1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

Previous PageTable Of ContentsNext Page

Appendix A: Key Definitions, 1972-1997 Survey Years



 
Adult Education   See "Education."
Age   Age of the respondent was defined as "age at time of interview." This definition corresponds to the definition used in previous Main Findings, but differs slightly from the definition used in the report of the Population Estimates 1985, where age is defined as "age as of July 1, 1985."
Age Group   For the reported analyses, respondents were divided into four age groups: 12 to 17 (youths), 18 to 25 (young adults), 26 to 34 (middle adults), and >35 (older adults). 
Agoraphobia (AGP) 1994-B-1997: One of four adult mental disorders covered by the NHSDA. "The essential feature of this syndrome is . . . the fear of being in places or situations from which escape might be
difficult (or embarrassing) or in which help might not be available in the event of suddenly developing a symptom(s) that could be incapacitating or extremely embarrassing" (APA, 1987, p. 240). 
Alcohol 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of alcohol in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last drank an alcoholic beverage?"

Feeder question: "The next questions are about alcoholic beverages, such as, [beer, wine, liquor, brandy, and mixed drinks]."

  1985-1994-A: "When was the most recent time that you had an alcohol drink, that is, of beer, wine, or liquor or a mixed alcoholic drink?"
  1991-1994-A: ". . . [beer, wine and liquor, like whiskey, gin, or scotch, including mixed alcoholic
drinks like gin and tonic, and drinks like wine coolers, fortified wine, and champagne]."
  1985-1990: ". . . [beer, wine and liquor, like whiskey, gin, or scotch, including mixed alcoholic drinks like gin and tonic]."
  1982: ". . . [beer, wine, and liquor, like whiskey or gin]."
  1979: ". . . [alcoholic beverages -- beer, wine, whiskey, gin, other `hard' liquors]."
  1974-1977: ". . . [alcoholic beverages -- beer, wine, and whiskey, or anything else to drink with alcohol in it]."
  1972: ". . . [beer; wine; hard liquor like cocktails or highballs, or on the rocks, or straight shots]."
  SEE: "Answer Sheets (1979)," "Current Drinker," "Heavy Use of Alcohol," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Alcohol Abuse Treatment 1997: Question TX-8 was reworded to focus on the respondent's primary, not last, place of treatment, as follows: "What was the primary place where you received treatment the last time you started treatment for your alcohol or other drug use, not counting cigarettes?"

The date of drug treatment enrollment was updated to October 1, 1996, from October 2, 1995, in Question TX14.

  1994-B-1996: Respondents were asked to: "Please mark one box beside each type of treatment place [hospital overnight or inpatient; rehabilitation center overnight; rehabilitation center outpatient; mental health center outpatient, emergency room, private doctors office, prison or jail, self-help group, other place] to indicate whether you have received treatment for your alcohol use in that type of facility during the past 12 months."
  1991-1994-A: Respondents were asked: "During the past 12 months, have you gotten any treatment for drinking--such as from a clinic, self-help group, counselor, doctor, or other professional?"
    The measure based on this question may include people who had received treatment for conditions related to alcohol use in addition to those who had received treatment to stop drinking.
Analgesics 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of analgesics in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used a pain killer that was not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

Feeder question: "This section is about the use of pain killers, which are known as analgesics. The questions ask only about prescription pain killers. Do not include over-the-counter pain killers such as aspirin, Tylenol, Advil, Anacin, or others available over-the-counter. We're interested only in use of prescription analgesics or pain killers that were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused."

  1985-1994-A: "When was the most recent time you took any analgesic for nonmedical reasons?"

Feeder question: "The next questions are about the use of analgesics. Analgesics are usually taken as painkillers, but people sometimes use them for other reasons. We're interested in nonmedical use--using analgesics or painkillers on your own."

  1982: Respondents were told that this pill class includes painkilling pills that, unlike aspirin, are usually available only with a doctor's prescription.
  1979: "Sometimes doctors prescribe these pills to relieve pain. But besides the medical uses, people sometimes take these pills on their own to see how they work or just to feel good."
  SEE: "Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Answer Sheets   Since 1972, answer sheets have been used to ensure privacy of responses for questions on use of illicit drugs, and other issues pertaining to the use of drugs. Beginning in 1979, answer sheets were used for alcohol use. The new design was implemented to (1) provide respondent training on the answer sheet procedure prior to its use for illicit substances, and (2) provide the same conditions of privacy for this drug as for the illicit drugs to encourage full disclosure. Answer sheets were added in 1982 for the nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics.
  1997: Answer sheets were added for youth experiences, drug experiences, and workplace issues.
  1994-B-1996 : In 1994-B, answer sheets were added for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. In addition, a new "core" self-administered answer sheet was used to measure the use of each drug. The wording of questions was made to be consistent across different core answer sheets, and each new core answer sheet includes fewer questions than were used in the corresponding answer sheet of the old questionnaire.
Any Illicit Drug 
Other Than Marijuana
1995-1997: This indicates use of marijuana or hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically, regardless of marijuana use. Marijuana users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included. 
Base   The base number or actual number of respondents in each age group by demographic characteristic (i.e., unweighted Ns) is found in Table 1.1 of this report. The percentages shown in the tables are based on weighted numbers of respondents.
Binge Use of Alcohol 1995-1997: "Binge use of alcohol" was defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days.
Black 1985-1997: Black, not of Hispanic origin.
  SEE: "Race/Ethnicity."
Booked for Breaking
a Law
1995-1997: "Booked" was defined as "taken into custody and processed by the police or by someone connected with the courts, even if you were then released."
Cigarettes 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of cigarettes in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last smoked a cigarette?"
  1985-1994-A: "When was the most recent time you smoked a cigarette?"
  1990: In 1990, the option "(6) not sure" was deleted from the response set.
  1982: Lifetime prevalence was based on the question, "About how old were you when you first tried a cigarette?" All respondents were asked about current use, which was defined as "smoked in the past 30 days."
  1979: Lifetime prevalence was based on the question, "About how old were you when you first tried a cigarette?" Current use was defined as "smoked in past 30 days"; only those respondents who had smoked as many as five packs of cigarettes during their lifetime were asked about current use.
  1974-1977: Lifetime prevalence was based on the question, "Have you ever smoked cigarettes?" Current use was defined as "smoked within past month"; all respondents were asked about current use. 
  1972: No data provided on lifetime prevalence. Current use was defined as smoked at "the present time"; all respondents were asked about current use.
  NOTE: The 1979 questions on recency of cigarette use are not comparable with other years because a different operational definition was employed in 1979; that is, in 1979, only respondents who had smoked five or more packs in their lifetime were asked about recency of use. 
  NOTE: The 1994-B questions about tobacco use (i.e., cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) were asked using a self-administered answer sheet. In prior survey years, the questions about tobacco use were interviewer-administered.
  SEE: "Cigars," "Current Smoker," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Cigars 1997: Measures of use in the respondent's lifetime were developed from responses to the following questions: "Have you ever smoked a cigar, even one or two puffs?" "Have you smoked at least 50 cigars in your lifetime?" ". . .During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke a cigar?"
  SEE: "Cigarettes," "Current Smoker," and "Drug Experiences."
Cocaine 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of cocaine in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any form of cocaine?"
  1991-1994-A: "When was the most recent time that you used cocaine in any form?"
  1991-1997: Feeder question: "The next questions are about cocaine, including all the different forms of cocaine such as powder, `crack,' free base, and coca paste."
  1985-1990: The question read, "When was the most recent time that you used cocaine?"
  SEE: "Crack," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Confidence Limits   The upper and lower limits cited in this report provide the boundaries for the observed estimate of use of particular drugs. These limits suggest that, if this study had been conducted 100 times, the observed prevalence rate would have been between the lower and upper confidence limits in 95 of the 100 studies. In other words, a statement that the real value for use of a particular drug lies within those limits would be correct 95% of the time. 
Crack 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of crack cocaine in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used `crack'?"
  1988-1994-A: "When was the most recent time you used the form of cocaine known as `crack'?"
  1988-1997: Feeder question: "The next questions refer only to `crack,' that is, cocaine in rock or chunk form, and not the other forms of cocaine."
  SEE: "Cocaine," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Current Drinker 1982-1997: Reported use of alcohol during the month prior to the interview.
  1974-1979: Drank in the past month.
  1972: Drank in the past 7 days.
  SEE: "Alcohol," "Answer Sheets (1979)," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Current Employment   Employment status during the past week.
  SEE: "Employment."
Current Smoker 1982-1997: Reported use of cigarettes during the month prior to the interview.
  1979: Smoked in past 30 days and have smoked as many as five packs of cigarettes during their lifetime.
  1974-1977: Smoked within past month.
  1972: Smoke at "the present time."
  NOTE: The 1979 questions on cigarettes are not comparable with other years because a different operational definition was employed in 1979.
  NOTE: The 1994-B, 1995, 1996, and 1997 questions about tobacco use (i.e., cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) were asked using a self-administered answer sheet. In prior survey years, the questions about tobacco use were interviewer-administered.
  SEE: "Cigarettes," "Cigars," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Current Use   Any reported use of a specific drug in the past month.
  SEE: "Prevalence," "Recency of Use," and "Use in the Past Month."
Drug Abuse Treatment 1997: Question TX-8 was reworded to focus on the respondent's primary, not last, place of treatment, as follows: "What was the primary place where you received treatment the last time you started treatment for your alcohol or other drug use, not counting cigarettes?"

The date of drug treatment enrollment was updated to October 1, 1996, from October 2, 1995, in Question TX-14.

  1994-B-1996: Respondents were asked to: "Please mark one box beside each type of treatment place[hospital overnight or inpatient; rehabilitation center overnight; rehabilitation center outpatient; mental health center outpatient, emergency room, private doctor's office, prison or jail, self-help group, other place] to indicate whether you have received treatment for your use of other drugs, not counting cigarettes and alcohol, in that type of facility during the past 12 months."
  1991-1994-A: Respondents were asked: "During the past 12 months, have you received treatment for other drug use, not counting cigarettes or alcohol?"

This was the first in a series of eight questions about treatment for drug use. The remaining seven questions ask about treatment in various specific settings. The measure of drug abuse treatment is based only on responses to the first question stated above. This measure may include some people who had received treatment for conditions related to drug use in addition to those who had received treatment to stop drug use.

  1993,1994-A: In 1993 and 1994-A, respondents were also asked: "How many times in your life have you received treatment or counseling for your use of any drug, not counting cigarettes or alcohol?" and "What was the primary drug you received treatment or counseling for during the last time you were treated?"
  1994-B-1996: In 1994-B, 1995, and 1996, respondents were only also asked: "What was the primary drug you received treatment or counseling for during the last time you were treated?"
Drug Experiences 1997: A new series of drug-related questions dealing with cigars, marijuana or hashish, and the different forms of cocaine (powder, "crack," free base, and coca paste) was introduced in 1997. Among the questions, 3 focus on cigar smoking, 10 address marijuana or hashish use, and 10 deal with cocaine use.
Education   This is the measure of educational attainment among respondents who are $18 years old. It contains the respondents' reports of their highest level of education completed: less than high school; high school graduate; some college; and college graduate. Persons who completed postgraduate work are classified as college graduates.
Employment   Respondents were asked to look at a card and tell which statement best described their present work situation: "Working full-time, 35 hours or more a week"; "Working part-time, less than 35 hours a week"; "Have a job but not at work because of extended illness, maternity leave, furlough, or strike"; "Have a job but not at work because it is seasonal work"; "Unemployed or laid off and looking for work"; "Unemployed or laid off and not looking for work"; "Full-time homemaker"; "In school only"; "Retired"; "Disabled, not able to work"; and "Something else."
  Full-time "Full-time" in the tables includes both "working full-time" and "Have a job but not at work." 
  Part-time "Part-time" in the tables refers exclusively to those reporting they worked part-time.
  Unemployed "Unemployed" in the tables includes those giving either of the two "unemployed" answers.
  Other "Other" includes all other responses, including being a student, a housewife, retired, disabled, or other miscellaneous work statuses.
Ethnicity 1985-1997: Ethnicity is used to refer to the respondent's self-classification as to ethnic origin and identification. Tabular data were presented separately throughout the 1985, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997 Main Findings for the three largest ethnic categories: white, not Hispanic; black, not Hispanic; and Hispanic. Because the percentage of persons not classified in one of these three categories was so small and there were several different ethnic groups represented, the "others" were not shown separately in the tables, but were included in the calculation of prevalence rates for the total sample.
  SEE: "Black," "Hispanic," "Race/Ethnicity," and "White."
Ever Used   See "Lifetime Prevalence."
Family Income 1997: The question on family income was reworded in 1997 as follows: "Of these income groups, which best represents the total combined family income during the past 12 months (that is, yours and your [mother's/father's/stepmother's/stepfather's/wife's/husband's/etc.])? Include wages, salaries, and other items we just talked about. Income data is important in analyzing the health information we collect. For example, the information helps us to learn whether persons in one income group use certain types of medical care services or have conditions more or less often than those in another group."
  1994-B-1996: A single question was asked: "Of these income groups, which best represents the total combined family income, during the past 12 months (that is, yours and your [mother's/father's/stepmother's/ stepfather's/wife's/husband's/etc.])? Include wages, salaries, and other items such as: money from all jobs, social security, retirement income, unemployment payments, public assistance, and so forth. Also include income from interest, dividends, net income from business, farm, or rent, and another money income you received."
  1992-1994-A: A series of questions was asked to determine the amount of income the respondent and every member of his/her family received during the past month from a variety of sources, including employment, Social Security, Railroad Retirement, Supplemental Security Income, public assistance, AFDC, interest, dividends, rents, royalties, trusts, child support, and any other source. Imputations were made, monthly estimates were multiplied by 12, and variables were summed to obtain the total family income.
  NOTE: For youths and those unable to respond to income questions, proxy responses were accepted in 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996.
  1990: A single question was asked: "The last few questions are about the total income during the past year for all members of your family who lived here then, from all sources. We would like for you to combine everyone's income--that is, yours (your [mother's/ father's stepmother's/stepfather's/wife's/husband's]). Include money from wages and salaries, social security, retirement income, unemployment payments, public assistance, and so forth. Also include income from interest, dividends, net income from business, farm, or rent, and any other money income received."

Respondents were handed a card with a series of response alternatives and asked to indicate the letter that best described their total family income from all sources. Respondents also were asked to indicate how much every member of their family received from each possible income source. Both the total categorical variable and each of the individual continuous income sources were compared and imputed to obtain the family income variable.

Gang Fighting 1997: Respondents were asked how many times during the past 12 months they had gotten into a gang fight. Response alternatives were (1) never, (2) 1 or 2 times, (3) 3 or 4 times, or (4) 5 or more times.
  SEE: "Stealing" and "Youth Experiences."
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) 1994-B-1997: One of four adult mental disorders covered by the NHSDA: "The essential feature of this syndrome is . . . unrealistic or excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation) about two or more life circumstances, e.g., worry about possible misfortune to one's child (who is in no danger) and worry about finances (for no good reason), for six months or longer, during which the person has been bothered by these concerns more days than not " (APA, 1987, p. 218).
Hallucinogens 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of hallucinogens in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used LSD, PCP, or any other hallucinogen?"

Feeder question: "The next questions are about substances like LSD, peyote, mescaline and PCP, which is also known as `angel dust.' These drugs are called hallucinogens because they often cause people to feel that they are seeing or experiencing things that are not for real."

  1985-1994-A: Measures of use of hallucinogens in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "When was the most recent time you used LSD or PCP or another hallucinogen?" Specific types of hallucinogens came from the questions on the hallucinogens answer sheets, with "other" responses coded to specific types as appropriate (e.g., acid to LSD).
  1985-1994-A: ". . .[PCP or `angel dust,' peyote, and mescaline]."
  1982: ". . .[LSD and other hallucinogens, such as PCP or phencyclidine, mescaline, peyote, psilocybin, DMT]." Data for PCP are included within general data on hallucinogens and also provided separately.
  1979: ". . .[LSD and other hallucinogens such as PCP or phencyclidine, mescaline, peyote, psilocybin, DMT]." Data for PCP are included within general data on hallucinogens and also provided separately.
  1976, 1977: ". . .[LSD and other hallucinogens like mescaline, peyote, psilocybin, and DMT]." Separate data are provided for PCP.
  1974: ". . .[LSD or other hallucinogens]."
  1972: ". . .[LSD or something like it, such as mescaline, psilocybin, MSA, STP]."
  NOTE: In the Population Estimates 1985, PCP was included as a hallucinogen only if the respondent identified PCP specifically when answering the recency question for hallucinogens. This leads to slight differences with the 1985 Main Findings, where PCP use is always included as a hallucinogen.
  SEE: "Prevalence" and "Recency of Use."
Health Insurance Status 1991-1997: A series of questions was asked to determine what kinds of insurance the respondent was covered under in the last full calendar month. Types of coverage asked about included Medicare, Medicaid, CHAMPUS, CHAMPVA, the VA, TRICARE, other military health care, private insurance obtained through a current or former employer, or by paying premiums directly to the health insurance company. An indicator variable was created that shows if the respondent was covered by any of these plans.
  NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance questions, proxy responses were accepted in 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995.
  1990: A single question was asked: "We are interested in all kinds of health insurance plans, except those that only cover accidents. Are you now covered by a health insurance plan which pays any part of a hospital, doctor's, or surgeon's bill?" The response alternatives were: (1) yes; and (2) no.
Heavy Use of Alcohol 1985-1997: "Heavy use of alcohol" was defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., within a few hours) on 5 or more days in the past 30 days.
  SEE: "Alcohol."
Heroin 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of heroin in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last [used heroin]?"
  1976-1994-A: "When was the most recent time you [used heroin]?"
  1972-1974: ". . .[tried heroin]?"
  1993: ". . .[sniffed ("snorted") heroin]?"
  SEE: "Prevalence" and "Recency of Use."
Hispanic 1985-1997: "Hispanic" was included as anyone of Hispanic origin (i.e., individuals from Puerto Rico, Mexico, Cuba, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, or other Hispanic countries). The individual may be racially white, black, or other.
  SEE: "Race/Ethnicity" and "White."
Illicit Drugs 1979-1997: Illicit drugs include marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP), heroin, or nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics, which include stimulants, sedatives, tranquilizers, and analgesics. Illicit drug use has referred to use of any of these drugs. A composite measure, "any illicit drug use," was constructed from data for the 1979 and later surveys.
Income   See "Family Income."
Inhalants 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of inhalants in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any inhalant for kicks or to get high?"
  1985-1994-A: "When was the most recent time you used an inhalant; that is, sniffed or inhaled something to get high or for kicks?"

Data on specific types of inhalants have come from the questions on the inhalants answer sheet with "other" responses coded to specific types as appropriate. 

  NOTE: Lighter gases (butane, propane) were added as a response option in 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995.
  1994-B-1997: Feeder question: "The questions in this section are about liquids, sprays, and gases that people sniff or inhale to get high or to make them feel good. Lighter fluid, glue, paint thinners, ether, `poppers,' and certain aerosol sprays are examples of substances people breathe in or sniff for kicks or to get high. The questions use the term `inhalants' to include all the things listed on this card, as well as any other substances that people sniff or inhale for kicks or to get high."
  1991-1994-A: "These next questions are about inhalants that people sniff or breathe in, to get high or to make them feel good. I am referring to things like lighter fluids and gases, aerosol sprays like Pam, glue, amyl nitrate, `poppers,' or locker room odorizers. The questions use the term `inhalant' which refers to any and all of the items listed on this card."
  1985-1990: ". . . [I am referring to things like lighter fluids, aerosol sprays . . . ]"
  1972-1979: Comparable questions on recency of use were used to derive prevalence rates for inhalants in 1972 through 1979. There were no questions on inhalant use in the 1982 survey.
  SEE: "Prevalence" and "Recency of Use."
Large Metropolitan Area 1991-1997: In 1991 through 1997 large metropolitan areas included Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) with a 1990 population of 1,000,000 or more. Large metropolitan areas included cities and surrounding areas as defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Other population density areas defined are "Small Metropolitan Area" and "Nonmetropolitan Area."

As of October 1991, the definition of the 1988 and 1990 large metropolitan areas was revised to match the 1991 definition. Estimates reported by population density for 1988 and 1990 since that revision may therefore differ from and are not strictly comparable to similarly labeled, earlier estimates.

  1988, 1990: In 1988 and 1990, large metropolitan areas included Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) with a 1980 population of 1,000,000 or more.
  1985: In 1985, large metropolitan areas included SMSAs with a 1980 population of 250,000 or more. 
  1982: Include SMSAs with a population of 1,000,000 or more in 1970.
  1979: A county or group of contiguous counties that contains at least one city with at least 50,000 inhabitants or more, or "twin cities" with a minimum combined population of 50,000.
  1972-1977: Includes the top 25 SMSAs as of 1970 according to the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
  SEE: "Small Metropolitan Area" and "Nonmetropolitan Area."
Lifetime Frequency 1994-B-1997:  Respondents were asked: "Think about the entire time since you first used X drug. Altogether, on how many days in your life have you used X drug: more than 300 days, 101 to 300 days, 12 to 100 days, 3 to 11 days, 1 to 2 days?"
  1979-1994-A: Respondents were asked: "About how many times in your life have you used X drug: 1-2 times, 3-5 times, 6-10 times, 11-49 times, 50-99 times, 100-199 times, 200 or more times, never?"
Lifetime Prevalence   The percentage who have "ever" used the drug regardless of the number of times it was used.
  SEE: "Recency of Use."
Low Precision 1991-1997: Prevalence estimates based on only a few respondents were not shown in the 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997 Main Findings tables, but have been replaced with an asterisk (*) and noted as "low precision." These estimates have been omitted because one cannot place a high degree of confidence in their accuracy. In statistical terms, low precision estimates were those for which the natural log of the relative standard error (i.e., the ratio of the standard error to the prevalence estimate) was .175 or greater.
  1988, 1990: In statistical terms, low precision estimates were those for which the relative standard error (i.e., the ratio of the standard error to the prevalence estimate) was .50 or greater.
  1972-1985: An asterisk (*) was used in report tables to indicate prevalence rates of less than .5%.
Major Depressive Episode
(MDE)
1994-B-1997: One of the four adult mental disorders covered by the NHSDA: "The essential feature of a Major Depressive Episode is either depressed mood . . . or loss of interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities . . . for most of the day, nearly every day, during at least a two-week period" (APA, 1987, p. 218).
Marijuana 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of marijuana in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used [marijuana or hashish]?"
  1985-1994-A: "When was the most recent time you used [marijuana or hash]?"
  1982: ". . .[marijuana and hashish]."
  1979: ". . .[marijuana and (or) hashish]."
  1972-1977: Data reported are for marijuana only.
  1994-B: Feeder question: "The next questions are about marijuana and hashish. Marijuana is also called pot or grass. Marijuana is usually smoked--either in cigarettes called joints, or in a pipe. It is sometimes cooked in food."
  NOTE: Although the data in 1979 and 1982 pertain to use of either of these substances, experience in the earlier surveys indicated that most respondents who reported using hashish had also used marijuana.
  SEE: "Prevalence" and "Recency of Use."
Needle Use  1995-1997: Needle use was derived from specific questions about use of cocaine, heroin, or amphetamines with a needle and from general questions about needle use with other drugs.
  1994-B: ". . . cocaine, heroin, anabolic steroids, or amphetamines with a needle and from general questions about needle use with other drugs."
  1988-1994-A: ". . . cocaine, heroin, or amphetamines with a needle."
  NOTE: In 1995, additional questions are asked about reusing needles, using bleach to clean needles before use, and where the needles were obtained.
  NOTE: Estimates of needle use in 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 are not comparable to those published in the 1988 Main Findings. The 1990-1995 estimates were based on a more extensive set of questions about needle use available in the NHSDA for these years.
  NOTE: In 1994-B and 1995, respondents are not asked to answer detailed questions about needle use if they report never having injected a drug for nonmedical reasons.
Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic 1994-B-1997: The section of the interview instrument and the answer sheets dealing with nonmedical use of four classes of psychotherapeutics was introduced as follows:

Feeder question: "The next four answer sheets are about drugs that people are supposed to take only if they have a prescription from a doctor. For the answers on these next four answer sheets we are only interested in your use of a drug if: the drug was not prescribed for you, or if you took the drug only for the experience or feeling it caused."

  1991-1994-A: Feeder question: "The next questions will be about prescription-type drugs. There will be separate questions for sedatives, tranquilizers, stimulants, and analgesics.

"As you can see on this card, [sedatives include barbiturates, sleeping pills, and Seconal; sedatives are sometimes referred to as `downers.'] Tranquilizers include antianxiety drugs like Librium, Valium, Ativan, and Meprobamate. [Stimulants include amphetamines and Preludin; stimulants are often called `uppers' or `speed.'] Analgesics include painkillers like Darvon, Demerol, Percodan, and Tylenol with codeine."

"Now, please read the information below the line on the card while I say it aloud. This is a very important point about the next set of questions. We are interested in the nonmedical use of these prescription-type drugs. Nonmedical use of these drugs is any use on your own, that is, either: without your own prescription from a doctor, or in greater amounts than prescribed, or more often than prescribed, or for kicks, to get high, to feel good, or curiosity about the pill's effect, or for any reasons other than a doctor said you should take them."

"Now, read with me below the line on the card because this is very important. We are interested in the nonmedical use of these prescription-type drugs. Nonmedical use of these drugs is any use on your own, that is, either: without a doctor's prescription, or in greater amounts, or more often, or for any reasons other than a doctor said that you should take them--such as for kicks, to get high, to feel good, or curiosity about the pill's effect."

  NOTE: The pill card contains pictures and names of specific drugs within each psychotherapeutic category. For example, pictures and the names of Valium, Librium, and other tranquilizers are shown when the section on tranquilizers is introduced. Pill cards were introduced in 1972 for all but analgesics. A pill card for analgesics was introduced in 1979. Pill cards have been modified over the years to reflect changes in available psychotherapeutic drugs.
  1985-1990: ". . . [sedatives include downers, barbiturates, and Seconal]."

". . . [Stimulants include uppers, amphetamines, speed, and Preludin]." 

  1982: Use of a pill or other drug(s) from any of the four psychotherapeutic drug categories in order to get high or to enjoy the feeling or just for kicks or curiosity or for any other nonmedical purpose. The four categories are sedatives, tranquilizers, stimulants, and analgesics.
  1974-1979: A "yes" or "not sure" response to any one (or more) of the following three items: "(1) Did you ever take any of these kinds of pills just to see what it was like and how it would work? (2) Did you ever take any of these kinds of pills just to enjoy the feeling they give you? (3) Did you ever take any of the pills for some other nonmedical reason, and not because you needed it?"
  1972: A "yes" response to any one (or more) of the following five items: "(1) Have you ever taken these pills to help you get along with your family or other people? (2) Have you ever taken any of these pills to help you accomplish something? (3) Did you ever take any of these kinds of pills just to see what it was like and how it would work? (4) Have you ever taken any of these pills before going out, so that you could enjoy yourself more with other people? (5) Did you ever take these kinds of pills just to enjoy the feeling they give you?"
  NOTE: In 1977 only, questions about nonmedical experience were assigned to a random half of the households in which interviews were conducted.
  SEE: "Analgesics," "Pill Cards," "Sedatives," "Stimulants," and "Tranquilizers."
Nonmetropolitan Area 1991-1997: Those areas of the United States that were not part of a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as of 1990, according to the U.S. Bureau of the Census. In general, these areas include small communities, rural nonfarm areas, and farm areas. Other population density areas defined are "Large Metropolitan Area" and "Small Metropolitan Area."

As of October 1991, the definition of the 1988 and 1990 nonmetropolitan areas was revised to match the 1991 definition. Estimates reported by population density for 1988 and 1990 since that revision may therefore differ from and are not strictly comparable to similarly labeled, earlier estimates.

  1985-1990: Areas that were not part of a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) as of 1980, according to the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
  1972-1982: Nonmetropolitan generally includes smaller communities, rural nonfarm areas, and farm areas according to the standards set in 1970 U.S. Bureau of the Census classifications.
  SEE: "Large Metropolitan Area" and "Small Metropolitan Area."
North Central   The States included are the East North Central States-Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin-and the West North Central States-Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
  SEE: "Region."
Northeast   The States included are the New England States-Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont-and the Middle Atlantic States-New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania.
  SEE: "Region."
Panic Attack (PA) 1994-B-1997: One of four adult mental disorders covered by the NHSDA: [Characterized by] "discrete periods of intense fear or discomfort, with at least four associated symptoms . . . panic attacks usually last minutes or, more rarely, hours. The attacks, at least initially, are unexpected, i.e., they do not occur immediately before or on exposure to a situation that almost always causes anxiety . . . The symptoms experienced during an attack are: shortness of breath (dyspnea) or smothering sensations; dizziness, unsteady feelings, or faintness; choking; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; trembling or shaking; sweating; nausea or abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; numbness or tingling sensations (paresthesias); flushes (hot flashes) or chills; chest pains or discomfort; fear of dying; and fear of going crazy or doing something uncontrollable during the attack" (APA, 1987, pp. 235-236).
PCP 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of phencyclidine (PCP) in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used PCP?"
  1982-1994-A: "When was the most recent time you used PCP?"
  1979: The following questions were used to generate lifetime and past-month PCP prevalence rates: "Have you ever used PCP or Angel Dust?" "In the past 30 days, did you use PCP or Angel Dust?"
  1976-1977: A question on lifetime prevalence was included: "Have you ever used PCP or Angel Dust?" 
  NOTE: In the 1985 Main Findings, the measure of PCP differs slightly from that reported earlier in the Population Estimates 1985 because of a difference in the treatment of missing data.
  SEE: "Hallucinogens," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Perceived Risk/Harmfulness 1997: The list of activities in which people risk harming themselves was expanded to include trying and using LSD and heroin.

Respondents were asked to gauge the accessibility of LSD, in addition to the other drugs previously surveyed: marijuana, cocaine, "crack," and heroin.

The following new questions were fielded about the respondent's risk-taking behaviors: "How often do you get a real kick out of doing things that are a little dangerous?" ". . .like to test yourself by doing something a little risky?" ". . .wear a seatbelt when you ride in the front passenger seat of a car?" ". . . wear a seatbelt when you drive a car?" Response alternatives for the non-driving questions were (1) never, (2) seldom, (3) sometimes, and (4) always. The response alternative, "I don't drive," was added to the question on driving.

  1985-1994-A, 1994-B, 1996: Respondents were asked to assess the extent to which people risk harming themselves physically and in other ways when they use various illicit drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes, with various levels of frequency. These questions were first asked in 1985.
  NOTE: The 1994-B and 1996 questionnaires substitutes more specific language into the questions, such as the substitution of "How much do you think people risk harming themselves physically and in other ways when they use X drug [regularly]?" for "... [once for twice a week]?" and "How much do you think people risk harming themselves physically and in other ways when they use X drug [occasionally]?" for "...[once a month]?"
  1995: Term not used.
Percentages   The percentages in the tables are based on weighted data, and they are presented to one digit beyond the decimal point. In this report, all the 1997 tables contain percentages based on weighted data.
  SEE: "Rounding."
Pill Cards   The pill cards contain pictures and names of specific drugs within each psychotherapeutic category. For example, pictures and the names of Valium, Librium, and other tranquilizers are shown when the questionnaire section on tranquilizers is introduced. Pill cards were introduced in 1972 for sedatives, stimulants, and tranquilizers. A pill card for analgesics was introduced in 1979. Pill cards have been modified over the years to reflect changes in available psychotherapeutic drugs.
Population Density   See "Large Metropolitan Area," "Nonmetropolitan Area," and "Small Metropolitan Area."
Prevalence   General term used to describe the estimates for lifetime, past year, and past month use.
  SEE: "Recency of Use."
Psychotherapeutic Drugs 1985-1997: Psychotherapeutic drugs are generally prescription medications that also can be used illicitly to "get high" or for other mental effects. These include analgesics, sedatives, stimulants, and tranquilizers. Also included are drugs such as "speed" or "ice."
  NOTE: In 1994-B, 1995, 1996, and 1997, "ice" is not included.
  SEE: "Analgesics," "Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic," "Sedatives," "Stimulants," and "Tranquilizers." 
Race/Ethnicity 1985-1997: Data were presented separately for whites, not of Hispanic origin; blacks, not of Hispanic origin; Hispanics; and others. Others include Indian (American), Aleut, Eskimo, Asian or Pacific Islander (including Asian Indian).
  1972-1982:  In previous versions of this survey, the racial categories were "white" and "black and other races."
  SEE: "Black," "Ethnicity," "Hispanic," and "White."
Recency of Use   The recency question for each drug was the source for the lifetime, past year, and past month prevalence rates.
  1994-B-1997: The question was essentially the same for all classes of drugs. The question was: "How long has it been since you last used [drug name]?" For the four classes of psychotherapeutics, the phrase "that was not prescribed for you or only for the experience or feeling it caused" was added after the name of the drug.

The response alternatives were (1) within the past 30 days; (2) more than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months; (3) more than 12 months ago but within the past 3 years; (4) more than 3 years ago.

  1993, 1994-A: The question was essentially the same for all classes of drugs. The question was: "When was the most recent time/that you used/you took/[drug name]?" For the four classes of psychotherapeutics, the phrase "for nonmedical reasons" was added after the name of the drug.

The response alternatives were the same for each drug with the exception of marijuana, cocaine, and inhalants. The response alternatives were (1) within the past month (30 days); (2) more than 1 month ago but less than 6 months ago; (3) 6 or more months ago but less than 1 year ago; (4) 1 or more years ago but less than 3 years ago; and (5) 3 or more years ago. For marijuana, inhalants, and cocaine, the first two response alternatives are (1) within the past week (7 days) and (2) more than 1 week ago but less than 1 month (30 days) ago.

The recency questions, however, were recoded to contain the best available information on each drug. (See Appendix C for more details.)

Region   Region was grouped in this study into four categories: Northeast, North Central, South, and West. These regions are based on classifications developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. See the map on the following page for this division.
  SEE: "Northeast," "North Central," "South," and "West" for listings of the States included in each region.
Rounding   The decision rules for rounding of percentages were as follows. If the second number to the right of the decimal point was greater than or equal to 5, the first number to the right of the decimal point was rounded up to the next higher number. If the second number to the right of the decimal point was less than 5, the first number to the right of the decimal point remained the same. Thus, a prevalence rate of 16.55% would be rounded to 16.6%, while a rate of 16.44% would be rounded to 16.4%. Although the percentages in the 1997 tables generally total 100%, the use of rounding sometimes produces a total of slightly less than or more than 100%.
  SEE: "Percentages."
Sedatives 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of sedatives in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used a sedative that was not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

Feeder question: "The questions in this section are about sedatives and barbiturates. These drugs are also called `downers' and sleeping pills. People take these drugs to help them relax or stay calm. We're interested only in use of prescription sedatives that were not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused."

  1985-1994-A: Measures of use of sedatives in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "When was the most recent time you took any sedative for nonmedical reasons?"

Feeder question: "We'll start by talking about barbiturates and other sedatives. People sometimes take barbiturates and other sedatives to help them go to sleep or to help them stay calm during the day. We're interested in the use of sedatives, also called downers, on your own, or nonmedically."

  1982: Barbiturates and other sedatives (often referred to as sleeping pills). Respondents were told that doctors sometimes prescribe these pills to help people go to sleep or to help them calm down during the day or for some other medical purpose.
  1979: "These pills are barbiturates and other sedatives. Sometimes doctors prescribe these pills to calm people down during the day or to help them sleep at night. But besides medical use, people sometimes take these pills on their own, to help them relax, or just to feel good."
  1974-1977: "Doctors sometimes prescribe these to help relax during the day and to get a better night's sleep. People also use these on their own, to help relax and just feel good. These are barbiturates or sedatives and are sometimes called `downs' or `downers.'"
  1972: "Doctors prescribe these to help relax and to get a better night's sleep. People also use these on their own--to help relax and just feel good. These are barbiturates and are sometimes called `downs' or `downers.'"
  NOTE: In 1977 only, questions about sedatives were assigned to a random half of the households in which interviews were conducted.
  SEE: "Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Significance   In tables in which trends are shown (Chapter 2), the levels of significance for the changes between the two most recent survey years are noted as follows: .05, .01, and .001. A significance level of .05 is used in comparing two rates in the text for demographic subgroups of the most recent survey sample.
Small Metropolitan Area 1991-1997: Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) with a 1990 population of 50,000 to 999,999 constituted small metropolitan areas. Other population density areas defined were "Large Metropolitan Area" and "Nonmetropolitan Area."

As of October 1991, the definition of 1988 and 1990 small metropolitan areas was revised to match the 1991 definition. Estimates reported by population density for 1988 and 1990

  1988-1990: Small metropolitan areas included Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) with a 1980 population of 50,000 to 999,999.
  1985: In 1985, small metropolitan areas included SMSAs with a 1980 population of under 250,000.
  1979-1982: Small metropolitan areas included SMSAs under 1,000,000 population in 1970.
  NOTE: From 1972 to 1977, "Other Metropolitan" was used as the categorization rather than "Small Metropolitan."
  SEE: "Large Metropolitan Area" and "Nonmetropolitan Area."
Smokeless Tobacco Use 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of smokeless tobacco in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used chewing tobacco or snuff?"
  1985-1994-A: "When was the most recent time you used chewing tobacco or snuff or other smokeless tobacco?"
  NOTE: The 1994-B and later questions about tobacco use (i.e., cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) were asked using a self-administered answer sheet. In prior survey years, the questions about tobacco use were interviewer-administered.
  SEE: "Prevalence" and "Recency of Use."
SMSA   Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area.
  SEE: "Large Metropolitan Area," "Small Metropolitan Area," and "Nonmetropolitan Area." 
South   This Census classification contains the South Atlantic States-Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; the East South Central States-Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; and the West South Central States-Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma.
  SEE: "Region."
Stealing 1997: Respondents were asked how many times during the past 12 months they have taken something from a store without paying for it. Response alternatives were (1) never, (2) 1 or 2 times, (3) 3 or 4 times, or (4) 5 or more times.
  SEE: "Gang Fighting" and "Youth Experiences."
Stimulants 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of stimulants in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used a stimulant that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

Feeder question: "This question is about the use of drugs like amphetamines that are known as stimulants or `uppers.' People sometimes take these drugs to lose weight or to stay awake. The questions asks only about prescription stimulants. Do not include over-the-counter stimulants such as Dexatrim or No-Doz. We're interested only in use of prescription stimulants, uppers and speed that were not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused."

  1985-1994-A: "When was the most recent time you took any amphetamine or other stimulant for nonmedical reasons?"

Feeder question: "The next questions are about the use of amphetamines and other stimulants. People sometimes take stimulants to help them lose weight or to help them stay awake. We're interested in nonmedical use-taking stimulants, also called uppers, on your own."

  1982: Amphetamines or other stimulants. Respondents were told that these pills are sometimes used to help people lose weight and they are usually available only with a doctor's prescription. 
  1979: "These pills are amphetamines and other stimulants. Doctors sometimes prescribe these for losing weight. But besides medical uses, people sometimes take them on their own to make them feel more wide-awake, peppy, and alert."
  1974-1977: "Doctors sometimes prescribe these for losing weight. But besides medical uses, people sometimes take them on their own to make them feel more wide-awake, peppy, and alert. They are sometimes called `ups' or `uppers,' `speed,' or `bennies.'"
  1972: "Doctors prescribe these mostly for losing weight, and sometimes to give people more energy. People also use these on their own, just to feel good. These are amphetamines. They are sometimes called `ups' or `uppers,' `speed,' or `bennies.'"
  NOTE: In 1977 only, questions about stimulants were assigned to a random half of the households in which interviews were conducted.
  SEE: "Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Tobacco   See "Cigarettes," "Cigars," and "Smokeless Tobacco Use."
Total Family Income   See "Family Income."
Tranquilizers 1994-B-1997: Measures of use of tranquilizers in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used a tranquilizer that was not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

Feeder question: "This section is about the use of tranquilizers. Tranquilizers are usually prescribed to relax people, to calm people down, or to relieve depression. Some people refer to tranquilizers as `nerve pills' since they usually reduce anxiety and stress. We are interested only in use of prescription tranquilizers, that were not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused."

  1985-1994-A: "When was the most recent time you took any tranquilizer for nonmedical reasons?"

Feeder question: "The next few questions are about the use of tranquilizers, on your own. People sometimes take tranquilizers to help them calm down or to relax their muscles or to relieve depression. They are sometimes called `nerve pills.'"

  1982: Respondents were told that the tranquilizer pill class includes pills that are usually available only with a doctor's prescription and are prescribed to help people calm down or to relax their muscles, etc.
  1979: "These pills are tranquilizers. Doctors sometimes prescribe them to calm people down, quiet their nerves, or relax their muscles. But besides the medical uses, people sometimes take these pills on their own to help them relax, or just feel good."
  1974-1977: "Doctors sometimes prescribe these to calm people down, or quiet their nerves, or relax their muscles. People also take them on their own to help them feel better. These are tranquilizers."
  1972: "These help people to calm down, and to quiet their nerves. Doctors sometimes prescribe them. People also take them on their own to help them feel better. These are tranquilizers." 
  NOTE: In 1977 only, questions about tranquilizers were assigned to a random half of the households in which interviews were conducted.
  SEE: "Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."
Treatment for Drug or Alcohol Abuse 1997: Two questions have been reworded to replace the phrase "received treatment or counseling" with the phrase "started into treatment or counseling."
  1994-B-1996: "Have you ever received treatment or counseling for your use of alcohol or any drug not counting cigarettes?"
  1992-1994-A: The measure of treatment for drug or alcohol abuse was developed from the responses to two questions, one asking whether the respondent had received treatment for drinking in the past 12 months and the other asking whether the respondent had received treatment for drug use in the past 12 months. Respondents who answered "yes" to either of those questions were counted as having received treatment for drug or alcohol abuse.

The measure of treatment for drug or alcohol abuse was developed from the responses to two questions, one asking whether the respondent had received treatment for drinking in the past 12 months and the other asking whether the respondent had received treatment for drug use in the past 12 months. Respondents who answered "yes" to either of those questions were counted as having received treatment for drug or alcohol abuse.

  SEE: "Alcohol Abuse Treatment" and "Drug Abuse Treatment."
Use in the Past Month 1982-1997: Respondent reported use within the month (30 days) prior to the interview date. Also referred to as "current use."
  1976-1979: Reported use within "past week," "past month," or 1 or more days within the past 30 days.
  1974: Had used within past month.
  1972: Marijuana only-self-designated current users who reported use "once a month or less," as well as those who reported more frequent use. Other drugs-had used within past month.
  SEE: "Recency of Use."
Use in the Past Year 1985-1997: Respondent reported use within the past year prior to the interview date.
  1982: Respondent reported use one or more times during the year prior to the interview date. Included persons reporting that their most recent use occurred in the past month or past year, as well as those persons who (though categorized as "not sure" of most recent use) indicated that their first use of the drug occurred during the past year.
  1979: Respondent reported use one or more times during the year prior to the interview date.
  1977: Respondent reported use one or more times within the past calendar year.
  1972-1976: Respondent reported use within the past year.
  SEE: "Recency of Use."
Weight   A weighted variable was used to adjust percentage estimates to represent the approximate age group by sex by race/ethnicity distribution in the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population. (See Appendices B and D for more details.)
Welfare Assistance 1991-1997: Respondents were asked whether they received "public assistance or welfare payments from the state or local welfare office."
  NOTE: For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted in 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995.
West   This census classification includes the States of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
  SEE: "Region."
White 1985-1997: White, not of Hispanic origin.
  1982: Those individuals who chose the category white or Hispanic as the category that best describes them.
  1979: Those individuals who stated that their family origin is white or that they are of Spanish-American origin.
  1977: Those individuals who stated that their family origin is white.
  1972-1976: Those individuals whose racial background, according to interviewer observation, was determined to be white.
  SEE: "Race/Ethnicity."
Workplace Issues 1997: A new series of questions on workplace issues was introduced in the interview instrument and the answer sheets in 1997. Of the seven workplace questions, five address work-related accidents and two involve termination issues.

The new section defines work-related accidents in the feeder question as follows: "When we refer to your involvement in work-related accidents, we mean that you were part of an accident at the time it took place while you were working, and that this accident resulted in any or all of the following: damage to property or equipment, an injury to yourself, or an injury to another person."

Youth Experiences 1997: A new series of questions was introduced in 1997 on the unique experiences of youths. Questions focus on educational level, extracurricular activities, jobs, parents, close friends, gang fighting, and stealing.
 SEE: "Gang Fighting" and "Stealing."

Previous Page Table Of Contents Next Page

This page was last updated on December 30, 2008.