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Chapter 2 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1 is titled "Types of Drugs Used by Past Month Illicit Drug Users Aged 12 or Older: 2005." It is a pie chart with the following note below the chart: "19.7 Million Past Month Illicit Drug Users." The pie chart shows the percentages of types of drugs used by past month illicit drug users. Of the 19.7 million past month illicit drug users, 54.5 percent used marijuana only, 19.6 percent used marijuana and other illicit drugs, and 25.8 percent used only an illicit drug other than marijuana in the past month.

Click here to return to Figure 2.1


Figure 2.2. Figure 2.2 is titled "Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where the types of illicit drugs (marijuana, psychotherapeutics, cocaine, hallucinogens, and inhalants) are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each illicit drug type, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of past month use of marijuana was 6.2 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 6.1 percent in 2004, and 6.0 percent in 2005.

The prevalence of past month use of psychotherapeutics was 2.6 percent in 2002, 2.7 percent in 2003, 2.5 percent in 2004, and 2.6 percent in 2005.

The prevalence of past month use of cocaine was 0.9 percent in 2002, 1.0 percent in 2003, 0.8 percent in 2004, and 1.0 percent in 2005.

The prevalence of past month use of hallucinogens was 0.5 percent in 2002 and 0.4 percent in 2003, 2004, and 2005.

The prevalence of past month use of inhalants was 0.3 percent in 2002, 0.2 percent in 2003, and 0.3 percent in 2004 and 2005.

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Figure 2.3. Figure 2.3 is titled "Past Month Methamphetamine Use and Illicit Drug or Stimulant Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Year: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where use and dependence or abuse are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers of persons in thousands are shown on the vertical axis. For each category of use and dependence or abuse, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The number of past month methamphetamine users was 597,000 in 2002, 607,000 in 2003, 583,000 in 2004, and 512,000 in 2005.

The number of past month methamphetamine users with past year illicit drug dependence or abuse was 164,000 in 2002, 250,000 in 2003, 346,000 in 2004, and 257,000 in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The number of past month methamphetamine users with past year stimulant dependence or abuse was 63,000 in 2002, 92,000 in 2003, 130,000 in 2004, and 103,000 in 2005.

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Figure 2.4. Figure 2.4 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age: 2005." It is a bar graph, where age is shown in years on the horizontal axis and the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are 14 categories of age.

Among 12 or 13 year olds, 3.8 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 14 or 15 year olds, 8.9 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 16 or 17 year olds, 17.0 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 18 to 20 year olds, 22.3 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 21 to 25 year olds, 18.7 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 26 to 29 year olds, 12.9 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 30 to 34 year olds, 9.6 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 35 to 39 year olds, 7.6 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 40 to 44 year olds, 7.2 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 45 to 49 year olds, 6.6 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 50 to 54 year olds, 5.2 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 55 to 59 year olds, 3.4 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 60 to 64 year olds, 1.8 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among persons aged 65 or older, 0.8 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

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Figure 2.5. Figure 2.5 is titled "Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where the types of illicit drugs (marijuana, psychotherapeutics, cocaine, hallucinogens, and inhalants) are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each illicit drug type, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of past month marijuana use among youths was 8.2 percent in 2002, 7.9 percent in 2003, 7.6 percent in 2004, and 6.8 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month psychotherapeutic use among youths was 4.0 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 3.6 percent in 2004, and 3.3 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month cocaine use among youths was 0.6 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 0.5 percent in 2004, and 0.6 percent in 2005.

The prevalence of past month hallucinogen use among youths was 1.0 percent in both 2002 and 2003 and 0.8 percent in both 2004 and 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month inhalant use among youths was 1.2 percent in 2002, 1.3 percent in 2003, and 1.2 percent in both 2004 and 2005.

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Figure 2.6. Figure 2.6 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each age group, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among persons aged 12 or older, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 8.3 percent in 2002, 8.2 percent in 2003, 7.9 percent in 2004, and 8.1 percent in 2005.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 11.6 percent in 2002, 11.2 percent in 2003, 10.6 percent in 2004, and 9.9 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Among young adults aged 18 to 25, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 20.2 percent in 2002, 20.3 percent in 2003, 19.4 percent in 2004, and 20.1 percent in 2005.

Among adults aged 26 or older, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 5.8 percent in 2002, 5.6 percent in 2003, 5.5 percent in 2004, and 5.8 percent in 2005.

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Figure 2.7. Figure 2.7 is titled "Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Young Adults Aged 18 to 25: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where the types of illicit drugs (marijuana, psychotherapeutics, cocaine, hallucinogens, and inhalants) are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each illicit drug type, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of past month marijuana use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 17.3 percent in 2002, 17.0 percent in 2003, 16.1 percent in 2004, and 16.6 percent in 2005.

The prevalence of past month psychotherapeutic use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 5.4 percent in 2002, 6.0 percent in 2003, 6.1 percent in 2004, and 6.3 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month cocaine use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 2.0 percent in 2002, 2.2 percent in 2003, 2.1 percent in 2004, and 2.6 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month hallucinogen use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 1.9 percent in 2002, 1.7 percent in 2003, and 1.5 percent in both 2004 and 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month inhalant use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 0.5 percent in 2002, 0.4 percent in both 2003 and 2004, and 0.5 percent in 2005.

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Figure 2.8. Figure 2.8 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Adults Aged 50 to 59: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each age group, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among adults aged 50 to 59, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 2.7 percent in 2002, 3.1 percent in 2003, 3.8 percent in 2004, and 4.4 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Among adults aged 50 to 54, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 3.4 percent in 2002, 3.9 percent in 2003, 4.8 percent in 2004, and 5.2 percent in 2005.

Among adults aged 55 to 59, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 1.9 percent in 2002, 2.0 percent in 2003, 2.6 percent in 2004, and 3.4 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

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Figure 2.9. Figure 2.9 is titled "Past Month Marijuana Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where gender is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using marijuana in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among males aged 12 to 17, the percentage using marijuana in the past month was 9.1 percent in 2002, 8.6 percent in 2003, 8.1 percent in 2004, and 7.5 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Among females aged 12 to 17, the percentage using marijuana in the past month was 7.2 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 7.1 percent in 2004, and 6.2 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

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Figure 2.10 Figure 2.10 is titled "Past Month Marijuana Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Geographic Region: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where geographic regions are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using marijuana in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. The four geographic regions are the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. For each region, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths in the Northeast using marijuana in the past month was 9.5 percent in 2002, 8.7 percent in 2003, 8.6 percent in 2004, and 7.9 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The percentage of youths in the Midwest using marijuana in the past month was 8.1 percent in 2002, 8.0 percent in 2003, 7.3 percent in 2004, and 6.9 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths in the South using marijuana in the past month was 7.7 percent in 2002, 6.8 percent in 2003, 6.0 percent in 2004, and 6.2 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The percentage of youths in the West using marijuana in the past month was 8.0 percent in 2002, 8.7 percent in 2003, 9.3 percent in 2004, and 6.8 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2003 and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 2.10

Chapter 3 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 3.1. Figure 3.1 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age: 2005." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are 14 age categories, and for each age category, the bar is separated into three sections corresponding to three types of alcohol use: (1) current alcohol use, which does not include binge use or heavy use; (2) binge alcohol use, which does not include heavy use; and (3) heavy alcohol use.

Among 12 or 13 year olds, 4.2 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 2.2 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 1.7 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 0.2 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 14 or 15 year olds, 15.1 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 7.1 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 6.3 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 1.7 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 16 or 17 year olds, 30.1 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 10.4 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 14.4 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 5.3 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 18 to 20 year olds, 51.1 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 15.0 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 23.1 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 13.0 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 21 to 25 year olds, 67.4 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 21.7 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 28.8 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 16.8 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 26 to 29 year olds, 63.7 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 28.4 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 24.6 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 10.7 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 30 to 34 year olds, 61.6 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 30.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 22.2 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 8.8 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 35 to 39 year olds, 62.4 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 34.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 20.7 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.0 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 40 to 44 year olds, 60.1 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 33.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 19.3 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.2 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 45 to 49 year olds, 60.2 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 36.9 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 17.0 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 6.3 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 50 to 54 year olds, 58.3 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 39.4 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 13.5 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 5.5 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 55 to 59 year olds, 50.8 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 36.7 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 10.9 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 3.3 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 60 to 64 year olds, 47.5 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 35.7 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 8.8 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 3.1 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among persons aged 65 or older, 40.0 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 31.7 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 6.6 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 1.7 percent were heavy alcohol users.

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Figure 3.2. Figure 3.2 is titled "Current Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by Gender: 2002 through 2005." This is a bar graph, where gender is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage drinking alcohol in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender and the total of all persons in this age group, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among all persons aged 12 to 20, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 28.8 percent in 2002, 29.0 percent in 2003, 28.7 percent in 2004, and 28.2 percent in 2005.

Among males aged 12 to 20, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 29.6 percent in 2002, 29.9 percent in 2003, 29.6 percent in 2004, and 28.9 percent in 2005.

Among females aged 12 to 20, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 28.0 percent in 2002, 28.1 percent in 2003, 27.8 percent in 2004, and 27.5 percent in 2005.

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Figure 3.3. Figure 3.3 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Race/Ethnicity: 2005." It is a bar graph, where race/ethnicity is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using alcohol in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. The seven categories of race/ethnicity are (1) white, (2) black or African American, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, (4) Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, (5) Asian, (6) two or more races, and (7) Hispanic or Latino. For each race/ethnicity category, the bar is separated into three sections corresponding to three types of alcohol use: (1) current alcohol use, which does not include binge use or heavy use; (2) binge alcohol use, which does not include heavy use; and (3) heavy alcohol use.

Among whites, 56.5 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 33.1 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 15.9 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.4 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among blacks or African Americans, 40.8 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 20.4 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 16.1 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 4.2 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among American Indians or Alaska Natives, 42.4 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 9.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 21.3 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 11.5 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders, 37.3 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 20.4 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 5.3 percent were heavy alcohol users. Due to low precision, the estimate for current use (non-binge or heavy) is suppressed.

Among Asians, 38.1 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 25.4 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 10.7 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 2.0 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among persons of two or more races, 47.3 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 26.5 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 15.2 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 5.6 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among Hispanics or Latinos, 42.6 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 18.9 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 18.1 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 5.6 percent were heavy alcohol users.

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Figure 3.4. Figure 3.4 is titled "Heavy Alcohol Use among Adults Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where full-time college enrollment status is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with heavy alcohol use in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each category of enrollment, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among adults aged 18 to 22 enrolled in college full time, 18.8 percent were past month heavy alcohol users in 2002, 17.6 percent in 2003, 18.6 percent in 2004, and 19.5 percent in 2005.

Among adults aged 18 to 22 not enrolled full time in college, 13.4 percent were past month heavy alcohol users in 2002 and 2003, 13.5 percent in 2004, and 13.0 percent in 2005.

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Figure 3.5. Figure 3.5 is titled "Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year was 14.2 percent in 2002, 13.6 percent in 2003, 13.5 percent in 2004, and 13.0 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

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Figure 3.6. Figure 3.6 is titled "Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 16 or Older, by Age: 2005." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. There are 12 age categories.

The percentage of persons driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year was 8.3 percent among 16 or 17 year olds, 19.8 percent among 18 to 20 year olds, 27.9 percent among 21 to 25 year olds, 22.6 percent among 26 to 29 year olds, 17.4 percent among 30 to 34 year olds, 16.7 percent among 35 to 39 year olds, 16.9 percent among 40 to 44 year olds, 13.8 percent among 45 to 49 year olds, 12.8 percent among 50 to 54 year olds, 8.6 percent among 55 to 59 year olds, 4.9 percent among 60 to 64 year olds, and 2.9 percent among persons aged 65 or older.

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Chapter 4 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 4.1. Figure 4.1 is titled "Past Month Tobacco Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where the type of tobacco product is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are five categories of tobacco use: tobacco products, cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco. For each type of tobacco use, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 30.4 percent used tobacco products in the past month in 2002, 29.8 percent in 2003, 29.2 percent in 2004, and 29.4 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 26.0 percent used cigarettes in the past month in 2002, 25.4 percent in 2003, and 24.9 percent in both 2004 and 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 5.4 percent used cigars in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 5.7 percent in 2004, and 5.6 percent in 2005.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 3.3 percent used smokeless tobacco in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 3.0 percent in 2004, and 3.2 percent in 2005.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 0.8 percent used pipe tobacco in the past month in 2002, 0.7 percent in 2003, 0.8 percent in 2004, and 0.9 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2003 estimate was statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 4.1


Figure 4.2. Figure 4.2 is titled "Past Month Tobacco Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where the type of tobacco product is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are five categories of tobacco use: tobacco products, cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco. For each type of tobacco use, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 15.2 percent used tobacco products in the past month in 2002, 14.4 percent in both 2003 and 2004, and 13.1 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 13.0 percent used cigarettes in the past month in 2002, 12.2 percent in 2003, 11.9 percent in 2004, and 10.8 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 4.5 percent used cigars in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 4.8 percent in 2004, and 4.2 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2004 estimate was statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 2.0 percent used smokeless tobacco in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 2.3 percent in 2004, and 2.1 percent in 2005.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 0.6 percent used pipe tobacco in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 0.7 percent in 2004, and 0.6 percent in 2005.

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Figure 4.3. Figure 4.3 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use, by Age: 2005." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are 14 age categories.

The percentage of past month cigarette smokers was 2.4 percent among 12 or 13 year olds, 9.2 percent among 14 or 15 year olds, 20.6 percent among 16 or 17 year olds, 35.7 percent among 18 to 20 year olds, 41.2 percent among 21 to 25 year olds, 35.8 percent among 26 to 29 year olds, 30.8 percent among 30 to 34 year olds, 28.9 percent among 35 to 39 year olds, 30.5 percent among 40 to 44 year olds, 29.7 percent among 45 to 49 year olds, 24.5 percent among 50 to 54 year olds, 19.5 percent among 55 to 59 year olds, 19.0 percent among 60 to 64 year olds, and 10.0 percent among persons aged 65 or older.

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Figure 4.4. Figure 4.4 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: 2002 through 2005." This is a bar graph, where gender is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among male youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 12.3 percent in 2002, 11.9 percent in 2003, 11.3 percent in 2004, and 10.7 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Among female youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 13.6 percent in 2002, 12.5 percent in both 2003 and 2004, and 10.8 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 4.4


Figure 4.5. Figure 4.5 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among Women Aged 15 to 44, by Age and Pregnancy Status: 2004 and 2005 Combined." It is a bar graph, where age is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of three age categories, there is a bar representing pregnant women and a bar representing women who are not pregnant.

Among women aged 15 to 17, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 22.3 percent among those who were pregnant and 18.5 percent among those not pregnant.

Among women aged 18 to 25, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 26.4 percent among those who were pregnant and 35.8 percent among those not pregnant.

Among women aged 26 to 44, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 10.4 percent among those who were pregnant and 28.8 percent among those not pregnant.

Click here to return to Figure 4.5


Figure 4.6. Figure 4.6 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among Persons in Completely Rural Counties, by Age: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each age group, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among persons aged 12 or older in completely rural counties, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 31.8 percent in 2002, 28.0 percent in 2003, 22.8 percent in 2004, and 23.3 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 in completely rural counties, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 20.4 percent in 2002, 14.9 percent in 2003, 12.5 percent in 2004, and 15.7 percent in 2005.

Among young adults aged 18 to 25 in completely rural counties, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 44.7 percent in 2002, 52.0 percent in 2003, 51.8 percent in 2004, and 45.3 percent in 2005.

Among adults aged 26 or older in completely rural counties, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 31.7 percent in 2002, 27.1 percent in 2003, 20.9 percent in 2004, and 21.4 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 4.6

Chapter 5 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 5.1. Figure 5.1 is titled "Past Year Initiates for Specific Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2005." It is a bar graph, where 11 specific illicit drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of past year initiates are shown on the vertical axis.

The number of past year initiates in 2005 was 2,193,000 for pain relievers, 2,114,000 for marijuana, 1,286,000 for tranquilizers, 877,000 for inhalants, 872,000 for cocaine, 647,000 for stimulants, 615,000 for Ecstasy, 247,000 for sedatives, 243,000 for LSD, 108,000 for heroin, and 77,000 for PCP.

Click here to return to Figure 5.1


Figure 5.2. Figure 5.2 is titled "Mean Age at First Use for Specific Illicit Drugs among Past Year Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2005." This is a bar graph, where 11 types of illicit drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the mean age in years is shown on the vertical axis.

Among persons aged 12 to 49, the mean age in years of past year initiates of inhalants was 16.1, of PCP it was 16.5, of marijuana it was 17.4, of LSD it was 18.3, of cocaine it was 19.7, of stimulants it was 20.1, of Ecstasy it was 20.7, of pain relievers it was 21.2, of heroin it was 22.2, of sedatives it was 22.9, and of tranquilizers it was 25.7.

Click here to return to Figure 5.2


Figure 5.3. Figure 5.3 is titled "Past Year Marijuana Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older and Mean Age at First Use of Marijuana among Past Year Marijuana Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2002 through 2005." There are two bar graphs, one for past year initiates and one for mean age at first use. The past year initiates bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the numbers in millions of past year initiates on the vertical axis. The mean age bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the age in years shown on the vertical axis. There is a footnote on the mean age at first use bar graph that says "Mean age at first use estimates are among recent initiates aged 12 to 49." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

There were 2.2 million persons aged 12 or older who had used marijuana for the first time within the past 12 months in 2002, 2.0 million persons in 2003, and 2.1 million persons in both 2004 and 2005.

In 2002, the average age at first marijuana use among recent initiates aged 12 to 49 was 17.0 years; it was 16.8 years in 2003, 17.1 years in 2004, and 17.4 years in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2003 estimate was statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 5.3


Figure 5.4. Figure 5.4 is titled "Past Year Methamphetamine Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older and Mean Age at First Use of Methamphetamine among Past Year Methamphetamine Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2002 through 2005." There are two bar graphs, one for past year initiates and one for mean age at first use. The past year initiates bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of past year initiates shown on the vertical axis. The mean age at first use bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the age in years shown on the vertical axis. There is a footnote on the mean age at first use bar graph that says "Mean age at first use estimates are among recent initiates aged 12 to 49." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

There were 299,000 persons aged 12 or older who had used methamphetamine for the first time within the past 12 months in 2002, 260,000 persons in 2003, 318,000 persons in 2004, and 192,000 persons in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

In 2002, the average age at first methamphetamine use among recent initiates aged 12 to 49 was 18.9 years; it was 20.4 years in 2003, 20.6 years in 2004, and 18.6 years in 2005.

Click here to return to Figure 5.4


Figure 5.5. Figure 5.5 is titled "Past Year Cigarette Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age at First Use: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in millions of persons who initiated cigarette use in the past year are shown on the vertical axis. Each bar is separated into two sections representing the age at first use: initiated use prior to age 18 and initiated use at age 18 or older. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed for the number of cigarette initiates in the past year between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Of the 1.9 million persons in 2002 who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months, 1.3 million initiated prior to age 18 and 0.6 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Of the 2.0 million persons in 2003 who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18 and 0.6 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Of the 2.1 million persons in 2004 who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18 and 0.7 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Of the 2.3 million persons in 2005 who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18 and 0.9 million initiated at age 18 or older.

The differences between the 2005 estimate for the number of persons who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 5.5


Figure 5.6. Figure 5.6 is titled "Past Year Cigarette Initiation among Youths Aged 12 to 17 Who Had Never Smoked, by Gender: 2002 through 2005." This is a bar graph, where gender is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage initiating cigarette use in the past year among those youths who had not smoked previously is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among males aged 12 to 17 who had never smoked previously, 6.1 percent reported cigarette use initiation in 2002, 5.8 percent reported it in both 2003 and 2004, and 6.0 percent reported it in 2005.

Among females aged 12 to 17 who had never smoked previously, 7.4 percent reported cigarette use initiation in 2002, 7.5 percent reported it in 2003, 7.8 percent reported it in 2004, and 7.1 percent reported it in 2005.

Click here to return to Figure 5.6

Chapter 6 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 6.1. Figure 6.1 is titled "Past Month Binge Drinking and Marijuana Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Perceptions of Risk: 2005." It is a bar graph, where alcohol and marijuana use behaviors are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the two behavior categories, there is a bar representing perceived great risk and a bar representing perceived moderate, slight, or no risk.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived great risk in having 5 or more drinks of alcohol once or twice a week, 5.2 percent reported binge drinking in the past month.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived moderate, slight, or no risk in having 5 or more drinks of alcohol once or twice a week, 13.0 percent reported binge drinking in the past month.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived great risk in smoking marijuana once a month, 1.5 percent used marijuana in the past month.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived moderate, slight, or no risk in smoking marijuana once a month, 9.7 percent used marijuana in the past month.

Click here to return to Figure 6.1


Figure 6.2. Figure 6.2 is titled "Perceived Great Risk of Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where cigarette and alcohol use behaviors are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage perceiving great risk is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the three behavior categories, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that smoking 1 or more packs of cigarettes per day is a great risk was 63.1 percent in 2002, 64.2 percent in 2003, 67.5 percent in 2004, and 68.3 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that having 4 or 5 drinks of alcohol nearly every day is a great risk was 62.2 percent in 2002, 61.6 percent in 2003, 61.8 percent in 2004, and 63.8 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that having 5 or more drinks of alcohol once or twice a week is a great risk was 38.2 percent in 2002, 38.5 percent in 2003, 38.1 percent in 2004, and 38.4 percent in 2005.

Click here to return to Figure 6.2


Figure 6.3. Figure 6.3 is titled "Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Cigarette Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where time periods of use (lifetime, past year, and past month) are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using cigarettes is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the time periods of use, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using cigarettes in their lifetime was 33.3 percent in 2002, 31.0 percent in 2003, 29.2 percent in 2004, and 26.7 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using cigarettes in the past year was 20.3 percent in 2002, 19.0 percent in 2003, 18.4 percent in 2004, and 17.3 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using cigarettes in the past month was 13.0 percent in 2002, 12.2 percent in 2003, 11.9 percent in 2004, and 10.8 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.3


Figure 6.4. Figure 6.4 is titled "Perceived Great Risk of Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where illicit drug use behaviors are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage perceiving great risk is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four behavior categories, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that smoking marijuana once a month is a great risk was 32.4 percent in 2002, 34.9 percent in 2003, 35.0 percent in 2004, and 34.0 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that smoking marijuana once or twice a week is a great risk was 51.5 percent in 2002, 54.4 percent in 2003, 54.7 percent in 2004, and 55.0 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that using cocaine once a month is a great risk was 50.5 percent in 2002, 51.4 percent in 2003, 49.6 percent in 2004, and 48.8 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that trying heroin once or twice is a great risk was 58.5 percent in 2002, 58.8 percent in 2003, 57.0 percent in 2004, and 56.5 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.4


Figure 6.5. Figure 6.5 is titled "Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Marijuana Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where time periods of use (lifetime, past year, and past month) are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using marijuana is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the time periods of use, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using marijuana in their lifetime was 20.6 percent in 2002, 19.6 percent in 2003, 19.0 percent in 2004, and 17.4 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using marijuana in the past year was 15.8 percent in 2002, 15.0 percent in 2003, 14.5 percent in 2004, and 13.3 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using marijuana in the past month was 8.2 percent in 2002, 7.9 percent in 2003, 7.6 percent in 2004, and 6.8 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.5


Figure 6.6. Figure 6.6 is titled "Perceived Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: 2002 through 2005." This is a bar graph, where gender is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage perceiving great risk is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among male youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage perceiving that smoking marijuana once a month is a great risk was 30.7 percent in 2002, 33.2 percent in 2003, 32.6 percent in 2004, and 31.1 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2003 estimate was statistically significant.

Among female youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage perceiving that smoking marijuana once a month is a great risk was 34.1 percent in 2002, 36.7 percent in 2003, 37.4 percent in 2004, and 36.9 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.6


Figure 6.7. Figure 6.7 is titled "Perceived Availability of Selected Illicit Drugs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where selected illicit drugs (marijuana, cocaine, crack, heroin, and LSD) are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage indicating it was fairly or very easy to obtain specific illicit drugs is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the five types of illicit drugs, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that marijuana is fairly or very easy to obtain was 55.0 percent in 2002, 53.6 percent in 2003, 52.2 percent in 2004, and 51.0 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that cocaine is fairly or very easy to obtain was 25.0 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 24.4 percent in 2004, and 24.9 percent in 2005.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that crack is fairly or very easy to obtain was 26.5 percent in 2002, 26.2 percent in 2003, 25.0 percent in 2004, and 25.3 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that heroin is fairly or very easy to obtain was 15.8 percent in 2002, 15.3 percent in 2003, and 14.0 percent in both 2004 and 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that LSD is fairly or very easy to obtain was 19.4 percent in 2002, 17.6 percent in 2003, 16.9 percent in 2004, and 15.7 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.7


Figure 6.8. Figure 6.8 is titled "Disapproval of Peer Substance Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Age: 2005." This is a bar graph, where substance use behaviors are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage disapproving is shown on the vertical axis. For each behavior category, there are bars representing youths aged 12 or 13, 14 or 15, and 16 or 17.

The percentage disapproving of peers smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day was 92.8 percent among youths aged 12 or 13, 88.4 percent among youths aged 14 or 15, and 83.6 percent among youths aged 16 or 17.

The percentage disapproving of peers using marijuana once a month or more was 92.0 percent among youths aged 12 or 13, 81.6 percent among youths aged 14 or 15, and 70.9 percent among youths aged 16 or 17.

The percentage disapproving of peers having one or two drinks per day was 92.2 percent among youths aged 12 or 13, 85.4 percent among youths aged 14 or 15, and 79.5 percent of youths aged 16 or 17.

Click here to return to Figure 6.8


Figure 6.9. Figure 6.9 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Participation in Fighting and Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year: 2005." It is a bar graph, where types of fighting and delinquent behaviors are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are four categories of criminal acts or fighting: (1) in serious fight at school or work, (2) carried a handgun, (3) stole or tried to steal something worth over $50, and (4) attacked others with intent to harm. For each of these categories, there is a bar representing that a youth participated in the behavior and a bar representing that a youth did not participate in the behavior.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 17.3 percent used illicit drugs in the past month among those who were in a serious fight at school or work in the past year, and 7.6 percent used illicit drugs in the past month among those who were not in a serious fight at school or work in the past year.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 29.7 percent used illicit drugs in the past month among those who carried a handgun in the past year, and 9.2 percent used illicit drugs in the past month among those who did not carry a handgun in the past year.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 38.9 percent used illicit drugs in the past month among those who stole or tried to steal something worth over $50 in the past year, and 8.5 percent used illicit drugs in the past month among those who did not steal or try to steal something worth over $50 in the past year.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 27.3 percent used illicit drugs in the past month among those who attacked others with intent to harm, and 8.4 percent used illicit drugs in the past month among those who did not attack others with intent to harm.

Click here to return to Figure 6.9

Chapter 7 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 7.1. Figure 7.1 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers of persons with dependence or abuse is shown in millions on the vertical axis. Each bar is separated into three sections representing (1) both alcohol and illicit drugs, (2) illicit drugs only, and (3) alcohol only. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed for the numbers of persons with dependence on or abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Of the 22.0 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2002, 3.2 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.9 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 14.9 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 21.6 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2003, 3.1 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.8 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 14.8 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 22.5 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2004, 3.4 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.9 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.2 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 22.2 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2005, 3.3 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.6 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.4 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Click here to return to Figure 7.1


Figure 7.2. Figure 7.2 is titled "Dependence on or Abuse of Specific Illicit Drugs in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2005." It is a bar graph, where the numbers in thousands of users with dependence or abuse are shown on the horizontal axis and nine specific illicit drugs (marijuana, cocaine, pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, and sedatives) are shown on the vertical axis.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of marijuana in the past year was 4,090,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of cocaine in the past year was 1,549,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of pain relievers in the past year was 1,546,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of tranquilizers in the past year was 419,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of stimulants in the past year was 409,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of hallucinogens in the past year was 371,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of heroin in the past year was 227,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of inhalants in the past year was 221,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of sedatives in the past year was 97,000.

Click here to return to Figure 7.2


Figure 7.3. Figure 7.3 is titled "Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Adults Aged 21 or Older, by Age at First Use of Alcohol: 2005." It is a bar graph, where the age at first alcohol use is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Each bar is separated into two sections: (1) alcohol dependence and (2) alcohol abuse. There are four groups of age at first use shown: 14 or younger, 15 to 17, 18 to 20, and 21 or older.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 14 or younger, 16.4 percent were dependent on or abusing alcohol in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 7.7 percent had alcohol dependence, and 8.7 percent had alcohol abuse.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 15 to 17, 9.4 percent were dependent on or abusing alcohol in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 3.7 percent had alcohol dependence, and 5.7 percent had alcohol abuse.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 18 to 20, 4.9 percent were dependent on or abusing alcohol in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 2.1 percent had alcohol dependence, and 2.8 percent had alcohol abuse.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 21 or older, 2.1 percent were dependent on or abusing alcohol in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 1.0 percent had alcohol dependence, and 1.1 percent had alcohol abuse.

Click here to return to Figure 7.3


Figure 7.4. Figure 7.4 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age and Gender: 2005." It is a bar graph, where age categories are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. There are three age categories: aged 12 or older, aged 12 to 17, and aged 18 or older. For each age category, there is a bar representing males and a bar representing females.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 12.0 percent of males and 6.4 percent of females had past year substance dependence or abuse.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 7.8 percent of males and 8.3 percent of females had past year substance dependence or abuse.

Among adults aged 18 or older, 12.6 percent of males and 6.2 percent of females had past year substance dependence or abuse.

Click here to return to Figure 7.4


Figure 7.5. Figure 7.5 is titled "Locations Where Past Year Substance Use Treatment Was Received among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2005." It is a bar graph, where the numbers in thousands of persons receiving treatment are shown on the horizontal axis and the types of substance treatment locations are shown on the vertical axis. There are eight types of substance treatment locations: (1) self-help groups, (2) outpatient rehabilitation, (3) inpatient rehabilitation, (4) outpatient mental health center, (5) hospital inpatient, (6) private doctor's office, (7) emergency room, and (8) prison or jail.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at a self-help group was 2,102,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at an outpatient rehabilitation facility was 1,546,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at an inpatient rehabilitation facility was 1,109,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at an outpatient mental health center was 1,046,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at a hospital as an inpatient was 773,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at a private doctor's office was 460,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at an emergency room was 399,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at a prison or jail was 344,000.

Click here to return to Figure 7.5


Figure 7.6. Figure 7.6 is titled "Need for and Receipt of Specialty Treatment in the Past Year for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2005." It is a bar graph, where the substance for which specialty treatment was received is shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of persons needing treatment in the past year are shown on the vertical axis. Each bar is separated into two sections: (1) received specialty treatment and (2) did not receive specialty treatment. There are three substances shown: illicit drugs, alcohol, and illicit drugs or alcohol.

Of the 7,550,000 persons aged 12 or older needing illicit drug use treatment in the past year, 1,280,000 received specialty treatment for illicit drug use and 6,269,000 did not receive specialty treatment.

Of the 19,378,000 persons aged 12 or older needing alcohol use treatment in the past year, 1,626,000 received specialty treatment for alcohol use and 17,752,000 did not receive specialty treatment.

Of the 23,172,000 persons aged 12 or older needing illicit drug or alcohol use treatment in the past year, 2,308,000 received specialty treatment for illicit drug or alcohol use and 20,864,000 did not receive specialty treatment.

Click here to return to Figure 7.6


Figure 7.7. Figure 7.7 is titled "Past Year Perceived Need for and Effort Made to Receive Specialty Treatment among Persons Aged 12 or Older Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use: 2005." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "20.9 Million Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use." The following note is also found under the chart: "Note: Due to rounding, these percentages do not add to 100 percent." The pie chart shows the percentages of persons who did not feel the need for treatment, as well as the percentages of those who made an effort and did not make an effort to get treatment among those who did feel the need for treatment.

Of the 20.9 million persons needing but not receiving treatment for illicit drug or alcohol use, 94.4 percent did not feel they needed treatment, 4.1 percent felt they needed treatment and did not make an effort to get treatment, and 1.4 percent felt they needed treatment and made an effort to get treatment.

Click here to return to Figure 7.7


Figure 7.8. Figure 7.8 is titled "Reasons for Not Receiving Substance Use Treatment among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Needed and Made an Effort to Get Treatment But Did Not Receive Treatment and Felt They Needed Treatment: 2004 and 2005 Combined." It is a bar graph, where the percentage reporting a particular reason is shown on the horizontal axis and seven reasons for not receiving treatment are shown on the vertical axis.

Among persons who needed and made an effort to get treatment but did not receive treatment and felt they needed treatment, 44.4 percent did not receive treatment because of cost or insurance barriers, 21.2 percent because of other access barriers, 21.1 percent because they were not ready to stop using, 18.5 percent because of stigma, 9.4 percent because they did not know where to go for treatment, 3.8 percent because they did not have time, and 0.4 percent because treatment would not help.

Click here to return to Figure 7.8


Figure 7.9. Figure 7.9 is titled "Number of Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Felt the Need for Illicit Drug Use Treatment among Those Needing But Not Receiving Specialty Treatment for an Illicit Drug Use Problem in the Past Year: 2002 through 2005." This is a bar chart, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of persons who felt the need for illicit drug use treatment are shown on the vertical axis. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The number of persons aged 12 or older who felt the need for illicit drug use treatment among those needing but not receiving specialty treatment for an illicit drug use problem was 362,000 in 2002, 426,000 in 2003, 598,000 in 2004, and 601,000 in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 7.9

Chapter 8 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 8.1. Figure 8.1 is titled "Rates of Serious Psychological Distress in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age: 2004 and 2005." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with serious psychological distress in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each age category, there are bars representing 2004 and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between the 2004 and 2005 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older with past year serious psychological distress was 12.2 percent in 2004 and 11.3 percent in 2005. The difference between the two estimates was statistically significant.

The percentage of adults aged 18 to 25 with past year serious psychological distress was 20.2 percent in 2004 and 18.6 percent in 2005. The difference between the two estimates was statistically significant.

The percentage of adults aged 26 to 49 with past year serious psychological distress was 14.0 percent in 2004 and 12.5 percent in 2005. The difference between the two estimates was statistically significant.

The percentage of adults aged 50 or older with past year serious psychological distress was 6.9 percent in 2004 and 7.1 percent in 2005.

Click here to return to Figure 8.1


Figure 8.2. Figure 8.2 is titled "Past Year Treatment among Adults Aged 18 or Older with Both Serious Psychological Distress and a Substance Use Disorder: 2005." It is a pie chart, with the following notes below the chart: "5.2 Million Adults with Co-Occurring SPD and Substance Use Disorder" and "Due to rounding, these percentages do not add to 100 percent." The pie chart shows the percentages of types of treatment received in the past year.

Of the 5.2 million adults with both serious psychological distress and a substance use disorder, 34.3 percent received treatment in the past year for mental health problems only, 4.1 percent received treatment for substance use problems only, 8.5 percent received treatment for both mental health and substance use problems, and 53.0 percent received no treatment in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 8.2


Figure 8.3. Figure 8.3 is titled "Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Race/Ethnicity: 2004 and 2005." It is a bar graph, where race/ethnicity categories are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. There is a note under the bar graph that says "Due to low precision, estimates for Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders are not shown." The categories of race/ethnicity are (1) white, (2) black or African American, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, (4) Asian, (5) two or more races, and (6) Hispanic or Latino. For each race/ethnicity category, there are bars representing 2004 and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between the 2004 and 2005 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of white adults aged 18 or older with major depressive episode in the past year was 8.4 percent in 2004 and 7.6 percent in 2005. The difference between the two estimates was statistically significant.

The percentage of black or African-American adults aged 18 or older with major depressive episode in the past year was 7.1 percent in 2004 and 6.5 percent in 2005.

The percentage of American Indian or Alaska Native adults aged 18 or older with major depressive episode in the past year was 8.1 percent in 2004 and 9.4 percent in 2005.

The percentage of Asian adults aged 18 or older with major depressive episode in the past year was 5.0 percent in 2004 and 3.6 percent in 2005.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older reporting two or more races with major depressive episode in the past year was 17.9 percent in 2004 and 10.1 percent in 2005.

The percentage of Hispanic or Latino adults aged 18 or older with major depressive episode in the past year was 6.5 percent in 2004 and 7.0 percent in 2005.

Click here to return to Figure 8.3


Figure 8.4. Figure 8.4 is titled "Substance Use among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year: 2005." It is a bar graph, where substance use types are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using the substance is shown on the vertical axis. For each substance use type, there is a bar representing those who had major depressive episode in the past year and a bar representing those who did not have major depressive episode in the past year.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older who used illicit drugs in the past year was 26.8 percent among persons who had major depressive episode in the past year and 12.7 percent among persons who did not have major depressive episode in the past year.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older with daily cigarette use in the past month was 28.0 percent among persons who had major depressive episode in the past year and 16.3 percent among persons who did not have major depressive episode in the past year.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older with heavy alcohol use in the past month was 8.4 percent among persons who had major depressive episode in the past year and 7.0 percent among persons who did not have major depressive episode in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 8.4


Figure 8.5. Figure 8.5 is titled "Past Year Treatment for Mental Health Problems among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Type of Treatment: 2002 through 2005." It is a bar graph, where the type of treatment is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage receiving treatment in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. The types of treatment include any treatment, inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, and prescription medication. For each type of treatment, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older receiving any treatment for mental health problems in the past year was 13.0 percent in 2002, 13.2 percent in 2003, 12.8 percent in 2004, and 13.0 percent in 2005.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older receiving inpatient treatment for mental health problems in the past year was 0.7 percent in 2002, 0.8 percent in 2003, 0.9 percent in 2004, and 1.0 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older receiving outpatient treatment for mental health problems in the past year was 7.4 percent in 2002, 7.1 percent in both 2003 and 2004, and 6.8 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older taking prescription medication as treatment for mental health problems in the past year was 10.5 percent in 2002, 10.9 percent in 2003, 10.5 percent in 2004, and 10.7 percent in 2005.

Click here to return to Figure 8.5


Figure 8.6. Figure 8.6 is titled "Reasons for Not Receiving Treatment in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older with an Unmet Need for Treatment Who Did Not Receive Treatment: 2005." It is a bar graph, where the percentage among adults who did not receive treatment is shown on the horizontal axis and eight reasons for not receiving treatment are shown on the vertical axis.

Among adults aged 18 or older with an unmet need for treatment who did not receive treatment, the following percentages did not receive treatment for the following reasons: 46.8 percent because of cost or insurance issues, 36.7 percent because they did not feel the need for treatment or thought they could handle the problem without treatment, 23.4 percent because of stigma,18.5 percent because they did not know where to go for services, 14.4 percent because they did not have time, 8.8 percent because treatment would not help, 8.1 percent because of fear of being committed or having to take medicine, and 3.3 percent because of other access barriers.

Click here to return to Figure 8.6


Figure 8.7. Figure 8.7 is titled "Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Race/Ethnicity: 2004 and 2005." It is a bar graph, where race/ethnicity is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. There is a note under the bar graph that says "Due to low precision, estimates for Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders are not shown." The categories of race/ethnicity are (1) white, (2) black or African American, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, (4) Asian, (5) two or more races, and (6) Hispanic or Latino. For each race/ethnicity category, there are bars representing 2004 and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between the 2004 and 2005 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of white youths aged 12 to 17 with MDE in the past year was 9.2 percent in 2004 and 9.1 percent in 2005.

The percentage of black or African-American youths aged 12 to 17 with MDE in the past year was 7.7 percent in 2004 and 7.6 percent in 2005.

The percentage of American Indian or Alaska Native youths aged 12 to 17 with MDE in the past year was 7.8 percent in 2004 and 6.1 percent in 2005.

The percentage of Asian youths aged 12 to 17 with MDE in the past year was 8.3 percent in 2004 and 6.0 percent in 2005.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 reporting two or more races with MDE in the past year was 11.7 percent in 2004 and 10.5 percent in 2005.

The percentage of Hispanic or Latino youths aged 12 to 17 with MDE in the past year was 9.1 percent in both 2004 and 2005.

Click here to return to Figure 8.7


Figure 8.8. Figure 8.8 is titled "Substance Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year: 2005." It is a bar graph, where three substance use types are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using the substance is shown on the vertical axis. For each substance use type, there is a bar representing those who had major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year and a bar representing those who did not have MDE in the past year.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who used illicit drugs in the past year was 38.0 percent among youths who had MDE in the past year and 18.0 percent among youths who did not have MDE in the past year.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 with daily cigarette use in the past month was 5.3 percent among youths who had MDE in the past year and 2.5 percent among youths who did not have MDE in the past year.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 with heavy alcohol use in the past month was 3.8 percent among youths who had MDE in the past year and 2.2 percent among youths who did not have MDE in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 8.8


Figure 8.9. Figure 8.9 is titled "Past Year Treatment for Mental Health Problems among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: 2002 through 2005." This is a bar graph, where gender is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage receiving treatment for mental health problems in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender and the total of all persons in this age group, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2005 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among all youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage receiving treatment for mental health problems in the past year was 19.3 percent in 2002, 20.6 percent in 2003, 22.5 percent in 2004, and 21.8 percent in 2005. The differences between the 2005 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Among males aged 12 to 17, the percentage receiving treatment for mental health problems in the past year was 18.0 percent in 2002, 19.0 percent in 2003, 20.1 percent in 2004, and 20.0 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Among females aged 12 to 17, the percentage receiving treatment for mental health problems in the past year was 20.7 percent in 2002, 22.4 percent in 2003, 25.0 percent in 2004, and 23.6 percent in 2005. The difference between the 2005 estimate and 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 8.9

Appendix A Alternate Text for Equations

The adjustment factor a sub k as a function of lambda is defined as the ratio of two quantities. The quantity in the numerator is defined as the sum of two terms. The first term is calculated as the product of l sub k and the difference between u sub k and c sub k. The second term is calculated as the product of u sub k, the difference between c sub k and l sub k, and the value of the exponential function evaluated at the following product: capital A sub k multiplied by the transpose of the vector x sub k, multiplied by lambda. The quantity in the denominator is defined as the sum of two terms. The first term is the difference between u sub k and c sub k. The second term is calculated as the product of the difference between c sub k and l sub k, and the value of the exponential function evaluated at the following product: capital A sub k multiplied by the transpose of the vector x sub k, multiplied by lambda.

Click here to return to Equation A.1

The lambda parameters are estimated by solving the following equation. The quantity of the summation over s of the product of (x sub k, d sub k, and a sub k as a function of lambda), minus the quantity capital T tilde sub x is equal to zero.

Click here to return to Equation A.2

Delta of the parameters w and d equals the summation over all k in s of the ratio of d sub k to capital A sub k multiplied by the sum of the following two quantities. The first quantity is calculated as the product of the difference between a sub k and l sub k, and the logarithm of the ratio of the difference between a sub k and l sub k to the difference between c sub k and l sub k. The second quantity is defined as the product of the difference between u sub k and a sub k, and the logarithm of the ratio of the difference between u sub k and a sub k to the difference between u sub k and c sub k.

Click here to return to Equation A.3

Appendix B Alternate Text for Equations

p hat sub d is equal to capital y hat sub d divided by capital n hat sub d

Click here to return to Equation B.1

The standard error of capital Y hat sub d equals the product of capital N hat sub d and the standard error of p hat sub d.

Click here to return to Equation B.2

Two computational forms of the suppression rule are presented. The first indicates that suppressions occurred when p hat was less than or equal to 0.5 and the following ratio was greater than 0.175: the numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat, divided by p hat; the denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.3

The second computational form indicates that suppressions also occurred whenever p hat was greater than 0.5 and the following ratio was greater than 0.175: the numerator is the standard error of p hat, divided by 1 minus p hat; the denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of the quantity 1 minus p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.4

Capital Z is equal to the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is p hat sub 1 minus p hat sub 2. The denominator is the square root of the following quantity: the variance of p hat sub1, plus the variance of p hat sub 2, minus twice the covariance of p hat sub 1 and p hat sub 2.

Click here to return to Equation B.5

The variance of p hat is equal to the product of 1 divided by n, capital D, p hat, and the quantity 1 minus p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.6

The variance of the quantity p hat sub 2 i minus p hat sub 1 i is equal to capital D sub i times the sum of two quantities. The first quantity is the product of 1 over n sub 1 i times p hat sub 1 i times the quantity 1 minus p hat sub 1 i. The second quantity is the product of 1 over n sub 2 i times p hat sub 2 i times the quantity 1 minus p hat sub 2 i. The variable i can take on the values 1 and 2.

Click here to return to Equation B.7

The variance of the quantity p bar sub 2 minus p bar sub 1 is equal to one quarter of the sum of two quantities. The first quantity is the variance of the difference of p hat sub two one minus p hat sub one one. The second quantity is the variance of the difference p hat sub two two minus p hat sub one two.

Click here to return to Equation B.8

Capital Z is equal to the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is p bar sub 2 minus p bar sub 1. The denominator is the square root of the variance of the quantity p bar sub 2 minus p bar sub 1.

Click here to return to Equation B.9

Capital I as a function of i is equal to 1 if the date of the interview minus the date of initiation (first use) is less than or equal to 365. Capital I is equal to 0 otherwise.

Click here to return to Equation B.10

Estimated Past Year Initiates Age 11 in 2004 times the Estimated Lifetime Users Age 12 to 17 in 2005 divided by the Estimated Lifetime Users Age 12 to 17 in 2004.

Click here to return to Equation B.11

110,552 times 10,305,889 over 10,595,539 is equal to 107,530

Click here to return to Equation B.12

The ratio of two quantities is great than 0.175. The numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat divided by p hat. The denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.13

The ratio of two quantities is greater than 0.175. The numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat divided by 1 minus p hat. The denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of 1 minus p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.14

Effective n is the ratio of n over the design effect.

Click here to return to Equation B.15

Appendix B Alternate Text for Figures

Figure B.1. Figure B.1 is titled "Required Effective Sample as a Function of the Proportion Estimated." It is a graph of a function within a coordinate plane; the horizontal axis shows the proportion estimated, and the vertical axis shows the required effective sample size. The following comment is shown: "Current Rule: NSDUH 2005." A horizontal line through the graph indicates that an effective sample size of 68 is required for the current rule. The graph decreases from an infinitely large required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is close to zero and approaches a local minimum of 50 when the estimated proportion is 0.20. The graph increases for estimated proportions greater than 0.20 until a required effective sample size of 68 is reached for an estimated proportion of 0.50. The graph decreases for estimated proportions greater than 0.50 and approaches a local minimum of 50 for the required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is 0.80. The graph increases for estimated proportions greater than 0.80 and reaches an infinitely large required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is close to 1.

Click here to return to Figure B.1

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This page was last updated on May 16, 2008.