1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse:  Preliminary Results

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80529 (101A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 1A.Estimated Numbers of Persons (in Thousands) in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older, by Age Group, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex: 1979-1997

Demographic

Characteristics

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













TOTAL

180,343

186,440

192,605

198,347

202,859

205,713

207,199

209,411

211,532

214,047

216,206













AGE GROUP












12-17

23,758

22,295

21,558

20,250

20,145

20,684

21,224

21,773

22,208

22,512

22,547

18-25

32,604

33,236

31,601

29,688

28,496

27,964

28,327

28,027

27,820

27,796

27,691

26-34

31,339

34,241

36,477

38,570

38,737

38,215

37,194

36,588

35,975

35,474

35,246

>35

92,641

96,669

102,969

109,839

115,481

118,850

120,453

123,023

125,529

128,265

130,722













RACE/ETHNICITY












White

147,202

150,087

154,224

156,742

157,363

158,398

157,693

159,029

159,722

160,358

161,169

Black

19,271

20,134

21,332

22,271

23,030

23,649

23,002

23,365

23,686

24,053

24,406

Hispanic

10,586

11,834

13,256

14,925

16,178

16,849

18,501

19,112

19,736

20,813

21,578

Other

3,283

4,385

3,793

4,408

6,288

6,816

8,002

7,905

8,388

8,823

9,054













SEX












Male

85,887

88,840

91,828

94,878

97,242

98,778

99,322

100,365

101,449

102,928

104,017

Female

94,456

97,600

100,776

103,468

105,617

106,935

107,877

109,046

110,083

111,120

112,189

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (101N)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 1N.Survey Sample Sizes for All Respondents Aged 12 and Older, by Age Group, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex: 1979-1997

Demographic

Characteristics

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













TOTAL

7,224

5,624

8,021

8,814

32,594

28,832

26,489

17,809

17,747

18,269

24,505













AGE GROUP












12-17

2,165

1,581

2,230

3,095

8,005

7,254

6,978

4,698

4,595

4,538

7,844

18-25

2,044

1,283

1,812

1,505

7,937

7,721

5,531

3,706

3,963

4,366

6,239

26-34

1,064

1,571

2,166

1,987

8,126

7,516

8,342

5,223

5,213

5,262

4,387

>35

1,951

1,189

1,813

2,227

8,526

6,341

5,638

4,182

3,976

4,103

6,035













RACE/ETHNICITY












White

5,862

4,532

3,960

4,551

15,648

14,080

12,478

8,663

8,459

8,481

12,443

Black

798

673

1,950

1,888

8,050

6,511

6,183

4,010

4,208

4,372

4,639

Hispanic

354

299

2,003

2,193

7,916

7,148

6,894

4,706

4,599

4,841

6,259

Other

210

120

108

182

980

1,093

934

430

481

575

1,164













SEX












Male

3,357

2,637

3,516

3,938

14,422

12,988

12,059

7,950

7,652

7,774

10,836

Female

3,867

2,987

4,505

4,876

18,172

15,844

14,430

9,859

10,095

10,495

13,669

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

80529 (1A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 2A.Estimated Numbers of Persons (in Thousands) in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

22,512

22,547

27,796

27,691

35,474

35,246

128,265

130,722

214,047

216,206












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

15,243

15,166

18,764

18,661

24,948

24,449

101,403

102,893

160,358

161,169

Black

3,288

3,227

3,778

3,874

4,282

4,392

12,706

12,912

24,053

24,406

Hispanic

2,909

3,007

3,882

3,807

4,504

4,643

9,518

10,120

20,813

21,578

Other

1,072

1,147

1,373

1,350

1,740

1,761

4,638

4,797

8,823

9,054












SEX











Male

11,538

11,501

13,871

13,981

17,352

17,490

60,167

61,045

102,928

104,017

Female

10,974

11,047

13,925

13,710

18,122

17,755

68,098

69,677

111,120

112,189












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

9,103

9,196

12,158

11,261

16,815

16,793

54,972

53,345

93,048

90,595

Small Metro

8,084

8,059

9,605

10,116

11,550

11,776

43,824

46,497

73,064

76,447

Nonmetro

5,324

5,292

6,033

6,314

7,109

6,677

29,470

30,881

47,936

49,164












REGION











Northeast

3,738

3,825

4,661

4,408

6,866

6,244

26,969

25,864

42,234

40,342

North Central

5,863

5,154

6,740

6,309

8,327

8,593

30,825

28,299

51,755

48,356

South

7,946

8,492

9,546

11,147

12,133

12,655

44,923

48,938

74,549

81,231

West

4,964

5,076

6,849

5,826

8,149

7,754

25,548

27,621

45,510

46,278












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

5,873

5,809

5,447

4,988

26,040

25,785

37,360

36,581

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

9,708

9,974

11,328

11,429

44,620

43,760

65,656

65,162

Some College

N/A

N/A

8,434

8,969

8,438

9,266

26,531

27,585

43,402

45,820

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

3,781

2,939

10,261

9,563

31,075

33,592

45,118

46,095












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

13,179

13,285

24,308

24,448

61,596

65,260

99,083

102,993

Part-time

N/A

N/A

6,417

6,293

3,705

3,546

11,953

11,328

22,075

21,167

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

2,227

2,316

1,863

1,911

4,179

4,327

8,269

8,554

Other3

N/A

N/A

5,973

5,797

5,598

5,341

50,538

49,808

62,109

60,945

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged >18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (1N)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 2N.Survey Sample Sizes for All Respondents Aged 12 and Older, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

4,538

7,844

4,366

6,239

5,262

4,387

4,103

6,035

18,269

24,505












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

2,092

3,970

1,858

2,966

2,614

1,939

1,917

3,568

8,481

12,443

Black

1,073

1,346

1,134

1,062

1,134

1,184

1,031

1,047

4,372

4,639

Hispanic

1,225

2,086

1,213

1,863

1,334

1,134

1,069

1,176

4,841

6,259

Other

148

442

161

348

180

130

86

244

575

1,164












SEX











Male

2,252

3,871

1,765

2,756

2,151

1,766

1,606

2,443

7,774

10,836

Female

2,286

3,973

2,601

3,483

3,111

2,621

2,497

3,592

10,495

13,669












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

2,098

4,072

2,098

3,408

2,775

2,301

2,072

3,183

9,043

12,964

Small Metro

1,544

2,289

1,426

1,813

1,582

1,308

1,285

1,727

5,837

7,137

Nonmetro

896

1,483

842

1,018

905

778

746

1,125

3,389

4,404












REGION











Northeast

719

843

697

618

954

684

778

760

3,148

2,905

North Central

916

992

838

731

1,036

762

735

770

3,525

3,255

South

1,810

2,226

1,751

1,733

1,986

1,765

1,655

1,830

7,202

7,554

West

1,093

3,783

1,080

3,157

1,286

1,176

935

2,675

4,394

10,791












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

1,184

1,580

1,085

918

1,135

1,474

3,404

3,972

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

1,567

2,254

1,730

1,510

1,317

1,821

4,614

5,585

Some College

N/A

N/A

1,163

1,842

1,221

1,093

846

1,344

3,230

4,279

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

452

563

1,226

866

805

1,396

2,483

2,825












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

1,889

2,922

3,400

2,856

2,245

3,061

7,534

8,839

Part-time

N/A

N/A

927

1,257

558

450

395

553

1,880

2,260

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

432

602

322

291

205

248

959

1,141

Other3

N/A

N/A

1,118

1,458

982

790

1,258

2,173

3,358

4,421

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged >18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (103A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 3A.Estimated Numbers (in Thousands) of Lifetime Users of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older: 1979-1997

Drug

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













Any Illicit Drug1

56,414b

--

66,172b

67,457b

69,256a

68,528a

70,776

71,935a

72,426a

74,390

76,960













Marijuana and Hashish

50,322b

53,312b

56,547b

60,755b

61,900b

62,075b

64,149a

65,229b

65,545b

68,571

71,112

Cocaine

15,541b

21,756

21,495

21,058

23,271

22,482

23,369

21,821

21,700

22,130

22,597

Crack

--

--

--

2,672b

4,194

3,010a

4,034

4,042

3,895

4,628

4,208

Inhalants

--

--

15,167

12,646

12,300

10,988

12,240

12,178

12,016

11,909

12,335

Hallucinogens

16,016b

16,989

13,221b

15,165b

17,007a

17,065a

18,743

18,217a

20,129

20,699

20,656

PCP

--

--

3,811b

4,143b

4,936a

5,550

5,683

5,911

6,718

6,755

6,480

LSD

--

--

8,889b

11,874b

13,045b

13,681a

14,471

14,711a

15,852

16,400

16,760

Heroin

2,324

1,771

1,826

1,749

2,433

1,687

2,102

2,083

2,451

2,444

2,019

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

--

--

29,386b

22,258

24,053a

22,552

21,793

20,926

21,446

20,409

19,671

Stimulants

--

--

14,139b

11,241

11,385

10,284

10,007

9,671

10,360

10,075

9,781

Sedatives

--

--

9,260b

5,206

6,482b

5,309

5,320

5,460a

5,760b

4,866

4,080

Tranquilizers

--

--

14,692b

8,774

10,445b

9,766a

8,751

8,390a

8,251

7,774

6,931

Analgesics

--

--

14,693a

11,465

13,782a

12,634

13,324

12,552

12,806a

11,799

10,677













Any Illicit Drug

other than Marijuana1

--

--

43,130

38,301

40,228

38,923

40,803

39,383

40,426

40,375

40,948













Alcohol

159,525b

159,415b

163,608a

166,571

169,640

168,572

171,167

176,290

174,182

176,707

177,112

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--













Cigarettes

--

--

150,233

153,466

151,922

150,283

151,936

153,509

151,917

153,252

152,476













Smokeless Tobacco

--

--

--

36,551

35,420

37,538

32,862

36,042

35,899

36,369

37,445













*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (103B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 3B.Percentages Reporting Lifetime Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older: 1979-1997

Drug

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













Any Illicit Drug1

31.3b

--

34.4

34.0

34.1

33.3

34.2

34.4

34.2

34.8

35.6













Marijuana and Hashish

27.9b

28.6a

29.4a

30.6

30.5

30.2

31.0

31.1

31.0a

32.0

32.9

Cocaine

8.6a

11.7

11.2

10.6

11.5

10.9

11.3

10.4

10.3

10.3

10.5

Crack

--

--

--

1.3a

2.1

1.5a

1.9

1.9

1.8

2.2

1.9

Inhalants

--

--

7.9b

6.4

6.1

5.3

5.9

5.8

5.7

5.6

5.7

Hallucinogens

8.9

9.1

6.9b

7.6a

8.4

8.3

9.0

8.7

9.5

9.7

9.6

PCP

--

--

2.0b

2.1b

2.4

2.7

2.7

2.8

3.2

3.2

3.0

LSD

--

--

4.6b

6.0b

6.4a

6.7

7.0

7.0

7.5

7.7

7.8

Heroin

1.3

1.0

0.9

0.9

1.2

0.8

1.0

1.0

1.2

1.1

0.9

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

--

--

15.3b

11.2a

11.9b

11.0a

10.5

10.0

10.1

9.5

9.1

Stimulants

--

--

7.3b

5.7

5.6

5.0

4.8

4.6

4.9

4.7

4.5

Sedatives

--

--

4.8b

2.6

3.2b

2.6

2.6

2.6b

2.7b

2.3

1.9

Tranquilizers

--

--

7.6b

4.4a

5.1b

4.7b

4.2a

4.0a

3.9a

3.6

3.2

Analgesics

--

--

7.6b

5.8

6.8b

6.1

6.4a

6.0a

6.1a

5.5

4.9













Any Illicit Drug

other than Marijuana1

--

--

22.4b

19.3

19.8

18.9

19.7

18.8

19.1

18.9

18.9













Alcohol

88.5a

85.5

84.9

84.0

83.6

81.9

82.6

84.2a

82.3

82.6

81.9

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--













Cigarettes

--

--

78.0a

77.4a

74.9

73.1

73.3

73.3b

71.8

71.6

70.5













Smokeless Tobacco

--

--

--

18.4

17.5

18.2

15.9

17.2

17.0

17.0

17.3













*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (104A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 4A.Estimated Numbers (in Thousands) of Past Year Users of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older: 1979-1997

Drug

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













Any Illicit Drug1

31,485b

--

31,488b

24,577

22,612

20,046a

21,402

22,663

22,662

23,182

24,189













Marijuana and Hashish

29,869b

29,685b

26,145b

19,492

18,067

16,322

17,510

17,813

17,755

18,398

19,446

Cocaine

8,608b

10,458b

9,839b

7,151b

5,284

4,332

3,947

3,664

3,664

4,033

4,169

Crack

--

--

--

1,459

1,451

1,144

1,416

1,258

1,018

1,375

1,375

Inhalants

--

--

2,657

2,441

2,379

1,889

1,940

2,213

2,308

2,427

2,329

Hallucinogens

5,260

4,149

3,198

3,200

2,562b

2,530b

2,479b

2,725b

3,416

3,602

4,063

PCP

--

--

455

167

172

207

199

206

322

382

369

LSD

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1,651

2,108

2,104

1,956

Heroin

427

323

347

508

359

304

230a

281a

428

455

597

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

--

--

11,988b

9,151a

7,314

6,260

6,336

6,056

6,166

6,652

6,112

Stimulants

--

--

5,637b

3,698b

2,010

1,478

1,774

1,419

1,656

1,896

1,687

Sedatives

--

--

2,209b

1,376

946

802

702

736

666

678

638

Tranquilizers

--

--

6,181b

4,124a

3,143

2,851

2,380

2,405

2,210

2,430

2,122

Analgesics

--

--

6,921a

5,328

5,063

4,871

4,560

4,247

4,102

4,510

4,210













Any Illicit Drug

other than Marijuana1

--

--

18,725b

14,884a

12,624

10,815

10,968

11,127

11,393

11,644

11,896













Alcohol

131,443

126,534a

140,394

135,044

138,113

133,090

137,771

140,121

138,314

138,912

138,500

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--













Cigarettes

--

--

78,026

76,446

73,419

72,409

68,831

66,475a

67,639a

69,098

70,709













Smokeless Tobacco

--

--

--

11,140

10,704

11,416

9,168

10,017

9,667

10,030

10,065













*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (104B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 4B.Percentages Reporting Past Year Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older: 1979-1997

Drug

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













Any Illicit Drug1

17.5b

--

16.3b

12.4

11.1

9.7

10.3

10.8

10.7

10.8

11.2













Marijuana and Hashish

16.6b

15.9b

13.6b

9.8

8.9

7.9

8.5

8.5

8.4

8.6

9.0

Cocaine

4.8b

5.6b

5.1b

3.6b

2.6

2.1

1.9

1.7

1.7

1.9

1.9

Crack

--

--

--

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.6

0.6

Inhalants

--

--

1.4

1.2

1.2

0.9

0.9

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

Hallucinogens

2.9a

2.2

1.7

1.6

1.3a

1.2b

1.2b

1.3b

1.6

1.7

1.9

PCP

--

--

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

LSD

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

0.8

1.0

1.0

0.9

Heroin

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1a

0.1a

0.2

0.2

0.3

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

--

--

6.2b

4.6b

3.6

3.0

3.1

2.9

2.9

3.1

2.8

Stimulants

--

--

2.9b

1.9b

1.0

0.7

0.9

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.8

Sedatives

--

--

1.1b

0.7

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.3

Tranquilizers

--

--

3.2b

2.1a

1.5

1.4

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.0

Analgesics

--

--

3.6b

2.7

2.5

2.4

2.2

2.0

1.9

2.1

1.9













Any Illicit Drug

other than Marijuana1

--

--

9.7b

7.5b

6.2

5.3

5.3

5.3

5.4

5.4

5.5













Alcohol

72.9b

67.9

72.9b

68.1

68.1

64.7

66.5

66.9a

65.4

64.9

64.1

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--













Cigarettes

--

--

40.5b

38.5b

36.2

35.2

33.2

31.7

32.0

32.3

32.7













Smokeless Tobacco

--

--

--

5.6

5.3

5.5

4.4

4.8

4.6

4.7

4.7













*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (105A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 5A.Estimated Numbers (in Thousands) of Past Month Users of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older: 1979-1997

Drug

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













Any Illicit Drug1

25,399b

--

23,272b

15,192

13,368

12,033

12,256

12,553

12,823

13,035

13,904













Marijuana and Hashish

23,790b

21,507b

18,641b

12,353

10,366

9,676

9,610

10,112

9,842

10,095

11,109

Cocaine

4,743b

4,491b

5,686b

3,140b

2,032

1,402

1,404

1,382

1,453

1,749

1,505

Crack

--

--

--

673

666

436

579

520

420

668

604

Inhalants

--

--

1,156

810

806

586

589

799

896

961

883

Hallucinogens

3,382a

1,608

2,257

1,245

1,115

842b

826b

960b

1,469

1,316

1,632

PCP

--

--

*

*

*

16

29

34

40

120

190

LSD

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

436

548

482

474

Heroin

128

162

137

79a

71a

92a

68a

117a

196

216

325

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

--

--

7,319b

4,076

3,934

3,124

3,189

2,566

2,601

3,082

2,665

Stimulants

--

--

3,407b

2,383b

906

688

976

678

798

763

612

Sedatives

--

--

964

468

468

430

315

222

421a

232

187

Tranquilizers

--

--

4,282b

2,512a

2,232a

1,646

1,223

967

809

952

845

Analgesics

--

--

2,657

1,361

1,723

1,828

1,675

1,542

1,264

1,884

1,591













Any Illicit Drug

other than Marijuana1

--

--

11,832b

6,768

6,187

4,909

4,873

4,907

5,574

5,805

5,525













Alcohol

114,065

105,613

115,984

108,882

105,938

100,789a

105,351

112,804

110,501

109,149

111,071

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

38,545a

29,599

31,119

29,493

29,984

33,409

32,415

31,878

31,886

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

15,757a

11,468

13,540

12,689

13,681

12,650

11,319

11,215

11,249













Cigarettes

--

--

74,545a

69,931

67,030

65,695

61,386

59,955a

60,902a

61,759

64,056













Smokeless Tobacco

--

--

--

7,769

7,562

8,283

6,694

6,838

6,907

6,813

6,947













*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (105B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 5B.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older: 1979-1997

Drug

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













Any Illicit Drug1

14.1b

--

12.1b

7.7

6.6

5.8

5.9

6.0

6.1

6.1

6.4













Marijuana and Hashish

13.2b

11.5b

9.7b

6.2

5.1

4.7

4.6

4.8

4.7

4.7

5.1

Cocaine

2.6b

2.4b

3.0b

1.6b

1.0

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.7

Crack

--

--

--

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

Inhalants

--

--

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

Hallucinogens

1.9a

0.9

1.2

0.6

0.5

0.4a

0.4b

0.5b

0.7

0.6

0.8

PCP

--

--

*

*

*

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

LSD

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

Heroin

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0a

0.0a

0.0a

0.0a

0.1a

0.1

0.1

0.2

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

--

--

3.8b

2.1

1.9

1.5

1.5

1.2

1.2

1.4

1.2

Stimulants

--

--

1.8b

1.2b

0.4

0.3

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.3

Sedatives

--

--

0.5a

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2a

0.1

0.1

Tranquilizers

--

--

2.2b

1.3a

1.1a

0.8

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.4

Analgesics

--

--

1.4

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.9

0.7













Any Illicit Drug

other than Marijuana1

--

--

6.1b

3.4

3.0

2.4

2.4

2.3

2.6

2.7

2.6













Alcohol

63.2b

56.6

60.2b

54.9

52.2

49.0

50.8

53.9

52.2

51.0

51.4

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

20.2b

15.0

15.5

14.5

14.6

16.5

15.8

15.5

15.3

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

8.3b

5.8

6.8

6.2

6.7

6.2

5.5

5.4

5.4













Cigarettes

--

--

38.7b

35.3b

33.0

31.9

29.6

28.6

28.8

28.9

29.6













Smokeless Tobacco

--

--

--

3.9

3.7

4.0

3.2

3.3

3.3

3.2

3.2













*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (5B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 6.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older: 1996 and 1997


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Drug

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Any Illicit Drug1

34.8

35.6

10.8

11.2

6.1

6.4








Marijuana and Hashish

32.0

32.9

8.6

9.0

4.7

5.1

Cocaine

10.3

10.5

1.9

1.9

0.8

0.7

Crack

2.2

1.9

0.6

0.6

0.3

0.3

Inhalants

5.6

5.7

1.1

1.1

0.4

0.4

Hallucinogens

9.7

9.6

1.7

1.9

0.6

0.8

PCP

3.2

3.0

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

LSD

7.7

7.8

1.0

0.9

0.2

0.2

Heroin

1.1

0.9

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

9.5

9.1

3.1

2.8

1.4

1.2

Stimulants

4.7

4.5

0.9

0.8

0.4

0.3

Sedatives

2.3

1.9

0.3

0.3

0.1

0.1

Tranquilizers

3.6

3.2

1.1

1.0

0.4

0.4

Analgesics

5.5

4.9

2.1

1.9

0.9

0.7








Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

18.9

18.9

5.4

5.5

2.7

2.6








Alcohol

82.6

81.9

64.9

64.1

51.0

51.4

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

15.5

15.3

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

5.4

5.4








Cigarettes

71.6

70.5

32.3

32.7

28.9

29.6








Smokeless Tobacco

17.0

17.3

4.7

4.7

3.2

3.2

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (6B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 7.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 12 to 17: 1996 and 1997


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Drug

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Any Illicit Drug1

22.1

23.7

16.7

18.8

9.0b

11.4








Marijuana and Hashish

16.8

18.9

13.0b

15.8

7.1b

9.4

Cocaine

1.9b

3.0

1.4a

2.2

0.6

1.0

Crack

0.7a

1.3

0.4a

0.8

0.2

0.4

Inhalants

5.9

7.2

4.0

4.4

1.7

2.0

Hallucinogens

5.6

6.5

4.3

4.7

2.0

1.9

PCP

1.2

1.4

0.7

0.5

0.2

0.1

LSD

4.3

5.2

2.8

2.9

0.8

0.7

Heroin

0.5

0.5

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

6.8

7.0

4.7

5.0

1.9

2.1

Stimulants

2.2

2.3

1.5

1.7

0.5

0.6

Sedatives

1.1

0.8

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.1

Tranquilizers

1.7

2.1

1.0

1.3

0.2a

0.5

Analgesics

5.5

5.2

3.7

3.6

1.5

1.3








Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

13.0

14.2

9.3

10.0

4.6

5.2








Alcohol

38.8

39.7

32.7

34.0

18.8

20.5

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

7.2

8.3

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

2.9

3.1








Cigarettes

36.3

38.7

24.2

26.4

18.3

19.9








Smokeless Tobacco

10.0

9.6

4.6

4.6

1.9

2.0

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (7B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 8.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 18 to 25: 1996 and 1997


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Drug

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Any Illicit Drug1

48.0

45.4

26.8

25.3

15.6

14.7








Marijuana and Hashish

44.0

41.5

23.8

22.3

13.2

12.8

Cocaine

10.2

8.9

4.7

3.9

2.0a

1.2

Crack

3.0

2.9

1.3

1.0

0.6

0.4

Inhalants

10.8

10.1

3.0

3.2

1.0

1.0

Hallucinogens

16.3

15.0

6.9

6.6

2.3

2.5

PCP

2.3

2.4

0.5

0.4

0.1

0.1

LSD

13.9

13.2

4.6

3.7

0.9

1.0

Heroin

1.3

1.0

0.9

0.5

0.4a

0.1

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

12.7

11.5

6.7

5.8

2.9

2.4

Stimulants

4.3

3.8

2.0

1.5

0.6

0.7

Sedatives

1.3

1.5

0.7

0.6

0.3

0.2

Tranquilizers

5.0

4.9

2.6

2.5

0.9

1.0

Analgesics

8.9

7.5

4.9

3.8

2.0a

1.3








Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

26.6

24.6

12.7

12.1

6.3

5.4








Alcohol

83.8

83.5

75.3

75.1

60.0

58.4

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

32.0b

28.0

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

12.9

11.1








Cigarettes

68.5

67.7

44.7

45.9

38.3

40.6








Smokeless Tobacco

23.4

23.8

9.7

8.3

6.1a

4.5

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (8B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 9.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 26 to 34: 1996 and 1997


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Drug

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Any Illicit Drug1

53.1

50.8

14.6

14.3

8.4

7.4








Marijuana and Hashish

50.5

47.9

11.3

11.2

6.3

6.0

Cocaine

20.9a

18.4

3.5

3.1

1.5a

0.9

Crack

4.4

3.6

1.1

0.9

0.5

0.3

Inhalants

8.3

8.3

0.7

0.7

0.3

0.4

Hallucinogens

15.4

15.1

1.1

1.6

0.2

0.5

PCP

4.2

3.2

0.0

0.0

*

*

LSD

11.7

11.8

0.5

0.5

0.1

0.1

Heroin

1.3

1.0

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

13.4

11.7

4.2

3.7

1.9

1.4

Stimulants

6.5a

5.2

1.3a

0.7

0.4

0.2

Sedatives

2.9a

2.0

0.5a

0.2

0.2

0.1

Tranquilizers

5.8

4.7

1.6

1.5

0.5

0.7

Analgesics

7.5

6.8

2.5

2.3

1.1

0.6








Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

30.2

28.4

7.2

6.8

3.6

2.8








Alcohol

90.3

88.9

77.2

74.6

61.6

60.2

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

22.8

23.1

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

7.1

7.5








Cigarettes

73.8

72.8

39.2

37.7

35.0

33.7








Smokeless Tobacco

24.4

23.9

7.2

6.1

4.9

4.2

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (9B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 10.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population Aged 35 and Older: 1996 and 1997


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Drug

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Any Illicit Drug1

29.0

31.5

5.3

6.1

2.9

3.6








Marijuana and Hashish

27.0

29.4

3.8

4.4

2.0

2.6

Cocaine

8.9

9.9

0.9

1.1

0.4

0.5

Crack

1.6

1.4

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

Inhalants

3.6

3.8

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.0

Hallucinogens

7.3

7.4

0.2

0.5

0.1

0.3

PCP

3.4

3.3

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

LSD

5.8

5.9

*

0.1

*

*

Heroin

1.2

1.0

0.0a

0.2

0.0

0.2

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

8.3

8.3

1.8

1.6

0.9

0.8

Stimulants

4.7

4.9

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.2

Sedatives

2.5

2.1

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.1

Tranquilizers

3.1

2.6

0.7

0.5

0.4

0.2

Analgesics

4.2

3.9

1.1

1.2

0.5

0.5








Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

15.1

16.0

2.7

3.0

1.4

1.4








Alcohol

87.8

87.0

64.9

64.1

51.7

52.8

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

11.3

11.7

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

3.8

4.0








Cigarettes

77.8

76.0

29.1

29.7

27.0

27.9








Smokeless Tobacco

14.8

15.5

2.9

3.5

2.3

2.9

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (108B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 11.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Any Illicit Drug, by Age Group, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex: 1979-1997

Demographic

Characteristics

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













TOTAL

14.1b

--

12.1b

7.7

6.6

5.8

5.9

6.0

6.1

6.1

6.4













AGE GROUP












12-17

16.3

--

13.2

8.1a

5.8b

5.3b

5.7b

8.2b

10.9

9.0b

11.4

18-25

38.0b

--

25.3b

17.9

15.4

13.1

13.6

13.3

14.2

15.6

14.7

26-34

20.8b

--

23.1b

14.7b

10.0

11.4a

9.5

8.5

8.3

8.4

7.4

>35

2.8

--

3.9

2.3

3.4

2.5

3.0

3.2

2.8

2.9

3.6













RACE/ETHNICITY












White

14.2b

--

12.3b

7.7

6.5

6.1

6.1

6.0

6.0

6.1

6.4

Black

13.3a

--

12.7b

6.6

8.1

5.6

5.8

7.3

7.9

7.5

7.5

Hispanic

12.9a

--

8.9a

6.9

5.3

4.4

5.2

5.4

5.1

5.2

5.9

Other

15.1b

--

10.7

*

6.0

3.9

4.3

3.1

4.0

4.8

5.4













SEX












Male

19.2b

--

14.9b

9.4

7.9

7.6

7.7

7.9

7.8

8.1

8.5

Female

9.4b

--

9.5b

6.0

5.4

4.2

4.3

4.3

4.5

4.2

4.5

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (114B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 12.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Marijuana, by Age Group, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex: 1979-1997

Demographic

Characteristics

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













TOTAL

13.2b

11.5b

9.7b

6.2

5.1

4.7

4.6

4.8

4.7

4.7

5.1













AGE GROUP












12-17

14.2

9.9

10.2

5.4b

3.6b

3.4b

4.0b

6.0b

8.2

7.1b

9.4

18-25

35.6b

27.2b

21.7b

15.3

12.9

10.9

11.1

12.1

12.0

13.2

12.8

26-34

19.7b

19.0b

19.0b

12.3b

7.7

9.3a

7.5

6.9

6.7

6.3

6.0

>35

2.9

3.9

2.6

1.8

2.6

2.0

2.4

2.3

1.8

2.0

2.6













RACE/ETHNICITY












White

13.6b

11.9b

10.0b

6.3

5.2

5.1

4.9

4.8

4.7

4.6

5.2

Black

11.0a

11.5a

9.9a

4.7

5.5

3.9b

4.2a

5.9

5.9

6.6

6.1

Hispanic

11.4a

8.6

6.4

4.9

3.6

3.0

3.9

4.1

3.9

3.7

4.0

Other

12.2a

*

7.6

*

4.2

2.6

3.2

3.0

2.8

3.7

4.6













SEX












Male

18.1b

16.4b

12.6b

8.4

6.8

6.4

6.4

6.7

6.2

6.5

7.0

Female

8.7b

7.1b

7.1b

4.2

3.6

3.1

3.0

3.1

3.3

3.1

3.5

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (117B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 13.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Cocaine, by Age Group, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex: 1979-1997

Demographic

Characteristics

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













TOTAL

2.6b

2.4b

3.0b

1.6b

1.0

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.7













AGE GROUP












12-17

1.5

1.9

1.5

1.2

0.4a

0.3b

0.4a

0.3b

0.8

0.6

1.0

18-25

9.9b

7.0b

8.1b

4.8b

2.2a

2.0

1.6

1.2

1.3

2.0a

1.2

26-34

3.0a

3.5b

6.3b

2.8b

1.9b

1.5

1.0

1.3

1.2

1.5a

0.9

>35

0.2

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.5

0.2a

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.5













RACE/ETHNICITY












White

2.4b

2.5b

3.0b

1.4b

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.8

0.6

Black

2.8

2.4

3.4b

2.2

1.9

1.0

1.4

1.3

1.1

1.0

1.4

Hispanic

4.8a

1.5

2.5b

2.8a

1.7a

1.3

1.2

1.1

0.7

1.1

0.8

Other

3.5

*

*

1.7

2.1

0.1

*

*

0.3

0.5

0.5













SEX












Male

3.5b

3.4b

3.9b

2.2b

1.4

1.0

1.0

0.9

1.0

1.1

0.9

Female

1.8b

1.5a

2.1b

1.0

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.5

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (120B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 14.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Alcohol, by Age Group, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex: 1979-1997

Demographic

Characteristics

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













TOTAL

63.2b

56.6

60.2b

54.9

52.2

49.0

50.8

53.9

52.2

51.0

51.4













AGE GROUP












12-17

49.6b

34.9b

41.2b

33.4b

27.0b

20.9

23.9

21.6

21.1

18.8

20.5

18-25

75.1b

66.6

70.1a

64.7

63.1

58.6

58.7

63.1a

61.3a

60.0

58.4

26-34

71.6b

71.5b

70.6a

65.3

62.7

62.3

63.8

65.3b

63.0

61.6

60.2

>35

59.7

53.0

57.5

52.6

50.4

47.4

49.8

54.1

52.6

51.7

52.8













RACE/ETHNICITY












White

64.4b

58.4

62.8a

56.7

54.0

50.9

54.0

56.7

55.6

54.2

55.1

Black

58.8b

49.4a

50.6b

47.8a

47.2a

42.8

40.5

43.8

40.8

41.9

40.4

Hispanic

58.6b

53.1a

49.3a

48.1

46.3

43.7

44.3

47.7b

45.2

43.1

42.4

Other

50.9a

*

*

*

42.4

39.2

33.0

42.0

36.9

35.6

37.0













SEX












Male

72.4b

66.8a

69.2b

62.3

59.6

57.2

58.7

60.3

60.1

58.9

58.2

Female

54.9b

47.4

52.0a

48.1

45.4

41.4

43.6

47.9

45.0

43.6

45.1

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (121B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 15.Percentages Reporting Past Month "Binge" Alcohol Use, by Age Group, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex: 1979-1997

Demographic

Characteristics

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













TOTAL

--

--

20.2b

15.0

15.5

14.5

14.6

16.5

15.8

15.5

15.3













AGE GROUP












12-17

--

--

21.9b

15.1a

13.2

10.0

11.0

8.3

7.9

7.2

8.3

18-25

--

--

34.4

28.2

31.2

29.9

29.1

33.6b

29.9

32.0b

28.0

26-34

--

--

27.5

19.7

21.5

22.8

21.9

24.0

24.0

22.8

23.1

>35

--

--

12.9

9.7

10.1

9.0

9.6

11.8

11.8

11.3

11.7













RACE/ETHNICITY












White

--

--

21.6b

15.8

16.2

15.3

15.6

17.1

16.6

16.1

16.3

Black

--

--

12.1

8.9

11.0

10.3

9.0

11.5

11.2

13.1a

10.3

Hispanic

--

--

19.1

15.7

18.4

16.3

17.2

18.3

17.2

16.7

16.2

Other

--

--

11.1

13.7

9.6

7.6

6.5

13.0

9.7

7.5

8.5













SEX












Male

--

--

31.6b

23.2

23.5

21.9

22.7

24.7

23.8

22.8

23.0

Female

--

--

9.8

7.5

8.3

7.7

7.3

8.9

8.5

8.7

8.1

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (122B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 16.Percentages Reporting Past Month Heavy Alcohol Use, by Age Group, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex: 1979-1997

Demographic

Characteristics

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













TOTAL

--

--

8.3b

5.8

6.8

6.2

6.7

6.2

5.5

5.4

5.4













AGE GROUP












12-17

--

--

9.5

4.0

6.0

3.4

3.4

2.5

2.8

2.9

3.1

18-25

--

--

13.8

12.0

15.2

15.1

14.0

13.2

12.0

12.9

11.1

26-34

--

--

11.5

7.1

7.9

8.5

8.5

8.0

7.9

7.1

7.5

>35

--

--

5.2

4.0

4.4

3.9

5.0

4.8

3.9

3.8

4.0













RACE/ETHNICITY












White

--

--

9.1a

6.3

7.2

6.8

7.5

6.4

5.7

5.5

5.7

Black

--

--

3.5

2.8

4.3

3.5

3.3

4.8

4.6

5.3a

3.8

Hispanic

--

--

7.1

5.3

6.8

6.3

6.0

7.3

6.3

6.2

6.3

Other

--

--

*

3.9

3.3

2.2

1.9

4.7

2.4

2.1

2.3













SEX












Male

--

--

13.8b

10.2

10.8

10.1

11.9

10.3

9.4

9.3

8.9

Female

--

--

3.2

1.8

3.1a

2.7

1.9

2.5

2.0

1.9

2.1

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (125B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 17.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Cigarettes, by Age Group, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex: 1979-1997

Demographic

Characteristics

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













TOTAL

--

--

38.7b

35.3b

33.0

31.9

29.6

28.6

28.8

28.9

29.6













AGE GROUP












12-17

--

--

29.4a

22.7

20.9

18.4

18.5

18.9

20.2

18.3

19.9

18-25

--

--

47.4

45.6

41.7

41.5

37.9

34.6b

35.3b

38.3

40.6

26-34

--

--

45.7b

42.1b

37.3

38.2

34.2

32.4

34.7

35.0

33.7

>35

--

--

35.5a

32.4

31.6

30.0

28.2

27.9

27.2

27.0

27.9













RACE/ETHNICITY












White

--

--

38.9b

35.2

33.5

32.8

30.3

29.4

29.7

29.8

30.5

Black

--

--

38.0a

34.2

31.2

29.8

26.2

28.4

28.1

30.4

29.8

Hispanic

--

--

40.0b

35.6b

33.6a

29.2

29.0

25.8

24.7a

24.7

27.4

Other

--

--

*

*

28.0a

25.4

27.6

20.5

23.5

17.2

18.8













SEX












Male

--

--

43.4b

39.5b

35.2

34.1

32.2

31.5

31.0

31.1

31.2

Female

--

--

34.5b

31.4

31.1

30.0

27.3

26.0

26.8

26.7

28.2

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, some adjusted estimates of past year use may appear to be greater then adjusted lifetime estimates. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (126A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 18A.Estimated Numbers (in Thousands) of Marijuana, Cocaine, and Alcohol Users in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older, by Past Year Frequency of Use: 1985-1997

Drug/Frequency of

Use in Past Year

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













MARIJUANA
























Fewer than 12 days1

--

--

12,824b

9,429

9,564

8,216

9,001

9,272

8,584

8,607

9,287

12 or more days1,2

--

--

14,153b

10,480

8,575

8,198a

8,517

8,541a

9,171

9,791

10,159

51 or more days1

--

--

8,423

6,298

4,880a

4,914a

4,816a

5,139a

5,316a

6,069

6,412













COCAINE
























Fewer than 12 days1

--

--

7,141b

5,121b

3,837

3,042

2,688

2,408

2,486

2,614

2,626

12 or more days1,2

--

--

2,722a

2,045

1,460

1,297

1,262

1,255

1,178

1,418

1,543

51 or more days1

--

--

781

1,112

806

829

615

734

582

608

682













ALCOHOL
























Fewer than 12 days1

--

--

47,957a

47,056a

54,239

55,779

55,057

55,126

53,967

54,866

53,819

12 or more days1,2

--

--

93,190

88,724

84,455

77,825

83,354

84,995

84,346

84,046

84,680

51 or more days1

--

--

53,364

47,126

42,787

41,497a

44,359

45,662

48,639

46,563

48,505

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, the number of past year users of a drug shown here from the frequency of use in the past year question may differ from the estimated number of past year users based on the recency of use question. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

1For 1993 and earlier, "occasional" use is equivalent to use in the past year but on "fewer than 12 days" in this table. Also for 1993 and earlier, "monthly" use is equivalent to use on "12 or more days" in the past year in this table and "weekly" use is equivalent to use on "51 or more days" in the past year in this table.

2The category "12 or more days" includes "51 or more days"; the sum of "fewer than 12 days" and "12 or more days" is equivalent to all past year users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office Of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (126B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1979-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 18B.Percentages Reporting Marijuana, Cocaine, and Alcohol Use in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older, by Past Year Frequency of Use: 1985-1997

Drug/Frequency of

Use in Past Year

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997













MARIJUANA
























Fewer than 12 days1

--

--

6.7b

4.8

4.7

4.0

4.3

4.4

4.1

4.0

4.3

12 or more days1,2

--

--

7.3b

5.3

4.2

4.0

4.1

4.1

4.3

4.6

4.7

51 or more days1

--

--

4.4b

3.2

2.4

2.4

2.3

2.5a

2.5

2.8

3.0













COCAINE
























Fewer than 12 days1

--

--

3.7b

2.6b

1.9a

1.5

1.3

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

12 or more days1,2

--

--

1.4b

1.0

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.7

51 or more days1

--

--

0.4

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.3













ALCOHOL
























Fewer than 12 days1

--

--

24.9

23.7

26.7

27.1

26.6

26.3

25.5

25.6

24.9

12 or more days1,2

--

--

48.4b

44.7b

41.6

37.8

40.2

40.6

39.9

39.3

39.2

51 or more days1

--

--

27.7b

23.8

21.1

20.2

21.4

21.8

23.0

21.8

22.4

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. The 1979 NHSDA used population projections based on the 1970 census; NHSDAs from 1982 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

NOTE:Estimates for 1979 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1979 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. For 1979 and 1982, estimates are not shown (as indicated by --) where (a) the relevant data were not collected, or (b) the data for those drugs were based on measures that differed appreciably from those used in the other survey years. Consequently, adjustments to the 1979 and 1982 data were made only for those drugs whose measures were comparable to those in the other survey years.

Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1979 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. For example, the number of past year users of a drug shown here from the frequency of use in the past year question may differ from the estimated number of past year users based on the recency of use question. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare and not statistically significant.

1For 1993 and earlier, "occasional" use is equivalent to use in the past year but on "fewer than 12 days" in this table. Also for 1993 and earlier, "monthly" use is equivalent to use on "12 or more days" in the past year in this table and "weekly" use is equivalent to use on "51 or more days" in the past year in this table.

2The category "12 or more days" includes "51 or more days"; the sum of "fewer than 12 days" and "12 or more days" is equivalent to all past year users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office Of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (35B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 19.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Any Illicit Drug, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

9.0b

11.4

15.6

14.7

8.4

7.4

2.9

3.6

6.1

6.4












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

9.2a

11.8

17.0

15.1

8.8

8.4

2.9

3.6

6.1

6.4

Black

8.6

11.0

15.7

15.5

10.6b

7.0

3.8

4.4

7.5

7.5

Hispanic

9.2

10.5

10.9

10.5

5.7

3.8

1.5

3.7

5.2

5.9

Other

6.7

10.4

9.8

17.9

4.4

3.2

*

*

4.8

5.4












SEX











Male

9.2b

12.3

20.2

19.6

11.0

9.6

4.2

5.0

8.1

8.5

Female

8.9

10.6

11.0

9.6

5.9

5.2

1.7

2.3

4.2

4.5












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

10.0

11.8

16.2

14.8

9.2

8.6

3.5

3.2

6.8

6.5

Small Metro

9.1a

12.7

18.1

16.9

8.9b

5.7

3.1

4.4

6.7

7.1

Nonmetro

7.3

9.0

10.3

10.8

5.7

7.3

1.3

3.0

3.7

5.2












REGION











Northeast

8.7

10.5

14.3

12.7

6.9a

4.3

2.1

2.5

4.8

4.7

North Central

8.7

12.2

16.1

13.6

10.9

9.7

3.5

4.3

6.9

7.3

South

8.4a

10.7

15.2

13.6

7.0

6.2

2.6

3.1

5.5

5.8

West

10.7

12.7

16.5

19.2

9.2

9.3

3.5

4.6

7.3

8.1












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

20.8

17.9

12.4

9.6

3.5

3.7

7.5

6.8

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

15.2

15.0

9.9a

6.8

2.5

3.8

5.7

6.0

Some College

N/A

N/A

14.3

14.2

7.6

9.3

2.1

3.7

5.6

6.9

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

11.4

8.7

5.3

5.0

3.5

3.1

4.6

3.8












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

15.5

13.5

7.9

7.2

3.6

4.8

6.2

6.5

Part-time

N/A

N/A

14.3

16.1

8.6

8.5

5.6

2.7

8.6

7.7

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

25.9

19.2

18.1

15.5

2.9

10.3

12.5

13.8

Other3

N/A

N/A

13.3

14.0

7.3a

4.6

1.3

1.6

3.0

3.0

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

NOTE:Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (41B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 20.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

7.1b

9.4

13.2

12.8

6.3

6.0

2.0

2.6

4.7

5.1












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

7.3a

9.8

14.4

13.4

6.6

6.9

1.9

2.6

4.6

5.2

Black

7.3

9.1

13.8

14.1

9.1b

5.7

3.3

3.1

6.6

6.1

Hispanic

6.9

8.4

8.3

7.8

3.6

2.4

0.9

2.1

3.7

4.0

Other

4.3

8.0

8.9

15.9

3.1

2.5

*

*

3.7

4.6












SEX











Male

7.6b

10.3

17.4

17.4

8.6

7.7

3.1

3.7

6.5

7.0

Female

6.6

8.4

9.1

8.2

4.1

4.2

1.0

1.5

3.1

3.5












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

7.6

10.0

14.5

13.1

7.1

7.2

2.4

1.9

5.4

5.1

Small Metro

7.5a

10.2

14.6

14.9

6.6a

4.2

2.1

3.2

5.0

5.6

Nonmetro

5.7

7.2

8.5

9.2

4.2

5.7

1.1

2.7

3.0

4.4












REGION











Northeast

6.0a

9.6

13.2

11.9

4.9

3.2

1.5

1.7

3.7

3.8

North Central

6.7

10.4

14.0

12.2

8.5

8.8

2.5

3.6

5.5

6.3

South

6.8

8.4

12.2

12.2

5.5

4.8

1.9

1.9

4.3

4.5

West

8.9

9.8

13.9

15.6

6.6

6.9

2.1

3.4

5.4

6.2












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

17.0

15.0

9.0

8.3

2.2

2.4

5.6

5.2

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

13.1

12.8

7.4

5.5

1.8

2.9

4.4

4.8

Some College

N/A

N/A

12.6

13.0

6.6

6.7

1.7

2.7

4.8

5.5

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

9.2

8.2

3.6

4.5

2.4

2.1

3.2

3.0












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

13.2

11.5

6.3

5.9

2.6

3.3

4.9

5.0

Part-time

N/A

N/A

11.5

14.2

5.5

7.4

3.6

2.1

6.2

6.6

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

22.5

16.9

12.1

12.1

2.3

*

10.0

12.2

Other3

N/A

N/A

11.8

12.9

5.4a

3.1

0.9

1.1

2.3

2.4

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (44B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 21.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Cocaine, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

0.6

1.0

2.0a

1.2

1.5a

0.9

0.4

0.5

0.8

0.7












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

0.5a

1.1

2.3a

1.2

1.3

0.7

0.4

0.4

0.8

0.6

Black

0.1

0.1

1.0

0.9

3.1

1.8

0.6

1.7

1.0

1.4

Hispanic

1.1

1.0

2.1

1.5

1.4

0.9

0.6

0.5

1.1

0.8

Other

1.4

1.4

*

1.1

*

*

*

*

0.5

0.5












SEX











Male

0.4

0.9

2.7

1.9

2.3b

1.0

0.6

0.6

1.1

0.9

Female

0.8

1.1

1.3a

0.5

0.7

0.7

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.5












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

0.5

0.8

2.1

1.0

1.8a

0.9

0.2

0.5

0.8

0.7

Small Metro

0.6

1.3

2.4

1.4

1.4a

0.4

0.8

0.5

1.1

0.7

Nonmetro

0.7

0.9

1.2

1.3

0.8

1.4

0.1

0.4

0.4

0.7












REGION











Northeast

0.2

0.5

1.7

0.6

1.7a

0.5

*

0.7

0.5

0.6

North Central

0.5

0.9

2.1

1.4

2.2b

0.4

0.3

0.5

0.9

0.6

South

0.8

0.9

2.6b

0.8

0.9

1.2

0.7

0.4

1.0

0.7

West

0.6

1.5

1.3

2.3

1.6

1.1

0.5

0.4

0.8

0.9












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

2.5

2.5

3.2a

1.2

0.6

0.4

1.3

0.8

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

2.0

1.0

2.3a

1.0

0.3

0.5

0.9

0.7

Some College

N/A

N/A

1.8a

0.6

0.5

1.1

0.3

0.7

0.6

0.8

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

1.5

1.2

0.5

0.2

0.5

0.3

0.6

0.4












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

2.1

1.1

1.1

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.9

0.7

Part-time

N/A

N/A

1.9

1.1

2.5

1.3

*

0.7

1.1

0.9

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

4.3

2.3

4.4

3.7

*

2.0

2.4

2.4

Other3

N/A

N/A

1.0

1.1

1.5

0.7

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.3

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (47B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 22.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Alcohol, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

18.8

20.5

60.0

58.4

61.6

60.2

51.7

52.8

51.0

51.4












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

20.4

22.0

65.5

63.5

66.0

64.8

54.3

56.1

54.2

55.1

Black

14.7

16.3

49.6

46.6

55.7

51.0

42.0

40.9

41.9

40.4

Hispanic

19.9

18.8

49.8

48.5

50.6

51.6

44.0

42.8

43.1

42.4

Other

5.4b

17.0

43.5

*

42.9

42.2

*

36.0

35.6

37.0












SEX











Male

19.2

21.0

66.5

65.9

70.0

67.9

61.6

60.6

58.9

58.2

Female

18.3

19.9

53.5

50.8

53.7

52.6

43.0

46.0

43.6

45.1












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

18.5

21.4

62.4

58.5

62.8

62.4

55.4

56.6

54.0

54.3

Small Metro

19.0

20.4

59.5

58.7

64.9

62.3

54.7

53.5

53.0

52.0

Nonmetro

18.8

19.0

56.3

58.0

53.7

51.0

40.6

45.4

42.1

44.9












REGION











Northeast

17.5

19.3

63.5

59.9

62.4

60.3

56.9

56.7

55.0

54.0

North Central

19.6

23.4

67.9

68.0

66.5

66.6

54.7

55.3

54.4

55.6

South

19.3

19.3

58.3

55.1

58.9

57.9

46.5

47.7

47.1

47.4

West

17.8

20.3

52.3

53.3

60.1

56.8

52.0

55.7

49.8

51.7












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

53.3

52.4

51.3

48.7

33.3

32.7

39.1

38.0

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

56.3

56.7

60.9

56.9

52.1

52.7

54.2

54.0

Some College

N/A

N/A

62.2

61.3

60.8

61.6

54.8

56.0

57.4

58.2

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

75.1a

67.4

68.7

68.9

64.1

65.9

66.1

66.6












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

67.5

65.3

67.2

64.0

59.9

60.4

62.7

61.9

Part-time

N/A

N/A

57.9

51.5

56.8

59.9

52.2

58.4

54.7

56.6

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

60.9

55.8

58.7

55.7

58.3

61.7

59.1

58.8

Other3

N/A

N/A

45.5

51.3

41.9

44.6

41.1

40.8

41.6

42.1

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (48B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 23.Percentages Reporting Past Month "Binge" Alcohol Use, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

7.2

8.3

32.0b

28.0

22.8

23.1

11.3

11.7

15.5

15.3












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

8.0

9.3

37.0a

32.6

25.4

26.4

11.1

11.9

16.1

16.3

Black

3.7

3.9

18.8a

12.9

16.5

13.3

12.8

10.1

13.1a

10.3

Hispanic

8.3

7.4

24.7

21.6

20.1

19.6

14.5

15.3

16.7

16.2

Other

3.0

8.0

18.6

24.3

6.6

10.0

5.5

3.3

7.5

8.5












SEX











Male

8.7

9.7

43.7a

38.7

33.6

33.8

17.7

18.7

22.8

23.0

Female

5.6

6.8

20.6a

17.0

12.4

12.5

5.8

5.4

8.7

8.1












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

6.5a

8.9

30.4

27.0

23.3

22.2

11.2

11.8

15.5

15.4

Small Metro

8.1

8.1

34.4a

28.2

23.6

25.8

11.6

11.1

16.0

15.3

Nonmetro

7.0

7.3

31.3

29.3

20.3

20.5

11.2

12.2

14.6

15.0












REGION











Northeast

6.4

8.3

30.4

23.9

21.1

20.4

9.4

9.4

13.3

12.6

North Central

6.7

9.8

39.9

36.1

29.4

28.1

14.7

14.4

19.4

19.2

South

7.5

7.3

31.7a

26.6

21.0

22.6

9.8

12.1

14.2

15.2

West

7.7

8.2

25.9

24.9

20.0

20.5

11.9

10.1

15.0

13.5












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

30.2

25.7

24.8

25.2

8.8

9.7

14.5

14.4

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

29.3

26.2

23.5

22.7

12.0

12.6

16.5

16.4

Some College

N/A

N/A

33.0

31.5

21.5

25.2

11.9

10.9

18.0

17.9

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

39.1b

27.7

22.0

20.4

12.0

12.6

16.5

15.2












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

37.9b

31.2

26.1

25.9

15.9

16.1

21.3

20.4

Part-time

N/A

N/A

28.7

24.7

17.6

20.3

6.1

10.0

14.6

16.2

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

35.3

26.4

29.6

30.3

20.3

18.7

26.6

23.5

Other3

N/A

N/A

21.3

24.7

9.5

9.1

6.4

5.4

8.1

7.6

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

NOTE:"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (49B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 24.Percentages Reporting Past Month Heavy Alcohol Use, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

2.9

3.1

12.9

11.1

7.1

7.5

3.8

4.0

5.4

5.4












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

3.2

3.4

14.9

12.9

7.9

8.3

3.6

4.1

5.5

5.7

Black

1.7

1.5

7.4

5.3

5.8

5.4

5.5

3.4

5.3a

3.8

Hispanic

3.4

3.9

10.5

8.9

5.8

6.7

5.4

5.9

6.2

6.3

Other

1.9

2.3

6.9

8.8

1.8

2.9

*

*

2.1

2.3












SEX











Male

4.3

3.8

20.6

17.5

11.8

12.1

6.9

6.9

9.3

8.9

Female

1.4

2.4

5.4

4.5

2.6

2.9

1.1

1.4

1.9

2.1












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

2.8

4.1

12.3

9.7

6.5

6.9

3.5

4.7

5.1

5.6

Small Metro

2.9

2.9

13.1

11.3

7.8

8.0

4.6

3.5

6.0

5.2

Nonmetro

3.2

1.8

14.0

13.2

7.3

8.1

3.2

3.6

5.1

5.3












REGION











Northeast

2.2

3.7

11.4

8.4

6.8

8.3

3.1

4.2

4.5

5.3

North Central

2.8

3.7

14.3

14.7

9.0

7.0

4.6

4.5

6.4

6.2

South

3.8

2.5

15.0b

10.8

6.5

8.2

3.5

4.0

5.5

5.4

West

2.2

3.1

9.7

9.8

6.2

6.1

4.1

3.3

5.1

4.6












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

14.4

11.8

10.0

10.2

4.4

4.9

6.8

6.7

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

11.8

10.0

8.8

8.1

4.4

2.9

6.2a

4.9

Some College

N/A

N/A

14.1

13.5

6.0

6.1

3.7

3.8

6.2

6.2

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

10.7

6.3

4.6

6.6

2.6

5.0

3.7

5.4












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

16.1b

12.0

7.8

8.1

4.9

5.2

7.1

6.8

Part-time

N/A

N/A

10.0

10.8

6.3

6.1

1.4

1.6

4.7

5.2

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

15.8

10.8

12.1

12.3

9.5

*

11.9

10.8

Other3

N/A

N/A

8.1

9.2

2.7

3.4

2.6

2.4

3.2

3.1

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

NOTE:"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (52B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 25.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Cigarettes, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

18.3

19.9

38.3

40.6

35.0

33.7

27.0

27.9

28.9

29.6












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

20.8

21.8

42.9

45.2

37.5

36.1

26.8

27.8

29.8

30.5

Black

11.9a

14.9

28.5

30.2

33.5a

28.4

34.7

33.8

30.4

29.8

Hispanic

14.8

16.0

30.1

30.9

26.3

28.7

24.7

28.9

24.7

27.4

Other

10.3

19.7

24.4

34.4

24.4

26.3

13.9

11.4

17.2

18.8












SEX











Male

17.8

19.1

43.2

46.5

38.5

35.5

28.8

28.8

31.1

31.2

Female

18.7

20.7

33.3

34.6

31.5

31.9

25.4

27.1

26.7

28.2












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

17.3

17.4

34.6

36.4

32.2

32.9

24.8

25.1

26.7

27.2

Small Metro

17.1a

21.6

39.7

40.4

34.3

32.3

26.5

29.8

28.4

30.7

Nonmetro

21.7

21.6

43.4

48.5

42.7

38.0

31.8

29.8

33.7

32.4












REGION











Northeast

15.6

16.1

40.0

37.1

32.0

32.3

24.4

27.2

26.6

28.0

North Central

19.7

22.4

42.7

44.5

38.1

37.3

26.0

28.4

29.4

31.5

South

19.9

20.6

39.2

43.8

37.7

34.6

29.9

29.6

31.3

31.4

West

15.8a

19.1

31.3

33.1

30.1

29.2

25.9

24.9

26.4

26.0












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

50.5

55.6

51.7

46.4

30.2

35.3

36.5

40.0

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

43.3

43.0

45.1

41.7

33.3

33.1

36.8

36.1

Some College

N/A

N/A

31.2

33.5

32.1

34.1

24.9

26.6

27.5

29.5

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

22.2

24.9

17.2

17.0

17.0

16.4

17.5

17.1












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

41.2

43.6

34.7

33.2

29.9

29.9

32.6

32.4

Part-time

N/A

N/A

34.2

36.4

30.0

28.6

27.4

23.7

29.8

28.3

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

50.1

50.2

48.0

54.4

50.6

49.3

49.9

50.7

Other3

N/A

N/A

31.6

34.6

34.9

31.7

21.4

24.4

23.6

26.0

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (26B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 26.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Any Illicit Drug, by Detailed Age Categories: 1996 and 1997


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Age Group

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Total

34.8

35.6

10.8

11.2

6.1

6.4








12-17 Years Old

22.1

23.7

16.7

18.8

9.0b

11.4

12-13

7.5

9.1

5.8

6.0

2.2a

3.8

14-15

22.6

24.1

17.7

19.3

8.8

11.2

16-17

35.1

37.8

25.9a

30.7

15.6

19.2








18-25 Years Old

48.0

45.4

26.8

25.3

15.6

14.7

18-20

45.2

43.3

33.2

29.8

20.0

17.3

21-25

49.7

46.7

22.8

22.3

12.9

12.9








26-34 Years Old

53.1

50.8

14.6

14.3

8.4

7.4

26-29

48.9

47.7

15.7

16.2

9.1

7.6

30-34

56.1

53.1

13.8

12.9

7.9

7.2








35 Years and Older

29.0

31.5

5.3

6.1

2.9

3.6

35-39

53.6

58.6

12.0

14.2

6.4

8.6

40-44

53.2

51.3

10.3

10.4

5.0

4.9

45-49

42.3

45.0

6.6

7.5

4.0

5.3

>50

10.1a

13.3

1.3

1.7

0.8

1.0

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

NOTE:Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (28B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 27.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Marijuana, by Detailed Age Categories: 1996 and 1997


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Age Group

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Total

32.0

32.9

8.6

9.0

4.7

5.1








12-17 Years Old

16.8

18.9

13.0b

15.8

7.1b

9.4

12-13

3.6

4.4

3.2

4.0

1.2a

2.5

14-15

15.7

18.6

13.5

15.7

6.7a

9.2

16-17

30.4

33.3

21.7b

27.4

13.1

16.3








18-25 Years Old

44.0

41.5

23.8

22.3

13.2

12.8

18-20

41.6

40.0

30.1

26.9

17.1

15.4

21-25

45.5

42.4

20.1

19.3

10.9

11.1








26-34 Years Old

50.5

47.9

11.3

11.2

6.3

6.0

26-29

46.4

44.9

12.9

13.6

7.3

6.3

30-34

53.5

50.2

10.2

9.4

5.7

5.7








35 Years and Older

27.0

29.4

3.8

4.4

2.0

2.6

35-39

51.0

55.9

9.2

11.5

5.5

6.9

40-44

50.3

50.2

7.5

7.5

3.0

3.7

45-49

40.1

42.6

4.6

4.9

2.9

3.4

>50

8.5

11.2

0.6

1.0

0.3

0.6

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (29B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 28.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Cocaine, by Detailed Age Categories: 1996 and 1997


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Age Group

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Total

10.3

10.5

1.9

1.9

0.8

0.7








12-17 Years Old

1.9b

3.0

1.4a

2.2

0.6

1.0

12-13

0.2

0.6

0.1

0.5

0.0

0.3

14-15

1.3

1.6

1.0

0.9

0.3

0.5

16-17

4.2b

6.9

2.9b

5.2

1.4

2.2








18-25 Years Old

10.2

8.9

4.7

3.9

2.0a

1.2

18-20

8.5

8.2

6.0

4.8

2.2

1.5

21-25

11.2

9.4

3.9

3.3

1.9

1.0








26-34 Years Old

20.9a

18.4

3.5

3.1

1.5a

0.9

26-29

17.3b

12.1

3.7

2.8

1.3

0.8

30-34

23.5

23.2

3.4

3.3

1.7a

0.9








35 Years and Older

8.9

9.9

0.9

1.1

0.4

0.5

35-39

22.1

24.5

3.1

3.6

1.5

1.6

40-44

21.1

17.4

1.9

1.7

0.7

0.7

45-49

9.4

12.7

0.5

0.9

0.2

0.7

>50

0.8a

2.2

*

0.3

*

0.0

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (32B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 29.Percentages Reporting Past Month Alcohol Use, Past Month "Binge" Alcohol Use, and Past Month Heavy Alcohol Use, by Detailed Age Categories: 1996 and 1997


LEVEL OF ALCOHOL USE IN PAST MONTH


Any Alcohol Use

"Binge" Alcohol Use

Heavy Alcohol Use

Age Group

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Total

51.0

51.4

15.5

15.3

5.4

5.4








12-17 Years Old

18.8

20.5

7.2

8.3

2.9

3.1

12-13

5.1

6.7

1.0

1.1

0.5

0.3

14-15

19.1

21.1

5.7

7.7

2.3

2.6

16-17

31.2

33.4

14.6

16.0

6.0

6.5








18-25 Years Old

60.0

58.4

32.0b

28.0

12.9

11.1

18-20

50.1

53.4

28.4

28.3

12.7

12.4

21-25

66.0a

61.8

34.2b

27.8

13.0a

10.2








26-34 Years Old

61.6

60.2

22.8

23.1

7.1

7.5

26-29

62.3

60.9

23.6

24.1

7.4

7.8

30-34

61.2

59.7

22.2

22.3

6.8

7.2








35 Years and Older

51.7

52.8

11.3

11.7

3.8

4.0

35-39

58.8

64.8

19.9

20.1

6.3

8.4

40-44

59.0

57.4

17.7

15.7

6.0

4.9

45-49

57.1

53.8

11.1

14.2

4.7

3.5

>50

45.8

47.3

6.7

6.9

2.1

2.4

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

NOTE:"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (31B)

PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 30.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Cigarettes, by Detailed Age Categories: 1996 and 1997


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Age Group

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Total

71.6

70.5

32.3

32.7

28.9

29.6








12-17 Years Old

36.3

38.7

24.2

26.4

18.3

19.9

12-13

18.2

19.9

10.1a

13.3

7.3a

9.7

14-15

37.0

39.4

25.5

26.9

18.4

19.5

16-17

52.5

56.3

36.1

38.8

28.4

30.3








18-25 Years Old

68.5

67.7

44.7

45.9

38.3

40.6

18-20

64.3

65.0

44.8

47.7

39.2

41.1

21-25

71.1

69.6

44.7

44.6

37.7

40.3








26-34 Years Old

73.8

72.8

39.2

37.7

35.0

33.7

26-29

72.2

70.6

41.5

37.5

36.1

33.7

30-34

75.0

74.5

37.6

37.8

34.2

33.6








35 Years and Older

77.8

76.0

29.1

29.7

27.0

27.9

35-39

78.0

74.8

38.7

37.2

35.4

34.9

40-44

79.5

80.5

39.1

37.2

36.1

34.2

45-49

78.2

77.2

32.8

30.6

30.1

29.4

>50

77.2

74.8

21.9

24.7

20.6

23.4

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (17A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 31A.Estimated Numbers (in Thousands) of Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Users of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population of Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status and Parental Status: Annual Averages Based on 1996 and 1997 Samples


Females Aged 15-44


Used in Lifetime

Used in Past Year

Used in Past Month



Not Pregnant


Not Pregnant


Not Pregnant

Drug

Pregnant

No

Children

Has

Child Aged <21

All

Children Aged >21

Pregnant

No

Children

Has

Child Aged <21

All

Children Aged >21

Pregnant

No

Children

Has

Child Aged <21

All

Children Aged >21













Any Illicit Drug2

974

10,702

2,881

11,497

244

4,800

680

1,963

59

2,579

385

981













Marijuana and Hashish

932

9,880

2,675

10,763

191

4,021

526

1,366

35

2,056

298

709

Cocaine

333

2,775

682

3,602

66

858

120

353

4

353

33

151

Crack

90

698

170

549

19

293

42

128

3

142

18

59

Inhalants

124

2,044

309

949

7

554

19

53

*

177

15

14

Hallucinogens

241

2,992

623

2,527

35

921

63

109

2

335

43

27

PCP

71

611

201

976

5

79

24

2

*

8

24

*

LSD

211

2,345

457

1,936

28

625

17

31

*

150

*

*

Heroin

51

253

73

175

14

91

6

31

4

41

5

19

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic3

213

2,748

608

2,820

70

1,242

165

641

18

575

91

253

Stimulants

90

1,101

265

1,365

31

289

31

104

*

109

10

58

Sedatives

26

499

101

687

13

84

13

93

*

33

7

44

Tranquilizers

79

1,121

206

1,092

26

429

79

298

*

177

39

121

Analgesics

110

1,702

382

1,447

35

889

137

382

18

379

64

102








Any Illicit Drug

other than Marijuana2

470

5,729

1,312

5,657

118

2,428

292

981

28

1,150

147

417












Alcohol

1,844

19,752

5,727

21,090

1,412

17,229

4,377

17,225

333

13,230

3,275

12,911

"Binge" Alcohol Use4

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

30

4,009

622

2,395

Heavy Alcohol Use4

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

6

1,100

133

532











Cigarettes

1,466

16,010

4,616

17,821

652

9,640

2,211

8,784

469

8,274

2,043

8,172











Smokeless Tobacco

104

1,740

320

1,075

*

362

17

69

*

104

10

40

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

1The respondent and the child(ren) both (all) reside in the same household.

2Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any

Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

3Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter drugs.

4"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol

Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (17B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 31B.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the U.S. Population of Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status and Parental Status: Annual Averages Based on 1996 and 1997 Samples


Females Aged 15-44


Used in Lifetime

Used in Past Year

Used in Past Month



Not Pregnant


Not Pregnant


Not Pregnant

Drug

Pregnant

No

Children

Has

Child Aged <21

All

Children Aged >21

Pregnant

No

Children

Has

Child Aged <21

All

Children Aged >21

Pregnant

No

Children

Has

Child Aged <21

All

Children Aged >21














Any Illicit Drug2

41.4

43.1

41.0

47.7

10.4

19.3

9.7

8.1

2.5

10.4

5.5

4.1












Marijuana and Hashish

39.6

39.8

38.1

44.6

8.1

16.2

7.5

5.7

1.5

8.3

4.2

2.9

Cocaine

14.2

11.2

9.7

14.9

2.8

3.5

1.7

1.5

0.2

1.4

0.5

0.6

Crack

3.8

2.8

2.4

2.3

0.8

1.2

0.6

0.5

0.1

0.6

0.3

0.2

Inhalants

5.3

8.2

4.4

3.9

0.3

2.2

0.3

0.2

*

0.7

0.2

0.1

Hallucinogens

10.2

12.0

8.9

10.5

1.5

3.7

0.9

0.5

0.1

1.3

0.6

0.1

PCP

3.0

2.5

2.9

4.0

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.0

*

0.0

0.3

*

LSD

9.0

9.4

6.5

8.0

1.2

2.5

0.2

0.1

*

0.6

*

*

Heroin

2.2

1.0

1.0

0.7

0.6

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic3

9.1

11.1

8.6

11.7

3.0

5.0

2.3

2.7

0.8

2.3

1.3

1.0

Stimulants

3.8

4.4

3.8

5.7

1.3

1.2

0.4

0.4

*

0.4

0.1

0.2

Sedatives

1.1

2.0

1.4

2.9

0.6

0.3

0.2

0.4

*

0.1

0.1

0.2

Tranquilizers

3.3

4.5

2.9

4.5

1.1

1.7

1.1

1.2

*

0.7

0.5

0.5

Analgesics

4.7

6.9

5.4

6.0

1.5

3.6

2.0

1.6

0.8

1.5

0.9

0.4









Any Illicit Drug

other than Marijuana2

20.0

23.1

18.7

23.5

5.0

9.8

4.2

4.1

1.2

4.6

2.1

1.7













Alcohol

78.3

79.5

81.5

87.5

60.0

69.4

62.3

71.4

14.1

53.3

46.6

53.5

"Binge" Alcohol Use4

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1.3

16.7

9.2

10.3

Heavy Alcohol Use4

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

0.3

4.6

2.0

2.3












Cigarettes

62.3

64.5

65.7

73.9

27.7

38.8

31.4

36.4

19.9

33.3

29.1

33.9













Smokeless Tobacco

4.4

7.0

4.6

4.5

*

1.5

0.2

0.3

*

0.4

0.1

0.2

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

1The respondent and the child(ren) both (all) reside in the same household.

2Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any

Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

3Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter drugs.

4"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol

Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (18B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 32.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Any Illicit Drug in the U.S. Population of Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status and Demographic Characteristics: Annual Averages Based on 1996 and 1997 Samples


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Demographic

Characteristics

Pregnant

Not

Pregnant

Pregnant

Not

Pregnant

Pregnant

Not

Pregnant

TOTAL

41.4

44.8

10.4

13.3

2.5

7.0








AGE







15-25

39.0

39.0

18.0

22.2

4.4

11.9

26-44

43.0

47.6

5.0

9.0

1.2

4.7








RACE/ETHNICITY







White

49.9

51.7

11.2

14.1

2.4

7.3

Black

34.7

34.3

14.6

13.9

5.4

8.0

Hispanic

20.2

24.5

6.1

8.6

1.2

4.7








MARITAL STATUS







Married

38.8

44.5

5.0

7.1

0.7

3.2

Not Married

48.0

45.2

24.0

20.0

7.2

11.2

Never Married

45.9

41.3

26.1

22.0

6.4

12.0

Divorced, Separated

*

58.5

*

13.4

*

8.5








POPULATION DENSITY1







Large Metro

42.6

44.2

9.7

13.3

1.8

7.2

Small Metro

41.0

48.8

12.1

15.0

4.3

8.4

Nonmetro

38.7

39.7

8.5

10.6

*

4.6








PARENTAL STATUS







No Children

42.9

43.1

15.0

19.3

3.5

10.4

Has Child Aged <22

34.9

41.0

9.0

9.7

1.9

5.5

All Children Aged >22

43.3

47.7

6.8

8.1

2.0

4.1








TRIMESTER3







First

42.6

N/A

9.5

N/A

3.8

N/A

Second

39.2

N/A

10.5

N/A

2.0

N/A

Third

44.5

N/A

11.0

N/A

2.1

N/A








ADULT EDUCATION4







<High School

41.3

40.9

16.0

14.8

7.8

9.0

High School Grad

40.0

45.2

10.5

12.3

0.4

6.4

Some College

38.9

50.6

9.1

12.0

*

6.1

College Graduate

*

45.0

*

9.2

*

4.4

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

NOTE:Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

NOTE:The sum of the pregnant and not pregnant females aged 15-44 is less than the total of all females aged 15-44 because of item nonresponse to the pregnancy question.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2The respondent and the child(ren) both (all) reside in the same household.

3Trimester not reported by all pregnant respondents.

4Data on adult education not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for adult education are for persons aged 18 to 44.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (22B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 33.Percentages Reporting Past Month Alcohol Use, Past Month "Binge" Alcohol Use, and Past Month Heavy Alcohol Use in the U.S. Population of Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status and Demographic Characteristics: Annual Averages Based on 1996 and 1997 Samples


LEVEL OF ALCOHOL USE IN PAST MONTH


Any Alcohol Use

"Binge" Alcohol Use

Heavy Alcohol Use

Demographic

Characteristics

Pregnant

Not

Pregnant

Pregnant

Not

Pregnant

Pregnant

Not

Pregnant

TOTAL

14.1

52.5

1.3

13.0

0.3

3.3








AGE







15-25

12.9

47.1

2.1

17.0

0.4

4.6

26-44

15.0

55.2

0.7

11.1

*

2.6








RACE/ETHNICITY







White

15.5

58.5

1.3

15.1

*

3.7

Black

16.7

41.7

1.5

8.0

*

2.4

Hispanic

7.1

38.2

1.0

8.5

0.6

2.5








MARITAL STATUS







Married

9.4

53.2

0.3

9.0

*

2.4

Not Married

26.3

51.9

3.8

17.4

0.7

4.2

Never Married

26.8

49.4

3.3

17.2

*

4.3

Divorced, Separated

*

60.3

*

17.8

*

3.9








POPULATION DENSITY1







Large Metro

12.3

55.1

1.1

12.4

0.5

2.5

Small Metro

*

55.1

1.9

15.0

*

4.2

Nonmetro

9.4

43.3

*

11.1

*

3.4








PARENTAL STATUS







No Children

15.1

53.3

1.5

16.7

*

4.6

Has Child Aged <22

*

46.6

*

9.2

*

2.0

All Children Aged >22

13.4

53.5

1.5

10.3

*

2.3








TRIMESTER3







First

16.2

N/A

1.6

N/A

*

N/A

Second

11.7

N/A

0.6

N/A

*

N/A

Third

9.4

N/A

0.7

N/A

*

N/A







ADULT EDUCATION4







<High School

21.2

39.6

1.5

12.6

*

3.7

High School Grad

8.9

52.6

1.3

12.7

*

3.7

Some College

*

56.8

2.0

14.9

*

3.6

College Graduate

*

66.1

*

12.3

*

1.9

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

NOTE:"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

NOTE:The sum of the pregnant and not pregnant females aged 15-44 is less than the total of all females aged 15-44 because of item nonresponse to the pregnancy question.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2The respondent and the child(ren) both (all) reside in the same household.

3Trimester not reported by all pregnant respondents.

4Data on adult education not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for adult education are for persons aged 18 to 44.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (23B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 34.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Cigarettes in the U.S. Population of Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status and Demographic Characteristics: Annual Averages Based on 1996 and 1997 Samples


TIME PERIOD


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Demographic

Characteristics

Pregnant

Not

Pregnant

Pregnant

Not

Pregnant

Pregnant

Not

Pregnant

TOTAL

62.3

68.7

27.7

36.9

19.9

33.0








AGE







15-25

59.0

60.2

34.2

38.7

23.1

32.7

26-44

64.6

72.8

23.2

36.0

17.7

33.2








RACE/ETHNICITY







White

69.7

75.8

31.3

40.9

22.1

36.8

Black

58.3

57.5

32.1

32.1

27.8

28.9

Hispanic

41.2

48.2

16.2

25.9

10.0

22.3








MARITAL STATUS







Married

59.4

71.1

21.5

31.2

14.6

28.6

Not Married

69.6

66.1

43.5

43.0

33.5

37.8

Never Married

68.8

61.7

40.2

39.4

29.2

33.5

Divorced, Separated

*

81.1

*

55.5

*

52.8








POPULATION DENSITY1







Large Metro

58.2

65.4

23.0

32.9

15.0

28.8

Small Metro

*

70.2

31.0

38.1

22.4

34.3

Nonmetro

*

73.1

34.3

43.3

29.2

39.8








PARENTAL STATUS







No Children

63.1

64.5

29.7

38.8

19.5

33.3

Has Child Aged <22

61.0

65.7

20.4

31.4

14.5

29.1

All Children Aged >22

62.2

73.9

29.6

36.4

23.0

33.9








TRIMESTER3







First

*

N/A

28.1

N/A

20.7

N/A

Second

60.2

N/A

28.0

N/A

17.8

N/A

Third

64.4

N/A

26.2

N/A

19.1

N/A








ADULT EDUCATION4







<High School

66.4

67.0

48.2

48.9

40.1

46.7

High School Grad

58.9

73.8

29.2

44.0

20.2

41.0

Some College

*

72.7

23.0

36.6

16.0

32.0

College Graduate

*

66.0

13.4

20.1

7.8

16.7

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

NOTE:The sum of the pregnant and not pregnant females aged 15-44 is less than the total of all females aged 15-44 because of item nonresponse to the pregnancy question.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2The respondent and the child(ren) both (all) reside in the same household.

3Trimester not reported by all pregnant respondents.

4Data on adult education not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for adult education are for persons aged 18 to 44.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (73B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 35.Percentages of Past Month Users of Cigarettes or Alcohol in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older Reporting Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco, by Levels of Past Month Cigarette and Alcohol Use: 1996 and 1997


USE OF CIGARETTES OR ALCOHOL IN PAST MONTH


Cigarette Use In Past Month

Level of Alcohol Use In Past Month


Any Use

No Use

Heavy Use3

"Binge" Use But Not Heavy Use3

Use But Not

"Binge" Use3

No Use

Drug

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Any Illicit Drug1

14.7

15.2

2.6

2.7

30.8

29.7

16.1

17.7

5.3

5.1

1.9

2.3














Marijuana and Hashish

12.1

13.0

1.7

1.8

25.7

26.2

13.7

15.8

4.0

4.1

1.1

1.4

Cocaine

2.2

1.9

0.2

0.2

6.3

4.2

2.4

1.9

0.5

0.5

0.1

0.2

Crack

0.9

0.8

0.1

0.1

2.6

1.5

0.6

0.6

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.1

Inhalants

0.9

0.9

0.2

0.2

2.9

2.1

1.3

1.1

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2

Hallucinogens

1.7

2.1

0.2

0.2

4.5

5.3

1.7

1.7

0.3

0.4

0.1

0.2

PCP

0.2

0.2

*

0.0

0.3

0.1

0.2

*

0.1

*

*

0.0

LSD

0.7

0.6

0.0

0.1

2.0

2.0

0.5

0.6

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

Heroin

0.3

0.3

0.0

0.1

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

3.2

2.5

0.7

0.7

7.5

4.8

2.1

2.8

1.5

1.0

0.7

0.7

Stimulants

0.9

0.8

0.1

0.1

1.4

1.5

0.7

0.7

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.1

Sedatives

0.3

0.2

0.0

0.1

0.7

0.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

Tranquilizers

1.3

1.0

0.1

0.1

2.1

2.2

0.7

1.2

0.5

0.3

0.2

0.1

Analgesics

1.8a

1.2

0.5

0.5

5.3a

2.4

1.3

1.5

0.9

0.6

0.3

0.5














Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

6.4

5.9

1.2

1.1

14.8

12.3

6.3

6.0

2.3

1.8

1.0

1.2














Alcohol

67.4

65.5

44.3

45.4

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

30.1

28.8

9.7

9.6

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Heavy Alcohol Use3

12.8

12.1

2.5

2.6

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A














Cigarettes

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

67.1

66.1

48.9

50.1

30.0

30.3

19.2

21.0














Smokeless Tobacco

5.0

4.3

2.5

2.8

10.3

9.0

6.8

8.8

2.3

2.1

2.2

2.2

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office Of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (74B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 36.Percentages of Past Month Users of Cigarettes or Alcohol in the U.S. Population Aged 12 to 17 Reporting Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco, by Levels of Past Month Cigarette and Alcohol Use: 1996 and 1997


USE OF CIGARETTES OR ALCOHOL IN PAST MONTH


Cigarette Use In Past Month

Level of Alcohol Use In Past Month


Any Use

No Use

Heavy Use3

"Binge" Use But Not Heavy Use3

Use But Not

"Binge" Use3

No Use

Drug

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

Any Illicit Drug1

32.5b

42.8

3.8

3.6

51.1b

73.6

47.4a

60.2

25.3

30.5

3.2

3.4














Marijuana and Hashish

27.8b

37.4

2.5

2.4

44.9b

65.7

43.1

55.8

19.8

26.1

2.0

2.1

Cocaine

2.4a

4.5

0.2

0.1

7.1

9.1

3.8

8.3

0.8

2.2

0.1

0.1

Crack

1.1

2.1

0.0

0.0

5.0

4.2

*

2.9

*

1.4

0.0

0.0

Inhalants

6.7

6.9

0.6

0.8

13.4

8.1

14.0

11.6

4.2

4.3

0.4a

0.9

Hallucinogens

8.2

8.3

0.6a

0.2

16.5

19.7

15.5

10.8

4.8

3.7

0.5

0.4

PCP

0.7

0.6

0.0

0.0

*

1.5

*

*

0.3

*

*

0.1

LSD

3.1

3.4

0.3

0.1

8.1

10.1

5.3

3.6

1.7

1.0

0.2

0.1

Heroin

0.3

0.8

0.1

0.0

*

*

*

2.7

*

0.2

0.0

0.0

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

5.7

7.4

1.0

0.8

11.3

15.6

12.7

10.8

3.7

4.5

0.8

0.7

Stimulants

2.1

2.2

0.2

0.2

5.3

5.1

6.3

5.4

0.7

0.6

0.1

0.1

Sedatives

0.6

0.2

0.1

0.1

2.2

*

*

*

*

0.3

0.1

0.0

Tranquilizers

0.6a

2.2

0.1

0.1

1.6

6.4

*

2.9

*

1.7

0.0

0.1

Analgesics

4.0

4.5

0.9

0.6

6.6

10.0

8.9

5.3

3.1

3.0

0.7

0.6














Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

16.3

19.8

2.0

1.6

31.7

36.0

29.6

28.2

11.0

11.7

1.6

1.7














Alcohol

55.9

59.8

10.4

10.7

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

28.2

33.0

2.6

2.4

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Heavy Alcohol Use3

12.7

13.7

0.8

0.6

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A














Cigarettes

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

77.4

84.7

64.8

72.1

46.0

46.6

9.9

10.1














Smokeless Tobacco

6.4

6.1

0.9

0.9

15.9

12.5

7.5

7.3

3.7

2.9

0.9

1.0

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

80529 (78A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 37A.Estimated Numbers (in Thousands) of Lifetime Users of Specific Hallucinogens, Inhalants, Methamphetamine, Needles, and Heroin by Smoking or Sniffing/Snorting in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older, By Age Group: 1996 and 1997

Drug or Method of Administration

AGE GROUP (Years)


12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












Hallucinogens

1,265

1,472

4,544

4,150

5,474

5,320

9,415

9,714

20,699

20,656

PCP

273

314

636

668

1,477a

1,122

4,369

4,376

6,755

6,480

LSD

970

1,174

3,850

3,655

4,148

4,175

7,431

7,755

16,400

16,760

Peyote

99

106

421

282

449

386

3,060

2,346

4,030

3,121

Mescaline

66

82

604

434

1,094

1,127

4,323

3,909

6,087

5,551

Psilocybin (Mushrooms)

451

595

2,516

2,182

3,058

2,798

5,405

4,625

11,430

10,200

"Ecstasy" (MDMA)

242

299

1,164

1,271

875

1,088

853

680

3,134

3,338

Inhalants

1,337

1,630

3,006

2,809

2,951

2,925

4,615

4,972

11,909

12,335

Amyl Nitrite, "Poppers," Locker Room Odorizers, or "Rush"

135

182

631

410

1,657

1,594

2,936

2,599

5,360

4,784

Correction Fluid, Degreaser, or Cleaning Fluid

399

382

285

309

179

144

123

72

986

906

Gasoline or Lighter

Fluid

417a

607

655

509

331

357

314a

942

1,717a

2,416

Glue, Shoe Polish, or Toluene

490

617

488

506

392

353

594

882

1,964

2,358

Halothane, Ether, or Other Anesthetics

39a

101

117

102

114

110

165

113

435

426

Lacquer Thinner or Other Paint Solvents

322

298

313

268

143

127

182

311

960

1,004

Lighter Gases (Butane, Propane)

198

281

282

271

121

39

53

92

655

683

Nitrous Oxide or "Whippets"

403

514

1,995

1,815

1,429

1,288

1,223

1,383

5,050

5,000

Spray Paints

319a

497

265

212

239b

87

297

346

1,120

1,142

Other Aerosol Sprays

319

434

270

355

181

74

110

292

879

1,155

Methamphetamine

145a

282

702

636

1,477b

955

2,564

3,432

4,888

5,304

Needle Use1,2

71

92

284

213

589

431

1,561

1,558

2,505

2,294

Heroin

103

107

365

276

464

359

1,511

1,276

2,444

2,019

Smoke Heroin2

84

83

160

176

287

160

1,140

585

1,672a

1,005

Sniff or Snort Heroin2

48

48

222

139

316

231

1,261

798

1,847

1,215

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

1Refers to lifetime use of a needle to inject a drug that was not prescribed, or that was taken only for the experience or feeling it caused.

2These drug estimates are generated from data collected on a "non-core" section of the NHSDA questionnaire. Therefore, these estimates may be somewhat inconsistent with drug estimates based on data

collected from the "core" answer sheets because NHSDA data are not edited for consistency across the "core" and "non-core" sections of the interview.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (78B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 37B.Percentages Reporting Lifetime Use of Specific Hallucinogens, Inhalants, Methamphetamine, Needles, and Heroin by Smoking or Sniffing/Snorting in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older, by Age Group: 1996 and 1997

Drug or Method of Administration

AGE GROUP (Years)


12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












Hallucinogens

5.6

6.5

16.3

15.0

15.4

15.1

7.3

7.4

9.7

9.6

PCP

1.2

1.4

2.3

2.4

4.2

3.2

3.4

3.3

3.2

3.0

LSD

4.3

5.2

13.9

13.2

11.7

11.8

5.8

5.9

7.7

7.8

Peyote

0.4

0.5

1.5

1.0

1.3

1.1

2.4

1.8

1.9

1.4

Mescaline

0.3

0.4

2.2

1.6

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.0

2.8

2.6

Psilocybin (Mushrooms)

2.0

2.6

9.1

7.9

8.6

7.9

4.2

3.5

5.3

4.7

"Ecstasy" (MDMA)

1.1

1.3

4.2

4.6

2.5

3.1

0.7

0.5

1.5

1.5

Inhalants

5.9

7.2

10.8

10.1

8.3

8.3

3.6

3.8

5.6

5.7

Amyl Nitrite, "Poppers," Locker Room Odorizers, or "Rush"

0.6

0.8

2.3

1.5

4.7

4.5

2.3

2.0

2.5

2.2

Correction Fluid, Degreaser, or Cleaning Fluid

1.8

1.7

1.0

1.1

0.5

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.5

0.4

Gasoline or Lighter

Fluid

1.9a

2.7

2.4

1.8

0.9

1.0

0.2a

0.7

0.8a

1.1

Glue, Shoe Polish, or Toluene

2.2

2.7

1.8

1.8

1.1

1.0

0.5

0.7

0.9

1.1

Halothane, Ether, or Other Anesthetics

0.2a

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

Lacquer Thinner or Other Paint Solvents

1.4

1.3

1.1

1.0

0.4

0.4

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.5

Lighter Gases (Butane, Propane)

0.9

1.2

1.0

1.0

0.3

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.3

Nitrous Oxide or "Whippets"

1.8

2.3

7.2

6.6

4.0

3.7

1.0

1.1

2.4

2.3

Spray Paints

1.4a

2.2

1.0

0.8

0.7a

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.5

Other Aerosol Sprays

1.4

1.9

1.0

1.3

0.5

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.5

Methamphetamine

0.6a

1.2

2.5

2.3

4.2b

2.7

2.0

2.6

2.3

2.5

Needle Use1,2

0.3

0.4

1.0

0.8

1.7

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.1

Heroin

0.5

0.5

1.3

1.0

1.3

1.0

1.2

1.0

1.1

0.9

Smoke Heroin2

0.4

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.8

0.5

0.9

0.4

0.8a

0.5

Sniff or Snort Heroin2

0.2

0.2

0.8

0.5

0.9

0.7

1.0

0.6

0.9

0.6

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

1Refers to lifetime use of a needle to inject a drug that was not prescribed, or that was taken only for the experience or feeling it caused.

2These drug estimates are generated from data collected on a "non-core" section of the NHSDA questionnaire. Therefore, these estimates may be somewhat inconsistent with drug estimates based on data

collected from the "core" answer sheets because NHSDA data are not edited for consistency across the "core" and "non-core" sections of the interview.

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (204A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 38.Estimated Number (in Thousands) of Persons Who First Used Marijuana During Each Year 1965-1996, Their Mean Age at First Use, and Annual Age-Specific Rates of First Use (per 1000 Person-Years of Exposure), Based on 1994-1997 NHSDAs




AGE-SPECIFIC RATE OF FIRST USE1

YEAR

INITIATES

(1000s)

MEAN

AGE

12-17

18-25

26-34

1965

617

18.8

9.2

13.4

4.9

1966

900

20.3

11.2

23.4

2.7

1967

1467

19.9

15.2

40.9

6.9

1968

1590

19.1

18.5

44.8

3.7

1969

2218

19.2

32.2

52.3

5.4

1970

2668

19.3

35.8

64.8

10.7

1971

2799

18.8

42.5

66.7

12.5

1972

2897

18.4

52.0

63.5

9.5

1973

2782

18.2

55.5

58.4

8.0

1974

3008

18.6

57.2

62.0

9.9

1975

3185

18.8

69.4

55.1

12.8

1976

2824

18.5

61.3

53.4

10.4

1977

2884

19.3

66.5

48.6

10.1

1978

2879

17.8

76.9

50.7

7.1

1979

2585

18.0

61.4

55.4

4.1

1980

2492

18.6

58.2

57.1

5.3

1981

2218

17.8

57.0

46.2

4.8

1982

2080

18.2

50.5

45.8

9.1

1983

2044

17.8

54.9

42.4

3.5

1984

1994

19.6

51.2

38.8

3.9

1985

1767

17.8

48.7

39.1

1.5

1986

1871

19.4

50.4

41.9

3.0

1987

1817

17.9

49.2

43.2

2.3

1988

1526

17.3

43.0

37.7

1.7

1989

1413

17.8

37.6

34.2

2.4

1990

1401

17.3

37.2

37.0

1.4

1991

1376

17.5

36.6

33.9

1.7

1992

1701

17.7

45.5

39.3

2.8

1993

1949

17.0

53.9

46.3

2.2

19942

2393

16.7

73.3

47.9

2.7

19953

2406

16.6

74.6

50.7

2.4

19964

2540

16.4

83.2

53.6

1.3







*Low precision; no estimate reported.

**Estimate rounds to zero.

1The numerator of each rate equals the number of persons who first used the drug in the year (times 1000). The denominator of each rate equals the number of persons who were exposed to risk of first use during the year, weighted by their estimated exposure time measured in years. For example, for the age group 12-17 in 1990, the denominator is the sum of three components:

(1)those persons 12-17 years old in 1990 who first used the drug in 1989 or earlier, times a weight of zero. The weight is zero since they had zero exposure to the risk of first use in 1990.

(2)those who first used the drug in 1990 times a weight of .5. The weight of .5 assumes that these people, on average, first used the drug at midyear and consequently have a half year of exposure (i.e. the first half of the year.)

(3)those who never used, or those who first used the drug in 1991 or later, times a weight of one. The weight of one assumes their exposure to the risk of first use during 1990 was for the whole year.

Each person is also weighted by his/her sample weight.

2Estimated using 1995, 1996 and 1997 data only.

3Estimated using 1996 and 1997 data only.

4Estimated using 1997 data only.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-1997.

80529 (205A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 39.Estimated Number (in Thousands) of Persons Who First Used Cocaine During Each Year 1965-1996, Their Mean Age at First Use, and Annual Age-Specific Rates of First Use (per 1000 Person-Years of Exposure), Based on 1994-1997 NHSDAs




AGE-SPECIFIC RATE OF FIRST USE1

YEAR

INITIATES

(1000s)

MEAN

AGE

12-17

18-25

26-34

1965

*

*

**

0.6

**

1966

*

23.6

0.5

1.2

1.1

1967

*

*

0.6

0.5

**

1968

77

19.7

0.5

2.1

0.3

1969

180

18.3

1.5

5.1

0.3

1970

296

19.7

2.1

7.3

1.6

1971

343

19.4

4.2

6.8

1.0

1972

270

19.1

3.0

6.0

0.4

1973

477

20.2

4.1

11.2

1.6

1974

673

21.2

3.9

17.6

1.1

1975

808

21.7

4.0

17.4

6.0

1976

646

21.2

5.5

12.3

3.2

1977

950

21.5

4.7

22.6

4.4

1978

1041

21.1

7.6

20.9

5.0

1979

999

21.8

7.0

18.8

5.5

1980

1345

21.1

7.6

29.8

6.7

1981

1383

21.7

9.5

27.6

8.8

1982

1389

21.8

9.1

28.3

9.6

1983

1220

22.0

8.7

24.3

8.2

1984

1230

21.9

9.7

23.2

10.1

1985

1174

22.5

6.4

25.5

9.6

1986

1210

23.1

8.3

26.0

6.6

1987

961

22.6

7.5

20.7

6.1

1988

776

21.4

5.7

18.8

4.3

1989

762

21.9

6.5

17.2

4.7

1990

631

22.7

5.7

12.9

4.4

1991

480

21.4

4.0

11.7

2.2

1992

488

21.0

5.8

10.3

2.6

1993

553

22.4

5.9

11.8

2.4

19942

537

21.7

7.7

10.0

1.5

19953

653

19.5

9.3

14.3

2.2

19964

675

18.7

11.3

14.8

1.6







*Low precision; no estimate reported.

**Estimate rounds to zero.

1The numerator of each rate equals the number of persons who first used the drug in the year (times 1000). The denominator of each rate equals the number of persons who were exposed to risk of first use during the year, weighted by their estimated exposure time measured in years. For example, for the age group 12-17 in 1990, the denominator is the sum of three components:

(1)those persons 12-17 years old in 1990 who first used the drug in 1989 or earlier, times a weight of zero. The weight is zero since they had zero exposure to the risk of first use in 1990.

(2)those who first used the drug in 1990 times a weight of .5. The weight of .5 assumes that these people, on average, first used the drug at midyear and consequently have a half year of exposure (i.e. the first half of the year.)

(3)those who never used, or those who first used the drug in 1991 or later, times a weight of one. The weight of one assumes their exposure to the risk of first use during 1990 was for the whole year.

Each person is also weighted by his/her sample weight.

2Estimated using 1995, 1996 and 1997 data only.

3Estimated using 1996 and 1997 data only.

4Estimated using 1997 data only.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-1997.

80529 (209A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 40.Estimated Number (in Thousands) of Persons Who First Used Any Inhalant During Each Year 1965-1996, Their Mean Age at First Use, and Annual Age-Specific Rates of First Use (per 1000 Person-Years of Exposure), Based on 1994-1997 NHSDAs




AGE-SPECIFIC RATE OF FIRST USE1

YEAR

INITIATES

(1000s)

MEAN

AGE

12-17

18-25

26-34

1965

119

14.9

2.2

2.0

**

1966

93

18.8

3.1

**

**

1967

166

15.4

5.2

1.5

**

1968

160

16.9

2.6

2.6

0.7

1969

115

15.7

3.6

0.9

0.1

1970

201

18.0

5.1

1.7

**

1971

283

15.9

7.1

3.3

**

1972

274

19.3

4.3

2.7

2.9

1973

240

16.9

4.6

3.7

0.2

1974

341

19.1

6.0

3.9

0.2

1975

326

17.2

7.0

4.0

0.5

1976

435

18.7

7.8

5.7

1.0

1977

443

18.7

8.4

4.6

1.4

1978

558

18.2

9.6

8.3

1.0

1979

436

18.3

9.0

4.7

1.9

1980

485

17.9

9.6

6.4

0.5

1981

447

19.1

7.1

5.9

1.9

1982

391

17.9

7.7

5.0

0.9

1983

439

19.3

7.1

5.3

1.4

1984

384

17.9

8.7

3.9

1.6

1985

364

16.8

9.1

4.8

0.2

1986

365

17.0

9.3

4.4

0.6

1987

384

18.1

9.3

4.8

0.5

1988

462

18.8

10.9

5.3

1.5

1989

361

16.9

9.5

4.0

0.8

1990

385

16.5

10.1

4.5

0.7

1991

382

15.4

10.3

4.6

**

1992

460

16.7

12.2

6.4

0.4

1993

605

16.4

16.4

8.7

0.2

19942

613

16.3

17.6

7.8

0.1

19953

634

15.8

19.8

7.5

0.2

19964

805

16.3

21.0

12.4

0.5







*Low precision; no estimate reported.

**Estimate rounds to zero.

1The numerator of each rate equals the number of persons who first used the drug in the year (times 1000). The denominator of each rate equals the number of persons who were exposed to risk of first use during the year, weighted by their estimated exposure time measured in years. For example, for the age group 12-17 in 1990, the denominator is the sum of three components:

(1)those persons 12-17 years old in 1990 who first used the drug in 1989 or earlier, times a weight of zero. The weight is zero since they had zero exposure to the risk of first use in 1990.

(2)those who first used the drug in 1990 times a weight of .5. The weight of .5 assumes that these people, on average, first used the drug at midyear and consequently have a half year of exposure (i.e. the first half of the year.)

(3)those who never used, or those who first used the drug in 1991 or later, times a weight of one. The weight of one assumes their exposure to the risk of first use during 1990 was for the whole year.

Each person is also weighted by his/her sample weight.

2Estimated using 1995, 1996 and 1997 data only.

3Estimated using 1996 and 1997 data only.

4Estimated using 1997 data only.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-1997.

80529 (208A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 41.Estimated Number (in Thousands) of Persons Who First Used Any Hallucinogen During Each Year 1965-1996, Their Mean Age at First Use, and Annual Age-Specific Rates of First Use (per 1000 Person-Years of Exposure), Based on 1994-1997 NHSDAs




AGE-SPECIFIC RATE OF FIRST USE1

YEAR

INITIATES

(1000s)

MEAN

AGE

12-17

18-25

26-34

1965

99

19.0

0.8

3.6

**

1966

154

19.8

1.0

5.3

**

1967

174

16.5

3.4

3.4

**

1968

428

19.7

3.5

11.4

1.7

1969

547

17.9

9.7

10.6

0.7

1970

815

18.5

10.3

19.1

2.1

1971

915

18.4

15.5

17.4

2.3

1972

616

18.4

9.3

11.8

2.2

1973

581

18.1

10.5

10.4

0.8

1974

556

18.4

9.5

9.9

1.3

1975

756

19.1

10.0

15.9

1.0

1976

824

17.8

13.2

15.3

0.6

1977

671

19.7

8.5

11.5

3.6

1978

715

19.8

10.6

12.0

2.2

1979

710

18.7

8.9

14.2

2.2

1980

666

18.9

9.6

12.3

2.2

1981

652

19.2

10.8

10.8

1.6

1982

665

21.1

7.2

13.4

1.6

1983

637

19.1

9.2

13.5

0.4

1984

468

18.7

8.8

7.6

1.4

1985

508

19.2

6.9

10.8

1.2

1986

621

19.1

10.3

12.3

1.7

1987

589

19.5

9.6

11.7

1.5

1988

674

20.4

10.2

13.7

1.7

1989

625

18.6

10.8

13.9

1.0

1990

636

18.5

11.6

13.9

1.1

1991

634

18.5

11.7

14.3

0.6

1992

587

17.9

12.9

11.6

0.7

1993

738

18.2

14.0

15.2

1.7

19942

876

18.0

18.9

16.9

1.4

19953

1201

17.3

26.8

24.3

0.5

19964

1094

17.2

25.8

21.2

0.9







*Low precision; no estimate reported.

**Estimate rounds to zero.

1The numerator of each rate equals the number of persons who first used the drug in the year (times 1000). The denominator of each rate equals the number of persons who were exposed to risk of first use during the year, weighted by their estimated exposure time measured in years. For example, for the age group 12-17 in 1990, the denominator is the sum of three components:

(1)those persons 12-17 years old in 1990 who first used the drug in 1989 or earlier, times a weight of zero. The weight is zero since they had zero exposure to the risk of first use in 1990.

(2)those who first used the drug in 1990 times a weight of .5. The weight of .5 assumes that these people, on average, first used the drug at midyear and consequently have a half year of exposure (i.e. the first half of the year.)

(3)those who never used, or those who first used the drug in 1991 or later, times a weight of one. The weight of one assumes their exposure to the risk of first use during 1990 was for the whole year.

Each person is also weighted by his/her sample weight.

2Estimated using 1995, 1996 and 1997 data only.

3Estimated using 1996 and 1997 data only.

4Estimated using 1997 data only.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-1997.

80529 (207A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 42.Estimated Number (in Thousands) of Persons Who First Used Heroin During Each Year 1965-1996, Their Mean Age at First Use, and Annual Age-Specific Rates of First Use (per 1000 Person-Years of Exposure), Based on 1994-1997 NHSDAs




AGE-SPECIFIC RATE OF FIRST USE1

YEAR

INITIATES

(1000s)

MEAN

AGE

12-17

18-25

26-34

1965

*

*

**

0.5

**

1966

*

*

**

0.5

**

1967

*

*

0.2

0.3

0.9

1968

*

*

0.3

0.2

0.3

1969

93

17.0

2.3

1.2

0.1

1970

106

19.4

0.4

3.3

0.1

1971

137

18.0

1.5

3.3

**

1972

137

17.3

1.7

2.9

0.1

1973

70

18.6

1.1

1.3

**

1974

86

22.6

0.4

1.5

1.1

1975

83

19.0

0.3

2.4

**

1976

68

18.7

0.9

0.9

0.5

1977

104

21.8

0.8

1.6

1.1

1978

54

20.9

0.2

1.1

0.3

1979

66

21.0

0.6

1.2

0.3

1980

49

20.6

0.3

0.8

0.1

1981

62

20.6

0.4

1.3

0.2

1982

50

21.6

0.1

1.0

0.3

1983

67

25.1

0.4

1.0

0.1

1984

91

27.0

0.3

0.9

0.9

1985

39

23.3

0.1

0.9

0.2

1986

55

20.1

1.0

0.9

0.1

1987

53

20.5

0.3

1.3

0.1

1988

78

26.2

0.2

1.2

0.3

1989

55

24.3

0.5

0.9

0.3

1990

58

25.9

0.3

0.6

0.6

1991

53

23.5

0.4

0.7

0.6

1992

32

19.6

0.4

0.6

0.2

1993

61

20.2

1.1

0.7

0.4

19942

93

19.5

1.5

1.5

0.4

19953

117

19.4

2.2

2.2

0.2

19964

171

18.1

3.9

2.3

0.4







*Low precision; no estimate reported.

**Estimate rounds to zero.

1The numerator of each rate equals the number of persons who first used the drug in the year (times 1000). The denominator of each rate equals the number of persons who were exposed to risk of first use during the year, weighted by their estimated exposure time measured in years. For example, for the age group 12-17 in 1990, the denominator is the sum of three components:

(1)those persons 12-17 years old in 1990 who first used the drug in 1989 or earlier, times a weight of zero. The weight is zero since they had zero exposure to the risk of first use in 1990.

(2)those who first used the drug in 1990 times a weight of .5. The weight of .5 assumes that these people, on average, first used the drug at midyear and consequently have a half year of exposure (i.e. the first half of the year.)

(3)those who never used, or those who first used the drug in 1991 or later, times a weight of one. The weight of one assumes their exposure to the risk of first use during 1990 was for the whole year.

Each person is also weighted by his/her sample weight.

2Estimated using 1995, 1996 and 1997 data only.

3Estimated using 1996 and 1997 data only.

4Estimated using 1997 data only.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-1997.

80529 (203A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 43.Estimated Number (in Thousands) of Persons Who First Used Alcohol During Each Year 1965-1995, Their Mean Age at First Use, and Annual Age-Specific Rates of First Use (per 1000 Person-Years of Exposure), Based on 1994-1997 NHSDAs




AGE-SPECIFIC RATE OF FIRST USE1

YEAR

INITIATES

(1000s)

MEAN

AGE

12-17

18-25

26-34

1965

3121

17.7

63.5

181.0

21.0

1966

3663

17.7

66.5

224.0

43.5

1967

3734

17.5

76.3

224.9

35.3

1968

3768

18.0

76.6

208.1

49.7

1969

4231

17.7

90.7

238.9

51.2

1970

4022

17.3

89.6

240.9

32.4

1971

3638

17.5

72.8

233.1

40.6

1972

4488

16.9

103.8

257.4

33.6

1973

4420

17.0

103.5

251.1

36.5

1974

4425

17.3

105.8

253.5

34.5

1975

3988

17.0

91.8

254.4

21.7

1976

4060

16.8

102.2

238.3

19.2

1977

4575

17.5

120.7

249.0

41.4

1978

4512

16.9

124.3

244.0

37.7

1979

4048

17.3

117.2

219.0

25.1

1980

4074

17.3

117.0

241.5

25.9

1981

3627

16.6

111.1

216.1

19.4

1982

3627

17.1

110.8

202.5

34.5

1983

3600

16.8

116.5

199.0

22.0

1984

3509

16.9

111.2

196.8

30.8

1985

3335

16.6

116.6

187.5

25.3

1986

3640

17.0

121.9

210.2

39.1

1987

3285

17.1

113.1

190.6

18.6

1988

3373

17.1

115.9

188.4

31.9

1989

3071

16.3

112.7

167.5

20.2

1990

3431

16.7

119.0

204.4

17.9

1991

3477

16.7

119.1

214.3

28.5

1992

3595

16.5

132.9

208.7

23.6

19932

3713

16.4

139.9

198.9

20.5

19943

4150

17.2

152.8

214.9

30.1

19954

4318

16.2

165.4

243.3

14.3







*Low precision; no estimate reported.

**Estimate rounds to zero.

1The numerator of each rate equals the number of persons who first used the drug in the year (times 1000). The denominator of each rate equals the number of persons who were exposed to risk of first use during the year, weighted by their estimated exposure time measured in years. For example, for the age group 12-17 in 1990, the denominator is the sum of three components:

(1)those persons 12-17 years old in 1990 who first used the drug in 1989 or earlier, times a weight of zero. The weight is zero since they had zero exposure to the risk of first use in 1990.

(2)those who first used the drug in 1990 times a weight of .5. The weight of .5 assumes that these people, on average, first used the drug at midyear and consequently have a half year of exposure (i.e. the first half of the year.)

(3)those who never used, or those who first used the drug in 1991 or later, times a weight of one. The weight of one assumes their exposure to the risk of first use during 1990 was for the whole year.

Each person is also weighted by his/her sample weight.

2Estimated using 1995, 1996 and 1997 data only.

3Estimated using 1996 and 1997 data only.

4Estimated using 1997 data only.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-1997.

80529 (201A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 44.Estimated Number (in Thousands) of Persons Who First Used A Cigarette During Each Year 1965-1995, Their Mean Age at First Use, and Annual Age-Specific Rates of First Use (per 1000 Person-Years of Exposure), Based on 1994-1997 NHSDAs




AGE-SPECIFIC RATE OF FIRST USE1

YEAR

INITIATES

(1000s)

MEAN

AGE

12-17

18-25

26-34

1965

2974

16.0

101.3

112.9

19.8

1966

2843

16.2

88.3

125.4

13.8

1967

3229

15.6

112.9

114.6

9.5

1968

3166

15.4

101.6

114.6

16.8

1969

3362

15.5

111.0

122.3

8.3

1970

3574

15.7

113.7

112.9

21.0

1971

3472

15.2

119.3

102.1

9.4

1972

3794

15.3

129.6

107.9

22.4

1973

3395

15.5

114.8

87.2

16.8

1974

3708

15.0

132.2

84.3

7.9

1975

3650

15.2

125.0

95.7

7.3

1976

3492

15.5

124.8

87.6

9.8

1977

3428

15.7

126.9

87.8

14.6

1978

3031

15.6

112.0

72.7

8.4

1979

2997

15.7

111.0

83.8

9.7

1980

2753

15.6

105.1

70.0

6.5

1981

2735

15.6

107.0

66.7

7.0

1982

2750

15.5

102.4

67.2

11.2

1983

2739

15.1

106.0

64.5

4.5

1984

2679

15.5

99.4

71.1

7.7

1985

2816

15.5

111.3

69.4

7.8

1986

2782

15.5

107.0

77.2

5.4

1987

2566

16.1

98.6

66.1

12.6

1988

2484

15.3

107.0

58.6

7.1

1989

2503

16.3

99.5

60.9

8.5

1990

2645

15.5

101.6

71.3

7.9

1991

2567

16.0

100.5

66.4

11.1

1992

2707

15.7

115.0

64.7

9.2

19932

2897

16.1

121.4

70.1

6.7

19943

3178

16.0

131.0

82.0

4.6

19954

3263

15.6

139.1

85.8

7.6







*Low precision; no estimate reported.

**Estimate rounds to zero.

1The numerator of each rate equals the number of persons who first used the drug in the year (times 1000). The denominator of each rate equals the number of persons who were exposed to risk of first use during the year, weighted by their estimated exposure time measured in years. For example, for the age group 12-17 in 1990, the denominator is the sum of three components:

(1)those persons 12-17 years old in 1990 who first used the drug in 1989 or earlier, times a weight of zero. The weight is zero since they had zero exposure to the risk of first use in 1990.

(2)those who first used the drug in 1990 times a weight of .5. The weight of .5 assumes that these people, on average, first used the drug at midyear and consequently have a half year of exposure (i.e. the first half of the year.)

(3)those who never used, or those who first used the drug in 1991 or later, times a weight of one. The weight of one assumes their exposure to the risk of first use during 1990 was for the whole year.

Each person is also weighted by his/her sample weight.

2Estimated using 1995, 1996 and 1997 data only.

3Estimated using 1996 and 1997 data only.

4Estimated using 1997 data only.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-1997.

80529 (202A)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 45.Estimated Number (in Thousands) of Persons Who Began Daily Cigarette Use During Each Year 1965-1996, Their Mean Age at First Daily Use, and Annual Age-Specific Rates of First Daily Use (per 1000 Person-Years of Exposure), Based on 1994-1997 NHSDAs




AGE-SPECIFIC RATE OF FIRST USE1

YEAR

INITIATES

(1000s)

MEAN

AGE

12-17

18-25

26-34

1965

1606

17.9

44.0

106.2

7.9

1966

1716

17.9

42.6

117.0

6.0

1967

1741

18.7

48.1

100.8

14.8

1968

2268

18.5

49.7

155.2

6.4

1969

2055

18.0

57.1

116.4

18.0

1970

1910

17.3

52.5

101.9

6.5

1971

2175

18.0

58.0

117.9

15.0

1972

2004

17.9

57.7

95.4

25.4

1973

2276

17.9

65.3

106.5

25.6

1974

2403

18.9

66.2

109.2

23.7

1975

1811

18.4

49.4

87.1

14.5

1976

1976

18.1

54.8

93.1

17.6

1977

2284

18.4

66.8

108.0

12.9

1978

1984

18.3

59.6

88.1

14.4

1979

1955

19.0

54.7

92.5

16.7

1980

1704

18.7

51.6

81.7

10.5

1981

1757

19.1

56.4

73.3

14.1

1982

1586

18.7

49.2

73.3

11.9

1983

1527

18.3

43.8

73.9

13.3

1984

1547

18.4

52.3

65.4

11.1

1985

1497

18.7

50.2

66.2

10.8

1986

1561

18.0

56.7

69.5

10.0

1987

1482

18.4

51.8

68.0

10.4

1988

1384

18.5

51.2

60.8

11.4

1989

1436

18.7

53.8

61.4

7.1

1990

1503

18.3

57.8

63.6

13.9

1991

1464

18.1

57.6

58.0

13.3

1992

1651

18.2

61.9

69.1

11.9

1993

1578

18.8

58.7

60.0

12.6

19942

1747

17.9

67.7

68.9

10.4

19953

1797

17.8

71.8

62.3

11.3

19964

1851

17.3

77.8

68.4

7.5







*Low precision; no estimate reported.

**Estimate rounds to zero.

1The numerator of each rate equals the number of persons who first used the drug in the year (times 1000). The denominator of each rate equals the number of persons who were exposed to risk of first use during the year, weighted by their estimated exposure time measured in years. For example, for the age group 12-17 in 1990, the denominator is the sum of three components:

(1)those persons 12-17 years old in 1990 who first used the drug in 1989 or earlier, times a weight of zero. The weight is zero since they had zero exposure to the risk of first use in 1990.

(2)those who first used the drug in 1990 times a weight of .5. The weight of .5 assumes that these people, on average, first used the drug at midyear and consequently have a half year of exposure (i.e. the first half of the year.)

(3)those who never used, or those who first used the drug in 1991 or later, times a weight of one. The weight of one assumes their exposure to the risk of first use during 1990 was for the whole year.

Each person is also weighted by his/her sample weight.

2Estimated using 1995, 1996 and 1997 data only.

3Estimated using 1996 and 1997 data only.

4Estimated using 1997 data only.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-1997.

80529 (301B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1985-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 46.Percentages Reporting About Risk and Availability of Drugs in the U.S. Population Aged 12 and Older: 1985-1997

Risk/Availability

1985

1988

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997












PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK






















Cigarettes











Smoke one or more packs per day

56.8b

62.3b

63.4b

63.5b

64.1b

65.5

66.3

--

68.1

67.4












Marijuana











Smoke once a month1

39.8

47.6

42.9

40.3

42.8

42.5

40.4b

--

44.1

43.4

Smoke once or twice a week1

59.6

64.2a

63.4

62.1

62.0

61.3

59.7

--

59.9

58.8












Cocaine











Use once a month1

70.3b

81.4

79.9

77.3

78.9

77.5

80.5b

--

76.0a

77.9

Use once or twice a week1

89.7

92.5

92.1

91.8

92.0

92.0

92.1

--

90.0b

92.8












Alcohol











Four or five drinks nearly every

day

73.0b

73.4b

76.5

70.1b

71.3b

70.0b

72.5b

--

76.9

76.5

Five or more drinks once or twice

a week

59.9b

57.4a

63.8b

59.0b

61.8b

60.1b

59.6b

--

53.4

54.8












AVAILABILITY






















Fairly or very easy to obtain











Marijuana

--

--

--

62.1

59.1

57.7

60.8

--

59.5

60.1

Cocaine

--

--

--

43.7b

40.2

39.0

42.6a

--

43.1

40.5

Crack

--

--

--

--

--

--

40.7

--

39.0

38.8

Heroin

--

--

--

28.3b

26.5b

25.5b

31.1

--

32.4

30.9












Approached by someone selling

drugs past month

--

--

--

--

9.2b

8.7b

6.2

--

6.6

6.9












*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. NHSDAs from 1985 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

1Estimates for 1985 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1985 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1985 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare, and not statistically significant.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (302B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998, ADJUSTED 1985-1993 ESTIMATES

Table 47.Percentages Reporting About Risk and Availability of Drugs in the U.S. Population Aged 12 to 17: 1985-1997

Risk/Availability

1985

1988

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997












PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK






















Cigarettes











Smoke one or more packs per day

45.2b

47.1b

48.1b

48.3b

48.7b

51.3

51.7

--

54.0

53.6












Marijuana











Smoke once a month1

28.9

34.3

40.4b

38.0b

38.7b

37.4a

32.9

--

32.6

30.9

Smoke once or twice a week1

59.7

62.5b

65.7b

64.5b

64.3b

63.3b

58.5b

--

57.1a

54.0












Cocaine











Use once a month1

58.4

70.0b

72.4b

67.3b

67.8b

67.6b

63.3b

--

54.4

54.4

Use once or twice a week1

83.0

85.6

86.3

85.4

84.8

84.3

84.0

--

81.4

82.4












Alcohol











Four or five drinks nearly every

day

65.8

63.3

67.9

59.8b

61.2b

59.8b

65.4

--

66.7

65.3

Five or more drinks once or twice

a week

56.1b

51.6b

59.1b

54.9b

58.4b

54.4b

54.3b

--

45.2

46.5












AVAILABILITY






















Fairly or very easy to obtain











Marijuana

--

--

--

53.6b

51.0b

52.8b

57.6

--

57.7

57.9

Cocaine

--

--

--

35.7b

33.4a

32.9

35.3b

--

32.0

30.4

Crack

--

--

--

--

--

--

33.4b

--

29.2

28.9

Heroin

--

--

--

23.1

22.4

21.3

25.3b

--

22.8

21.4












Approached by someone selling

drugs past month

--

--

--

--

13.4

14.4

13.0

--

14.9

14.6












*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The population distributions for the 1993 through 1997 NHSDAs are post-stratified to population projections of totals based on the 1990 decennial census. NHSDAs from 1985 through 1992 used projections based on the 1980 census. The change from one census base to another has little effect on estimated percentages reporting drug use, but may have a significant effect on estimates of number of drug users in some subpopulation groups.

1Estimates for 1985 through 1993 may differ from estimates for these survey years that were published in other NHSDA reports. The estimates shown here for 1985 through 1993 have been adjusted to improve their comparability with estimates based on the new version of the NHSDA instrument that was fielded in 1994 and subsequent NHSDAs. Because of the methodology used to adjust the 1985 through 1993 estimates, some logical inconsistency may exist between estimates for a given drug within the same survey year. These inconsistencies tend to be small, rare, and not statistically significant.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (306B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 48.Percentages Reporting Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes Per Day, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

54.0

53.6

62.1

61.3

68.8

68.3

71.8

70.9

68.1

67.4












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

51.9

51.7

60.2

59.0

66.4

64.8

70.7

69.6

67.0

65.9

Black

58.0

58.7

64.4

62.4

70.3

68.3

73.4

75.1

69.3

69.6

Hispanic

59.6

58.8

70.3

70.7

79.5

82.8

84.6

82.9

77.4

77.4

Other

55.7

51.1

58.5

62.2

71.2

79.2

*

62.8

63.8

64.4












SEX











Male

50.5

50.4

57.3

55.7

65.0

66.6

67.7

66.9

63.9

63.5

Female

57.5

57.0

67.0

66.9

72.4

70.0

75.4

74.4

72.1

71.1












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

54.6

56.1

66.0

63.9

72.8

72.3

72.4

73.2

69.9

70.1

Small Metro

54.9

51.5

61.7

62.3

67.6

67.8

73.6

72.7

69.0

68.3

Nonmetro

51.4

52.7

55.1

55.0

61.2

59.4

67.9

64.1

63.5

61.0












REGION











Northeast

55.5

53.8

62.1

64.9

72.3

68.6

74.0

73.4

70.7

69.9

North Central

51.5

48.6

58.0

55.3

62.4

60.1

66.2

66.7

62.8

62.1

South

51.1

54.0

60.4

59.4

68.3

68.6

72.9

70.9

68.2

67.2

West

60.2

58.2

68.7

68.5

73.1

76.7

74.2

72.8

71.6

71.3












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

53.3

53.6

63.1

67.7

74.7

69.0

69.6

66.3

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

57.8

58.3

62.6

59.6

67.3

66.5

65.1

64.1

Some College

N/A

N/A

67.2

66.6

72.9

68.5

70.1

73.6

70.1

71.2

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

75.8

69.8

75.2

78.7

77.2

75.8

76.6

76.1












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

60.4

60.0

68.2

67.7

69.5

69.8

68.0

68.1

Part-time

N/A

N/A

66.6

64.4

72.8

75.7

71.8

79.1

70.5

74.2

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

59.0a

49.4

63.8

61.7

76.7

68.5

69.0

61.8

Other3

N/A

N/A

62.3

65.5

70.1

68.5

74.2

70.6

72.7

69.9

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (307B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 49.Percentages Reporting Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

32.6

30.9

28.4

28.8

35.3

35.3

52.1

51.0

44.1

43.4












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

32.6a

29.3

24.8

25.5

29.8

29.2

48.7

47.7

41.3

40.6

Black

31.6

35.3

32.0

33.6

41.1

43.9

62.2

60.8

49.4

49.9

Hispanic

33.7

35.2

40.5

41.3

54.2

57.4

67.6

68.1

54.9

56.4

Other

33.2

28.6

34.0

25.1

52.9

42.7

*

58.6

55.3

46.6












SEX











Male

31.7

30.2

24.5

24.3

29.6

29.6

45.8

44.6

38.6

37.7

Female

33.6

31.6

32.3

33.3

40.9

40.9

57.6

56.6

49.3

48.7












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

29.7

30.3

27.2

27.0

35.2

34.6

47.9

46.5

41.1

40.2

Small Metro

33.8b

29.0

26.2

28.8

32.9

34.1

53.4

50.8

44.3

43.0

Nonmetro

35.6

35.0

34.3

31.8

39.6

39.5

57.9

58.7

49.7

50.0












REGION











Northeast

31.0

29.1

26.4

29.8

37.1

36.6

53.8

48.9

45.9

43.0

North Central

32.6

29.5

24.2

25.1

31.3

29.0

46.4

49.4

39.4

40.3

South

34.3

35.9

32.5

32.0

38.0

40.4

57.8

57.5

48.8

49.1

West

31.1b

25.3

28.3

25.8

34.2

33.1

46.8

42.8

40.0

37.1












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

32.1

36.0

47.3

49.4

70.0

72.8

60.6

63.6

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

31.6

29.4

37.1

39.6

55.9

54.5

49.0

48.1

Some College

N/A

N/A

25.2

24.4

33.7

30.7

47.7

43.6

40.6

37.2

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

21.6

25.7

28.5

27.6

35.6

35.9

32.8

33.5












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

28.4

29.7

32.7

33.1

40.1

41.5

36.7

38.0

Part-time

N/A

N/A

24.6

27.2

37.7

34.3

46.8

47.7

38.7

39.3

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

25.9

27.0

31.7

34.4

48.1

41.9

38.4

36.2

Other3

N/A

N/A

33.6

29.1

46.2

46.8

68.3

65.0

62.9

59.9

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (308B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 50.Percentages Reporting Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once or Twice a Week, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

57.1a

54.0

46.0

46.1

52.3

52.8

65.6

64.1

59.9

58.8












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

60.0b

55.2

42.8

43.4

47.8

47.5

63.4

61.8

58.2

56.8

Black

47.8

49.5

47.5

46.9

53.0

57.1

69.4

69.9

59.9

61.2

Hispanic

51.8

52.0

58.1

60.8

70.0

72.5

78.7

78.5

69.1

70.3

Other

58.4

55.0

52.7

40.6

69.5

64.9

77.6

67.1

69.6

61.1












SEX











Male

55.7a

51.8

38.6

39.7

45.8

46.2

58.5

58.0

53.3

52.9

Female

58.7

56.2

53.4

52.6

58.4

59.2

71.9

69.3

66.0

64.3












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

55.6a

51.2

44.9

43.7

52.0

53.0

63.2

60.9

58.0

56.3

Small Metro

56.4

54.3

43.3

47.3

50.8

51.2

67.0

63.3

60.0

58.3

Nonmetro

61.0

58.4

52.7

48.6

55.2

55.2

68.1

70.6

63.3

64.3












REGION











Northeast

54.1

54.1

46.2

49.4

51.5

54.7

64.8

62.7

59.6

59.1

North Central

58.7

53.7

42.7

41.6

50.0

49.6

66.9

64.5

60.0

57.6

South

59.0

57.2

49.4

48.7

55.5

55.7

68.9

68.9

63.1

62.8

West

54.6a

48.8

44.4

43.5

50.3

50.1

59.3

56.2

54.9

52.7












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

43.6

48.7

57.9

61.5

77.6

77.6

69.3

70.7

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

49.0

47.4

51.4

52.9

70.3

66.8

63.7

61.3

Some College

N/A

N/A

45.1

42.0

51.4

52.0

63.0

61.4

57.2

55.7

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

44.2

49.4

51.0

49.1

51.5

52.8

50.7

51.8












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

47.1

46.3

50.3

51.2

56.0

56.2

53.4

53.7

Part-time

N/A

N/A

41.1

44.9

53.7

50.4

62.9

63.7

55.0

55.8

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

41.1

41.9

39.7

47.5

57.7

53.8

49.1

49.2

Other3

N/A

N/A

50.7

48.7

63.8

63.6

78.8

75.5

74.6

71.9

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (309B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 51.Percentages Reporting Perceptions of Great Risk of Using Cocaine Once a Month, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

54.4

54.4

66.7b

70.6

71.2b

76.1

83.2

84.0

76.0a

77.9












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

54.7

53.0

66.4

69.0

69.1a

73.1

82.9

83.0

76.1

77.1

Black

58.6b

64.8

73.3a

77.7

77.0b

83.9

86.2

89.3

78.7b

83.2

Hispanic

50.2

52.6

63.0b

71.8

76.5b

83.1

86.2

89.4

74.7b

79.8

Other

49.3

48.3

63.0

67.8

72.7

80.6

*

79.2

70.2

73.8












SEX











Male

55.5

55.0

62.8

66.3

66.5b

72.4

80.8

79.6

73.1

73.9

Female

53.3

53.7

70.6a

74.9

75.6b

79.8

85.3

87.8

78.7b

81.6












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

54.0

56.7

65.5

69.0

69.2b

75.5

80.2

80.6

73.7

75.8

Small Metro

56.1

52.4

67.4

71.3

71.4

75.2

85.2

84.0

77.4

77.6

Nonmetro

52.6

53.4

67.8

72.2

75.3

79.2

85.8

89.9

78.3

82.2












REGION











Northeast

54.9

53.5

65.5a

73.2

72.6

77.0

82.8

83.7

76.7

78.7

North Central

53.1

52.9

62.8

66.0

67.5b

75.1

83.1

83.3

74.5

76.3

South

56.3

58.4

70.7a

75.4

75.4a

79.5

86.2

87.1

79.3

81.3

West

52.6

49.8

65.6

64.3

67.4

71.1

78.4

79.3

71.7

72.8












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

65.8

70.9

74.8b

83.4

90.0

92.2

83.9a

87.6

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

67.6

69.7

70.6b

79.1

84.5

86.2

79.6a

82.4

Some College

N/A

N/A

66.2

70.1

73.2

73.9

83.2

81.7

77.9

77.9

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

66.9

74.2

68.2

71.0

75.7

76.9

73.2

75.5












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

67.6b

72.8

70.0b

75.2

79.5

80.9

75.6a

78.5

Part-time

N/A

N/A

65.9

66.3

73.6

74.3

84.6

86.0

77.3

78.2

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

62.6

67.2

64.6

74.5

84.1

81.6

73.8

76.1

Other3

N/A

N/A

67.0

71.5

76.8a

82.1

87.4

87.8

84.4

85.7

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (310B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 52.Percentages Reporting Perceptions of Great Risk of Using Cocaine Once or Twice a Week, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

81.4

82.4

86.9b

90.8

88.4b

92.9

92.7b

94.9

90.0b

92.8












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

83.5

84.2

88.1b

91.9

88.1b

92.9

92.9b

95.2

90.7b

93.4

Black

78.4

80.7

86.3

89.7

86.4b

90.6

91.9

94.3

88.1b

91.1

Hispanic

75.0

76.4

83.5b

88.8

90.5b

94.2

94.2

95.3

88.7b

91.3

Other

78.1

79.6

80.7

*

91.9

95.7

87.3

89.4

86.1

88.8












SEX











Male

81.1

82.6

83.4b

88.4

85.3b

90.4

90.9a

93.6

87.8b

91.1

Female

81.7

82.3

90.3b

93.3

91.3b

95.3

94.3

96.0

92.0b

94.2












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

81.2

82.4

86.2a

90.1

88.7b

93.1

91.7a

94.1

89.4b

92.2

Small Metro

82.2

82.3

87.6b

91.9

86.7b

92.1

93.5

94.9

90.3b

92.7

Nonmetro

80.6

82.7

87.0

90.5

90.4

94.0

93.3

96.3

90.7a

93.8












REGION











Northeast

80.7

84.6

89.7

90.5

89.3

93.0

93.5

94.7

91.2

93.0

North Central

82.4

80.8

85.9b

92.2

86.7b

93.1

93.6

94.9

90.2a

92.7

South

82.2

83.6

87.2b

91.4

89.2b

93.6

93.3b

96.3

90.6b

93.9

West

79.6

80.6

85.4

88.7

88.1

91.5

89.7

92.7

87.7a

90.7












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

82.8a

87.1

86.3b

91.9

93.9

96.0

91.0b

94.0

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

85.6b

90.8

86.8b

91.6

92.3

94.8

90.3b

93.6

Some College

N/A

N/A

88.6a

92.3

90.4a

93.5

93.9

94.0

92.2

93.5

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

92.3

93.7

89.6b

94.4

91.2a

95.0

91.0b

94.8












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

87.0b

91.6

88.2b

93.0

91.0b

94.7

89.8b

93.9

Part-time

N/A

N/A

87.5

90.2

88.7

91.5

93.5

96.1

90.9a

93.6

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

86.6

86.5

82.8

89.2

92.1

*

88.5

89.3

Other3

N/A

N/A

86.0b

91.4

91.0b

94.9

94.6

95.3

93.4

94.9

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (311B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 53.Percentages Reporting Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

66.7

65.3

68.6

68.4

75.9

76.3

80.8

80.2

76.9

76.5












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

67.2

65.9

67.0

67.1

74.7

74.4

80.4

79.1

76.7

75.7

Black

66.3

68.9

71.6

68.7

75.1

75.7

80.2

83.1

76.0

77.6

Hispanic

63.3

60.6

73.7

74.0

80.5

84.4

83.3

87.1

78.1

80.5

Other

70.3

*

68.3

69.7

82.7

81.9

84.9

82.0

80.1

77.3












SEX











Male

62.7

60.7

59.6

61.1

70.3

71.2

74.5

74.3

70.5

70.5

Female

71.0

70.1

77.6

75.9

81.3

81.2

86.2

85.3

82.8

82.0












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

68.4

67.5

71.6

70.6

79.1

79.7

82.2

81.3

78.9

78.2

Small Metro

67.8

64.6

68.4

70.4

73.8

73.5

81.4

78.9

77.0

75.4

Nonmetro

62.1

62.6

63.1

61.4

71.8

72.4

77.2

80.4

72.9

74.9












REGION











Northeast

69.5

70.0

74.5

71.9

77.8

77.9

81.5

80.5

79.0

78.1

North Central

64.4

61.4

65.9

63.5

72.1

71.3

77.9

78.6

73.8

73.5

South

65.5

65.5

65.5

67.4

76.3

76.3

82.2

80.5

77.3

76.5

West

69.2

65.4

71.8

73.2

77.5

80.5

81.0

81.0

77.7

78.2












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

59.5

62.2

72.9

74.8

79.9

79.9

75.7

76.4

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

67.0

66.3

70.8

70.5

78.0

79.9

75.1

76.2

Some College

N/A

N/A

73.5

71.5

79.6

78.0

82.6

82.2

80.2

79.3

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

76.2

78.5

79.9

82.1

84.0

79.1

82.4

79.7












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

66.3

67.1

75.1

74.7

78.0

77.7

75.7

75.6

Part-time

N/A

N/A

72.6

70.7

79.6

79.1

83.1

82.3

79.4

78.3

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

60.0

62.9

65.5

74.3

79.9

73.4

71.3

70.7

Other3

N/A

N/A

72.6

71.2

80.3

82.3

83.7

83.6

82.3

82.3

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (312B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 54.Percentages Reporting Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: 1996 and 1997


AGE GROUP (Years)



12-17

18-25

26-34

35 and Older

Total

Demographic

Characteristic

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997

1996

1997












TOTAL

45.2

46.5

40.0

42.7

47.6

47.8

59.4

60.6

53.4

54.8












RACE/

ETHNICITY











White

42.8

44.1

34.6

36.6

42.2

41.3

57.3

58.1

50.9

51.7

Black

50.4

53.6

53.8

56.0

56.3

60.7

62.8b

71.5

58.5b

64.7

Hispanic

49.3

48.6

52.9

57.7

64.1

66.9

70.4

75.1

62.8a

66.6

Other

52.0

53.3

38.9

46.7

62.0

*

*

56.5

62.7

54.5












SEX











Male

42.0

42.5

32.7

35.9

41.0

39.7

53.5

52.9

47.2

47.2

Female

48.5

50.7

47.3

49.6

53.9

55.8

64.6

67.4

59.0a

61.7












POPULATION

DENSITY1











Large Metro

45.2

47.6

41.7a

46.7

48.0

49.2

59.2

59.6

53.5

54.8

Small Metro

46.5

45.8

39.0

40.6

45.1

45.9

61.3

60.7

54.1

54.2

Nonmetro

43.0

45.7

38.3

39.0

50.6

47.6

56.7

62.4

52.0

55.5












REGION











Northeast

44.7

48.4

40.8

41.8

49.1

47.1

57.5

60.5

53.1

55.2

North Central

42.1

42.7

33.9

34.7

43.1

39.9

54.3

59.3

48.4

50.8

South

46.2

49.1

42.6

44.6

49.1

51.9

63.1

61.2

56.3

56.2

West

47.4

44.7

41.8a

48.2

48.8

50.5

60.9

61.2

54.4

56.0












ADULT

EDUCATION2











<High School

N/A

N/A

43.2

47.9

55.0

58.7

69.0

70.6

62.9

65.4

High School Grad

N/A

N/A

42.0

42.6

46.5

48.3

56.3

60.8

52.5

55.8

Some College

N/A

N/A

38.7

38.1

51.5a

45.5

56.0

58.8

51.7

52.1

College Graduate

N/A

N/A

32.9b

46.8

41.8

43.9

58.6

54.3

52.6

51.7












CURRENT

EMPLOYMENT2











Full-time

N/A

N/A

37.1

41.2

43.9

44.2

53.8

55.0

49.1

50.7

Part-time

N/A

N/A

39.1

42.8

52.9

51.3

61.4

61.6

53.5

54.3

Unemployed

N/A

N/A

40.6

47.0

49.1

51.6

61.5

53.9

52.9

51.5

Other3

N/A

N/A

47.2

44.2

59.9

60.8

65.5

68.5

63.2

65.5

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

N/A: Not applicable.

1Population density is based on 1990 MSA classifications and their 1990 Census of Population counts.

2Data on adult education and current employment not shown for persons aged 12-17. Estimates for both adult education and current employment are for persons aged > 18.

3Retired, disabled, homemaker, student, or "other."

aDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between 1996 and 1997 is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1996 and 1997.

80529 (403B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 55.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the Population Aged 12 and Older for California, Arizona, and the Remainder of the U.S.: 1997 (Q2-Q4)


TIME PERIOD (Population)


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Drug

California

Arizona

U.S.

Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.

California

Arizona

U.S.

Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.

California

Arizona

U.S.

Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.

Any Illicit Drug1

38.9

42.8

35.4

35.9

14.3

14.4

10.8

11.2

8.3

8.4

6.1

6.4














Marijuana and Hashish

34.3

38.0

33.0

33.2

10.4

10.7

8.7

9.0

6.0

6.1

5.0

5.1

Cocaine

13.7

15.2

9.9

10.4

2.3

2.9

1.8

1.9

0.9

0.8

0.6

0.7

Crack

2.5

3.4

1.9

2.0

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.2

0.2

0.3

Inhalants

6.8

9.3

5.6

5.8

1.3

2.3

1.0

1.1

0.6

0.7

0.4

0.4

Hallucinogens

11.1

13.7

9.6

9.8

2.1

3.3

2.0

2.0

0.6

1.2

0.9

0.9

PCP

4.4

4.5

3.0

3.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

*

0.1

0.1

0.1

LSD

8.9

10.9

7.9

8.0

0.7

1.7

0.9

0.9

0.1

0.5

0.3

0.2

Heroin

1.8

2.0

0.8

0.9

0.6

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

12.0

15.0

8.5

9.0

4.2

4.8

2.7

2.9

2.3

2.3

1.1

1.2

Stimulants

6.3

7.8

4.4

4.7

1.6

2.0

0.7

0.8

1.1

0.8

0.2

0.3

Sedatives

2.6

3.1

1.8

1.9

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.1

Tranquilizers

4.0

5.2

3.0

3.2

1.0

1.4

1.1

1.1

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.4

Analgesics

6.9

9.7

4.5

4.9

2.9

3.2

1.8

2.0

1.2

1.4

0.7

0.7














Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

23.6

27.0

18.3

19.1

7.4

9.0

5.3

5.6

4.0

4.2

2.4

2.6














Alcohol

76.7

86.0

82.2

81.6

61.5

66.1

64.2

63.9

49.5

54.6

51.0

50.9

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

12.4

17.5

15.8

15.4

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

4.9

7.5

5.8

5.7














Cigarettes

63.0

74.4

71.2

70.3

26.4

34.1

33.2

32.4

23.0

30.1

30.2

29.3














Smokeless Tobacco

9.9

18.8

18.1

17.2

1.9

4.1

5.1

4.7

1.0

2.4

3.6

3.3














*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The estimates in this table are based on data from quarters 2-4 of the 1997 NHSDA survey, and may differ from estimates presented in other tables which are based on data from

all 4 quarters.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit

Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1997 (Q2-Q4).

80529 (404B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 56.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the Population Aged 12 to 17 for California, Arizona, and the Remainder of the U.S.: 1997 (Q2-Q4)


TIME PERIOD (Population)


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Drug

California

Arizona

U.S.

Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.

California

Arizona

U.S.

Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.

California

Arizona

U.S.

Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.

Any Illicit Drug1

24.5

35.5

24.7

24.9

18.3

28.8

19.4

19.4

9.1

16.8

11.9

11.7














Marijuana and Hashish

19.4

28.9

19.7

19.8

15.3

23.8

16.4

16.4

6.6

13.1

9.9

9.6

Cocaine

2.2

5.9

3.1

3.0

1.6

4.5

2.3

2.3

0.7

1.9

1.1

1.1

Crack

0.8

2.3

1.4

1.3

0.6

1.8

0.9

0.8

0.3

1.0

0.5

0.5

Inhalants

5.2

12.6

7.5

7.4

3.4

7.3

4.8

4.6

1.2

2.9

2.2

2.1

Hallucinogens

5.9

11.3

7.3

7.2

4.0

8.2

5.3

5.2

1.4

3.3

2.4

2.3

PCP

0.8

2.2

1.6

1.5

0.4

1.0

0.6

0.6

0.0

0.4

0.2

0.2

LSD

3.8

8.1

5.8

5.6

1.9

5.2

3.3

3.2

0.3

1.4

0.9

0.9

Heroin

0.5

0.8

0.5

0.5

0.3

0.6

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.4

0.2

0.2

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

8.3

11.8

7.1

7.3

5.0

7.8

5.3

5.3

2.6

3.1

1.8

1.9

Stimulants

2.7

4.7

2.3

2.4

1.5

2.8

1.7

1.7

0.9

1.1

0.5

0.6

Sedatives

1.3

1.6

0.8

0.9

0.3

0.8

0.5

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

Tranquilizers

1.6

2.5

2.4

2.3

0.7

1.7

1.7

1.5

0.2

0.5

0.6

0.5

Analgesics

6.9

9.1

5.1

5.4

4.2

5.9

3.7

3.8

2.2

1.9

1.2

1.3














Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

14.3

23.1

15.0

15.0

9.0

16.9

10.8

10.7

5.0

8.2

5.6

5.6














Alcohol

37.8

45.9

40.1

40.0

30.1

39.4

34.9

34.4

17.4

23.7

21.5

21.0

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

6.3

11.0

9.0

8.7

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

2.8

4.7

3.3

3.3














Cigarettes

30.2

43.8

40.1

39.0

19.6

29.4

27.4

26.5

13.7

22.6

20.9

20.1














Smokeless Tobacco

5.3

9.9

10.0

9.5

2.1

3.9

4.8

4.5

0.9

1.6

1.8

1.7














*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The estimates in this table are based on data from quarters 2-4 of the 1997 NHSDA survey, and may differ from estimates presented in other tables which are based on data from

all 4 quarters.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit

Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1997 (Q2-Q4).

80529 (408B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 57.Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the Population Aged 18 and Older for California, Arizona, and the Remainder of the U.S.: 1997 (Q2-Q4)


TIME PERIOD (Population)


Lifetime

Past Year

Past Month

Drug

California

Arizona

U.S.

Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.

California

Arizona

U.S.

Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.

California

Arizona

U.S.

Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.

Any Illicit Drug1

40.6

43.7

36.6

37.2

13.8

12.6

9.8

10.3

8.2

7.3

5.4

5.8














Marijuana and Hashish

36.0

39.2

34.5

34.8

9.9

9.1

7.8

8.1

5.9

5.3

4.4

4.6

Cocaine

15.1

16.4

10.7

11.3

2.3

2.7

1.7

1.8

0.9

0.7

0.6

0.6

Crack

2.7

3.6

2.0

2.1

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.1

0.2

0.2

Inhalants

7.0

8.9

5.4

5.7

1.1

1.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

Hallucinogens

11.7

14.0

9.9

10.1

1.9

2.7

1.6

1.6

0.5

0.9

0.7

0.7

PCP

4.8

4.8

3.1

3.3

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.1

*

*

0.1

0.1

LSD

9.5

11.2

8.1

8.3

0.6

1.2

0.7

0.7

0.1

0.4

0.2

0.2

Heroin

2.0

2.2

0.8

1.0

0.6

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.5

0.1

0.1

0.1

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

12.5

15.4

8.7

9.2

4.1

4.4

2.3

2.6

2.3

2.2

1.0

1.1

Stimulants

6.7

8.2

4.7

5.0

1.6

1.9

0.5

0.7

1.1

0.8

0.2

0.3

Sedatives

2.8

3.3

1.9

2.0

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.1

Tranquilizers

4.2

5.5

3.1

3.3

1.0

1.4

1.0

1.0

0.7

0.4

0.3

0.4

Analgesics

6.9

9.8

4.5

4.8

2.7

2.9

1.6

1.8

1.1

1.3

0.6

0.7














Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

24.7

27.5

18.7

19.6

7.2

7.9

4.7

5.0

3.9

3.7

2.0

2.3














Alcohol

81.3

91.0

87.0

86.4

65.3

69.5

67.6

67.3

53.4

58.5

54.4

54.3

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

13.2

18.3

16.5

16.2

Heavy Alcohol Use3

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

5.1

7.9

6.0

6.0














Cigarettes

66.9

78.2

74.8

73.9

27.2

34.7

33.9

33.1

24.1

31.0

31.2

30.4














Smokeless Tobacco

10.4

19.9

19.0

18.1

1.8

4.1

5.2

4.8

1.0

2.5

3.8

3.5














*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The estimates in this table are based on data from quarters 2-4 of the 1997 NHSDA survey, and may differ from estimates presented in other tables which are based on data from

all 4 quarters.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit

Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1997 (Q2-Q4).

80529 (409B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 58.Percentages Reporting About Risk and Availability of Drugs in the Population Aged 12 and Older for California, Arizona, and the Remainder of the U.S.: 1997 (Q2-Q4)


POPULATION

Risk/Availability

California

Arizona

U.S. Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.






PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK










Cigarettes





Smoke one or more packs per day

76.0

68.0

66.5

67.6






Marijuana





Smoke once a month

37.6

39.9

44.3

43.5

Smoke once or twice a week

53.8

55.7

60.0

59.2






Cocaine





Use once a month

74.5

74.2

78.2

77.7

Use once or twice a week

91.2

91.3

92.8

92.6






Alcohol





Four or five drinks nearly every day

78.0

74.7

76.2

76.3

Five or more drinks once or twice a week

57.6

54.3

55.1

55.3






AVAILABILITY










Fairly or very easy to obtain





Marijuana

56.8

60.5

60.9

60.4

Cocaine

35.7

41.8

41.1

40.5

Crack

33.6

38.3

39.8

39.0

Heroin

27.9

31.5

31.5

31.1






Approached by someone selling drugs past month

9.1

8.5

6.6

6.9






*Low precision; no estimate reported.

NOTE:The estimates in this table are based on data from quarters 2-4 of the 1997 NHSDA survey, and may differ from estimates presented in other tables which are based on data from

all 4 quarters.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1997 (Q2-Q4).

80529 (410B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 59.Percentages Reporting About Risk and Availability of Drugs in the Population Aged 12 to 17 for California, Arizona, and the Remainder of the U.S.: 1997 (Q2-Q4)


POPULATION

Risk/Availability

California

Arizona

U.S. Excluding

CA & AZ

Total

U.S.






PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK










Cigarettes





Smoke one or more packs per day

63.3

54.2

52.2

53.5






Marijuana





Smoke once a month

30.7

24.9

31.3

31.1

Smoke once or twice a week

50.7

46.6

54.3

53.7






Cocaine





Use once a month

55.3

47.5

54.6

54.5

Use once or twice a week

82.3

80.0

82.2

82.2






Alcohol





Four or five drinks nearly every day

68.1

59.8

65.2

65.4

Five or more drinks once or twice a week

46.7

42.4

45.9

45.9






AVAILABILITY










Fairly or very easy to obtain





Marijuana

53.3

64.4

58.8

58.2

Cocaine

26.6

37.2

29.8

29.6

Crack

25.8

34.8

28.3

28.1

Heroin

19.4

26.3

20.9

20.8






Approached by someone selling drugs past month

18.3

21.1

14.0

14.6






*Low precision; no estimate reported.

NOTE:The estimates in this table are based on data from quarters 2-4 of the 1997 NHSDA survey, and may differ from estimates presented in other tables which are based on data from

all 4 quarters.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1997 (Q2-Q4).

80529 (445B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 60.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the Population Aged 12 and Older for California: 1994-1997

Drug

1994

1995

1996

1997

Any Illicit Drug1

6.7

6.6

7.8

7.9






Marijuana and Hashish

5.1

5.2

6.0

5.9

Cocaine

0.7

0.5

0.7

0.8

Crack

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.4

Inhalants

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.7

Hallucinogens

0.4

1.0

0.6

0.7

PCP

*

0.0

0.0

*

LSD

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.2

Heroin

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.3

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

1.6

1.4

1.7

2.2

Stimulants

0.6

0.7

0.4a

1.0

Sedatives

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.2

Tranquilizers

0.4

0.4

0.6

0.5

Analgesics

1.0

0.6

0.8

1.1






Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

2.8

3.0

2.9

3.8






Alcohol

55.3

51.6

51.1

51.4

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

14.5

15.5

14.6

12.6

Heavy Alcohol Use3

4.0

5.3

5.1

5.0






Cigarettes

23.7

22.7

25.0

24.8






Smokeless Tobacco

1.3

1.4

1.4

1.1

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The 1994-1996 NHSDA samples were not designed to produce fully representative California estimates. However, the size and coverage (appproximately 95% of the California

population) of the 1994-1996 samples were sufficient to provide reasonably accurate prevalence estimates for California. Although the sample weights associated with 1994-1996

NHSDA respondents from California were not post-stratified to California population projections, analyses of the NHSDA data revealed this lack of post-stratification has little

effect on estimated percentages of reported drug use. However, it may have a significant effect on estimates of totals within certain subgroups.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (446B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 61.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the Population Aged 12 to 17 for California: 1994-1997

Drug

1994

1995

1996

1997

Any Illicit Drug1

9.4

9.2

11.3

9.8






Marijuana and Hashish

7.3

6.5

9.2

6.8

Cocaine

0.5

0.6

0.8

0.7

Crack

0.2

0.4

0.3

0.4

Inhalants

1.1

2.6

0.8

1.9

Hallucinogens

1.4

1.9

2.4

1.4

PCP

*

0.1

*

0.0

LSD

1.0

0.8

1.1

0.6

Heroin

*

0.4

*

0.1

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

2.6

1.5

2.3

3.2

Stimulants

1.0

0.5

0.6

1.3

Sedatives

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

Tranquilizers

0.3

0.6

*

0.4

Analgesics

1.8

1.2

2.1

2.5






Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

4.6

5.1

4.9

5.4






Alcohol

20.6

14.6

16.2

17.4

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

7.6

2.8b

6.1

6.7

Heavy Alcohol Use3

2.0

0.5b

1.6

3.3






Cigarettes

13.6

12.1

15.0

13.7






Smokeless Tobacco

1.1

0.2a

0.3

0.9

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The 1994-1996 NHSDA samples were not designed to produce fully representative California estimates. However, the size and coverage (appproximately 95% of the California

population) of the 1994-1996 samples were sufficient to provide reasonably accurate prevalence estimates for California. Although the sample weights associated with 1994-1996

NHSDA respondents from California were not post-stratified to California population projections, analyses of the NHSDA data revealed this lack of post-stratification has little

effect on estimated percentages of reported drug use. However, it may have a significant effect on estimates of totals within certain subgroups.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (450B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 62.Percentages Reporting Past Month Use of Illicit Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco in the Population Aged 18 and Older for California: 1994-1997

Drug

1994

1995

1996

1997

Any Illicit Drug1

6.4

6.3

7.4

7.6






Marijuana and Hashish

4.9

5.1

5.6

5.8

Cocaine

0.7

0.5

0.7

0.8

Crack

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.4

Inhalants

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.5

Hallucinogens

0.3

0.9

0.4

0.6

PCP

*

*

*

*

LSD

0.2

0.0a

0.0a

0.2

Heroin

0.1

*

0.0

0.4

Nonmedical Use of Any

Psychotherapeutic2

1.5

1.4

1.6

2.1

Stimulants

0.5

0.8

0.4

1.0

Sedatives

0.1

0.1

*

0.2

Tranquilizers

0.4

0.4

0.7

0.6

Analgesics

0.9

0.6

0.7

1.0






Any Illicit Drug

Other than Marijuana1

2.6

2.7

2.6

3.6






Alcohol

59.6

56.0

55.3

55.5

"Binge" Alcohol Use3

15.4

17.0

15.6

13.3

Heavy Alcohol Use3

4.3

5.8

5.5

5.2






Cigarettes

25.0

24.0

26.2

26.2






Smokeless Tobacco

1.3

1.6

1.5

1.1

*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The 1994-1996 NHSDA samples were not designed to produce fully representative California estimates. However, the size and coverage (appproximately 95% of the California

population) of the 1994-1996 samples were sufficient to provide reasonably accurate prevalence estimates for California. Although the sample weights associated with 1994-1996

NHSDA respondents from California were not post-stratified to California population projections, analyses of the NHSDA data revealed this lack of post-stratification has little

effect on estimated percentages of reported drug use. However, it may have a significant effect on estimates of totals within certain subgroups.

1Any Illicit Drug indicates use at least once of marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically. Any Illicit Drug Other than Marijuana indicates use at least once of any of these listed drugs, regardless of marijuana/hashish use; marijuana/hashish users who also have used any of the other listed drugs are included.

2Nonmedical use of any prescription-type stimulant, sedative, tranquilizer, or analgesic; does not include over-the-counter-drugs.

3"Binge" Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the past 30 days. By "occasion" is meant at the same time or within a couple hours of each other. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of five or more days in the past 30 days; all Heavy Alcohol Users are also "Binge" Alcohol Users.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (451B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 63.Percentages Reporting About Risk and Availability of Drugs in the Population Aged 12 and Older for California: 1994-1997

Risk/Availability

1994

1995

1996

1997






PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK










Cigarettes





Smoke one or more packs per day

71.1

--

74.9

74.0






Marijuana





Smoke once a month

36.5

--

39.0

37.8

Smoke once or twice a week

55.5

--

53.1

53.7






Cocaine





Use once a month

77.1

--

70.8a

74.7

Use once or twice a week

89.9

--

86.4b

91.1






Alcohol





Four or five drinks nearly every day

77.0

--

79.4

78.4

Five or more drinks once or twice a week

65.1b

--

56.8

56.8






AVAILABILITY










Fairly or very easy to obtain





Marijuana

58.7

--

56.6

55.6

Cocaine

43.8b

--

40.9b

35.0

Crack

39.2b

--

36.9

32.9

Heroin

32.4a

--

30.8

27.1






Approached by someone selling drugs past month

7.8

--

7.9

8.8






*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The 1994-1996 NHSDA samples were not designed to produce fully representative California estimates. However, the size and coverage (appproximately 95% of the California

population) of the 1994-1996 samples were sufficient to provide reasonably accurate prevalence estimates for California. Although the sample weights associated with 1994-1996

NHSDA respondents from California were not post-stratified to California population projections, analyses of the NHSDA data revealed this lack of post-stratification has little

effect on estimated percentages of reported drug use. However, it may have a significant effect on estimates of totals within certain subgroups.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

80529 (452B)PRELIMINARY DATA - AS OF JUNE 1998

Table 64.Percentages Reporting About Risk and Availability of Drugs in the Population Aged 12 to 17 for California: 1994-1997

Risk/Availability

1994

1995

1996

1997






PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK










Cigarettes





Smoke one or more packs per day

56.6

--

63.6

62.4






Marijuana





Smoke once a month

32.2

--

30.7

29.1

Smoke once or twice a week

52.3

--

54.4

49.5






Cocaine





Use once a month

60.5a

--

54.9

54.1

Use once or twice a week

83.0

--

79.8

81.7






Alcohol





Four or five drinks nearly every day

66.0

--

69.8

68.8

Five or more drinks once or twice a week

56.5b

--

47.1

46.5






AVAILABILITY










Fairly or very easy to obtain





Marijuana

58.1

--

56.4

53.2

Cocaine

37.9b

--

32.8

28.1

Crack

35.2b

--

28.5

25.9

Heroin

29.9b

--

19.0

19.1






Approached by someone selling drugs past month

13.7

--

15.2

18.2






*Low precision; no estimate reported.

-- Not available.

NOTE:The 1994-1996 NHSDA samples were not designed to produce fully representative California estimates. However, the size and coverage (appproximately 95% of the California

population) of the 1994-1996 samples were sufficient to provide reasonably accurate prevalence estimates for California. Although the sample weights associated with 1994-1996

NHSDA respondents from California were not post-stratified to California population projections, analyses of the NHSDA data revealed this lack of post-stratification has little

effect on estimated percentages of reported drug use. However, it may have a significant effect on estimates of totals within certain subgroups.

aDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

bDifference between estimate and 1997 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

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