 - 9.50) 6.05 (4.85 - 7.53) 18.33 (15.75 - 21.23) 6.69 (5.31 - 8.39)
Texas 8.26 (7.53 - 9.05) 6.92 (6.03 - 7.92) 18.49 (16.98 - 20.10) 6.50 (5.64 - 7.48)
Utah 7.43 (6.30 - 8.74) 6.17 (4.76 - 7.95) 16.33 (13.79 - 19.24) 5.45 (4.22 - 7.02)
Vermont 9.87   (8.50 - 11.43) 8.02   (6.39 - 10.01) 25.59 (22.54 - 28.91) 7.36 (5.87 - 9.19)
Virginia 9.63   (8.34 - 11.09) 7.65 (6.12 - 9.53) 23.09 (20.29 - 26.14) 7.52 (6.08 - 9.27)
Washington 7.90 (6.72 - 9.27) 6.42 (5.09 - 8.08) 19.63 (17.07 - 22.47) 6.16 (4.87 - 7.76)
West Virginia 7.69 (6.50 - 9.07) 6.16 (4.85 - 7.80) 18.90 (16.33 - 21.76) 6.16 (4.87 - 7.76)
Wisconsin 9.50   (8.17 - 11.02) 8.21   (6.62 - 10.14) 20.88 (18.19 - 23.86) 7.67 (6.19 - 9.48)
Wyoming 8.77   (7.53 - 10.18) 8.53   (6.86 - 10.58) 19.83 (17.36 - 22.57) 6.76 (5.37 - 8.49)
120320
Table B.21 – Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for illicit drugs, but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 2.53 (2.41 - 2.66) 4.21 (3.98 - 4.46) 7.14 (6.81 - 7.48) 1.52 (1.38 - 1.67)
Northeast 2.57 (2.38 - 2.78) 4.23 (3.83 - 4.68) 7.93 (7.33 - 8.57) 1.47 (1.27 - 1.71)
Midwest 2.39 (2.24 - 2.56) 4.09 (3.76 - 4.44) 6.91 (6.46 - 7.38) 1.39 (1.22 - 1.58)
South 2.41 (2.25 - 2.59) 3.94 (3.62 - 4.28) 6.57 (6.11 - 7.07) 1.51 (1.33 - 1.71)
West 2.82 (2.58 - 3.08) 4.74 (4.24 - 5.30) 7.61 (6.95 - 8.33) 1.70 (1.44 - 2.00)
Alabama 2.37 (1.89 - 2.96) 3.67 (2.77 - 4.85) 6.44 (5.01 - 8.25) 1.50 (1.06 - 2.13)
Alaska 2.74 (2.16 - 3.46) 4.19 (3.10 - 5.66) 6.49 (4.99 - 8.40) 1.79 (1.23 - 2.59)
Arizona 2.72 (2.17 - 3.40) 4.46 (3.30 - 6.01) 7.67 (5.99 - 9.77) 1.65 (1.16 - 2.36)
Arkansas 2.28 (1.83 - 2.85) 4.02 (3.03 - 5.32) 6.04 (4.68 - 7.76) 1.44 (1.03 - 2.03)
California 2.95 (2.58 - 3.37) 4.87 (4.11 - 5.77) 7.52 (6.53 - 8.66) 1.82 (1.43 - 2.31)
Colorado 2.88 (2.34 - 3.54) 5.72 (4.31 - 7.56) 8.95   (7.10 - 11.22) 1.50 (1.05 - 2.14)
Connecticut 2.46 (1.98 - 3.06) 4.09 (3.07 - 5.43) 7.90   (6.20 - 10.01) 1.38 (0.96 - 1.98)
Delaware 2.40 (1.91 - 3.02) 4.14 (3.08 - 5.54) 7.23 (5.72 - 9.11) 1.40 (0.96 - 2.05)
District of Columbia 2.80 (2.20 - 3.56) 3.54 (2.57 - 4.86) 6.43 (4.97 - 8.27) 1.94 (1.36 - 2.77)
Florida 2.47 (2.13 - 2.86) 4.05 (3.39 - 4.85) 6.76 (5.81 - 7.86) 1.65 (1.30 - 2.10)
Georgia 2.04 (1.58 - 2.64) 3.57 (2.61 - 4.87) 5.20 (3.87 - 6.95) 1.29 (0.85 - 1.94)
Hawaii 2.39 (1.84 - 3.09) 3.78 (2.72 - 5.23) 7.01 (5.32 - 9.19) 1.50 (1.00 - 2.25)
Idaho 2.85 (2.28 - 3.56) 4.39 (3.32 - 5.79) 7.70 (6.02 - 9.79) 1.75 (1.23 - 2.49)
Illinois 2.44 (2.14 - 2.78) 4.04 (3.36 - 4.85) 7.54 (6.55 - 8.67) 1.31 (1.02 - 1.68)
Indiana 2.66 (2.14 - 3.31) 3.99 (3.00 - 5.30) 7.43 (5.82 - 9.43) 1.66 (1.17 - 2.36)
Iowa 2.00 (1.58 - 2.54) 4.60 (3.43 - 6.15) 5.28 (4.00 - 6.94) 1.09 (0.72 - 1.66)
Kansas 2.12 (1.69 - 2.66) 3.49 (2.57 - 4.71) 6.46 (4.97 - 8.34) 1.11 (0.76 - 1.62)
Kentucky 2.45 (1.97 - 3.05) 4.27 (3.20 - 5.67) 7.23 (5.66 - 9.20) 1.47 (1.03 - 2.09)
Louisiana 2.46 (1.96 - 3.08) 3.50 (2.63 - 4.65) 6.68 (5.19 - 8.55) 1.51 (1.05 - 2.17)
Maine 2.38 (1.90 - 2.98) 3.66 (2.70 - 4.94) 8.71   (6.91 - 10.93) 1.35 (0.93 - 1.95)
Maryland 2.55 (2.04 - 3.19) 3.77 (2.84 - 5.00) 7.81 (6.07 - 9.99) 1.51 (1.05 - 2.16)
Massachusetts 2.92 (2.37 - 3.60) 5.24 (4.02 - 6.79) 8.64   (6.88 - 10.80) 1.64 (1.15 - 2.35)
Michigan 2.39 (2.08 - 2.75) 4.06 (3.44 - 4.79) 6.58 (5.72 - 7.55) 1.46 (1.12 - 1.89)
Minnesota 2.29 (1.85 - 2.83) 3.87 (2.89 - 5.17) 6.89 (5.44 - 8.67) 1.30 (0.92 - 1.85)
Mississippi 2.73 (2.20 - 3.38) 3.63 (2.68 - 4.91) 7.03 (5.56 - 8.86) 1.80 (1.28 - 2.53)
Missouri 2.47 (1.98 - 3.07) 3.85 (2.88 - 5.12) 7.16 (5.66 - 9.02) 1.50 (1.05 - 2.14)
Montana 2.42 (1.97 - 2.96) 4.65 (3.56 - 6.04) 7.23 (5.75 - 9.06) 1.32 (0.93 - 1.87)
Nebraska 1.95 (1.52 - 2.50) 3.59 (2.64 - 4.86) 5.07 (3.82 - 6.71) 1.13 (0.76 - 1.70)
Nevada 2.50 (1.97 - 3.17) 4.02 (2.93 - 5.48) 6.52 (5.08 - 8.34) 1.69 (1.18 - 2.42)
New Hampshire 2.88 (2.32 - 3.58) 6.11 (4.62 - 8.04) 9.58   (7.73 - 11.83) 1.45 (0.96 - 2.17)
New Jersey 2.14 (1.72 - 2.67) 3.69 (2.77 - 4.92) 6.86 (5.31 - 8.81) 1.22 (0.86 - 1.74)
New Mexico 2.93 (2.37 - 3.63) 6.29 (4.81 - 8.20) 7.87 (6.24 - 9.89) 1.59 (1.08 - 2.35)
New York 2.73 (2.39 - 3.11) 4.07 (3.38 - 4.88) 8.29 (7.30 - 9.42) 1.58 (1.23 - 2.03)
North Carolina 2.50 (1.99 - 3.14) 3.83 (2.89 - 5.05) 7.01 (5.57 - 8.80) 1.59 (1.11 - 2.27)
North Dakota 1.84 (1.40 - 2.40) 3.35 (2.41 - 4.64) 4.90 (3.62 - 6.61) 0.95 (0.60 - 1.50)
Ohio 2.48 (2.19 - 2.81) 4.18 (3.55 - 4.93) 7.42 (6.53 - 8.43) 1.46 (1.16 - 1.83)
Oklahoma 2.64 (2.10 - 3.32) 4.47 (3.37 - 5.90) 6.93 (5.35 - 8.94) 1.62 (1.13 - 2.30)
Oregon 2.82 (2.29 - 3.48) 5.00 (3.83 - 6.51) 8.03   (6.31 - 10.17) 1.74 (1.24 - 2.43)
Pennsylvania 2.41 (2.09 - 2.78) 4.21 (3.49 - 5.09) 7.16 (6.17 - 8.30) 1.42 (1.10 - 1.83)
Rhode Island 2.99 (2.41 - 3.70) 4.82 (3.64 - 6.36) 9.42   (7.42 - 11.88) 1.56 (1.09 - 2.24)
South Carolina 2.52 (2.00 - 3.17) 3.89 (2.97 - 5.08) 6.46 (5.05 - 8.23) 1.70 (1.19 - 2.43)
South Dakota 2.07 (1.64 - 2.62) 4.38 (3.27 - 5.84) 5.54 (4.17 - 7.34) 1.15 (0.78 - 1.70)
Tennessee 2.36 (1.87 - 2.98) 3.62 (2.75 - 4.76) 6.04 (4.64 - 7.83) 1.63 (1.15 - 2.31)
Texas 2.36 (2.06 - 2.71) 4.07 (3.39 - 4.89) 6.19 (5.30 - 7.23) 1.38 (1.08 - 1.78)
Utah 2.57 (2.08 - 3.17) 4.30 (3.24 - 5.70) 6.09 (4.71 - 7.86) 1.41 (0.99 - 2.01)
Vermont 2.72 (2.22 - 3.32) 4.20 (3.17 - 5.55) 9.52   (7.70 - 11.71) 1.38 (0.95 - 2.00)
Virginia 2.47 (2.00 - 3.05) 4.47 (3.41 - 5.85) 7.38 (5.81 - 9.34) 1.37 (0.97 - 1.95)
Washington 2.57 (2.09 - 3.17) 3.75 (2.80 - 5.00) 8.38   (6.65 - 10.50) 1.48 (1.05 - 2.09)
West Virginia 2.31 (1.83 - 2.92) 3.24 (2.34 - 4.47) 7.74 (6.07 - 9.83) 1.40 (0.96 - 2.04)
Wisconsin 2.41 (1.92 - 3.01) 4.88 (3.74 - 6.34) 6.49 (5.04 - 8.33) 1.39 (0.96 - 2.03)
Wyoming 2.09 (1.63 - 2.68) 4.38 (3.25 - 5.87) 5.71 (4.34 - 7.46) 1.15 (0.76 - 1.75)
120320
Table B.22 – Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(Estimate)
12+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for alcohol, but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers).
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 6.88 (6.66 - 7.10) 4.41 (4.15 - 4.69) 15.26 (14.78 - 15.77) 5.73 (5.46 - 6.00)
Northeast 6.90 (6.50 - 7.33) 4.44 (4.03 - 4.89) 16.23 (15.36 - 17.14) 5.62 (5.15 - 6.13)
Midwest 6.98 (6.64 - 7.33) 4.37 (4.05 - 4.71) 15.91 (15.20 - 16.64) 5.75 (5.35 - 6.18)
South 6.46 (6.13 - 6.81) 4.08 (3.78 - 4.41) 14.04 (13.36 - 14.76) 5.46 (5.06 - 5.88)
West 7.42 (6.95 - 7.92) 4.94 (4.43 - 5.51) 15.80 (14.84 - 16.80) 6.22 (5.66 - 6.83)
Alabama 6.50 (5.39 - 7.81) 4.26 (3.33 - 5.45) 12.87 (10.75 - 15.33) 5.68 (4.46 - 7.21)
Alaska 7.13 (5.93 - 8.55) 4.40 (3.37 - 5.72) 14.86 (12.42 - 17.69) 6.00 (4.69 - 7.64)
Arizona 7.15 (5.94 - 8.57) 4.59 (3.51 - 5.98) 16.65 (14.18 - 19.44) 5.87 (4.58 - 7.51)
Arkansas 6.15 (5.13 - 7.35) 4.39 (3.40 - 5.65) 13.53 (11.33 - 16.09) 5.15 (4.06 - 6.52)
California 7.76 (7.01 - 8.58) 5.15 (4.34 - 6.09) 15.61 (14.12 - 17.22) 6.62 (5.74 - 7.63)
Colorado 8.17 (6.85 - 9.73) 5.32 (4.15 - 6.81) 19.29 (16.61 - 22.30) 6.60 (5.15 - 8.41)
Connecticut 7.51 (6.27 - 8.97) 4.67 (3.64 - 5.97) 17.93 (15.30 - 20.90) 6.17 (4.82 - 7.86)
Delaware 6.69 (5.57 - 8.02) 4.40 (3.41 - 5.66) 15.64 (13.25 - 18.37) 5.49 (4.27 - 7.03)
District of Columbia 9.21   (7.70 - 10.97) 3.37 (2.42 - 4.67) 16.73 (14.25 - 19.54) 8.07 (6.35 - 10.19)
Florida 6.38 (5.69 - 7.14) 4.40 (3.73 - 5.19) 13.12 (11.74 - 14.64) 5.57 (4.79 - 6.48)
Georgia 5.88 (4.87 - 7.09) 3.53 (2.68 - 4.64) 13.49 (11.32 - 16.01) 4.87 (3.76 - 6.29)
Hawaii 7.46 (6.08 - 9.12) 5.25 (3.88 - 7.07) 16.97 (14.16 - 20.21) 6.19 (4.69 - 8.14)
Idaho 7.02 (5.94 - 8.27) 4.79 (3.72 - 6.16) 16.04 (13.71 - 18.68) 5.69 (4.50 - 7.17)
Illinois 6.89 (6.23 - 7.62) 3.96 (3.33 - 4.71) 16.19 (14.72 - 17.78) 5.60 (4.82 - 6.49)
Indiana 6.67 (5.63 - 7.89) 4.09 (3.22 - 5.18) 14.99 (12.61 - 17.74) 5.57 (4.43 - 6.97)
Iowa 7.86 (6.65 - 9.26) 5.24 (4.11 - 6.66) 18.73 (16.09 - 21.68) 6.21 (4.88 - 7.88)
Kansas 7.38 (6.25 - 8.69) 4.95 (3.88 - 6.30) 16.63 (14.18 - 19.39) 5.93 (4.71 - 7.44)
Kentucky 5.84 (4.85 - 7.02) 4.06 (3.12 - 5.27) 13.15 (10.97 - 15.70) 4.88 (3.82 - 6.23)
Louisiana 6.38 (5.35 - 7.60) 3.35 (2.56 - 4.38) 13.84 (11.82 - 16.15) 5.36 (4.20 - 6.83)
Maine 6.21 (5.20 - 7.39) 4.16 (3.18 - 5.41) 15.77 (13.35 - 18.53) 5.07 (3.99 - 6.41)
Maryland 5.97 (4.88 - 7.28) 3.30 (2.48 - 4.38) 13.36 (11.03 - 16.10) 5.05 (3.88 - 6.56)
Massachusetts 7.94 (6.74 - 9.33) 4.98 (3.86 - 6.39) 19.07 (16.40 - 22.06) 6.30 (5.00 - 7.91)
Michigan 6.99 (6.29 - 7.77) 4.25 (3.63 - 4.96) 14.70 (13.35 - 16.17) 6.02 (5.19 - 6.98)
Minnesota 7.30 (6.17 - 8.63) 4.70 (3.69 - 5.96) 16.85 (14.50 - 19.49) 5.98 (4.73 - 7.54)
Mississippi 6.20 (5.18 - 7.41) 3.71 (2.85 - 4.82) 12.92 (10.91 - 15.24) 5.29 (4.15 - 6.72)
Missouri 6.26 (5.14 - 7.59) 4.49 (3.50 - 5.74) 13.77 (11.56 - 16.33) 5.21 (4.00 - 6.76)
Montana 8.71   (7.43 - 10.17) 6.13 (4.80 - 7.81) 21.41 (18.63 - 24.48) 6.79 (5.40 - 8.51)
Nebraska 7.39 (6.30 - 8.66) 4.44 (3.44 - 5.70) 17.77 (15.22 - 20.64) 5.77 (4.60 - 7.22)
Nevada 8.00 (6.67 - 9.57) 5.15 (3.95 - 6.68) 17.31 (14.75 - 20.22) 6.93 (5.45 - 8.77)
New Hampshire 7.15 (6.01 - 8.47) 5.12 (4.01 - 6.53) 17.82 (15.32 - 20.63) 5.69 (4.46 - 7.24)
New Jersey 6.07 (5.01 - 7.34) 3.86 (2.97 - 5.01) 13.82 (11.53 - 16.48) 5.15 (4.01 - 6.59)
New Mexico 7.14 (6.02 - 8.45) 5.21 (4.06 - 6.65) 15.29 (12.93 - 18.00) 5.89 (4.67 - 7.42)
New York 6.99 (6.30 - 7.75) 4.69 (3.96 - 5.54) 15.97 (14.53 - 17.51) 5.67 (4.87 - 6.60)
North Carolina 6.01 (4.96 - 7.27) 3.63 (2.78 - 4.73) 13.34 (11.16 - 15.86) 5.08 (3.94 - 6.53)
North Dakota 7.90 (6.81 - 9.15) 4.32 (3.34 - 5.57) 19.11 (16.63 - 21.87) 5.72 (4.54 - 7.18)
Ohio 6.86 (6.18 - 7.60) 4.36 (3.74 - 5.08) 16.04 (14.71 - 17.46) 5.67 (4.88 - 6.57)
Oklahoma 7.15 (5.95 - 8.58) 4.58 (3.53 - 5.92) 15.48 (13.02 - 18.32) 5.95 (4.63 - 7.60)
Oregon 7.13 (5.98 - 8.47) 4.75 (3.72 - 6.06) 15.06 (12.76 - 17.69) 6.12 (4.86 - 7.69)
Pennsylvania 6.51 (5.79 - 7.31) 4.07 (3.40 - 4.86) 15.80 (14.28 - 17.45) 5.26 (4.46 - 6.20)
Rhode Island 8.26 (6.85 - 9.92) 4.50 (3.48 - 5.80) 17.02 (14.29 - 20.16) 7.04 (5.48 - 9.00)
South Carolina 7.67 (6.28 - 9.33) 3.90 (2.98 - 5.08) 13.99 (11.73 - 16.60) 7.08 (5.49 - 9.08)
South Dakota 8.44 (7.18 - 9.91) 5.90 (4.58 - 7.56) 19.03 (16.30 - 22.10) 6.82 (5.43 - 8.54)
Tennessee 6.16 (5.10 - 7.43) 3.70 (2.85 - 4.79) 13.55 (11.34 - 16.11) 5.29 (4.13 - 6.77)
Texas 6.63 (5.95 - 7.37) 4.36 (3.68 - 5.15) 14.40 (13.08 - 15.83) 5.47 (4.68 - 6.38)
Utah 5.40 (4.39 - 6.64) 3.83 (2.83 - 5.15) 11.47   (9.34 - 14.01) 4.18 (3.06 - 5.67)
Vermont 7.61 (6.44 - 8.97) 4.68 (3.65 - 5.99) 19.00 (16.37 - 21.95) 5.96 (4.69 - 7.55)
Virginia 7.52 (6.37 - 8.86) 4.81 (3.74 - 6.16) 18.11 (15.60 - 20.92) 6.01 (4.77 - 7.54)
Washington 6.04 (5.00 - 7.29) 4.10 (3.16 - 5.30) 14.60 (12.26 - 17.29) 4.88 (3.76 - 6.30)
West Virginia 5.53 (4.52 - 6.76) 4.16 (3.19 - 5.41) 13.19 (11.00 - 15.74) 4.52 (3.46 - 5.90)
Wisconsin 7.08 (5.96 - 8.39) 4.43 (3.47 - 5.64) 15.92 (13.52 - 18.67) 5.85 (4.62 - 7.39)
Wyoming 7.17 (6.06 - 8.47) 5.38 (4.23 - 6.80) 16.79 (14.35 - 19.54) 5.62 (4.42 - 7.13)
130807
Table B.23 – Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 18+
(Estimate)
18+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Serious mental illness (SMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder, that met the criteria found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and resulted in serious functional impairment. Estimates for SMI presented in this table may differ from previously published SMI estimates because of revised estimation procedures. For details, see the NSDUH short report titled Revised Estimates of Mental Illness from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health at http://samhsa.gov/data/default.aspx.
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012; SMI Estimates Revised October 2013).
Total U.S. 3.88 (3.68 - 4.10) 3.63 (3.41 - 3.87) 3.92 (3.69 - 4.17)
Northeast 3.74 (3.39 - 4.13) 3.74 (3.37 - 4.14) 3.74 (3.34 - 4.19)
Midwest 4.21 (3.89 - 4.56) 3.83 (3.52 - 4.15) 4.28 (3.91 - 4.68)
South 3.78 (3.48 - 4.11) 3.39 (3.09 - 3.71) 3.85 (3.50 - 4.23)
West 3.84 (3.48 - 4.23) 3.75 (3.35 - 4.20) 3.85 (3.44 - 4.31)
Alabama 5.00 (3.88 - 6.42) 3.66 (2.76 - 4.85) 5.23 (3.97 - 6.87)
Alaska 4.07 (3.11 - 5.31) 3.50 (2.63 - 4.65) 4.19 (3.09 - 5.65)
Arizona 4.37 (3.35 - 5.67) 3.92 (2.94 - 5.22) 4.44 (3.31 - 5.94)
Arkansas 4.94 (3.85 - 6.31) 3.97 (3.00 - 5.24) 5.10 (3.88 - 6.67)
California 3.24 (2.71 - 3.88) 3.69 (3.06 - 4.43) 3.16 (2.56 - 3.90)
Colorado 4.56 (3.54 - 5.86) 4.01 (3.07 - 5.24) 4.65 (3.50 - 6.16)
Connecticut 3.73 (2.85 - 4.87) 3.43 (2.57 - 4.58) 3.78 (2.80 - 5.08)
Delaware 3.93 (3.01 - 5.11) 4.47 (3.38 - 5.89) 3.84 (2.82 - 5.21)
District of Columbia 3.45 (2.64 - 4.50) 2.95 (2.15 - 4.02) 3.57 (2.63 - 4.82)
Florida 3.62 (3.03 - 4.32) 3.12 (2.56 - 3.80) 3.70 (3.04 - 4.49)
Georgia 3.60 (2.74 - 4.73) 3.01 (2.24 - 4.04) 3.70 (2.73 - 5.01)
Hawaii 3.68 (2.77 - 4.87) 3.35 (2.42 - 4.63) 3.73 (2.71 - 5.11)
Idaho 5.10 (4.01 - 6.48) 4.87 (3.69 - 6.42) 5.15 (3.92 - 6.72)
Illinois 3.90 (3.33 - 4.57) 3.80 (3.19 - 4.51) 3.92 (3.28 - 4.69)
Indiana 4.78 (3.76 - 6.07) 3.93 (2.98 - 5.17) 4.93 (3.76 - 6.43)
Iowa 4.36 (3.42 - 5.55) 3.85 (2.93 - 5.04) 4.46 (3.40 - 5.83)
Kansas 3.53 (2.72 - 4.58) 3.67 (2.77 - 4.86) 3.51 (2.60 - 4.72)
Kentucky 4.13 (3.22 - 5.29) 3.60 (2.71 - 4.77) 4.22 (3.20 - 5.53)
Louisiana 3.91 (3.03 - 5.03) 3.36 (2.54 - 4.44) 4.01 (3.01 - 5.33)
Maine 4.14 (3.21 - 5.32) 4.25 (3.24 - 5.56) 4.12 (3.11 - 5.45)
Maryland 3.37 (2.54 - 4.45) 3.40 (2.54 - 4.54) 3.36 (2.44 - 4.61)
Massachusetts 4.20 (3.27 - 5.38) 3.71 (2.80 - 4.89) 4.29 (3.24 - 5.65)
Michigan 4.08 (3.48 - 4.78) 3.97 (3.35 - 4.71) 4.10 (3.42 - 4.91)
Minnesota 4.18 (3.26 - 5.36) 3.82 (2.89 - 5.02) 4.25 (3.20 - 5.61)
Mississippi 4.04 (3.11 - 5.22) 3.26 (2.45 - 4.34) 4.18 (3.14 - 5.56)
Missouri 4.79 (3.74 - 6.11) 3.56 (2.68 - 4.71) 4.99 (3.81 - 6.52)
Montana 4.76 (3.70 - 6.11) 4.39 (3.32 - 5.78) 4.82 (3.64 - 6.37)
Nebraska 4.13 (3.26 - 5.23) 3.77 (2.85 - 4.98) 4.21 (3.22 - 5.48)
Nevada 4.87 (3.72 - 6.35) 3.32 (2.43 - 4.54) 5.11 (3.81 - 6.82)
New Hampshire 4.25 (3.27 - 5.49) 4.43 (3.38 - 5.80) 4.21 (3.14 - 5.63)
New Jersey 3.39 (2.56 - 4.46) 4.11 (3.10 - 5.44) 3.27 (2.37 - 4.50)
New Mexico 3.38 (2.60 - 4.39) 3.54 (2.67 - 4.68) 3.35 (2.47 - 4.52)
New York 3.72 (3.14 - 4.39) 3.49 (2.90 - 4.18) 3.76 (3.11 - 4.54)
North Carolina 3.47 (2.62 - 4.57) 2.99 (2.20 - 4.05) 3.54 (2.60 - 4.81)
North Dakota 3.48 (2.71 - 4.46) 3.61 (2.75 - 4.73) 3.45 (2.57 - 4.62)
Ohio 4.31 (3.70 - 5.03) 3.82 (3.23 - 4.51) 4.39 (3.70 - 5.21)
Oklahoma 4.03 (3.11 - 5.20) 3.68 (2.74 - 4.92) 4.09 (3.05 - 5.46)
Oregon 4.54 (3.58 - 5.76) 3.87 (2.93 - 5.10) 4.65 (3.57 - 6.03)
Pennsylvania 3.57 (2.98 - 4.27) 3.82 (3.14 - 4.63) 3.53 (2.87 - 4.34)
Rhode Island 4.92 (3.82 - 6.31) 4.38 (3.27 - 5.85) 5.02 (3.77 - 6.64)
South Carolina 3.97 (3.09 - 5.11) 3.39 (2.54 - 4.52) 4.07 (3.07 - 5.38)
South Dakota 3.61 (2.77 - 4.68) 3.32 (2.47 - 4.45) 3.66 (2.72 - 4.91)
Tennessee 4.15 (3.21 - 5.34) 3.21 (2.41 - 4.27) 4.29 (3.25 - 5.66)
Texas 3.40 (2.84 - 4.08) 3.58 (2.97 - 4.32) 3.37 (2.73 - 4.16)
Utah 5.12 (4.04 - 6.46) 4.55 (3.51 - 5.89) 5.26 (3.99 - 6.91)
Vermont 4.04 (3.16 - 5.15) 4.19 (3.21 - 5.46) 4.01 (3.03 - 5.30)
Virginia 3.91 (3.04 - 5.01) 3.70 (2.81 - 4.84) 3.94 (2.97 - 5.22)
Washington 4.39 (3.41 - 5.64) 3.30 (2.46 - 4.42) 4.57 (3.46 - 6.01)
West Virginia 4.92 (3.83 - 6.29) 3.37 (2.51 - 4.51) 5.15 (3.93 - 6.72)
Wisconsin 4.14 (3.24 - 5.28) 4.00 (3.03 - 5.26) 4.17 (3.14 - 5.51)
Wyoming 4.08 (3.19 - 5.20) 3.39 (2.58 - 4.43) 4.21 (3.20 - 5.52)
130807
Table B.24 – Any Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 18+
(Estimate)
18+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Any mental illness (AMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder, that met the criteria found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Estimates for AMI presented in this table may differ from previously published AMI estimates because of revised estimation procedures. For details, see the NSDUH short report titled Revised Estimates of Mental Illness from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health at http://samhsa.gov/data/default.aspx.
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012; AMI Estimates Revised October 2013).
Total U.S. 18.10 (17.68 - 18.53) 18.02 (17.57 - 18.49) 18.11 (17.63 - 18.60)
Northeast 18.36 (17.53 - 19.22) 18.57 (17.71 - 19.47) 18.33 (17.39 - 19.31)
Midwest 18.59 (17.94 - 19.26) 18.77 (18.07 - 19.48) 18.56 (17.81 - 19.32)
South 17.53 (16.86 - 18.22) 17.04 (16.37 - 17.74) 17.61 (16.84 - 18.41)
West 18.32 (17.47 - 19.21) 18.42 (17.47 - 19.41) 18.31 (17.32 - 19.33)
Alabama 20.85 (18.28 - 23.68) 17.82 (15.42 - 20.50) 21.37 (18.43 - 24.64)
Alaska 19.39 (16.88 - 22.17) 18.26 (15.80 - 21.01) 19.61 (16.75 - 22.84)
Arizona 18.26 (15.80 - 20.99) 18.62 (16.28 - 21.21) 18.20 (15.43 - 21.33)
Arkansas 20.04 (17.64 - 22.67) 19.30 (16.89 - 21.98) 20.16 (17.47 - 23.13)
California 17.07 (15.75 - 18.47) 17.61 (16.14 - 19.19) 16.96 (15.44 - 18.60)
Colorado 18.42 (16.02 - 21.09) 18.19 (15.77 - 20.90) 18.46 (15.75 - 21.51)
Connecticut 17.63 (15.23 - 20.32) 19.04 (16.63 - 21.69) 17.41 (14.72 - 20.46)
Delaware 18.29 (15.96 - 20.87) 20.10 (17.70 - 22.74) 17.99 (15.38 - 20.93)
District of Columbia 19.14 (16.86 - 21.65) 17.06 (14.87 - 19.51) 19.60 (16.94 - 22.58)
Florida 17.02 (15.68 - 18.44) 16.57 (15.10 - 18.15) 17.08 (15.58 - 18.69)
Georgia 15.56 (13.45 - 17.93) 17.05 (14.77 - 19.61) 15.30 (12.92 - 18.02)
Hawaii 17.74 (15.46 - 20.29) 19.61 (16.87 - 22.68) 17.45 (14.89 - 20.34)
Idaho 22.43 (19.76 - 25.35) 21.47 (18.86 - 24.32) 22.61 (19.56 - 25.97)
Illinois 16.97 (15.63 - 18.40) 18.02 (16.55 - 19.58) 16.78 (15.26 - 18.42)
Indiana 18.83 (16.61 - 21.26) 18.86 (16.44 - 21.55) 18.82 (16.32 - 21.61)
Iowa 19.21 (16.88 - 21.78) 19.06 (16.64 - 21.73) 19.24 (16.60 - 22.19)
Kansas 15.99 (13.88 - 18.34) 17.80 (15.39 - 20.49) 15.64 (13.27 - 18.35)
Kentucky 19.32 (16.91 - 22.00) 17.11 (14.87 - 19.61) 19.67 (16.96 - 22.71)
Louisiana 17.51 (15.27 - 20.00) 17.03 (14.85 - 19.47) 17.60 (15.06 - 20.47)
Maine 18.70 (16.34 - 21.31) 20.49 (17.94 - 23.29) 18.44 (15.85 - 21.34)
Maryland 17.03 (14.60 - 19.78) 17.59 (15.20 - 20.26) 16.94 (14.22 - 20.05)
Massachusetts 18.51 (16.27 - 20.97) 18.91 (16.53 - 21.53) 18.43 (15.90 - 21.27)
Michigan 19.70 (18.31 - 21.16) 18.92 (17.44 - 20.49) 19.83 (18.25 - 21.50)
Minnesota 18.38 (16.21 - 20.77) 19.81 (17.44 - 22.42) 18.13 (15.67 - 20.89)
Mississippi 17.79 (15.59 - 20.24) 17.60 (15.38 - 20.07) 17.83 (15.31 - 20.67)
Missouri 19.42 (17.07 - 21.99) 19.71 (17.31 - 22.35) 19.37 (16.72 - 22.32)
Montana 20.72 (18.37 - 23.29) 20.58 (18.19 - 23.19) 20.75 (18.10 - 23.67)
Nebraska 17.58 (15.33 - 20.09) 18.11 (15.75 - 20.74) 17.48 (14.93 - 20.37)
Nevada 20.28 (17.62 - 23.22) 17.91 (15.57 - 20.52) 20.64 (17.67 - 23.96)
New Hampshire 19.76 (17.36 - 22.40) 20.31 (17.88 - 22.97) 19.68 (16.99 - 22.67)
New Jersey 17.54 (15.33 - 20.00) 18.73 (16.34 - 21.39) 17.35 (14.88 - 20.15)
New Mexico 16.43 (14.19 - 18.94) 17.50 (15.21 - 20.06) 16.24 (13.70 - 19.14)
New York 19.02 (17.57 - 20.56) 18.39 (16.93 - 19.94) 19.13 (17.47 - 20.92)
North Carolina 17.22 (14.92 - 19.78) 15.81 (13.61 - 18.30) 17.45 (14.88 - 20.36)
North Dakota 16.26 (14.16 - 18.61) 17.08 (14.92 - 19.48) 16.08 (13.65 - 18.84)
Ohio 19.66 (18.23 - 21.18) 18.83 (17.44 - 20.30) 19.80 (18.18 - 21.53)
Oklahoma 20.34 (17.92 - 23.01) 21.19 (18.49 - 24.15) 20.19 (17.43 - 23.26)
Oregon 20.12 (17.85 - 22.59) 19.86 (17.39 - 22.59) 20.16 (17.60 - 22.99)
Pennsylvania 17.53 (16.11 - 19.06) 17.88 (16.32 - 19.55) 17.47 (15.85 - 19.22)
Rhode Island 21.30 (18.54 - 24.33) 19.42 (16.85 - 22.27) 21.65 (18.52 - 25.15)
South Carolina 17.18 (14.84 - 19.80) 16.49 (14.19 - 19.08) 17.29 (14.67 - 20.28)
South Dakota 16.82 (14.56 - 19.35) 17.37 (14.92 - 20.13) 16.71 (14.16 - 19.62)
Tennessee 21.17 (18.43 - 24.20) 17.23 (14.90 - 19.83) 21.79 (18.70 - 25.24)
Texas 15.99 (14.70 - 17.37) 16.01 (14.66 - 17.46) 15.99 (14.51 - 17.58)
Utah 22.87 (20.45 - 25.48) 22.53 (19.83 - 25.48) 22.96 (20.13 - 26.06)
Vermont 19.75 (17.34 - 22.42) 21.15 (18.54 - 24.03) 19.51 (16.82 - 22.53)
Virginia 17.52 (15.37 - 19.89) 18.13 (15.93 - 20.55) 17.41 (14.99 - 20.13)
Washington 20.75 (18.26 - 23.49) 19.38 (16.90 - 22.14) 20.98 (18.17 - 24.09)
West Virginia 20.47 (17.99 - 23.19) 19.69 (17.26 - 22.37) 20.58 (17.82 - 23.65)
Wisconsin 18.89 (16.65 - 21.36) 19.11 (16.72 - 21.77) 18.86 (16.33 - 21.67)
Wyoming 19.47 (17.16 - 22.00) 20.00 (17.54 - 22.70) 19.37 (16.75 - 22.30)
120320
Table B.25 – Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 18+
(Estimate)
18+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 3.78 (3.59 - 3.97) 6.36 (6.08 - 6.65) 3.33 (3.12 - 3.55)
Northeast 3.82 (3.48 - 4.18) 6.62 (6.07 - 7.21) 3.34 (2.99 - 3.74)
Midwest 4.05 (3.75 - 4.36) 6.73 (6.28 - 7.21) 3.58 (3.26 - 3.93)
South 3.53 (3.25 - 3.84) 5.96 (5.53 - 6.42) 3.11 (2.81 - 3.45)
West 3.88 (3.52 - 4.28) 6.41 (5.85 - 7.03) 3.42 (3.02 - 3.87)
Alabama 4.10 (3.18 - 5.26) 6.63 (5.30 - 8.26) 3.66 (2.69 - 4.96)
Alaska 3.96 (3.10 - 5.05) 6.13 (4.82 - 7.77) 3.54 (2.62 - 4.76)
Arizona 4.08 (3.16 - 5.25) 6.40 (5.09 - 8.01) 3.69 (2.71 - 5.00)
Arkansas 4.37 (3.43 - 5.56) 6.62 (5.26 - 8.31) 4.00 (3.00 - 5.31)
California 3.57 (3.07 - 4.16) 6.26 (5.43 - 7.22) 3.06 (2.51 - 3.73)
Colorado 4.12 (3.21 - 5.26) 6.53 (5.22 - 8.15) 3.70 (2.74 - 4.98)
Connecticut 3.63 (2.83 - 4.63) 5.95 (4.65 - 7.58) 3.25 (2.41 - 4.37)
Delaware 3.89 (3.03 - 4.97) 7.45 (6.00 - 9.22) 3.30 (2.40 - 4.52)
District of Columbia 3.98 (3.14 - 5.05) 5.64 (4.47 - 7.10) 3.62 (2.69 - 4.85)
Florida 3.52 (2.97 - 4.16) 5.67 (4.86 - 6.61) 3.20 (2.61 - 3.90)
Georgia 3.12 (2.44 - 3.99) 5.58 (4.38 - 7.09) 2.70 (1.99 - 3.65)
Hawaii 3.92 (3.06 - 5.01) 7.36 (5.77 - 9.34) 3.37 (2.47 - 4.59)
Idaho 4.87 (3.82 - 6.19) 7.71 (6.18 - 9.58) 4.35 (3.24 - 5.81)
Illinois 4.05 (3.49 - 4.71) 6.86 (5.96 - 7.89) 3.55 (2.93 - 4.29)
Indiana 3.99 (3.17 - 5.00) 6.40 (5.11 - 7.99) 3.57 (2.70 - 4.70)
Iowa 3.90 (3.09 - 4.90) 6.16 (4.93 - 7.68) 3.49 (2.63 - 4.62)
Kansas 3.55 (2.81 - 4.48) 6.22 (4.87 - 7.90) 3.04 (2.26 - 4.07)
Kentucky 3.98 (3.16 - 5.02) 6.26 (5.02 - 7.77) 3.62 (2.73 - 4.79)
Louisiana 3.53 (2.78 - 4.47) 6.17 (4.90 - 7.75) 3.03 (2.24 - 4.08)
Maine 4.56 (3.58 - 5.80) 6.55 (5.27 - 8.11) 4.28 (3.22 - 5.66)
Maryland 3.52 (2.74 - 4.51) 6.25 (4.90 - 7.95) 3.05 (2.25 - 4.14)
Massachusetts 3.94 (3.14 - 4.92) 6.26 (4.99 - 7.81) 3.52 (2.68 - 4.62)
Michigan 4.15 (3.56 - 4.84) 6.90 (6.06 - 7.85) 3.68 (3.04 - 4.46)
Minnesota 3.90 (3.10 - 4.88) 6.72 (5.40 - 8.34) 3.41 (2.58 - 4.51)
Mississippi 3.72 (2.96 - 4.68) 6.34 (5.07 - 7.89) 3.23 (2.42 - 4.31)
Missouri 4.30 (3.36 - 5.48) 6.55 (5.30 - 8.08) 3.91 (2.91 - 5.24)
Montana 4.57 (3.60 - 5.78) 7.70 (6.21 - 9.51) 4.02 (2.99 - 5.38)
Nebraska 4.02 (3.19 - 5.04) 6.25 (4.97 - 7.84) 3.58 (2.71 - 4.73)
Nevada 4.18 (3.24 - 5.38) 5.67 (4.51 - 7.10) 3.95 (2.92 - 5.32)
New Hampshire 4.28 (3.35 - 5.45) 6.98 (5.65 - 8.59) 3.86 (2.86 - 5.18)
New Jersey 3.62 (2.87 - 4.57) 7.23 (5.77 - 9.01) 3.07 (2.29 - 4.11)
New Mexico 3.53 (2.77 - 4.48) 6.61 (5.30 - 8.22) 2.96 (2.16 - 4.05)
New York 3.84 (3.27 - 4.49) 6.57 (5.66 - 7.61) 3.35 (2.75 - 4.08)
North Carolina 3.48 (2.72 - 4.45) 5.77 (4.56 - 7.28) 3.10 (2.29 - 4.18)
North Dakota 3.48 (2.75 - 4.39) 5.91 (4.71 - 7.39) 2.91 (2.14 - 3.94)
Ohio 4.13 (3.53 - 4.83) 6.99 (6.13 - 7.97) 3.66 (3.01 - 4.45)
Oklahoma 3.86 (3.02 - 4.93) 5.99 (4.71 - 7.58) 3.47 (2.57 - 4.66)
Oregon 4.14 (3.24 - 5.27) 6.32 (5.06 - 7.87) 3.79 (2.84 - 5.05)
Pennsylvania 3.68 (3.13 - 4.32) 6.60 (5.68 - 7.66) 3.20 (2.61 - 3.92)
Rhode Island 4.56 (3.56 - 5.82) 6.90 (5.49 - 8.63) 4.11 (3.04 - 5.54)
South Carolina 3.60 (2.81 - 4.59) 5.79 (4.58 - 7.30) 3.23 (2.40 - 4.34)
South Dakota 3.92 (3.11 - 4.93) 6.09 (4.84 - 7.64) 3.53 (2.66 - 4.66)
Tennessee 3.63 (2.82 - 4.65) 5.58 (4.41 - 7.03) 3.32 (2.46 - 4.47)
Texas 3.14 (2.67 - 3.68) 5.90 (5.11 - 6.80) 2.61 (2.11 - 3.22)
Utah 4.99 (3.96 - 6.26) 7.69 (6.12 - 9.62) 4.31 (3.21 - 5.78)
Vermont 4.39 (3.48 - 5.52) 7.32 (5.91 - 9.05) 3.88 (2.91 - 5.16)
Virginia 3.76 (2.98 - 4.74) 6.25 (5.00 - 7.79) 3.33 (2.50 - 4.42)
Washington 4.25 (3.37 - 5.36) 6.23 (4.99 - 7.75) 3.93 (2.97 - 5.18)
West Virginia 4.46 (3.47 - 5.71) 6.80 (5.48 - 8.40) 4.10 (3.05 - 5.51)
Wisconsin 4.04 (3.22 - 5.07) 7.09 (5.68 - 8.82) 3.51 (2.65 - 4.64)
Wyoming 3.98 (3.15 - 5.03) 5.97 (4.76 - 7.48) 3.62 (2.72 - 4.81)
120320
Table B.26 – Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs
State 18+
(Estimate)
18+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
12-17
(Estimate)
12-17
(95% Confidence
Interval)
18-25
(Estimate)
18-25
(95% Confidence
Interval)
26+
(Estimate)
26+
(95% Confidence
Interval)
NOTE: Major depressive episode is defined as in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms. For details, see Section A.11 in Appendix A of this report.
NOTE: There are minor wording differences in the questions in the adult and adolescent major depressive episode modules. Therefore, data from youths aged 12 to 17 were not combined with data from persons aged 18 or older to get an overall estimate (12 or older).
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the "Total U.S." row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals are given.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 6.70 (6.45 - 6.97) 8.07 (7.74 - 8.41) 8.15 (7.81 - 8.51) 6.45 (6.16 - 6.76)
Northeast 6.68 (6.23 - 7.17) 7.79 (7.24 - 8.38) 8.24 (7.64 - 8.88) 6.42 (5.91 - 6.98)
Midwest 6.99 (6.61 - 7.38) 8.20 (7.76 - 8.67) 8.52 (8.04 - 9.02) 6.72 (6.30 - 7.17)
South 6.59 (6.24 - 6.97) 8.06 (7.63 - 8.52) 7.77 (7.33 - 8.24) 6.39 (5.98 - 6.82)
West 6.63 (6.15 - 7.15) 8.17 (7.55 - 8.83) 8.33 (7.70 - 9.00) 6.32 (5.78 - 6.92)
Alabama 7.48 (6.19 - 9.02) 7.65 (6.34 - 9.21) 7.97 (6.45 - 9.83) 7.40 (5.94 - 9.18)
Alaska 6.74 (5.57 - 8.14) 7.65 (6.23 - 9.36) 8.10 (6.58 - 9.94) 6.48 (5.16 - 8.10)
Arizona 6.87 (5.65 - 8.31) 8.37   (6.84 - 10.20) 8.58   (6.98 - 10.51) 6.58 (5.22 - 8.25)
Arkansas 7.81 (6.54 - 9.31) 8.52   (6.99 - 10.33) 8.64   (7.05 - 10.55) 7.67 (6.25 - 9.39)
California 6.12 (5.40 - 6.94) 7.85 (6.93 - 8.89) 8.02 (7.05 - 9.11) 5.76 (4.94 - 6.72)
Colorado 7.05 (5.86 - 8.45) 8.92   (7.34 - 10.79) 8.00 (6.49 - 9.82) 6.88 (5.54 - 8.51)
Connecticut 6.25 (5.15 - 7.57) 7.59 (6.17 - 9.31) 7.71 (6.21 - 9.52) 6.01 (4.79 - 7.52)
Delaware 6.93 (5.75 - 8.33) 9.02   (7.51 - 10.80) 10.39   (8.58 - 12.53) 6.36 (5.07 - 7.97)
District of Columbia 6.58 (5.43 - 7.95) 6.88 (5.49 - 8.58) 7.35 (5.82 - 9.26) 6.41 (5.10 - 8.03)
Florida 6.41 (5.68 - 7.22) 8.76 (7.77 - 9.87) 7.67 (6.70 - 8.77) 6.22 (5.40 - 7.15)
Georgia 6.24 (5.18 - 7.50) 8.09 (6.72 - 9.72) 7.84 (6.38 - 9.60) 5.96 (4.78 - 7.42)
Hawaii 5.99 (4.91 - 7.30) 7.23 (5.77 - 9.02) 7.67 (6.10 - 9.60) 5.73 (4.52 - 7.24)
Idaho 7.61 (6.43 - 9.00) 8.99   (7.43 - 10.85) 10.10   (8.38 - 12.13) 7.16 (5.83 - 8.78)
Illinois 6.81 (6.04 - 7.66) 7.48 (6.56 - 8.52) 8.90   (7.87 - 10.06) 6.43 (5.57 - 7.42)
Indiana 7.48 (6.23 - 8.95) 8.78   (7.30 - 10.52) 7.96 (6.48 - 9.74) 7.40 (6.00 - 9.08)
Iowa 7.01 (5.87 - 8.35) 7.64 (6.28 - 9.27) 7.77 (6.35 - 9.48) 6.87 (5.57 - 8.44)
Kansas 6.65 (5.61 - 7.88) 8.66   (7.21 - 10.36) 8.73   (7.12 - 10.67) 6.26 (5.08 - 7.69)
Kentucky 7.02 (5.84 - 8.41) 8.36 (6.98 - 9.99) 7.69 (6.29 - 9.36) 6.91 (5.58 - 8.52)
Louisiana 6.24 (5.13 - 7.57) 6.93 (5.65 - 8.47) 7.08 (5.68 - 8.79) 6.08 (4.83 - 7.63)
Maine 6.85 (5.70 - 8.22) 8.55   (7.10 - 10.25) 8.84   (7.29 - 10.69) 6.57 (5.30 - 8.11)
Maryland 6.09 (5.00 - 7.40) 7.58 (6.17 - 9.29) 7.63 (6.15 - 9.43) 5.83 (4.63 - 7.33)
Massachusetts 7.23 (6.05 - 8.61) 7.86 (6.49 - 9.50) 8.68   (7.08 - 10.60) 6.97 (5.67 - 8.55)
Michigan 6.90 (6.18 - 7.69) 8.37 (7.43 - 9.42) 9.20   (8.17 - 10.35) 6.50 (5.70 - 7.41)
Minnesota 6.85 (5.74 - 8.17) 7.81 (6.47 - 9.40) 8.56   (7.03 - 10.38) 6.56 (5.31 - 8.09)
Mississippi 6.39 (5.28 - 7.71) 7.46 (6.11 - 9.08) 6.53 (5.27 - 8.07) 6.36 (5.09 - 7.92)
Missouri 7.33 (6.11 - 8.77) 9.58   (7.92 - 11.55) 8.01 (6.50 - 9.83) 7.22 (5.85 - 8.87)
Montana 7.37 (6.20 - 8.76) 8.38   (6.92 - 10.11) 9.57   (7.87 - 11.59) 6.99 (5.69 - 8.57)
Nebraska 7.10 (6.00 - 8.38) 8.28 (6.87 - 9.95) 7.88 (6.42 - 9.63) 6.95 (5.69 - 8.46)
Nevada 6.97 (5.77 - 8.41) 7.73 (6.26 - 9.51) 7.27 (5.84 - 9.01) 6.93 (5.58 - 8.56)
New Hampshire 7.23 (5.99 - 8.69) 8.92   (7.35 - 10.79) 9.47   (7.78 - 11.48) 6.87 (5.50 - 8.55)
New Jersey 6.10 (5.04 - 7.36) 7.21 (5.91 - 8.78) 8.61   (6.95 - 10.62) 5.71 (4.55 - 7.15)
New Mexico 5.87 (4.84 - 7.10) 8.63   (7.07 - 10.49) 7.68 (6.17 - 9.52) 5.54 (4.38 - 6.97)
New York 6.75 (5.96 - 7.62) 7.84 (6.93 - 8.85) 7.56 (6.63 - 8.60) 6.60 (5.71 - 7.62)
North Carolina 6.56 (5.43 - 7.91) 7.45 (6.13 - 9.02) 7.27 (5.87 - 8.98) 6.44 (5.18 - 7.99)
North Dakota 6.74 (5.69 - 7.97) 8.24 (6.82 - 9.92) 7.99 (6.54 - 9.73) 6.46 (5.25 - 7.92)
Ohio 6.99 (6.24 - 7.82) 8.25 (7.34 - 9.27) 8.21 (7.33 - 9.18) 6.79 (5.95 - 7.74)
Oklahoma 7.54 (6.29 - 9.01) 7.85 (6.45 - 9.53) 9.75   (7.88 - 12.00) 7.13 (5.74 - 8.82)
Oregon 7.52 (6.35 - 8.88) 8.94   (7.44 - 10.71) 9.68   (7.95 - 11.74) 7.17 (5.88 - 8.72)
Pennsylvania 6.62 (5.85 - 7.47) 7.91 (6.99 - 8.94) 8.67 (7.57 - 9.91) 6.28 (5.43 - 7.25)
Rhode Island 7.95 (6.61 - 9.53) 8.11 (6.65 - 9.85) 9.33   (7.52 - 11.51) 7.69 (6.16 - 9.57)
South Carolina 7.36 (6.09 - 8.86) 8.56   (7.12 - 10.25) 8.73   (7.08 - 10.72) 7.13 (5.73 - 8.84)
South Dakota 5.95 (4.86 - 7.26) 8.80   (7.28 - 10.61) 7.32 (5.83 - 9.14) 5.70 (4.49 - 7.21)
Tennessee 7.35 (6.09 - 8.84) 8.33 (6.98 - 9.91) 7.78 (6.31 - 9.55) 7.28 (5.87 - 9.00)
Texas 6.02 (5.31 - 6.82) 7.96 (7.03 - 9.00) 7.49 (6.57 - 8.53) 5.74 (4.93 - 6.68)
Utah 8.18 (6.97 - 9.56) 8.09 (6.71 - 9.72) 9.31   (7.72 - 11.20) 7.90 (6.48 - 9.59)
Vermont 6.98 (5.85 - 8.31) 8.22 (6.77 - 9.94) 9.31   (7.60 - 11.37) 6.57 (5.32 - 8.10)
Virginia 6.84 (5.75 - 8.14) 8.37   (6.94 - 10.07) 8.23   (6.74 - 10.02) 6.60 (5.37 - 8.09)
Washington 7.58 (6.36 - 9.00) 8.86   (7.32 - 10.69) 8.98   (7.34 - 10.94) 7.35 (5.99 - 8.98)
West Virginia 7.63 (6.37 - 9.12) 8.03 (6.64 - 9.69) 8.08 (6.56 - 9.92) 7.56 (6.16 - 9.26)
Wisconsin 7.06 (5.92 - 8.41) 7.61 (6.32 - 9.15) 8.88   (7.21 - 10.89) 6.74 (5.46 - 8.30)
Wyoming 7.22 (6.12 - 8.52) 8.73   (7.20 - 10.55) 8.96   (7.37 - 10.85) 6.91 (5.65 - 8.42)

Appendix C: Comparison of the 2008-2009
and 2009-2010 Model-Based Estimates
(50 States and the District of Columbia)

120420
Table C.1 – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2009-2010)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2009-2010)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2009-2010)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2009-2010)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2008-2009 and the 2009-2010 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2008-2009 estimates may differ from previously published estimates due to updates (see Section 1.5 of this report).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 estimate and the 2009-2010 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 estimate and the 2009-2010 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 8.38a 8.82 0.000 9.69a 10.12 0.023 20.54a 21.46 0.001 6.12a 6.46 0.020
Northeast 8.98a 9.49 0.021 10.07 10.50 0.200 24.32 24.77 0.465 6.26b 6.79 0.055
Midwest 7.77a 8.10 0.030 9.63 9.76 0.626 19.40a 20.34 0.036 5.53 5.75 0.260
South 7.46a 7.86 0.007 8.80b 9.25 0.057 18.48b 19.33 0.077 5.43 5.72 0.123
West 9.94a 10.48 0.042 10.82b 11.49 0.092 21.81a 23.24 0.017 7.67 8.03 0.288
Alabama 7.10 7.25 0.724 9.19 9.28 0.893 18.43 17.60 0.514 4.91 5.22 0.572
Alaska 13.56 14.15 0.490 11.07 10.59 0.609 28.75 27.65 0.534 11.08 12.00 0.398
Arizona 9.51 9.53 0.970 10.11 10.87 0.405 20.76 20.02 0.579 7.52 7.58 0.930
Arkansas 7.83 7.80 0.954 9.46 9.73 0.706 19.05 18.04 0.442 5.80 5.87 0.891
California 10.01 10.43 0.279 10.78a 11.91 0.047 21.81 23.10 0.131 7.64 7.82 0.724
Colorado 11.34a 13.48 0.003 12.10 12.63 0.597 27.32 29.88 0.132 8.57a 10.75 0.015
Connecticut 8.85 9.52 0.183 10.30 10.54 0.773 24.85 26.07 0.426 6.13 6.70 0.346
Delaware 8.65 8.48 0.706 10.35 11.33 0.263 25.19 23.45 0.267 5.69 5.67 0.970
District of Columbia 10.47a 12.28 0.017 11.42a 13.54 0.040 22.13 24.01 0.226 7.78b 9.60 0.051
Florida 8.04 8.42 0.261 9.05 9.77 0.148 18.20a 20.02 0.040 6.43 6.52 0.810
Georgia 7.89 7.32 0.155 8.18 8.91 0.306 19.68 17.84 0.137 5.84 5.26 0.241
Hawaii 11.88a 9.69 0.003 10.19 10.33 0.877 23.43 23.44 0.995 10.23a 7.43 0.002
Idaho 8.21a 9.56 0.013 9.94 10.06 0.883 17.87a 20.56 0.048 6.26b 7.48 0.068
Illinois 7.77b 8.35 0.061 9.87 10.18 0.537 19.01a 22.07 0.000 5.46 5.64 0.645
Indiana 8.50 8.44 0.903 10.59 9.66 0.205 19.94 20.56 0.663 6.29 6.18 0.853
Iowa 5.29 5.82 0.101 9.22 9.72 0.526 13.21b 15.51 0.060 3.40 3.60 0.600
Kansas 7.02 7.07 0.913 8.93 9.24 0.691 16.27 17.43 0.390 5.04 4.81 0.651
Kentucky 7.38 7.01 0.380 8.13 8.39 0.702 18.17 17.91 0.844 5.60 5.10 0.331
Louisiana 7.11 7.52 0.278 7.40 7.95 0.439 18.88 19.87 0.431 4.80 5.11 0.511
Maine 11.14 11.79 0.280 10.89 10.79 0.908 28.55b 31.36 0.080 8.74 9.11 0.612
Maryland 7.12a 8.11 0.036 9.33 10.12 0.266 19.04 21.44 0.106 4.82 5.61 0.164
Massachusetts 10.90b 12.12 0.053 11.06 12.42 0.132 27.93a 31.15 0.043 7.86 8.71 0.275
Michigan 9.50a 10.37 0.016 10.74 10.64 0.842 22.36 22.70 0.671 7.15a 8.21 0.021
Minnesota 6.91 6.97 0.901 8.06 8.14 0.919 18.93 18.60 0.806 4.72 4.83 0.834
Mississippi 6.20b 6.95 0.060 8.77 9.26 0.494 15.05 16.67 0.168 4.21 4.81 0.219
Missouri 7.55 7.70 0.735 8.04 8.55 0.472 19.39 20.12 0.588 5.54 5.50 0.931
Montana 9.63b 10.77 0.079 11.31 11.66 0.693 24.52 25.61 0.476 6.93 8.08 0.149
Nebraska 6.69 7.01 0.406 8.64 8.27 0.617 17.06 17.61 0.673 4.48 4.80 0.477
Nevada 10.03 9.70 0.600 12.64 11.33 0.170 23.25 22.23 0.503 7.73 7.56 0.827
New Hampshire 11.21 12.15 0.152 11.54 13.17 0.114 30.31 31.96 0.336 8.25 8.89 0.418
New Jersey 6.71 7.33 0.146 8.31 8.83 0.486 20.54 20.28 0.853 4.37 5.14 0.143
New Mexico 9.09b 10.07 0.085 12.37 12.36 0.990 19.09a 22.69 0.012 6.82 7.47 0.360
New York 9.73 9.82 0.808 10.55 10.86 0.590 26.01b 24.39 0.088 6.70 7.12 0.363
North Carolina 8.14 8.88 0.115 10.28 9.79 0.524 19.97 22.23 0.126 5.97 6.54 0.303
North Dakota 5.62 5.30 0.412 7.64 7.45 0.785 12.71 11.98 0.524 3.79 3.51 0.539
Ohio 7.53 7.87 0.243 9.89 10.33 0.368 19.95 20.86 0.248 5.19 5.44 0.500
Oklahoma 8.94 9.66 0.222 9.41 9.99 0.474 19.48 21.82 0.102 6.97 7.38 0.568
Oregon 12.32 12.63 0.683 12.33 12.86 0.593 27.79 28.03 0.878 9.93 10.13 0.825
Pennsylvania 7.45b 7.99 0.073 9.45 9.51 0.908 19.76a 21.70 0.034 5.18 5.55 0.315
Rhode Island 12.67 13.21 0.437 12.90 12.85 0.955 30.12 32.35 0.175 9.37 9.64 0.751
South Carolina 8.91 8.88 0.943 9.13 8.70 0.580 20.37 21.11 0.585 7.01 6.87 0.825
South Dakota 6.19 6.07 0.779 9.43 8.62 0.306 15.12 15.03 0.941 4.17 4.12 0.919
Tennessee 7.48 7.07 0.343 7.97 8.31 0.614 19.62 17.60 0.111 5.55 5.27 0.581
Texas 6.65a 7.32 0.013 8.42 9.09 0.174 17.02 17.98 0.219 4.45b 5.03 0.067
Utah 6.23 5.60 0.102 8.16b 6.89 0.079 13.12 12.14 0.344 4.19 3.80 0.383
Vermont 12.32b 13.73 0.075 11.92 12.80 0.370 32.77 35.09 0.223 9.03 10.15 0.244
Virginia 6.23a 7.53 0.002 8.69 9.13 0.560 17.24b 19.68 0.057 4.06a 5.22 0.027
Washington 9.18a 10.82 0.012 10.34 10.81 0.551 20.20a 26.07 0.000 7.27 8.32 0.174
West Virginia 7.80 8.40 0.226 9.21 9.36 0.840 21.22 22.12 0.503 5.71 6.22 0.384
Wisconsin 7.90 7.77 0.770 9.67 10.04 0.630 21.26 19.95 0.330 5.43 5.37 0.909
Wyoming 6.45 7.07 0.162 10.13 10.46 0.691 17.41 18.14 0.579 4.05 4.63 0.260
120420
Table C.2 – Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2009-2010)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2009-2010)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2009-2010)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2009-2010)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2008-2009 and the 2009-2010 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2008-2009 estimates may differ from previously published estimates due to updates (see Section 1.5 of this report).
a Difference between the 2008-2009 estimate and the 2009-2010 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 estimate and the 2009-2010 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, and 2010 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 10.88a 11.47 0.000 13.37a 13.84 0.040 29.31a 30.39 0.001 7.38a 7.88 0.002
Northeast 11.95a 12.87 0.000 14.22 14.77 0.172 34.64 35.60 0.141 7.84a 8.81 0.001
Midwest 10.36a 10.79 0.015 12.84 13.04 0.496 28.53a 29.66 0.019 6.90 7.21 0.161
South 9.59a 9.94 0.046 12.06b 12.60 0.067 25.38a 26.58 0.017 6.62 6.75 0.523
West 12.55a 13.44 0.001 15.26 15.81 0.235 31.83 32.87 0.131 8.69a 9.59 0.009
Alabama 8.49 9.01 0.231 10.11 10.80 0.391 22.60 22.93 0.809 5.89 6.40 0.326
Alaska 16.25 17.51 0.143 15.89 16.11 0.856 35.51 36.77 0.475 12.67 13.92 0.250
Arizona 10.89 11.26 0.536 14.28 15.01 0.503 29.42 27.76 0.310 7.29 7.98 0.313
Arkansas 10.78a 9.38 0.011 12.33 11.89 0.624 27.59a 23.77 0.011 7.85b 6.69 0.066
California 12.91a 13.74 0.043 15.12 15.88 0.273 32.15 32.87 0.484 8.91b 9.81 0.076
Colorado 15.12a 16.93 0.024 18.55 19.05 0.687 38.59 40.92 0.208 10.79b 12.54 0.068
Connecticut 12.56a 13.79 0.047 15.91 16.77 0.450 37.10 39.03 0.291 8.25 9.31 0.140
Delaware 11.82 12.42 0.307 15.53 16.71 0.293 35.92 35.65 0.870 7.35 8.09 0.277
District of Columbia 14.34a 16.14 0.047 14.59b 16.66 0.082 33.16 34.39 0.464 10.11b