Highlights of Reports on Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Released in 2003
reports by year of release
reports released in 2003 (listed
from most recent to earliest release):
3 percent of pregnant women aged 15 to 44 used illicit drugs in the
past month, 3 percent reported binge alcohol use, and 17 percent reported
smoking cigarettes in the past month. Among pregnant women aged 15
to 44, whites were more likely to have smoked cigarettes in the past
month than blacks or Hispanics. The use of alcohol, tobacco,
and illicit drugs in the past month among recent mothers was similar
to that of nonpregnant women but higher than among pregnant women.
NSDUH Report: Pregnancy and Substance Use.
SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), the number of treatment
admissions in which narcotic painkillers were involved was relatively
stable between 1992 and 1997 but doubled between 1992 and 2000.
In 1992, the treatment admission rate for narcotic painkiller abuse
was 13 admissions per 100,000 persons aged 12 or older. By 2000, it
had increased to 27 admissions per 100,000. See
The DASIS Report: Treatment
Admissions Involving Narcotic Painkillers.
SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) 16 percent of the linked
admission/ discharge records represented clients who received intensive
outpatient substance abuse treatment. Intensive outpatient treatment
is defined as treatment that lasts at least two or more hours per
day for three or more days per week. It does not include regular outpatient
treatment or outpatient detoxification. The completion rate for intensive
outpatient treatment was higher (41%) than for all outpatient treatment
(34%). See The
DASIS Report: Discharges from Intensive Outpatient Treatment,
National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS)
is part of the Drug and Alcohol Services Information System (DASIS),
a cooperative program between the State substance abuse agencies and
the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
to collect data on substance abuse services. SAMHSA's National Survey
of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect
and report data on the location, characteristics, and utilization
of services at alcohol and drug abuse treatment facilities (both public
and private) throughout the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and
other U.S. jurisdictions. See The
DASIS Report: The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment
2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) examined the number
of days, average number of drinks per day, and driving under the influence
of alcohol among current drinkers. Current drinking is defined
as any alcohol in the past month. While underaged persons were
less likely to be current drinkers, those underaged persons
who were current drinkers averaged more drinks per day of use than
adults aged 21 and older. Young adults aged 18 to 25 who were current
drinkers were more likely than any other age group to drive under
the influence of alcohol in the past year. See The
NSDUH Report: Quantity and Frequency of Alcohol Use.
protection measure are used routinely in SAMHSA's Treatment Episode
Data Set (TEDS) and include removing direct identifiers and applying
disclosure analysis. Both methods help remove the uniqueness
of individual records within a file and thereby help prevent the identification
of any individual. Disclosure analysis involves the careful
examination of a data file for indirect identifiers (such as gender,
education, race, and income) that could be used in combination to
attempt to identify (i.e., disclose) a respondent. The use of
disclosure analysis allows dissemination of a public use file that
is effective for most analytic purposes while protecting the confidentiality
of the admissions. See The
DASIS Report: Protecting Confidentiality in TEDS.
Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) records up to three substances of
abuse and the route of administration of each substance. In
2000, there were 215,000 treatment admissions reported to TEDS that
involved injection of one or more of the three drugs reported.
About 19 percent of admissions reporting injection of drugs reported
injection of two or more drugs. The most common combination
of drugs injected was heroin and cocaine. Treatment admissions by
racial and ethnic groups differed in the types of multiple drugs injected.
See The DASIS
Report: Treatment Admissions for Injection of Multiple Drugs:
- Of the 23,000 admissions
in SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) that involved benzodiazepines,
only 19 percent were for primary benzodiazepine use; 81 percent were
reported as secondary to the use of alcohol or another drug. Primary
benzodiazepine admissions were more than twice as likely as other admissions
to have a psychiatric problem in addition to substance abuse (40 vs.
17 percent), which is consistent with the use of benzodiazepines in
the treatment of some psychiatric disorders. See The
DASIS Report: Characteristics of Primary Benzodiazepine Admissions:
- Analysis of discharge
records submitted to SAMHSA's 2000 Treatment Episode Set (TEDS) indicated
that substance abuse outpatient treatment completion rates differed
by primary substance of abuse. The outpatient treatment completion
rates were 41 percent for those involving alcohol, 32 percent for marijuana,
30 percent for stimulants, 27 percent for opiates, and 21 percent for
cocaine as the primary substance of abuse. See The
DASIS Report: Discharges from Outpatient Treatment, 2000.
2002, approximately 3.2 million young adults aged 18 to 24 were considered
to be school dropouts. SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey on Drug
Use and Health compared the rates of smoking, drinking, and illegal
drug use among young adult dropouts and non-dropouts. See
The NSDUH Report: Substance
Use Among School Dropouts.
SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that 26 percent
of persons aged 12 or older in the United States (61 million persons)
were current smokers, that is, smoked cigarettes in the past month.
Males were more likely than females to be current smokers; but among
the current smokers, a higher percentage of females than males smoked
The NSDUH Report: Quantity
and Frequency of Cigarette Use.
on SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), in 2000, the
number of veterans admitted to substance abuse treatment exceeded
55,000 admissions; 3,000 of these were female veterans. Female
veteran admissions were less likely than male veteran admissions to
report alcohol as their primary substance and more likely to report
cocaine as their primary substance of abuse. Between 1995 and
2000, the proportion of both veteran and non veteran admissions with
a psychiatric problem in addition to a substance abuse problem increased.
In all years between 1995 and 2000, female veteran admissions had
higher proportions of Blacks than did male veteran admissions.
See The DASIS Report:
Veterans in Substance Abuse Treatment: 1995-2000.
- SAMHSA's 2002
National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) found that about 7.7
million persons aged 12 or older needed treatment for an illicit drug
problem and about 18.6 million needed treatment for an alcohol problem.
About 18 percent of those needing treatment for an illicit drug problem
and about 8 percent of those needing treatment for an alcohol problem
received specialty substance abuse treatment in the past year.
primary reasons for not getting treatment among those who perceived
an unmet treatment need were: not being ready to stop using illicit
drugs or alcohol, thinking the cost of treatment would be too high,
stigma associated with receiving treatment, and not knowing where to
get treatment. See The
NSDUH Report: Reasons for Not Receiving Substance Abuse Treatment.
2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was used to compare drinking
rates, perceived risks of heavy drinking, and risk behaviors related
to alcohol use by full-time college students and nonstudents at each
age from 18 to 24. Excessive episodic drinking was prevalent
among young adults, regardless of college enrollment status.
More than 1 in 10 young adults aged 18 to 24 were heavy drinkers,
and almost 2 in 5 were binge drinkers. At all ages
from 18 to 24, nonstudents were less likely than full-time students
to use seat belts while driving. However, full-time students
were more likely than nonstudents at each age to drive while under
the influence of alcohol. See
The NSDUH Report: Alcohol Use and Risks Among Young
Adults by College Enrollment Status.
the 13,843 facilities responding to SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey
of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS), 7 percent served
primarily clients younger than age 18. These "adolescent"
facilities were more likely than adult facilities to offer special
programs for clients with co-occurring substance abuse and psychological
problems. In adolescent facilities, the majority of clients
were treated for both alcohol and drug abuse problems. About
8 percent of the clients in adolescent facilities were treated for
only alcohol abuse compared with 22 percent in adult facilities.
DASIS Report: Facilities Primarily Serving Adolescents: 2002.
- For the
first time, SAMHSA's National Household Survey on Drug Abuse provides
state-level estimates of serious mental illness and includes maps showing
the prevalence ranks by States. The States with the highest rates
of serious mental illness among adults age 18 and older were mostly
in the South. However, Okalahoma had the highest rate and Hawaii
had the lowest rate of serious mental illness among adults. Also,
State-level data and the average yearly change between 1999 and 2001
are presented for 18 measures of substance use, dependence, and treatment.
See 2001 State Estimates
of Substance Use.
to SAMHSA's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), marijuana is the most
frequently reported drug in emergency department (ED) visits related
to drug abuse in youth age 12 to 19. However, marijuana-related
ED visits have been increasing much faster than drug-related visits
overall, with increases evident in every age group. See
The DAWN Report: Marijuana-related Emergency Department Visits
- According to
the U.S. population in 2000, the 10 largest metropolitan statistical
areas (MSAs) are: Boston, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, Detroit,
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington,
D.C. Rates of past month (i.e., current) illicit drug use,
binge alcohol use, and cigarette use for each of these MSAs were compared
with the national average. The comparisons are based on the combined
data from SAMHSA's 1999, 2000, and 2001 National Household Surveys of
Drug Abuse. See The NHSDA
Report: Substance Use in the 10 Largest Metropolitan Statistical
- Heroin was the
leading illicit drug among substance abuse treatment admissions in 2000,
reported by 15 percent of the 1.6 million substance abuse treatment
admissions in SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). The proportion
of new heroin users admitted to substance abuse treatment who were younger
than 25 years old increased from 30 to 41 percent between 1992 and 2000.
In 1992, 48 percent of new heroin users age 18 to 24 reported injection
as the route of heroin administration. By 2000, almost two-thirds
(63 percent) reported injection as the route of administration for heroin.
See The DASIS Report:
New Heroin Users Admitted to Treatment: 1992-2000.
- Although mental disorders
account for 4 of the 10 leading causes of disability in the U.S., SAMHSA's
Survey on Drug Use and Health found that less than half of adults (age
18 and older) with a serious mental illness received treatment or counseling
for a mental health problem during the past year. More than 2
million adults with a serious mental illness reported that they did
not receive treatment. Cost
of treatment was the primary reason for not getting mental health treatment.
Other reasons included concerns about stigma, not knowing where
to go for treatment, fear of being committed or having to take medicine,
and lack of time or transportation. See The
NSDUH Report: Reasons for Not Receiving Treatment Among Adults
with Serious Mental Illness.
- Based on SAMHSA's
2000 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), the number of adult women admissions
(age 18 and older) to substance abuse treatment for primary use of smoked
cocaine (crack) peaked in 1994. Between 1994 and 2000, both the
total number of such admissions and the number of first-time admissions
declined. In 2000, almost half of the adult women admissions
for crack cocaine reported alcohol abuse and 29 percent reported marijuana
abuse. The DASIS Report:
Women in Treatment for Smoked Cocaine: 2000.
In 2002, about
11 million persons aged 12 or older reported driving under the influence
of illegal drugs during the past year. That is, 31 percent of
past year illicit drug users were under the influence of illegal drugs
while driving at least once in the past year ("drugged driving").
This report provides the drugged driving rates by gender, race/ethnicity,
geographic locations, county type, current employment, and educational
level. See The
NSDUH Report: Drugged Driving, 2002 Update.
- SAMHSA's National
Survey on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH), formerly called the National
Household Survey on Drug Use, provides the prevalence of substance use
in the U.S. The 2002 NSDUH estimates that among the general population
age 12 and older: 120 million Americans were current alcohol users,
75.1 million Americans were current tobacco users, and 19.5 million
Americans were current illicit drug users. An estimated 22 million
Americans were classified with abuse or dependence on either alcohol,
illicit drugs or both. See 2002
National Survey on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH).
Based on SAMHSA's
National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS), facilities
with a specially designed treatment program were likely to offer related
services. For example, those with a specially designed treatment
program or group for clients with co-occurring substance abuse and
mental health disorders were likely to offer mental health assessment
and pharmacotherapy; those for pregnant women were likely to
provide social services, child care assistance, and domestic violence
education; and those for persons with HIV/AIDS to provide testing
services, e.g., for HIV, TB, hepatitis, and STD. See
The DASIS Report: Services
Provided by Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities.
Based on SAMHSA's
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, in 2001 almost 1.4 million
youth aged 12 to 17 had used hallucinogens at least once in their
lifetime. Among youth, Blacks were less likely than whites,
Asians, or Hispanics to have used any hallucinogen in their lifetime.
Blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites and Asians to perceive
great risk in trying LSD once or twice. See
The NHSDA Report: Racial and Ethnic Differences in Youth
- According to
SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), more than 120,000 admissions
to substance abuse treatment in 2000 were homeless at time of admission.
Admissions who were homeless were more likely to be veterans and were
older (average age 38 years) than admissions who were not homeless (age
33). Among the homeless: whites were most likely to be
admitted for alcohol (61%) and opiates (17%); Blacks for alcohol (37%),
smoked cocaine (37%), and opiates (15%); Hispanics for alcohol (48%)
and opiates (33%); American Indians/Alaska Natives for alcohol (80%);
and Asian/Pacific Islanders for alcohol (45%), stimulants (21%), and
opiates (13%). See
The DASIS Report: Characteristics of Homeless Admissions
to Substance Abuse Treatment.
- Between 1998 and 2001,
past year use of "any illicit drug" decreased in Australia
while past year use of any illicit drug increased between 2000 and 2001
United States. Also, the legal drinking age in Australia is age
18 compared to age 21 in the United States, however, the average age
of first use of alcohol was earlier for U.S. drinkers (age 15.9 years)
than for Australian drinkers (age 17.1 years). See The
NHSDA Report: Comparison of Substance Use in Australia and
the United States.
- Based on SAMHSA's
2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, fewer than half of adults
with a serious mental illness (SMI) received treatment or counseling
for a mental health problem during the past year.
Among adults with a serious mental illness, whites were more likely
than blacks or Hispanics to have received treatment or counseling during
the past year. The rate of unmet treatment need among adults with
SMI who did not receive mental health treatment or counseling in the
past year was higher among persons aged 18 to 49 than those aged 50
or older. The unmet need also was higher for females than for
males. See The
NHSDA Report: Treatment Among Adults with Serious Mental Illness.
- Based on SAMHSA's
2000 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), admissions with non-heroin opiates
as a primary substance of abuse accounted for 26,900 (10 percent) of
the 269,400 opiate admissions. Methadone treatment was planned
for 19 percent of the non-heroin opiate treatment admissions.
Non-heroin opiate admissions with planned methadone treatment were almost
twice as likely as admissions with no planned methadone treatment to
be self- or individually referred (81 vs. 43 percent). Among
the non-heroin opiate admissions, methadone treatment was planned for
66 percent of Asian/Pacific Islanders, 24 percent of Blacks, 20 percent
of Hispanics, 17 percent of American Indian/Alaska Natives, and 17 percent
of Whites. See The
DASIS Report: Planned Methadone Treatment for Non-Heroin Opiate
- Past month smoking
was reported in SAMHSA's 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
by 13 percent of youth aged 12-17, 39 percent of adults aged 18-25,
and 24 percent of adults aged 26 and older. This report presents
the cigarette brand preferences by age group, race/ethnicity, and region.
See The NHSDA Report:
Cigarette Brand Preferences.
2001, SAMHSA's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) found that 0.6 percent
of all Emergency Department visits were related to drug abuse.
The drugs most frequently involved were alcohol (34% of mentions), cocaine
(30%), marijuana (17%), benzodiazepines (16%), narcotic analgesics/
combinations (16%), heroin (15%), other analgesics/ combinations (12%),
and antidepressants (10%). Marijuana and cocaine mentions increased
significantly from 2000 to 2001. See The
DAWN Report: Trends in Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits,
1994-2001 At a Glance.
aged 12 to 17 with positive school experiences were less likely to
have used alcohol or illicit drugs in the past year than students
without these positive school experiences. The youth with positive
school experiences were those who enjoyed going to school, who felt
that their assigned schoolwork was meaningful, or who felt that the
things they learned in school were going to be important later in
life. Also, the rates of past year alcohol and illicit drug
use were lower for youths who had seen or heard drug or alcohol prevention
messages at school in the past year than youths who had NOT seen or
heard drug or alcohol prevention messages at school. See
The NHSDA Report: School
Experiences and Substance Use Among Youths.
on SAMHSA's annual National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services
(N-SSATS), 82 percent of the nation's substance abuse treatment facilities
offered outpatient care in 2000. "Outpatient" care
provided included not only regular outpatient visits but also intensive
outpatient treatment (defined as a minimum of 2 hours per day on 3
or more days per week), detoxification, and day treatment with partial
hospitalization. Almost one-quarter of facilities offering outpatient
care offered treatment in Spanish. See The
DASIS Report: Facilities Offering Outpatient Care.
the 13,428 facilities responding to SAMHSA's 2000 National Survey
of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS), 9 percent offered
hospital inpatient care. At least 90 percent of the facilities
providing hospital inpatient care for substance abuse treatment also
provided the following services: comprehensive substance abuse
assessment, individual therapy, group therapy, drug/alcohol urine
screening, discharge planning, and referral to other transitional
services. About 74 percent of the hospital inpatient facilities
provided programs for persons with co-occurring disorders. See
The DASIS Report: Facilities
Offering Hospital Inpatient Care.
treatment was planned for 40 percent of all heroin admissions reported
to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) in 2000. The planned
use of methadone to treat heroin addiction varied by State.
The nine States with the highest proportion of planned methadone treatment
were: California, Colorado, Indiana, Hawaii, Iowa, Ohio, Alaska,
North Carolina, and New Jersey. See The
DASIS Report: Planned Methadone Treatment for Heroin
on SAMHSA's National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services
(N-SSATS), most of the substance abuse treatment facilities providing
only detoxification services were very small or small.
Very large facilities were more likely to provide
treatment in languages other than English (53 percent), methadone/LAAM
treatment (38 percent), HIV testing (51 percent), hepatitis testing
(43 percent), testing for sexually transmitted diseases (40 percent),
pharmacotherapy (59 percent), transitional housing assistance (35
percent), programs for persons with AIDS/HIV (37 percent), and programs
for pregnant/postpartum women (34 percent). See The
DASIS Report: Variations in Substance Abuse Treatment
Facilities by Number of Clients.
Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) public use file contains 9.6 million
records. This report illustrates how trends in substance abuse
treatment admissions from 1995 to 2000 can be analyzed in the four
Census regions of the country, using heroin as a substance of abuse
as an example. Using SAMHSA's online data analysis system, you
can get percentages of substance abuse treatment admissions in each
region, trends from 1995 to 2000, statistical testing, and various
graphs of the results. See The
DASIS Report: Graphing Multi-year Analyses of TEDS.
on SAMHSA's National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, in 2001 more
than 6 million children lived with at least one parent who abused
or was dependent on alcohol or an illicit drug during the past year.
This involved about 10 percent of children aged 5 or younger, 8 percent
of children aged 6 to 11, and 9 percent of youths aged 12 to 17.
See The NHSDA Report:
Children Living with Substance Abusing or Substance Dependent Parents.
on SAMHSA's National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services
(N-SSATS) survey of 13,428 facilities in 2000, 27 percent of the nation's
treatment facilities offered residential care. Most
(75 percent) of the residential facilities were private not-for-profit
organizations. Types of payment for treatment accepted included
self pay (84 percent), private health insurance (57 percent), Medicaid
(39 percent), and Medicare (18 percent). About 44 percent of
the residential facilities had contracts with managed care organizations.
About 47 percent of the residential facilities said they offered programs
for persons with co-occurring disorders (substance abuse and mental
illness). See The
DASIS Report: Facilities Offering Residential Care.
Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator includes outpatient treatment
programs, residential treatment programs, hospital inpatient programs,
and partial hospitalization / day treatment programs for drug addiction
and alcoholism in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Federated
States of Micronesia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and
the Virgin Islands. This report provides guidance on using such
features on SAMHSA's Locator as the Quick Search, Detailed Search,
and List Search. See
Using the Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator.
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse estimates that in 2001, about
10.1 million persons aged 12 to 20 used alcohol in the past month.
Nearly 3 million of this age group were dependent on or abused alcohol
in the past year but only about 400,000 received any type of alcohol
treatment in the past year. Furthermore, nearly 3 million persons
aged 16 to 20 were estimated to have driven under the influence of
alcohol at least once in the past year. See The
NHSDA Report: Alcohol Use by Persons Under the Legal
Drinking Age of 21.
of level of urbanization, alcohol was the leading substance of abuse
for American Indian / Alaska Native treatment admissions. American
Indian / Alaska Native treatment admissions in non-metro areas without
a city were less likely than other metropolitan areas to have opiates,
cocaine, or stimulants as their primary substance of abuse. Opiates
were the primary substance of abuse among American Indian / Alaska
Native substance abuse treatment admissions in large metropolitan
areas. See The
DASIS Report: American Indian / Alaska Native Treatment
Admissions in Rural & Urban Areas: 2000.
2000, Hispanic females aged 12 to 17 were at higher risk for suicide
than other youths. Only 32 percent of Hispanic female youths
at risk for suicide during the past year, however, received mental
health treatment during this same time period. Hispanic female
youths born in the United States were at higher risk than Hispanic
female youths born outside the United States. But rates of suicide
risk were similar among Hispanic female youths across regions and
ethnic subgroups (e.g., Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central or South American
and Cuban). See The
NHSDA Report: Risk of Suicide Among Hispanic Females
Aged 12 to 17.
people who want to do their own analysis, this report provides an
overview of the SAMHDA search tool, a new feature that searches
the question text, the variable labels, and value labels to find the
variables of interest. In addition, the report provides search
tips and examples of the variable level search utility, using
SAMHSA's 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA).
See The NHSDA
Report: Finding Specific Variables in the NHSDA.
60 percent of the substance abuse treatment admissions involving marijuana
in 2000, marijuana was reported as less significant or secondary to
abuse of another substance. Among secondary marijuana admissions,
56 percent had alcohol as the primary substance of abuse, 21 percent
had cocaine, 11 percent stimulants, 10 percent opiates, and 2 percent
other substances. See The
DASIS Report: Marijuana Use Secondary to Other Substances
disorders admissions were less likely to be in the labor force than
substance abuse only admissions (47 percent vs. 58 percent).
Co-occurring disorders admissions to substance
abuse treatment were more likely to have been referred through alcohol,
drug abuse, and other health care providers. In contrast,
substance abuse only admissions were more likely to have been
referred to treatment by the criminal justice system. See
The DASIS Report: Admissions
of Persons with Co-Occurring Disorders, 2000.
2000, among the 1.5 million adult substance abuse admissions (age
18 or older), 154,400 were admitted as primary marijuana abusers.
A majority of these adult marijuana admissions
were White (54 percent), followed by Black (30 percent), Hispanic
(9 percent), American Indian/Alaska Native (2 percent), and Asian/Pacific
Islander (1 percent). See The
DASIS Report: Adult Marijuana Treatment Admissions by Race
and Ethnicity, 2000.
1999 to 2001, an annual average of 338,000 persons aged 12 or older
used a needle to inject cocaine, heroin, or stimulants during the
past year. The last time injection
drug users used a needle for injecting drugs, 14 percent of past year
injection drug users knew or suspected someone else had used the needle
before them. See The
NHSDA Report: Injection Drug Use.
to 1998, the annual number of new cigar users climbed steadily from
almost 2 million in 1990 to nearly 5 million in 1998.
Between 1998 and 1999, however, the number of new cigar users decreased
22 percent. See The NHSDA Report:
Cigar Use .
to SAMHSA's 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, an estimated
833,000 youths between the ages of 12 and 17 had carried a handgun
in the past year. See The NHSDA
Report: Youth Who Carry Handguns.
60 percent of recent marijuana initiates had used both cigarettes
and alcohol prior to using marijuana. Recent
marijuana initiates who used marijuana for the first time before the
age of 15, however, were more likely to have used marijuana
before using cigarettes or alcohol than those who first used marijuana
at age 15 or older. See The
NHSDA Report: Characteristics of New Marijuana Users.