Skip To Content

Go to the Table Of Contents

Click for DHHS Home Page
Click for the SAMHSA Home Page
Click for the OAS Drug Abuse Statistics Home Page
Click for What's New
Click for Recent Reports and HighlightsClick for Information by Topic Click for OAS Data Systems and more Pubs Click for Data on Specific Drugs of Use Click for Short Reports and Facts Click for Frequently Asked Questions Click for Publications Click to send OAS Comments, Questions and Requests Click for OAS Home Page Click for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Home Page Click to Search Our Site

2005 National Survey on Drug Use & Health:  National Results

Appendix C: Key Definitions, 2005

This appendix provides definitions for many of the measures and terms used in this report on the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Where relevant, cross-references also are provided. For some key terms, specific question wording, including "feeder questions" that precede the question(s), is provided for clarity.

Abuse
A respondent was defined with abuse of a substance if he or she met one or more of the four criteria for abuse included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) and did not meet the definition for dependence for that substance. Additional criteria for alcohol and marijuana abuse are that if respondents reported a specific number of days that they used these drugs in the past 12 months, they must have used these drugs on 6 or more days in that period. These questions have been included in the survey since 2000. See Section B.4.3 of Appendix B for additional details.

SEE: "Need for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use Treatment" and "Prevalence."

Adult Education
SEE: "Education."

Age
Age of the respondent was defined as "age at time of interview." The interview program calculated the respondent's age from the date of birth and interview date. The interview program prompts the interviewer to confirm the respondent's age after it has been calculated.

Alcohol Use
Measures of use of alcohol in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last drank an alcoholic beverage?"

Feeder question: "The next questions are about alcoholic beverages, such as, beer, wine, brandy, and mixed drinks. Listed on the next screen are examples of the types of beverages we are interested in. Please review this list carefully before you answer these questions. These questions are about drinks of alcoholic beverages. Throughout these questions, by a 'drink,' we mean a can or bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a wine cooler, a shot of liquor, or a mixed drink with liquor in it. We are not asking about times when you only had a sip or two from a drink. Have you ever, even once, had a drink of any type of alcoholic beverage? Please do not include times when you only had a sip or two from a drink."

SEE: "Binge Use of Alcohol," "Current Use," "Heavy Use of Alcohol," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Alternative Treatment/Support for Mental Health Problems
For adults, alternative treatment/support for mental health problems was defined as treatment, counseling, or support for any problem with emotions, nerves, or mental health in the 12 months prior to the interview from any of the following sources: acupuncturist or acupressurist; chiropractor; herbalist; in-person support group or self-help group; Internet support group or chat room; spiritual or religious advisor, such as a pastor, priest, or rabbi; telephone hotline; massage therapist; or other sources of alternative treatment specified by respondents. Treatment/support for only a substance abuse problem was not included.

SEE: "Prevalence," "Self-Help Group," "Treatment for Mental Health Problems," and "Unmet Need for Treatment for Mental Health Problems."

American Indian or Alaska Native
American Indian or Alaska Native only, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (including North American, Central American, or South American Indian); does not include respondents reporting two or more races. (Respondents reporting that they were American Indians or Alaska Natives and of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.)

SEE: "Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."

Asian
Asian only, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin; does not include respondents reporting two or more races. (Respondents reporting that they were Asian and of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.) Specific Asian groups that were asked about were Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and "Other Asian."

SEE: "Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."

Baby Boom Cohort
The baby boom cohort refers to persons born in the United States after World War II between 1946 and 1964 (Light, 1988).

SEE: "Age."

Binge Use of Alcohol
Binge use of alcohol was defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.

Feeder question: "How long has it been since you last drank an alcoholic beverage?"

SEE: "Alcohol Use" and "Heavy Use of Alcohol."

Black
Black/African American only, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin; does not include respondents reporting two or more races. (Respondents reporting that they were black or African American and of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.)

SEE: "Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."

Blunts
Blunts were defined as cigars with marijuana in them. Measures of use of blunts in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last smoked part or all of a cigar with marijuana in it?"

Feeder question: "Sometimes people take tobacco out of a cigar and replace it with marijuana. This is sometimes called a 'blunt.' Have you ever smoked part or all of a cigar with marijuana in it?"

SEE: "Cigar Use," "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Marijuana Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," "Recency of Use," and "Tobacco Product Use."

Cash Assistance
Cash assistance was defined as receipt of direct monetary payments due to low income, such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), welfare, or other public assistance.

NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted from a household member identified as being better able to give the correct information about insurance and income.

SEE: "Welfare Assistance."

Cigar Use
Measures of use of cigars (including cigarillos and little cigars) in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the questions about cigar use in the past 30 days and the recency of use (if not in the past 30 days): "Now think about the past 30 days—that is, from [DATEFILL] up to and including today. During the past 30 days, have you smoked part or all of any type of cigar?" and "How long has it been since you last smoked part or all of any type of cigar?" Responses to questions about use of cigars with marijuana in them (blunts) were not included in these measures.

Feeder question: "The next questions are about smoking cigars. By cigars we mean any kind, including big cigars, cigarillos, and even little cigars that look like cigarettes. Have you ever smoked part or all of any type of cigar?"

SEE: "Blunts," "Cigarette Use," "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," "Recency of Use," "Smokeless Tobacco Use," and "Tobacco Product Use."

Cigarette Use
Measures of use of cigarettes in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the questions about cigarette use in the past 30 days and the recency of use (if not in the past 30 days): "Now think about the past 30 days—that is, from [DATEFILL] up to and including today. During the past 30 days, have you smoked part or all of a cigarette?" and "How long has it been since you last smoked part or all of a cigarette?"

Feeder question: "These questions are about your use of tobacco products. This includes cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipe tobacco. The first questions are about cigarettes only. Have you ever smoked part or all of a cigarette?"

SEE: "Cigar Use," "Current Use," "Lifetime Daily Cigarette Use," "Lifetime Use," "Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence," "Past Month Daily Cigarette Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," "Recency of Use," "Smokeless Tobacco Use," and "Tobacco Product Use."

Cocaine Use
Measures of use of cocaine in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any form of cocaine?"

Feeder question: "These questions are about cocaine, including all the different forms of cocaine such as powder, crack, free base, and coca paste. Have you ever, even once, used any form of cocaine?"

SEE: "Crack Use," "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

College Enrollment Status
Respondents aged 18 to 22 were classified as full-time undergraduate students or as some other status (including part-time students, students in other grades, or nonstudents). Respondents were classified as full-time students if they reported that they were attending (or will be attending) their first through fourth year of college or university and that they were (or will be) a full-time student. Respondents whose current enrollment status was unknown were excluded from the analysis.

County Type
Counties were grouped based on the "Rural/Urban Continuum Codes" developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (2003). Each county is in either a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) or outside of an MSA (also see Butler & Beale, 1994). Large metropolitan areas have a population of 1 million or more. Small metropolitan areas have a population fewer than 1 million. Nonmetropolitan areas are outside of MSAs and include urbanized counties with a population of 20,000 or more in urbanized areas, less urbanized counties with a population of at least 2,500 but fewer than 20,000 in urbanized areas, and completely rural counties with a population of fewer than 2,500 in urbanized areas. Estimates based on county-type information presented in this report use the 2003 revised definition of an MSA; estimates for 2002 in this report therefore are not directly comparable with those presented in the 2002 NSDUH report.

Crack Use
Measures of use of crack cocaine in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used crack?"

Feeder questions: "These questions are about cocaine, including all the different forms of cocaine such as powder, crack, free base, and coca paste. Have you ever, even once, used any form of cocaine?"

"The next questions are about crack, that is cocaine in rock or chunk form, and not the other forms of cocaine. Have you ever, even once, used crack?"

SEE: "Cocaine Use," "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Current Use
Any reported use of a specific drug in the past 30 days.

SEE: "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Delinquent Behavior
Youths aged 12 to 17 were asked a series of six questions: "During the past 12 months, how many times have you … stolen or tried to steal anything worth more than $50?" "sold illegal drugs?" "attacked someone with the intent to seriously hurt them?" "gotten into a serious fight at school or work?" "taken part in a fight where a group of your friends fought against another group?" and "carried a handgun?"

SEE: "Gang Fighting," "Prevalence," and "Stealing."

Dependence
A respondent was defined with dependence on illicit drugs or alcohol if he or she met three out of seven dependence criteria (for substances that included questions to measure a withdrawal criterion) or three out of six criteria (for substances that did not include withdrawal questions) for that substance, based on criteria included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (APA, 1994). Additional criteria for alcohol and marijuana dependence since 2000 are that if respondents reported a specific number of days that they used these drugs in the past 12 months, they must have used these drugs on 6 or more days in that period. This definition did not apply to Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence. See Section B.4.3 of Appendix B for additional details.

SEE: "Need for Alcohol Use Treatment," "Need for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use Treatment," "Need for Illicit Drug Use Treatment," "Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence," and "Prevalence."

Depression
SEE: "Major Depressive Episode."

Driving Under the Influence
Respondents were asked whether in the past 12 months they had driven a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol and illegal drugs used together, alcohol only, or illegal drugs only.

SEE: "Prevalence."

Ecstasy Use
Measures of use of Ecstasy or MDMA (methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used Ecstasy, also known as MDMA?"

SEE: "Current Use," "Hallucinogen Use," "Lifetime Use," "LSD Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "PCP Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Education
This is the measure of educational attainment among respondents who are aged 18 or older. It is based on respondents' reports of their highest grade or year of school that they completed. Response alternatives were presented in terms of single years of education, ranging from 0 if respondents never attended school to 17 if respondents completed 5 or more years at the college or university level. Respondents were classified into four categories based on their answers: less than high school, high school graduate, some college, and college graduate. Persons who completed postgraduate work were classified as college graduates.

Employment
Respondents were asked to report whether they worked in the week prior to the interview, and if not, whether they had a job despite not working in the past week. Respondents who worked in the past week or who reported having a job despite not working were asked whether they usually work 35 or more hours per week. Respondents who did not work in the past week but had a job were asked to look at a card that described why they did not work in the past week despite having a job. Respondents who did not have a job in the past week were asked to look at a different card that described why they did not have a job in the past week.

Full-time
"Full-time" in the tables includes respondents who usually work 35 or more hours per week and who worked in the past week or had a job despite not working in the past week.

Part-time
"Part-time" in the tables includes respondents who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week and who worked in the past week or had a job despite not working in the past week.

Unemployed
"Unemployed" in the tables refers to respondents who did not have a job, were on layoff, and were looking for work. For consistency with the Current Population Survey definition of unemployment, respondents who reported that they did not have a job but were looking for work needed to report making specific efforts to find work in the past 30 days, such as sending out resumes or applications, placing ads, or answering ads.

Other
"Other" includes all other responses, including being a student, someone who is keeping house or caring for children full time, retired, disabled, or other miscellaneous work statuses. Respondents who reported that they did not have a job, were on layoff, and were not looking for work were classified as not being in the labor force. Similarly, respondents who reported not having a job and looking for work also were classified as not being in the labor force if they did not report making specific efforts to find work in the past 30 days.

Ethnicity
SEE: "Race/Ethnicity."

Ever Use
SEE: "Lifetime Use."

Exposure to Drug Education and Prevention
Youths aged 12 to 17 were asked: "Please indicate if you have had any of these alcohol or drug education classes or experiences in school during the past 12 months
Have you had a special class about drugs or alcohol in school?
Have you had films, lectures, discussions, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in one of your regular classes, such as health or physical education?
Have you had films, lectures, discussions, or printed information about drugs or alcohol outside of one of your regular classes, such as in a special assembly?"

(Youths who reported that they were home schooled in the past 12 months also were asked these questions. Youths who reported that they were home schooled were instructed to think about their home schooling as "school.")

Youths also were asked: "During the past 12 months, have you seen or heard any alcohol or drug prevention messages from sources outside school, such as in posters, pamphlets, and radio or TV ads?"

Family Income
Family income was ascertained by asking respondents: "Of these income groups, which category best represents (your/SAMPLE MEMBER's) total combined family income during [the previous calendar year]? (Income data are important in analyzing the health information we collect. For example, the information helps us to learn whether persons in one income group use certain types of medical care services or have conditions more or less often than those in another group.)"

NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted from a household member identified as being better able to give the correct information about insurance and income.

Food Stamps
Food stamps are government-issued coupons that can be used to purchase food. Instead of coupons, some States issue a special card that can be used like a credit card to purchase food in grocery stores.

NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted from a household member identified as being better able to give the correct information about insurance and income.

SEE: "Welfare Assistance."

Gang Fighting
Youths aged 12 to 17 were asked how many times during the past 12 months they had taken part in a fight where a group of their friends fought against another group. Response alternatives were (1) 0 times, (2) 1 or 2 times, (3) 3 to 5 times, (4) 6 to 9 times, or (5) 10 or more times.

SEE: "Delinquent Behavior" and "Stealing."

Geographic Division
Data are presented for nine geographic divisions within the four geographic regions. Within the Northeast Region are the New England Division (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont) and the Middle Atlantic Division (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania). Within the Midwest Region are the East North Central Division (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin) and the West North Central Division (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota). Within the South Region are the South Atlantic Division (Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia), the East South Central Division (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee), and the West South Central Division (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas). Within the West Region are the Mountain Division (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming) and the Pacific Division (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington).

SEE: "Region."

Hallucinogen Use
Measures of use of hallucinogens in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any hallucinogen?"

Feeder questions: "The next questions are about substances called hallucinogens. These drugs often cause people to see or experience things that are not real… Have you ever, even once, used LSD, also called acid? Have you ever, even once, used PCP, also called angel dust or phencyclidine? Have you ever, even once, used peyote? Have you ever, even once, used mescaline? Have you ever, even once, used psilocybin, found in mushrooms? Have you ever, even once, used Ecstasy, also known as MDMA? Have you ever, even once used any other hallucinogen besides the ones that have been listed?"

SEE: "Current Use," "Ecstasy Use," "Lifetime Use," "LSD Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "PCP Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Health Insurance Status
A series of questions was asked to identify whether respondents currently were covered by Medicare, Medicaid, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), military health care (such as TRICARE or CHAMPUS), private health insurance, or any kind of health insurance (if respondents reported not being covered by any of the above). If respondents did not currently have health insurance coverage, questions were asked to determine the length of time they were without coverage and the reasons for not being covered.

NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted from a household member identified as being better able to give the correct information about insurance and income.

SEE: "Medicaid" and "Medicare."

Heavy Use of Alcohol
Heavy use of alcohol was defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on 5 or more days in the past 30 days. Heavy alcohol users also were defined as binge users of alcohol.

Feeder question: "How long has it been since you last drank an alcoholic beverage?"

SEE: "Alcohol Use" and "Binge Use of Alcohol."

Heroin Use
Measures of use of heroin in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used heroin?"

Feeder question: "These next questions are about heroin. Have you ever, even once, used heroin?"

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Hispanic
Hispanic was defined as anyone of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Respondents were classified as Hispanic in the race/ ethnicity measure regardless of race.

SEE: "American Indian or Alaska Native," "Asian," "Black," "Race/Ethnicity," "Two or More Races," and "White."

Illicit Drugs
Illicit drugs include marijuana or hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including phencyclidine [PCP], lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD], and Ecstasy [MDMA]), heroin, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, which include stimulants, sedatives, tranquilizers, and pain relievers. Illicit drug use refers to use of any of these drugs.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," and "Recency of Use."

Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana
These drugs include cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including phencyclidine [PCP], lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD], and Ecstasy [MDMA]), heroin, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, which include stimulants, sedatives, tranquilizers, and pain relievers. This measure includes marijuana users who used any of the above drugs in addition to using marijuana, as well as users of those drugs who have not used marijuana.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," and "Recency of Use."

Incidence
Substance use incidence refers to the use of a substance for the first time (new use). Incidence estimates are based on questions about age at first use of substances, year and month of first use for recent initiates, the respondent's date of birth, and the interview date.

Incidence statistics in this report reflect first use occurring within the 12 months prior to the interview. This is referred to as past year incidence. For these statistics, respondents who are immigrants are included regardless of whether their first use occurred inside or outside the United States.

See Section B.4.1 in Appendix B for additional details.

Income
SEE: "Family Income."

Inhalant Use
Measures of use of inhalants in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any inhalant for kicks or to get high?"

Feeder questions: "These next questions are about liquids, sprays, and gases that people sniff or inhale to get high or to make them feel good… Have you ever, even once, inhaled [INHALANT NAME] for kicks or to get high?" Respondents were asked about the following inhalants: (a) amyl nitrite, "poppers," locker room odorizers, or "rush"; (b) correction fluid, degreaser, or cleaning fluid; (c) gasoline or lighter fluid; (d) glue, shoe polish, or toluene; (e) halothane, ether, or other anesthetics; (f) lacquer thinner or other paint solvents; (g) lighter gases, such as butane or propane; (h) nitrous oxide or whippets; (i) spray paints; (j) some other aerosol spray; and (k) any other inhalants besides the ones that have been listed.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Large Metro
SEE: "County Type."

Lifetime Daily Cigarette Use
A respondent was defined as having lifetime daily cigarette use if he or she ever smoked part or all of a cigarette every day for at least 30 days.

SEE: "Cigarette Use" and "Past Month Daily Cigarette Use."

Lifetime Use
Lifetime use indicates use of a specific drug at least once in the respondent's lifetime. This measure includes respondents who also reported last using the drug in the past 30 days or past 12 months.

SEE: "Current Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Low Precision
Prevalence estimates based on only a few respondents or with relatively large standard errors were not shown in the tables, but have been replaced with an asterisk (*) and noted as "low precision." These estimates have been omitted because one cannot place a high degree of confidence in their accuracy. See Table B.1 in Appendix B for a complete list of the rules used to determine low precision.

LSD Use
Measures of use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used LSD?"

SEE: "Current Use," "Ecstasy Use," "Hallucinogen Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "PCP Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Major Depressive Episode
A person was defined as having had a lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) if he or she had at least five or more of the following nine symptoms in the same 2-week period in the lifetime, in which at least one of the symptoms was a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities: (1) depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day; (2) markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all or almost all activities most of the day, nearly every day; (3) significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day; (4) insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day; (5) psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day; (6) fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day; (7) feelings of worthlessness nearly every day; (8) diminished ability to think or concentrate or indecisiveness nearly every day; and (9) recurrent thoughts of death or recurrent suicide ideation. This definition is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (APA, 1994). A person was defined as having an MDE in the past year if he or she had a lifetime MDE and a period of time in the past 12 months when he or she felt depressed or lost interest or pleasure in daily activities for 2 weeks or longer, while also having some of the other symptoms defined above for a lifetime MDE. See Section B.4.5 of Appendix B for additional details.

Marijuana Use
Measures of use of marijuana in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used marijuana or hashish?" Responses to questions about use of cigars with marijuana in them (blunts) were not included in these measures.

Feeder question: "The next questions are about marijuana and hashish. Marijuana is also called pot or grass. Marijuana is usually smoked—either in cigarettes called joints, or in a pipe. It is sometimes cooked in food. Hashish is a form of marijuana that is also called hash. It is usually smoked in a pipe. Another form of hashish is hash oil. Have you ever, even once, used marijuana or hash?"

SEE: "Blunts," "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," "Prior Year Marijuana Use," and "Recency of Use."

Medicaid
Medicaid is a public assistance program that pays for medical care for low-income and disabled persons. Respondents were given the name of the Medicaid program in the State where they lived. Respondents aged 12 to 19 who reported that they were covered by the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in their State also were classified as being covered by Medicaid. Respondents aged 12 to 19 were given the name of the SCHIP program in their State. Respondents aged 65 or older who reported that they were covered by Medicaid were asked to verify that their answer was correct.

NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted from a household member identified as being better able to give the correct information about insurance and income.

SEE: "Health Insurance Status" and "Medicare."

Medicare
Medicare is a health insurance program for persons aged 65 or older and for certain disabled persons. Respondents under the age of 65 who reported that they were covered by Medicare were asked to verify that their answer was correct.

NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted from a household member identified as being better able to give the correct information about insurance and income.

SEE: "Health Insurance Status" and "Medicaid."

Mental Health Treatment
SEE: "Treatment for Mental Health Problems."

Methamphetamine Use
Measures of use of methamphetamine (also known as crank, crystal, ice, or speed), Desoxyn®, or Methedrine® in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used methamphetamine, Desoxyn, or Methedrine?" See Section B.4.6 of Appendix B for additional details.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," "Recency of Use," "Source of Psychotherapeutic Drugs," and "Stimulant Use."

Midwest Region
The States included are those in the East North Central Division—Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin—and the West North Central Division—Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

SEE: "Geographic Division" and "Region."

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin; does not include respondents reporting two or more races. (Respondents reporting that they were Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander and of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.)

SEE: "Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."

Need for Alcohol Use Treatment
Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an alcohol use problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependence on alcohol; (2) abuse of alcohol; or (3) received treatment for an alcohol use problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers).

SEE: "Abuse," "Dependence," "Prevalence," "Specialty Substance Use Treatment Facility," and "Treatment for a Substance Use Problem."

Need for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use Treatment
Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependence on illicit drugs or alcohol; (2) abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol; or (3) received treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers).

SEE: "Abuse," "Dependence," "Prevalence," "Specialty Substance Use Treatment Facility," and "Treatment for a Substance Use Problem."

Need for Illicit Drug Use Treatment
Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug use problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependence on illicit drugs; (2) abuse of illicit drugs; or (3) received treatment for an illicit drug use problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers).

SEE: "Abuse," "Dependence," "Prevalence," "Specialty Substance Use Treatment Facility," and "Treatment for a Substance Use Problem."

Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence
A respondent was defined with nicotine (cigarette) dependence if he or she met either the dependence criteria derived from the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) or the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). See Section B.4.2 of Appendix B for additional details.

SEE: "Cigarette Use," "Dependence," and "Prevalence."

Noncash Assistance
Noncash assistance refers to assistance due to low income but not in the form of direct monetary payments, such as help getting a job, placement in an education or job training program, or help with transportation, child care, or housing.

NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted from a household member identified as being better able to give the correct information about insurance and income.

SEE: "Welfare Assistance."

Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics
This section of the interview instrument deals with nonmedical use of four classes of prescription-type psychotherapeutics: pain relievers, sedatives, stimulants, and tranquilizers.

Measures of use of nonmedical psychotherapeutic agents in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any prescription [pain reliever, sedative, stimulant, or tranquilizer] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

Feeder question: "Now we have some questions about drugs that people are supposed to take only if they have a prescription from a doctor. We are only interested in your use of a drug if the drug was not prescribed for you, or if you took the drug only for the experience or feeling it caused."

NOTE: The pill card contains pictures and names of specific drugs within each psychotherapeutic category. For example, pictures and the names of Valium®, Librium®, and other tranquilizers are shown when the section on tranquilizers is introduced.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Pain Reliever Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Recency of Use," "Sedative Use," "Source of Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Stimulant Use," and "Tranquilizer Use."

Nonmetro
SEE: "County Type."

Northeast Region
The States included are those in the New England Division—Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont—and the Middle Atlantic Division—New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.

SEE: "Geographic Division" and "Region."

OxyContin® Use
Measures of use of the prescription pain reliever OxyContin® in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used OxyContin that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?" See Section B.5.1 of Appendix B in Office of Applied Studies (OAS, 2005b) for additional details.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Pain Reliever Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Pain Reliever Use
Measures of use of pain relievers in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any prescription pain reliever that was not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

Feeder question: "These questions are about the use of pain relievers. We are not interested in your use of over-the-counter pain relievers such as aspirin, Tylenol, or Advil that can be bought in drug stores or grocery stores without a doctor's prescription. Card A shows pictures of some different types of prescription pain relievers and lists the names of some others. These pictures show only pills, but we are interested in your use of any form of prescription pain relievers that were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused."

The following prescription pain relievers were listed on Pill Card A (Pain Relievers): (1) Darvocet®, Darvon®, or Tylenol® with Codeine; (2) Percocet®, Percodan®, or Tylox®; (3) Vicodin®, Lortab®, or Lorcet®/Lorcet Plus®; (4) Codeine; (5) Demerol®; (6) Dilaudid®; (7) Fioricet®; (8) Fiorinal®; (9) Hydrocodone; (10) Methadone; (11) Morphine; (12) OxyContin®; (13) Phenaphen® with Codeine; (14) Propoxyphene; (15) SK-65®; (16) Stadol® (no picture); (17) Talacen®; (18) Talwin®; (19) Talwin NX®; (20) Tramadol (no picture); and (21) Ultram®.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics," "OxyContin® Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Recency of Use," "Sedative Use," "Source of Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Stimulant Use," and "Tranquilizer Use."

Past Month Daily Cigarette Use
A respondent was defined as having past month daily cigarette use if he or she smoked part or all of a cigarette on each of the past 30 days.

SEE: "Cigarette Use" and "Lifetime Daily Cigarette Use."

Past Month Use
This measure indicates use of a specific drug in the 30 days prior to the interview. Respondents who indicated past month use of a specific drug also were classified as lifetime and past year users.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Past Year Incidence
SEE: "Incidence."

Past Year Use
This measure indicates use of a specific drug in the 12 months prior to the interview. This definition includes those respondents who last used the drug in the 30 days prior to the interview. Respondents who indicated past year use of a specific drug also were classified as lifetime users.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

PCP Use
Measures of use of phencyclidine (PCP) in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used PCP?"

SEE: "Current Use," "Ecstasy Use," "Hallucinogen Use," "Lifetime Use," "LSD Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Perceived Availability
Respondents were asked to assess how difficult or easy it would be for them to get various illicit drugs if they wanted these drugs. Response alternatives were (1) probably impossible, (2) very difficult, (3) fairly difficult, (4) fairly easy, and (5) very easy.

Perceived Need for Alcohol Use Treatment
Respondents were classified as perceiving a need for alcohol use treatment if they reported feeling a need for alcohol use treatment when asked, "During the past 12 months, did you need treatment or counseling for your alcohol use?" or if they indicated feeling a need for additional treatment specifically for alcohol use when asked, "During the past 12 months, for which of the following drugs did you need additional treatment or counseling?"

SEE: "Prevalence" and "Treatment for a Substance Use Problem."

Perceived Need for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use Treatment
Respondents were classified as perceiving a need for illicit drug or alcohol use treatment if they were classified as either perceiving a need for illicit drug use treatment or perceiving a need for alcohol use treatment.

SEE: "Perceived Need for Alcohol Use Treatment" and "Perceived Need for Illicit Drug Use Treatment."

Perceived Need for Illicit Drug Use Treatment
Respondents were classified as perceiving a need for illicit drug use treatment if they reported feeling a need for treatment for the use of one or more drugs when asked specifically about each individual drug, "During the past 12 months, did you need treatment or counseling for your use of (drug)?" They also were classified as perceiving a need for illicit drug use treatment if they indicated feeling a need for additional treatment specifically for the use of one or more drugs when asked, "During the past 12 months, for which of the following drugs did you need additional treatment or counseling?" The response list of drugs included marijuana/hashish, cocaine or crack, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, sedatives, or some other drug.

SEE: "Prevalence" and "Treatment for a Substance Use Problem."

Perceived Risk/Harmfulness
Respondents were asked to assess the extent to which people risk harming themselves physically and in other ways when they use various illicit drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes, with various levels of frequency. Response alternatives were (1) no risk, (2) slight risk, (3) moderate risk, and (4) great risk.

Percentages
In this report, all of the 2005 tables contain percentages based on weighted data.

SEE: "Rounding."

Pill Cards
The pill cards contain pictures and names of specific drugs within each psychotherapeutic category. For example, pictures and the names of Valium®, Librium®, and other tranquilizers are shown when the questionnaire section on tranquilizers is introduced. Pill cards have been modified over the years to reflect changes in available psychotherapeutic drugs.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics," "Pain Reliever Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Recency of Use," "Sedative Use," "Stimulant Use," and "Tranquilizer Use."

Prevalence
Prevalence is a general term used to describe the estimates for lifetime, past year, and past month substance use, dependence or abuse, or other behaviors of interest within a given period (e.g., the past 12 months). The latter include delinquent behavior, driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, perceived need for alcohol or illicit drug use treatment, serious psychological distress, treatment for mental health problems, treatment for a substance use problem, and unmet need for treatment for mental health problems.

SEE: "Abuse," "Alternative Treatment/Support for Mental Health Problems," "Current Use," "Delinquent Behavior," "Dependence," "Driving Under the Influence," "Need for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use Treatment," "Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence," "Perceived Need for Alcohol Use Treatment," "Perceived Need for Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Treatment," "Perceived Need for Illicit Drug Use Treatment," "Recency of Use," "Serious Psychological Distress," "Treatment for Mental Health Problems," "Treatment for a Substance Use Problem," and "Unmet Need for Treatment for Mental Health Problems."

Prior Year Marijuana Use
A respondent was defined as engaging in prior year marijuana use if he or she used marijuana or hashish 12 to 23 months prior to the interview date.

SEE: "Marijuana Use."

Psychotherapeutic Drugs
Psychotherapeutic drugs are generally prescription medications that also can be used illicitly to "get high" or for other effects. These include pain relievers, sedatives, stimulants, and tranquilizers.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics," "Pain Reliever Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," "Recency of Use," "Sedative Use," "Source of Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Stimulant Use," and "Tranquilizer Use."

Race/Ethnicity
Race/ethnicity is used to refer to the respondent's self-classification as to racial and ethnic origin and identification. For Hispanic origin, respondents were asked, "Are you of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin or descent?" For race, respondents were asked, "Which of these groups best describes you?" Response alternatives were (1) white, (2) black/African American, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, (4) Native Hawaiian, (5) Other Pacific Islander, (6) Asian, and (7) Other. Categories for race/ethnicity included Hispanic; non-Hispanic groups where respondents indicated only one race (white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Asian); and non-Hispanic groups where respondents reported two or more races. These categories are based on classifications developed by the U.S. Census Bureau.

SEE: "American Indian or Alaska Native," "Asian," "Black," "Hispanic," "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander," "Two or More Races," and "White."

Recency of Use
The recency question for each drug was the source for the lifetime, past year, and past month prevalence estimates.

The question was essentially the same for all classes of drugs. The question was: "How long has it been since you last used [drug name]?" For the four classes of psychotherapeutics, the phrase "that was not prescribed for you or only for the experience or feeling it caused" was added after the name of the drug.

For tobacco products (cigarettes, snuff, chewing tobacco, or cigars), a question first was asked about use in the past 30 days. If the respondent did not use the product in the past 30 days, the recency question was asked as above, with the response alternatives (1) more than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months; (2) more than 12 months ago but within the past 3 years; and (3) more than 3 years ago. For the remaining drugs, the response alternatives were (1) within the past 30 days; (2) more than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months; and (3) more than 12 months ago.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," and "Prevalence."

Region
There were four regions to consider: Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. These regions are based on classifications developed by the U.S. Census Bureau.

SEE: "Geographic Division," "Midwest Region," "Northeast Region," "South Region," and "West Region."

Rounding
The decision rules for the rounding of percentages were as follows. If the second number to the right of the decimal point was greater than or equal to 5, the first number to the right of the decimal point was rounded up to the next higher number. If the second number to the right of the decimal point was less than 5, the first number to the right of the decimal point remained the same. Thus, a prevalence estimate of 16.55 percent would be rounded to 16.6 percent, while an estimate of 16.44 percent would be rounded to 16.4 percent. Although the percentages in the 2005 tables generally total 100 percent, the use of rounding sometimes produces a total of slightly less than or more than 100 percent.

SEE: "Percentages."

Sedative Use
Measures of use of sedatives in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any prescription sedative that was not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

Feeder question: "These next questions ask about the use of sedatives or barbiturates. These drugs are also called downers or sleeping pills. People take these drugs to help them relax or to help them sleep. We are not interested in the use of over-the-counter sedatives such as Sominex, Unisom, Nytol, or Benadryl that can be bought in drug stores or grocery stores without a doctor's prescription. Card D shows pictures of different kinds of prescription sedatives and lists the names of some others. These pictures show only pills, but we are interested in your use of any form of prescription sedatives that were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused."

The following prescription sedatives were listed on Pill Card D (Sedatives): (1) Methaqualone (includes Sopor®, Quaalude®) (no picture); (2) Nembutal®, Pentobarbital (no picture), Seconal®, Secobarbital (no picture), or Butalbital (no picture); (3) Restoril® or Temazepam; (4) Amytal®; (5) Butisol®; (6) Chloral Hydrate (no picture); (7) Dalmane®; (8) Halcion®; (9) Phenobarbital; (10) Placidyl®; and (11) Tuinal®.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics," "Pain Reliever Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Recency of Use," "Source of Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Stimulant Use," and "Tranquilizer Use."

Self-Help Group
Self-help groups were potential locations of treatment for a substance use problem or alternative treatment or support for mental health problems. Respondents who reported that they received treatment for their use of alcohol or drugs in the past 12 months were asked whether they received treatment in a self-help group, such as Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous; these groups were not considered specialty substance use treatment facilities. Respondents who reported that they received alternative treatment or support for mental health problems in the past 12 months had the option of reporting that they received alternative treatment from an in-person support group or self-help group.

SEE: "Alternative Treatment/Support for Mental Health Problems," "Specialty Substance Use Treatment Facility," "Treatment for Mental Health Problems," and "Treatment for a Substance Use Problem."

Serious Psychological Distress
Serious psychological distress (SPD) is defined as having a score of 13 or higher on the K6 scale, which measures symptoms of psychological distress during the 1 month in the past 12 months when respondents were at their worst emotionally. In 2005, all respondents aged 18 or older were administered a short-form version of the SPD module featuring only the six questions pertaining to the K6 scale. In 2004, half of the respondents aged 18 or older were administered a short-form version of the SPD module, while the remaining adults were administered a long-form version of the SPD module. Due to differences in the 2004 SPD prevalence estimates based on the two versions of the module, only estimates from the short-form module are reported in 2004. Because of these changes, 2004 and 2005 estimates presented in this report are not comparable with 2004 and earlier estimates published in prior NSDUH reports. See Section B.4.4 in Appendix B for additional details.

SEE: "Prevalence."

Significance
In tables in which trends are shown, the levels of significance for the changes between the two most recent survey years are noted as follows: 0.05 and 0.01. A significance level of 0.05 is used in comparing two estimates in the text for demographic subgroups of the most recent survey sample.

Small Metro
SEE: "County Type."

Smokeless Tobacco Use
Measures of use of smokeless tobacco in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the questions about snuff and chewing tobacco use in the past 30 days and the recency of use (if not in the past 30 days): "Now think about the past 30 days—that is, from [DATEFILL] up to and including today. During the past 30 days, have you used snuff, even once?" "How long has it been since you last used snuff?" "Now think about the past 30 days—that is, from [DATEFILL] up to and including today. During the past 30 days, have you used chewing tobacco, even once?" and "How long has it been since you last used chewing tobacco?"

Feeder questions: "These next questions are about your use of snuff, sometimes called dip… Have you ever used snuff, even once?" and "These next questions are only about chewing tobacco… Have you ever used chewing tobacco, even once?"

SEE: "Cigar Use," "Cigarette Use," "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Prevalence," "Recency of Use," and "Tobacco Product Use."

Source of Psychotherapeutic Drugs
Measures of the source of psychotherapeutic drugs (prescription pain relievers, prescription tranquilizers, prescription stimulants, methamphetamine, and prescription sedatives) used nonmedically and how respondents obtained these drugs the last time they used them nonmedically. For all of these drugs except methamphetamine, response options for the source of the medications were as follows: (a) got a prescription from just one doctor; (b) got prescriptions from more than one doctor; (c) wrote a fake prescription; (d) stole from a doctor's office, clinic, hospital, or pharmacy; (e) got from a friend or relative for free; (f) bought from a friend or relative; (g) took from a friend or relative without asking; (h) bought from a drug dealer or other stranger; (i) bought on the Internet; and (j) got in some other way (includes other sources specified by respondents). Methamphetamine users were presented with options (e) through (j) only.

If respondents last used a psychotherapeutic drug nonmedically in the past 30 days and reported getting that drug from only one source, the source of psychotherapeutic drug measure was based on that answer. For respondents who reported getting a psychotherapeutic drug from multiple sources in the past 30 days or who last misused that drug more than 30 days ago but in the past 12 months, the source of psychotherapeutic drug measure was based on their answer to a question about how they got that drug the last time they used it nonmedically.

Feeder questions: "Earlier, the computer recorded that, during the past 30 days, you used [prescription pain relievers, prescription tranquilizers, prescription stimulants, methamphetamine, prescription sedatives] that were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused. How did you get these [fill in relevant drug name from above]? Please enter all the ways that you got the [fill in relevant drug name from above] you used in the past 30 days."

"Now think about the last time you used [a prescription pain reliever, a prescription tranquilizer, a prescription stimulant, methamphetamine, a prescription sedative] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused. How did you get this [fill in relevant drug name from above]?"

SEE: "Methamphetamine Use," "Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics," "Pain Reliever Use," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Sedative Use," "Stimulant Use," and "Tranquilizer Use."

South Region
The States included are those in the South Atlantic Division— Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; the East South Central Division—Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; and the West South Central Division—Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.

SEE: "Geographic Division" and "Region."

Specialty Substance Use Treatment Facility
Defined as drug or alcohol rehabilitation facilities (inpatient or outpatient), hospitals (inpatient services only), and mental health centers.

SEE: "Need for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use Treatment," "Self-Help Group," and "Treatment for a Substance Use Problem."

Stealing
Respondents were asked how many times during the past 12 months they had stolen or tried to steal anything worth more than $50. Response alternatives were (1) 0 times, (2) 1 or 2 times, (3) 3 to 5 times, (4) 6 to 9 times, or (5) 10 or more times.

SEE: "Delinquent Behavior" and "Gang Fighting."

Stimulant Use
Measures of use of stimulants in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any prescription stimulant that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

Feeder question: "These next questions are about the use of drugs such as amphetamines that are known as stimulants, uppers, or speed. People sometimes take these drugs to lose weight, to stay awake, or for attention deficit disorders. We are not interested in the use of over-the-counter stimulants such as Dexatrim or No-Doz that can be bought in drug stores or grocery stores without a doctor's prescription. Card C shows pictures of some different kinds of prescription stimulants and lists the names of some others. These pictures show only pills, but we are interested in your use of any form of prescription stimulants that were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused."

The following prescription stimulants were listed on Pill Card C (Stimulants): (1) Methamphetamine (crank, crystal, ice, or speed) (no picture), Desoxyn®, or Methedrine® (no picture); (2) Amphetamines (no picture), Benzedrine®, Biphetamine®, Fastin®, or Phentermine; (3) Ritalin® or Methylphenidate; (4) Cylert®; (5) Dexedrine®; (6) Dextroamphetamine (no picture); (7) Didrex®; (8) Eskatrol®; (9) Ionamin®; (10); Mazanor®; (11) Obedrin-LA® (no picture); (12) Plegine®; (13) Preludin®; (14) Sanorex®; and (15) Tenuate®.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Methamphetamine Use," "Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics," "Pain Reliever Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Recency of Use," "Sedative Use," "Source of Psychotherapeutic Drugs," and "Tranquilizer Use."

Substance Use Treatment
SEE: "Treatment for a Substance Use Problem."

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a governmental program that makes assistance payments to low-income, aged, blind, and disabled persons.

NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted from a household member identified as being better able to give the correct information about insurance and income.

SEE: "Welfare Assistance."

Tobacco Product Use
This measure indicates use of any tobacco product: cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipe tobacco. Tobacco product use in the past year includes past month pipe tobacco use. Tobacco product use in the past year does not include use of pipe tobacco more than 30 days ago but within 12 months of the interview because the survey did not capture this information. Measures of tobacco product use in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, or the past month also do not include use of cigars with marijuana in them (blunts).

SEE: "Blunts," "Cigar Use," "Cigarette Use," and "Smokeless Tobacco Use."

Total Family Income
SEE: "Family Income."

Tranquilizer Use
Measures of use of tranquilizers in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any prescription tranquilizer that was not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

Feeder question: "These next questions ask about the use of tranquilizers. Tranquilizers are usually prescribed to relax people, to calm people down, to relieve anxiety, or to relax muscle spasms. Some people call tranquilizers nerve pills. Card B shows pictures of some different kinds of prescription tranquilizers. These pictures show only pills, but we are interested in your use of any form of prescription tranquilizers that were not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused."

The following prescription tranquilizers were listed on Pill Card B (Tranquilizers): (1) Klonopin® or Clonazepam; (2) Xanax®, Alprazolam, Ativan®, or Lorazepam; (3) Valium® or Diazepam; (4) Atarax®; (5) BuSpar®; (6) Equanil®; (7) Flexeril®; (8) Librium®; (9) Limbitrol®; (10) Meprobamate; (11) Miltown®; (12) Rohypnol®; (13) Serax®; (14) Soma®; (15) Tranxene®; and (16) Vistaril®.

SEE: "Current Use," "Lifetime Use," "Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics," "Pain Reliever Use," "Past Month Use," "Past Year Use," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Recency of Use," "Sedative Use," "Source of Psychotherapeutic Drugs," and "Stimulant Use."

Treatment for Depression
Treatment for depression is defined as seeing or talking to a medical doctor or other professional or using prescription medication in the past year for depression.

SEE: "Major Depressive Episode."

Treatment for Mental Health Problems
For adults aged 18 or older, treatment for mental health problems is defined as treatment or counseling for any problem with emotions, nerves, or mental health in the 12 months prior to the interview in any inpatient or outpatient setting, or the use of prescription medication for treatment of a mental or emotional condition. Estimates for adults are based only on responses to items in the module on adult mental health service utilization. For youths aged 12 to 17, treatment for mental health problems is defined as receiving treatment or counseling for emotional or behavioral problems from specific mental health or other health professionals in school, home, outpatient, or inpatient settings within the 12 months prior to the interview. Treatment for only a substance use problem is not included for adults or youths.

SEE: "Alternative Treatment/Support for Mental Health Problems," "Prevalence," and "Unmet Need for Treatment for Mental Health Problems."

Treatment for a Substance Use Problem
Respondents were asked if they had received treatment for illicit drug use, alcohol use, or both illicit drug and alcohol use in the past 12 months in any of the following locations: a hospital overnight as an inpatient, a residential drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility where they stayed overnight, a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility as an outpatient, a mental health facility as an outpatient, an emergency room, a private doctor's office, prison or jail, a self-help group, or some other place.

SEE: "Alcohol Use," "Illicit Drugs," "Need for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use Treatment," "Prevalence," "Self-Help Group," and "Specialty Substance Use Treatment Facility."

Two or More Races
Respondents were asked to report which racial group describes them. Response alternatives were (1) white, (2) black/African American, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, (4) Native Hawaiian, (5) Other Pacific Islander, (6) Asian, and (7) Other. Respondents were allowed to choose more than one of these groups. Persons who chose both the "Native Hawaiian" and "Other Pacific Islander" categories (and no additional categories) were classified in a single category: Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Otherwise, persons reporting two or more of the above groups and that they were not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were included in a "Two or More Races" category. This category does not include respondents who reported more than one Asian subgroup but who reported "Asian" as their only race. Respondents reporting two or more races and reporting that they were of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.

SEE: "Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."

Unmet Need for Treatment for Mental Health Problems
Unmet need for treatment for mental health problems is defined as a perceived need for treatment for mental health problems in the past 12 months that was not received. This measure also includes persons who received some treatment for mental health problems in the past 12 months but also reported that they perceived a need for treatment that they did not receive. Unmet need among those who received treatment may be interpreted as delayed or insufficient treatment in the past 12 months.

Feeder question: "During the past 12 months, was there any time when you needed mental health treatment or counseling for yourself but didn't get it?"

SEE: "Alternative Treatment/Support for Mental Health Problems," "Prevalence" and "Treatment for Mental Health Problems."

Welfare Assistance
Household participation in one or more government assistance programs during the prior calendar year was defined as one or more family members receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI), food stamps, cash, or noncash assistance. SSI provides payments to low-income, aged, blind, and disabled persons. Food stamps are government-issued coupons used to purchase food. Cash assistance refers to cash payments through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), welfare, or other public assistance. Noncash assistance refers to services, such as help getting a job, placement in an education or job-training program, or help with transportation, child care, or housing.

NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted from a household member identified as being better able to give the correct information about insurance and income.

SEE: "Cash Assistance," "Food Stamps," "Noncash Assistance," and "Supplemental Security Income (SSI)."

West Region
The States included are those in the Mountain Division—Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and the Pacific Division—Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

SEE: "Geographic Division" and "Region."

White
White, not of Hispanic, Spanish, or Latino origin; does not include respondents reporting two or more races. (Respondents reporting that they were white and of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.)

SEE: "Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."

Go to Top of PageGo to the Table of Contents

This page was last updated on June 03, 2008.