Rural / Urban Status and Metropolitan Areas

2004-2006 full subState report on State treatment planning areas (HTML) : New SubState report containing substance use prevalence, depression & serious psychological stress measures by State treatment planning areas  (PDF format recommended for printing)

bulletState treatment planning areas

bulletRural/ urban status, metropolitan, regional, & other subState areas:

bulletSpecific cities/counties/metropolitan areas for which OAS data are available  (also see State treatment planning areas:  Some States have designated single cities or counties as their State planning area. Examples include Bronx, Laramie, Milwaukee, New York City, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Providence, Queens, St. Louis, and Tulsa. Therefore, check the definitions in your State of interest to see if data are available).

bulletKatrina/Rita impacted State and Sub States: baseline data

 
List of Reports:  Cities/Counties/Metropolitan Areas

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Cities/Counties/Metropolitan Areas:   Data & Full Reports  

Also see State treatment planning areas:  Some States have designated single cities or counties as their State planning area. Therefore, check the definitions in your State of interest to see if data are available).

bulletTop 20 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) estimates for use of types of illicit drug in lifetime, past year, & past month for population age 12 and older, annual estimates based on 2002-2004.  These Word Documents provide data on illicit drugs, marijuana/hashish, cocaine, crack, heroin, hallucinogens, LSD, PCP, Ecstasy, inhalants, nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics, pain relievers, OxyContin, tranquilizers, stimulants, methamphetamines & sedatives for the top 20 MSA's in the U.S.

Trends (2002-2003 & 2004-2005): for areas with sample sizes too small for reliable estimates, check the combined 2002-2004 estimates for annualized averages

  • Prevalence estimates:

Metropolitan Statistical Areas (Table A:  number in thousands & Table B:  percents)  Word document

National prevalence estimates  Word document

  • Standard errors:  

Metropolitan Statistical Areas standard errors  Word document

National standard errors  Word document

Combined data (2002-2004):

bulletSubstance Abuse in States and Metropolitan Areas:  Model Based Estimates from the 1991-1993 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse  Data are presented on substance use (alcohol, cigarettes & illicit drugs), dependence, treatment, and arrests for 26 States and 25 major metropolitan statistical areas.  The report also includes an evaluation of the model used to make the small area estimates.

bulletDAWN, 2003 Area Profiles of Drug-related Mortality (Full Report):         (For county area data in addition to the metropolitan areas below, click here)

Albuquerque, NM  to Indianapolis, IN (PDF format):   keep scrolling until you get to your area of interest

  • Albuquerque, NM
  • Atlanta-Sandy Springs- Marietta, GA
  • Baltimore-Towson, MD
  • Birmingham-Hoover, AL
  • Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH
  • Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Tonawanda, NY
  • Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL-IN-WI
  • Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH
  • Denver-Aurora, CO
  • Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI
  • Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land, TX
  • Indianapolis, IN

Kansas City, MO-KS  to Portland-South Portland, ME (PDF format):    keep scrolling until you get to your area of interest

  • Kansas City, MO-KS
  • Louisville, KY-IN
  • Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach, FL
  • Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI
  • Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI
  • New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA
  • New York-Newark-Edison, NY-NJ-PA
  • Ogden-Clearfield, UT
  • Oklahoma City, OK
  • Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD
  • Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ
  • Portland-Vancouver-Beaverton, OR-WA
  • Portland-South Portland, ME

Provo-Orem, UT to Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV (PDF format) keep scrolling until you get to your area of interest

  • Provo-Orem, UT
  • Salt Lake City, UT
  • San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA
  • San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA
  • Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA
  • St. Louis, Mo-IL
  • Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV

bulletThe DAWN Report:  Highlights From Specific DAWN Metropolitan Areas:  (all are in PDF format)

bulletThe NHSDA Report:  Substance Use in the 10 Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas. According to the U.S. population in 2000, the 10 largest metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) are:  Boston, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC   Rates of past month (i.e., current) illicit drug use, binge alcohol use, and cigarette use for each of these MSAs were compared with the national average.    See 

bulletDAWN Drug-related Emergency Department Visits (1995-2002) (PDF format):  Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, Phoenix, St. Louis, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington, DC

bulletDAWN Drug-related Mortality Data from Medical Examiners for 2002: Highlights (PDF format): 

  • Highlights
  • Appendix
  • Metropolitan Areas: Atlanta, Baltimore, Birmingham, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Long Island, Los Angeles, Louisville, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis-St. Paul, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Portland, Providence, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington, DC

bulletDC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DC*MADS): In 1991, the DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DC*MADS) was conducted and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live births in the DC hospitals.  You can access reports from the study or use the public use files to conduct your own online analysis of the data.   For further information, click on DC*MADS.

bulletSubstance Abuse in States and Metropolitan Areas:  Model Based Estimates from the 1991-1993 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse  Data are presented on substance use (alcohol, cigarettes & illicit drugs), dependence, treatment, and arrests for 26 States and 25 major metropolitan statistical areas.  The report also includes an evaluation of the model used to make the small area estimates.

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Highlights of short reports on cities/counties/metropolitan Areas

 
  • The NSDUH Report:  Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Substate Regions: 2004 to 2006  Combined data from SAMHSA's 2004-2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health indicate that past year nonmedical use of pain relievers ranged from a low of 2.48% in a ward of the District of Columbia to a high of 7.92% in northwest Florida.  Of the 15 substate regions with the highest rates of nonmedical use of pain relievers, 10 of the highest substate regions were in the South and 5 were in the West.  Of the 15 substate regions with the lowest rates of nonmedical use of pain relievers, 7 of the lowest substate regions were in the South, 4 were in the Midwest, 3 were in the Northeast, and 1 was in the West.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Illicit Drug Use by Race/Ethnicity in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Counties: 2004 and 2005  SAMHSA's National Survey of Drug Use and Health provides data on past month use of the following: any illicit drug, marijuana, and nonmedical use of prescription type drugs by race/ethnicity. This report also presents these by metropolitan status.   Among whites and Hispanics: past month use of any illicit drug, marijuana, or nonmedical prescription drugs was lowest in non metropolitan areas than in any other area.  Among blacks: past month use of any illicit drug or marijuana was lowest in non metropolitan areas than in any other area but nonmedical prescription drug use was highest in non metropolitan areas.  Among American Indians/Alaska Natives: past month use of any illicit drug or nonmedical prescription drug use was lowest in large metropolitan areas than in any other area but marijuana use was lowest in non metropolitan areas. 
  • The NSDUH Report:  Substance Use in the 15 Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 2002-2005 According to the U.S. Population in 2005, the 15 largest metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) are:  Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami-Fort Lauderdale, New York, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Riverside, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington, DC   Rates of past month (i.e., current) illicit drug use, binge alcohol use, and cigarette use for each of these MSAs were compared with the national average.  To obtain sufficient numbers to make reliable estimates, the comparisons are based on the combined data from SAMHSA's 2002 to 2005 annual National Surveys of Drug Use and Health. The national average annual rate of current illicit drug use was 8.1% of persons aged 12 or older. Among the 15 largest metropolitan statistical areas, San Francisco (12.9%) and Detroit (9.5%) had significantly higher rates than the national average and the metropolitan statistical areas of Houston (6.2%), Dallas (6.5%) and Washington D.C. (6.5%) had lower rates of past month illicit drug use than the national average. The rate of current binge drinking was 22.7% for the nation and ranged from 18.6% in Los Angeles to 25.6% in Houston and 25.7% in Chicago metropolitan statistical areas.  The rate of current smoking cigarettes was 25.3% for the nation and ranged from 17.9% in Los Angeles and San Francisco to 27.4% in the Detroit metropolitan statistical areas. 
  • The DASIS Report:  Methamphetamine / Amphetamine Treatment Admissions in Urban and Rural Areas, 2004 According to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) admission data with the treatment location in 2004, nonmetropolitan areas with cities had the highest admission rate for methamphetamines/ amphetamines and large fringe metropolitan areas had the lowest admission rate (160 admissions per 100,000 vs. 49 admissions per 100,000 persons aged 12 or older). The national treatment admission rate for methamphetamines/ amphetamines was 85 admissions per 100,000 persons aged 12 or older. Among all substance abuse treatment admissions for methamphetamine/amphetamine abuse, the percentage aged 18 to 25 years older was lowest in the most urbanized counties and highest in the most rural counties (26% vs. 32%). The percentage of methamphetamine/amphetamine admissions that smoked the drugs was highest in the most urbanized counties (62%) and lowest in the most rural counties (48%). The percentage of methamphetamine/amphetamine admissions that injected the drugs was lowest in large metro areas (14% to 15%) and highest in small and nonmetro areas (24% to 25%).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Substance Abuse or Dependence in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas, 2004 Update  Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, in 2004, persons aged 12 or older who lived in metropolitan areas were more likely to abuse or be dependent on alcohol or an illicit drug during the past year than those living in non-metropolitan areas. Males living in metropolitan areas were more likely to abuse or be dependent on alcohol or an illicit drug than males living in nonmetropolitan areas. Rates of past year substance abuse or dependence changed little between 2002, 2003, and 2004 in either metropolitan or nonmetropolitan areas. 
  • The DASIS Report:  Treatment Admissions in Rural Areas, 2003 There were 115,000 substance abuse treatment admissions to facilities in rural areas in 2003 (6% of all admissions) based on SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Rural substance abuse treatment admissions were more likely than urban substance abuse treatment admissions to report alcohol as the primary substance of abuse (52% vs. 40%). Rural substance abuse treatment admissions were more likely than urban substance abuse treatment admissions to be referred to treatment by the criminal justice system (47% vs. 35%).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Marijuana Use in SubState Areas   By combining three years of data from SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 1999 to 2001, SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies was able to produce SubState estimates of substance use. In 1999 to 2001, past month use of marijuana varied from 2.3% in Northwest Iowa and 2.6% in Southern Texas to 10.3% in Boulder, Colorado and 12.2% in Boston. Of the 15 SubState areas with the highest rates of past month marijuana use in the United States, five were in Massachusetts, three were in California, and two were in Colorado.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Underage Drinking in Rural Areas    Based on SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, rates of current underage drinking among youth aged 12 to 17 was higher in rural than nonrural areas. Current underage drinking among those aged 18 to 20, however, were higher in nonrural areas. Rural youth aged 12 to 17 reported lower levels of perceived risk from alcohol use, less disapproval of alcohol use, and less perceived parental disapproval of underage drinking than those in nonrural areas. Binge drinking (defined as 5 or more drinks on the same occasion at least one day in the past month) was also higher among rural youth age 12 to 17 (4.1%) than nonrural (1.6%) but did not differ by rural status for underage binge drinking by those aged 18 to 20.
  • The DASIS Report:  Treatment Admissions in Urban & Rural Areas Involving Abuse of Narcotic Painkillers: 2002 Update   In SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), the substance abuse treatment admission rates for narcotic painkillers increased 155% between 1992 and 2002. The increase was smallest in large central metropolitan areas (58%) and greatest in the most rural areas, i.e., nonmetropolitan areas without a city (269%). The proportions of narcotic painkiller treatment admissions taking the drugs orally or inhaling them increased while the proportion injecting them decreased.
  • The DASIS Report: Treatment Admissions in Urban & Rural Areas Involving Abuse of Narcotic Painkillers.    In SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), the number of substance abuse treatment admissions in which narcotic painkillers were involved increased 101 percent between 1992 and 2000. Increases in substance abuse treatment admission rates for abuse of narcotic painkillers were greatest in areas outside large central metropolitan areas. The proportion increased of narcotic painkiller treatment admissions taking the drugs orally while the proportion injecting narcotic painkillers decreased. However, only in rural areas did the proportion who inhaled the narcotic painkillers increase.
  • The NHSDA Report:  Substance Use in the 10 Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas.    According to the U.S. Population in 2000, the 10 largest metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) are:  Boston, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC   Rates of past month (i.e., current) illicit drug use, binge alcohol use, and cigarette use for each of these MSAs were compared with the national average.   
  • The DASIS Report:   American Indian / Alaska Native Treatment Admissions in Rural & Urban Areas:  2000    Regardless of level of urbanization, alcohol was the leading substance of abuse for American Indian / Alaska Native treatment admissions.  American Indian / Alaska Native treatment admissions in non-metro areas without a city were less likely than other metropolitan areas to have opiates, cocaine, or stimulants as their primary substance of abuse. Opiates were the primary substance of abuse among American Indian / Alaska Native substance abuse treatment admissions in large metropolitan areas.   

This page was last updated on March 25, 2009.