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2. Illicit Drug Use

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) obtains information on nine different categories of illicit drug use: marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and the nonmedical use of prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. Estimates of "illicit drug use" reported from NSDUH reflect the use of any of the nine drug categories listed above. Use of alcohol and tobacco products, while illegal for youths, is not included in these estimates, but is discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. This chapter presents State estimates of any illicit drug use, marijuana use, perceptions of risk of marijuana use, incidence of marijuana use (i.e., first-time use), use of illicit drugs other than marijuana, cocaine use, and nonmedical use of pain relievers.

2.1  Illicit Drugs

In 2009-2010, 8.8 percent of the U.S. population aged 12 or older used an illicit drug in the past month, and this rate was higher than the rate in 2008-2009 (8.4 percent) (see Table C.1 in Appendix C). Each of the four census regions also exhibited a higher rate in 2009-2010 compared with 2008-2009. In 2009-2010, past month use of illicit drugs among persons aged 12 or older ranged from 5.3 percent in North Dakota to 14.2 percent in Alaska (see Table B.1 in Appendix B). Colorado, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont were in the highest fifth for persons aged 12 or older and for each of the age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) (Figures 2.1 to 2.4).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, rates of past month illicit drug use among persons aged 12 or older increased in eight States (Colorado, District of Columbia, Idaho, Maryland, Michigan, Texas, Virginia, and Washington). Only Hawaii's rate decreased. Among youths aged 12 to 17, the only two increases occurred in California and the District of Columbia; there were no decreases among 12 to 17 year olds in any State. Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, seven States had increases in past month illicit drug use among those aged 18 to 25 (Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, and Washington); no States experienced decreases in that age group. There were increases among those aged 26 years or older in Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia; only Hawaii's rate decreased in that age group (from 10.2 percent in 2008-2009 to 7.4 percent in 2009-2010) (Table C.1).

2.2  Marijuana

In 2009-2010, past month marijuana use was reported by 6.8 percent of the U.S. population aged 12 years or older, an increase from 6.4 percent in 2008-2009 (Table C.3). Nine States that were in the top fifth for past month illicit drug use among persons aged 12 or older also were ranked in the top fifth for past month marijuana use: Alaska, Colorado, District of Columbia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont (Figures 2.1 and 2.9).

Seven States were ranked in the top fifth for past month marijuana use in age groups 12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 or older, and 12 or older: Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont (Figures 2.9 to 2.12). The rate of past month marijuana use in the 12 or older population ranged from 3.1 percent in Utah to 11.8 percent in Alaska (Table B.3). Utah had the lowest rate in all age groups. Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, past month marijuana use among persons 12 or older increased in 10 States: Colorado, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Washington (Table C.3). During the same time period, past month marijuana use increased in one State among 12 to 17 year olds (District of Columbia), eight States among 18 to 25 year olds (Florida, Illinois, Iowa, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Washington), and four States among persons aged 26 or older (District of Columbia, Idaho, Michigan, and Texas). Decreases only occurred in two States: Tennessee, among persons aged 12 or older, and Utah, among youths aged 12 to 17. All four census regions had higher rates of past month marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older in 2009-2010 compared with 2008-2009.

In 2009-2010, an estimated 11.5 percent of persons aged 12 or older in the United States reported marijuana use in the past year, an increase from 10.9 percent in 2008-2009 (Table C.2). Of the age groups 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older, persons aged 18 to 25 accounted for the highest rate of past year marijuana use (30.4 percent). Utah had the lowest rate (6.9 percent) of past year marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older, while Alaska had the highest rate in that age group (17.5 percent). Similar to past month marijuana use, Utah had the lowest rate for past year marijuana use in all age groups. Seven States (Colorado, Massachusetts, Montana, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont) were in the top fifth for past year marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older and in all three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) (Figures 2.5 to 2.8). Seventeen States experienced changes in past year marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010: Arkansas' rate decreased, whereas California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Texas had increases. Similar to past month marijuana use, there were increases between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 in past year marijuana use rates among persons aged 12 or older in the Northeast (from 12.0 to 12.9 percent), Midwest (from 10.4 to 10.8 percent), South (from 9.6 to 9.9 percent), and West (from 12.6 to 13.4 percent) regions of the United States (Table C.2).

2.3  Perceptions of Risk of Marijuana Use

An individual's perception of the risks of substance use has been shown to be inversely related to whether he or she actually uses the substance (e.g., Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 1998). Of the 10 States that ranked in the highest fifth for past month marijuana use among persons aged 12 or older in 2009-2010, 9 States (Alaska, Colorado, District of Columbia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont) were included in the lowest fifth for the perceived great risk of smoking marijuana once a month (Figures 2.9 and 2.13).

Perceived great risk of marijuana use once a month among persons 12 or older ranged from 22.3 percent in Colorado to 45.2 percent in Mississippi (Table B.4). The correspondence between the State-level estimates for perceived great risk of smoking marijuana once a month (2009-2010) and past month marijuana use (2009-2010) can be further clarified with the following examples. Alaska, with 11.8 percent of people aged 12 or older using marijuana in the past month, ranked in the top fifth for marijuana use; in the same State, 24.4 percent perceived smoking marijuana once a month as a great risk, which ranked in the lowest fifth compared with the other States (Tables B.3 and B.4; Figures 2.9 and 2.13). On the other hand, Alabama, which ranked in the lowest fifth for past month marijuana use (4.9 percent), had one of the highest rates (41.0 percent) of perceived great risk of smoking marijuana (Tables B.3 and B.4; Figures 2.9 and 2.13). Among youths aged 12 to 17, 7 of the 10 States that ranked in the highest fifth for past month marijuana use also ranked in the lowest fifth for perceived great risk of smoking marijuana once a month (Colorado, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont) (Figures 2.10 and 2.14).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, the national percentage of persons aged 12 or older perceiving a great risk of smoking marijuana once a month decreased from 35.8 to 33.6 percent (Table C.4). Decreases in the national rates occurred in every age group, including among youths aged 12 to 17 (from 31.8 to 29.9 percent). Declines also were observed in every age group within all four census regions. Twenty States showed decreases in the perceived great risk of smoking marijuana once a month among persons aged 12 or older: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Illinois, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, 16 States showed decreases in this rate for youths aged 12 to 17: California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, and Virginia. Over the same time period, this rate decreased in 22 States among persons aged 18 to 25 and decreased in 15 States among persons aged 26 or older. No increases were observed in any State or age group.

2.4  Incidence of Marijuana Use

Related to the prevalence of marijuana use is the number of persons who used marijuana for the first time ever over a specific period of time. In this report, the incidence of marijuana use is defined as the number of persons who used marijuana for the first time during a 2-year period preceding the survey interview. Unlike annual estimates presented in the NSDUH national findings report (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality [CBHSQ], 2011), this report averages data over a 2-year period and calculates the annualized marijuana incidence rate (expressed as a rate per 100 person-years of exposure).9 For the combined years 2009-2010, the national marijuana incidence rate for persons aged 12 or older was 1.8 percent (Table B.5). In 2009-2010, Colorado had the highest rate (2.8 percent), and Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Utah, and West Virginia had the lowest rate (1.4 percent) among persons aged 12 or older (Table B.5).

Nine States (Alaska, Colorado, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Montana, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont) that were ranked in the top fifth for past month marijuana use in the 12 or older age group also had a similar standing for marijuana incidence (Figures 2.9 and 2.17). Most initiations of marijuana take place at age 25 or earlier (Gfroerer, Wu, & Penne, 2002). It follows that the rates of initiation in the 26 or older age group were much lower than those in the 18 to 25 and 12 to 17 age groups. In 2009-2010, the national rates of marijuana initiation were 5.9, 7.3, and 0.2 percent for persons aged 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older, respectively. Colorado had the highest rate of youths initiating marijuana between the ages of 12 and 17 (9.3 percent), while Utah had the lowest rate (4.0 percent) in this age group. With respect to marijuana initiation between the ages of 18 and 25, the rate ranged from 4.0 percent in Utah to 12.5 percent in Vermont. Seven States (Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Montana, New Hampshire, and Vermont) were in the top fifth for marijuana incidence for persons aged 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 12 or older, whereas five States (Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Utah) were in the bottom fifth corresponding to the lowest initiation rates in those three age groups (Figures 2.17 to 2.19).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, the marijuana incidence rate among persons aged 12 or older increased in eight States (Colorado, Iowa, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas, and West Virginia). Increases occurred among 12 to 17 year olds in Colorado, New Hampshire, and New Jersey and among 18 to 25 year olds in Connecticut Illinois, and Montana. Across all States and age groups, only Wisconsin's rate among 18 to 25 year olds decreased (from 8.4 to 7.0 percent) (Table C.5). There was an increase in the Northeast census region among persons aged 12 or older (from 1.8 to 1.9 percent).

2.5  Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana

Illicit drugs other than marijuana include cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and the nonmedical use of prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. For the years 2009-2010 combined, the national estimate of past month use of illicit drugs other than marijuana among persons aged 12 or older was 3.6 percent (Table B.6). Iowa, North Dakota, and South Dakota had the lowest rate (2.4 percent), and Rhode Island had the highest rate (4.8 percent) among persons aged 12 or older. Seven States (District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington) that were in the top fifth for past month use of illicit drugs among those aged 12 or older also had a similar standing for past month use of an illicit drug other than marijuana (Figures 2.1 and 2.20).

Nationally and in all census regions, between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, there were no changes in the past month use of illicit drugs other than marijuana in any of the age groups presented (Table C.6). Eight States showed changes among persons aged 12 or older. Of them, Colorado, New Jersey, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming had increases, while Hawaii and Kentucky had decreases.

2.6  Cocaine

In 2009-2010, the national prevalence of past year cocaine use among persons aged 12 or older was 1.9 percent, which was a decline from 2.0 percent in 2008-2009 (Table C.7). Because cocaine is one of the substances included in the "illicit drug use other than marijuana" category, it is useful to compare the rankings of States with respect to these two measures. In 2009-2010, six States (District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) were ranked in the highest fifth for both past month use of an illicit drug other than marijuana (aged 12 or older) and past year use of cocaine (aged 12 or older) (Figures 2.20 and 2.24). Three States (Colorado, New Hampshire, and Vermont) were ranked in the top fifth for past year cocaine use in all three age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) and overall for those aged 12 or older (Figures 2.24 to 2.27). State-level rates among persons aged 12 or older ranged from 1.0 percent in Alabama, Iowa, and North Dakota to 3.1 percent in Colorado, District of Columbia, and Vermont. The District of Columbia and South Carolina stand out for their ranking in the lowest fifth for those aged 12 to 17 and the highest fifth for those aged 26 or older (Figures 2.25 and 2.27).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, 10 States showed decreases in past year cocaine use among persons aged 12 or older: Delaware, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Among persons aged 18 to 25 (the age group with the highest rates of past year cocaine use), decreases were observed in 13 States. No States showed increases in any age group. In the Midwest, there were decreases in past year cocaine use among persons aged 18 to 25, 26 or older, and 12 or older (Table C.7).

2.7  Pain Relievers (Nonmedical Use)

Nonmedical use of prescription-type pain relievers is defined as use of these drugs without a prescription or use that occurred simply for the experience or feeling the drug caused. Over-the-counter (OTC) use and legitimate use of prescription-type pain relievers are not included. In 2009-2010, 4.9 percent of persons aged 12 or older nationwide reported having used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year, which was similar to the rate in 2008-2009 (4.9 percent) (Table C.8). This rate decreased nationally among persons aged 18 to 25 (from 12.0 to 11.5 percent), but remained unchanged for persons aged 12 to 17 and 26 or older.

In 2009-2010, Oklahoma had the highest percentage (7.0 percent) of persons aged 12 or older using pain relievers for nonmedical purposes in the past year, and South Dakota had the lowest rate (3.6 percent) (Table B.8). Oklahoma and Oregon were ranked in the top fifth of States for this measure in age groups 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older, as well as for the total population aged 12 or older. Illinois and Nebraska were ranked in the lowest fifth in each of these age groups (Figures 2.28 to 2.31).

Between 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, past year nonmedical use of pain relievers among persons aged 12 or older increased in Missouri and Wyoming and decreased in Hawaii and Oklahoma. Among 12 to 17 year olds, Michigan's rate decreased from 7.4 to 6.4 percent, while among persons aged 26 or older, Missouri's and Wyoming's rates increased (from 2.9 to 3.6 percent and from 2.5 to 3.2 percent, respectively). Among persons aged 18 to 25, three States (Hawaii, North Carolina, and Utah) showed decreases between these time periods. There were no other changes at the State level in any of the age groups.

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Figure 2.1 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.1

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.2 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.2

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.3 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.3

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.4 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.4

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.5 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.5

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.6 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.6

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.7 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.7

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.8 Marijuana Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.8

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.9 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.9

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.10 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.10

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.11 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.11

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.12 Marijuana Use in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.12

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.13 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.13

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.14 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.14

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.15 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.15

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.16 Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.16

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.17 First Use of Marijuana among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.17

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.18 First Use of Marijuana among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.18

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.19 First Use of Marijuana among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Average Annual Rates Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.19

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.20 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.20

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.21 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.21

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.22 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.22

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.23 Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.23

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.24 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.24

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.25 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.25

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.26 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.26

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.27 Cocaine Use in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.27

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.28 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.28

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.29 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.29

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.30 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.30

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).

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Figure 2.31 Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2009 and 2010 NSDUHs

Figure 2.31

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, NSDUH, 2009 and 2010 (Revised March 2012).


End Notes

9 Average annual marijuana initiation rate = 100 × {[X1 ÷ (0.5 × X1 + X2)] ÷ 2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of persons who never used marijuana. Note that because the average annual incidence of marijuana was so low for the 26 or older age group and had such an abbreviated range, no map has been included for it; however, Table B.5 in Appendix B includes these estimates. For details on how the average annual incidence of marijuana use was calculated, see Section A.8 in Appendix A.

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