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Appendix D: Other Sources of Data

A variety of surveys and data systems other than the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) collect data on substance use and mental health problems. It is useful to consider the results of these other studies when discussing NSDUH data. This appendix briefly describes several of these other data systems and presents selected comparisons with NSDUH results. In addition, this appendix describes surveys on substance use and mental health problems of populations not covered by NSDUH. Descriptions of these surveys are presented in alphabetical order.

When considering the information presented here, it is important to understand the methodological differences between the different surveys and the impact that these differences could have on estimates of the presence of substance use and mental health problems. Several studies have compared NSDUH estimates with estimates from other studies and have evaluated how differences may have been affected by differences in survey methodology (Gfroerer, Wright, & Kopstein, 1997b; Grucza, Abbacchi, Przybeck, & Gfroerer, 2007; Hennessy & Ginsberg, 2001; Miller et al., 2004). These comparisons suggest that the goals and approaches of surveys are often different, making comparisons between them difficult. Some methodological differences that have been identified as affecting comparisons include populations covered, sampling methods, modes of data collection, questionnaires, and estimation methods.

D.1 Other National Surveys of Substance Use and Mental Health

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a State-based system of health surveys that collect information on health risk behaviors, clinical preventive practices, and health care access and use primarily related to chronic diseases and injury. The BRFSS surveys are cross-sectional telephone surveys conducted by State health departments with technical and methodological assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Every year, States conduct monthly telephone surveys of noninstitutionalized adults (aged 18 or older) using random-digit-dialing methods. Since 1994, BRFSS has collected data from all 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Guam using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) design. More than 350,000 adults are interviewed each year. National data are calculated using a median score across States.

NSDUH and BRFSS rates of current alcohol use have been generally similar, but NSDUH has shown consistently higher rates of binge drinking than BRFSS. The use of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) in NSDUH, which is considered to be more anonymous and yields higher reporting of sensitive behaviors, was offered as an explanation for the lower binge rates in BRFSS (Miller et al., 2004).

BRFSS allows States the flexibility to add questions specific to their needs. Starting in 2007, one optional BRFSS module is the Mental Illness and Stigma Module, which includes the 30-day K6 scale of psychological distress and questions on attitudes toward persons with mental illness. In 2007, 35 States along with the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico administered this module. Using a K6 cut point identical to that used in NSDUH (≥13), BRFSS reported that 4.0 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 3.8 to 4.1 percent) of persons in these 35 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico met the criteria for serious psychological distress (SPD) (Strine et al., 2009). Although the 2008 NSDUH (4.3 percent) and 2007 BRFSS (4.0 percent) estimates of SPD are similar, methodological differences in the two surveys make the estimates not directly comparable. Because BRFSS uses CATI, it may yield lower reports of sensitive behaviors or emotions than NSDUH, which employs face-to-face data collection. Response rates also are substantially higher in NSDUH than BRFSS (76.2 vs. 50.6 percent for the unweighted adult response rate in 2007), which could have resulted in differential nonresponse bias patterns in the two surveys. In addition, the BRFSS K6 items are included in an optional module used by a subset of States, so the SPD estimate is not nationally representative.

For further details, see the CDC website at http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/ (CDC, 2009a).

Harvard School of Public Health's College Alcohol Study (CAS)

The Harvard School of Public Health's College Alcohol Study (CAS) is a survey of students at 4-year colleges and universities in 40 States. The study surveyed a random sample of students at the same colleges in 1993, 1997, 1999, and 2001. The schools and students were selected to provide nationally representative samples of schools and students. In 1993, a national sample of 195 colleges was selected from the American Council on Education's list of accredited 4-year colleges by using probability proportionate to size of enrollment; of the 195 colleges, 140 agreed to participate, for a school-level response rate of 72 percent (Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport, & Castillo, 1995). Of these 140 colleges, 130 participated in 1997, 128 in 1999, and 120 in 2001. Student-level response rates to the two-stage mail survey were 70 percent in 1993, 59 percent in 1997 and 1999, and 52 percent in 2001. The researchers provided a short survey to nonrespondents in order to better weight the data (Wechsler et al., 2002). In 2005, sampled colleges with high levels of heavy alcohol use were surveyed again.

For further details, see the CAS website at http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/ (Harvard School of Public Health, 2005).

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study is an ongoing study of substance use trends and related attitudes among America's secondary school students, college students, and adults through age 50. The study is conducted annually by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan through grants awarded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). The MTF and NSDUH are the Federal Government's largest and primary tools for tracking youth substance use. The MTF is composed of three substudies: (a) an annual survey of high school seniors initiated in 1975; (b) ongoing panel studies of representative samples from each graduating class that have been conducted by mail since 1976; and (c) annual surveys of 8th and 10th graders initiated in 1991. In the spring, students complete a self-administered, machine-readable questionnaire during a regular class period. An average of about 400 public and private schools and about 50,000 students are sampled annually. The latest MTF was conducted in 2008 (Johnston, O'Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2009a).

Comparisons between the MTF estimates and estimates based on students sampled in NSDUH generally have shown NSDUH substance use prevalence levels to be lower than MTF estimates (Table D.1).15 The lower prevalences in NSDUH may be due to more underreporting in the household setting as compared with the MTF school setting. However, MTF does not survey dropouts, a group that NSDUH has shown to have higher rates of illicit drug use (Gfroerer et al., 1997b). Both surveys showed that rates of substance use were generally stable between 2007 and 2008.

For further details, see the MTF website at http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/ (University of Michigan, 2009).

National Comorbidity Survey (NCS)

The National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) was sponsored by NIMH, NIDA, and the W.T. Grant Foundation. It was designed to measure the prevalence of the illnesses in DSM-III-R (APA, 1987) in the general population. The first wave of the NCS was a household survey collecting data from 8,098 respondents aged 15 to 54 in a face-to-face interview using pencil and paper interviewing (PAPI). These responses were weighted to produce nationally representative estimates. A random sample of 4,414 respondents also were administered an additional module that captured information on nicotine dependence. The interviews took place between 1990 and 1992. The NCS used a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (the UM-CIDI) to generate DSM-III-R diagnoses.

There have been several recent follow-ups to and replications of the original NCS, including a 10-year follow-up of the baseline sample (NCS-2), a replication study conducted in 2001 and 2002 with a newly recruited nationally representative sample of 9,282 respondents aged 18 or older (NCS-R), and an adolescent sample with a targeted recruitment of more than 10,000 adolescents aged 13 to 17 (NCS-A) along with their parents.

The NCS-R used an updated version of the CIDI that was designed to capture diagnoses of substance abuse or dependence using current DSM-IV criteria (APA, 1994). Interviews were conducted using computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI). It should be noted that in several recent NCS-R studies (Kessler et al., 2005a; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005b), the diagnosis for abuse also includes those who meet the diagnosis for dependence. In contrast, NSDUH follows DSM-IV guidelines and measures abuse and dependence separately. To make the NCS definition of abuse comparable with that of NSDUH, the rate for dependence must be subtracted from the rate for abuse. Rates of alcohol dependence or abuse and rates of illicit drug dependence or abuse were generally lower in NCS-R than NSDUH. The NCS also produces nationally representative data on psychiatric conditions (Kessler et al., 2003a, 2003b).

The NCS and NCS-R define serious mental illness (SMI) to include respondents with at least one 12-month mental disorder (including substance dependence) and conditions classified as "serious" (including a history of suicide attempts) based upon indicators of functional impairment equal to a Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of 59 or below. In the NCS-R study, 5.8 percent of U.S. adults met the criteria for SMI (Kessler et al., 2006). The NCS-R's SMI estimate of 5.8 percent is not comparable with the SMI estimate from the 2008 NSDUH (4.4 percent) because of differences in the conditions included, the mode of survey administration, the GAF cut point, and the time frame.

The NCS and NCS-R data cannot be used to provide estimates of SPD comparable with the SPD estimate in the 2008 NSDUH. The K6 items in the NCS and NCS-R only asked respondents about psychological distress during the worst month in the past year, not psychological distress in the past 30 days.

For further details, see the NCS website at http://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/ncs/ (Harvard School of Medicine, 2005).

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous nationwide sample survey that collects data using personal household interviews through an interviewer-administered CAPI system. The survey is sponsored by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and provides national estimates of selected health measures, including cigarette smoking and alcohol use among persons aged 18 or older. NHIS data have been collected since 1957. In 2007, data were derived from three core components of the survey: the Family Core, which collects information from all family members aged 18 or older in each household; the Sample Adult Core, which collects information from one adult aged 18 or older in each family; and the Sample Child Core, which collects information on youths under age 18 from a knowledgeable family member in households with a child, usually a parent. In 2007, NHIS data were based on 75,764 persons in the Family Core, 23,393 adults in the Sample Adult Core, and 9,417 children in the Sample Child Core (NCHS, Division of Health Interview Statistics, 2008).

The NHIS has included the past 30-day K6 scale since 1997. The NSDUH K6 questions closely parallel those used in the NHIS. Using the same definition as the NSDUH definition of SPD (K6 score ≥ 13), NHIS data from 2001-2004 indicate a 30-day prevalence rate of adult SPD to be 3.1 percent over the 4 years (Pratt, Dey, & Cohen, 2007). This is lower than the 2008 NSDUH rate (4.3 percent). The rates are not directly comparable because of differences in survey mode (interviewer-administered vs. ACASI) and time frame.

For further details, see the NCHS website at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm (CDC, 2009b).

National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES) and National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

The National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES) was conducted in 1991 and 1992 by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Face-to-face, interviewer-administered interviews were conducted with 42,862 respondents aged 18 or older in the contiguous United States. Despite the survey name, the design was cross-sectional.

The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) was conducted in 2001 and 2002, also by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for NIAAA, using a computerized interviewer-administered interview. The NESARC sample was designed to make inferences for persons aged 18 or older in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia, and including persons living in noninstitutional group quarters. NESARC was designed to be a longitudinal survey. The first wave was conducted in 2001 and 2002, with a final sample size of 43,093 respondents aged 18 or older. The second wave was conducted in 2004 and 2005 (Grant & Dawson, 2006).

The study contains comprehensive assessments of drug use, dependence, and abuse and associated mental disorders. NESARC included an extensive set of questions, based on DSM-IV criteria (APA, 1994), designed to assess the presence of symptoms of alcohol and drug dependence and abuse in persons' lifetimes and during the prior 12 months. In addition, DSM-IV diagnoses of major mental disorders were generated using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-version 4 (AUDADIS-IV), which is a structured diagnostic interview that captures major DSM-IV axis I and axis II disorders.

Recent research indicates that (a) prevalence estimates for substance use were generally higher in NSDUH than in NESARC; (b) rates of past year substance use disorder (SUD) for cocaine and heroin use were higher in NSDUH than in NESARC; (c) rates of past year SUD for use of alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogens were similar between NSDUH and NESARC; and (d) prevalence estimates for past year SUD conditional on past year use were substantially lower in NSDUH for the use of marijuana, hallucinogens, and cocaine (Grucza et al., 2007). A number of methodological variables might have contributed to such discrepancies, including factors related to privacy and anonymity (NSDUH is self-administered, while NESARC is interviewer administered, which may have resulted in higher use estimates in NSDUH) and differences in SUD diagnostic instrumentation (which may have resulted in higher SUD prevalence among past year substance users in NESARC).

For further details about NLAES, see NIAAA (2007); for an overview of NESARC findings, see Caetano (2006).

National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)

The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was conducted to measure the effects of family, peer group, school, neighborhood, religious institution, and community influences on health risks, such as tobacco, drug, and alcohol use. Initiated in 1994 and supported by grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) with cofunding from 21 other Federal agencies and foundations, Add Health is the largest, most comprehensive survey of adolescents ever undertaken. The study began with an in-school questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7 to 12 and followed up with a series of in-home interviews in 1994-1995, 2001-2002, and 2007-2008. In Wave I, conducted in 1994-1995, about 90,000 students were surveyed at 144 schools around the United States using brief, machine-readable questionnaires during a regular class period. Interviews also were conducted with about 20,000 students and their parents in the students' homes using a combined CAPI and ACASI design. In Wave 2, conducted in 1996, about 15,000 students were interviewed a second time in their homes. In Wave III in 2001 and 2002, about 15,000 of the original Add Health respondents, then aged 18 to 26, were reinterviewed to investigate how adolescent experiences and behaviors are related to outcomes during the transition to adulthood. Wave IV was conducted in 2007-2008 when respondents were aged 24 to 32.

For further details, see the Add Health website at http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth (University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, n.d.).

National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY)

The National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) was sponsored by NIDA to evaluate the Office of National Drug Control Policy's (ONDCP's) National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. NSPY was a national, household-based survey of youths aged 9 to 18 years old and their parents. Data were collected using a combination of computer-assisted interviewing technologies, including CAPI for nonsensitive portions of the survey and ACASI for the sensitive portions.

NSPY employed a panel survey design with nine waves of data collection for youths between November 1999 and June 2004. Wave 1 included 3,298 youths and 3,106 of their parents, who were interviewed between November 1999 and May 2000. Wave 9 was conducted between January and June 2004 with 3,143 youths and 2,381 parents.

Data from NSPY and NSDUH produced similar estimates of marijuana use for youths. For example, Wave 9 of NSPY data indicated that 16.7 percent of youths aged 12 to 18 had used marijuana in the past year, and the 2004 NSDUH yielded an estimate of 17.1 percent among this age group for this time period (Orwin et al., 2006). One explanation for the similarity in estimates is that both surveys used ACASI.

For further details, see the NSPY Center website at https://www.nspycenter.com/default.asp (AMSAQ, Inc., & Westat, n.d.).

Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS)

The Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS), an annual national research study that tracks attitudes about illegal drugs, is sponsored by the Partnership for a Drug-Free America (PDFA). PATS consists of two nationally representative samples—a teenage sample for students in grades 7 through 12 and a parent sample. Adolescents complete self-administered, machine-readable questionnaires during a regular class period with their teacher remaining in the room. In 2002, PATS included questions on prescription drug abuse, and in 2005, it included questions on use of over-the-counter cough medicine to get high. The teenage sample is administered to approximately 7,000 youths annually. The latest PATS surveys of teenagers and parents were conducted in 2008. In 2008, 6,518 teenagers were surveyed nationwide in the 20th wave of the survey conducted since 1987, and 1,004 caregivers of children in grades 4 to 12 were surveyed (PDFA, 2009b; PDFA & MetLife Foundation, 2009).

In general, NSDUH estimates of prevalence for youths aged 12 to 17 are lower than PATS estimates for youths in grades 7 through 12. The differences in prevalence estimates are likely to be due to the different study designs. The youth portion of PATS is a school-based survey, which may elicit more reporting of sensitive behaviors than the home-based NSDUH. In addition, the PATS survey is conducted with a sample of students in the 7th through 12th grades, which is a slightly older sample than that of the NSDUH 12- to 17-year-old sample (PDFA, 2009b).

For further details, see the PDFA website at http://www.drugfree.org/Portal/# (PDFA, 2009a).

Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a component of the CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), which measures the prevalence of six priority health risk behavior categories: (a) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; (b) tobacco use; (c) alcohol and other drug use; (d) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; (e) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and (f) physical inactivity. The YRBSS includes national, State, territorial, and local school-based surveys of high school students conducted every 2 years. The national school-based survey uses a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12 who attend public and private schools. The State and local surveys use a two-stage cluster sample design to produce representative samples of public school students in grades 9 through 12 in their jurisdictions. The YRBS is conducted during the spring, with students completing a self-administered, machine-readable questionnaire during a regular class period. The latest YRBS was conducted in 2007 (Eaton et al., 2008).

In general, the YRBS school-based survey has found higher rates of substance use for youths than those found in NSDUH (Table D.2).16 The lower prevalence rates in NSDUH are likely due to the differences in study design; specifically, the YRBS is school-based, which likely has resulted in higher rates of reported use as compared with the home-based NSDUH.

For further details, see the CDC website at http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/ (CDC, 2009c).

D.2 Surveys of Populations Not Covered by NSDUH

Department of Defense (DoD) Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel

The 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel was the 9th in a series of studies conducted since 1980. The sample consisted of 16,146 active-duty Armed Forces personnel worldwide who anonymously completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed substance use and other health behaviors (Bray et al., 2006). In recent administrations of this survey, comparisons with NSDUH data have consistently shown that, even after accounting for demographic differences between the military and civilian populations, the military personnel had higher rates of heavy alcohol use than their civilian counterparts, similar rates of cigarette use, and lower rates of illicit drug use.

For further details, see the DoD Lifestyle Assessment Program (DLAP) website at http://dodwws.rti.org/index.cfm (DoD & RTI International, 2008).

Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities (SISCF, SIFCF)

The Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (SISCF) and the Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities (SIFCF) are conducted every 5 years using the same data collection instrument. The two surveys provide nationally representative data on State prison inmates and sentenced Federal inmates held in federally owned and operated facilities. The Survey of State Inmates was conducted in 1974, 1979, 1986, 1991, 1997, and 2004, and the Survey of Federal Inmates in 1991, 1997, and 2004. The SISCF is conducted for the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, which also conducts the SIFCF for the BJS and the Federal Bureau of Prisons (FBOP). Both surveys provide information about current offense and criminal history, family background and personal characteristics, prior drug and alcohol use and treatment, gun possession, and prison treatment, programs, and services. The surveys are the only national source of detailed information on criminal offenders, particularly special populations such as drug and alcohol users and offenders who have mental health problems. Systematic random sampling was used to select the inmates, and the survey was administered through CAPI. In 2004, 14,499 State prisoners in 287 State prisons and 3,686 Federal prisoners in 39 Federal prisons were interviewed.

Prior drug use among State prisoners remained stable on all measures between 1997 and 2004, while the percentage of Federal inmates who reported prior drug use rose on most measures (Mumola & Karberg, 2006). For the first time, half of Federal inmates reported drug use in the month before their offense. In 2004, measures of drug dependence and abuse based on criteria in DSM-IV (APA, 1994) were introduced, and 53 percent of the State and 45 percent of Federal prisoners met the DSM-IV criteria for drug abuse or dependence. The survey results indicate substantially higher rates of drug use among State and Federal prisoners as compared with NSDUH's rates for the general household population.

For further details, see http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/sisfcf/ (BJS, n.d.).

Table D.1 – Use of Specific Substances in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in NSDUH and MTF: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Drug/Current Grade Level MTF
Lifetime
(2007)
MTF
Lifetime
(2008)
MTF
Past
Year
(2007)
MTF
Past
Year
(2008)
MTF
Past
Month
(2007)
MTF
Past
Month
(2008)
NSDUH
Lifetime
(2007)
NSDUH
Lifetime
(2008)
NSDUH
Past
Year
(2007)
NSDUH
Past
Year
(2008)
NSDUH
Past
Month
(2007)
NSDUH
Past
Month
(2008)
-- Not available.
NOTE: NSDUH data have been drawn from January to June of each survey year and subset to persons aged 12 to 20 to be more comparable with MTF data.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
MTF = Monitoring the Future.
Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008 (January-June).
The Monitoring the Future Study, University of Michigan, 2007 and 2008.
Marijuana                        
8th grade 14.2 14.6 10.3 10.9 5.7 5.8 8.9 7.4 6.9 6.4 3.6 2.3
10th grade 31.0 29.9 24.6 23.9 14.2 13.8 22.5 24.4 18.3 19.2 10.5 8.6
12th grade 41.8 42.6 31.7 32.4 18.8 19.4 36.3 35.4 25.3 27.8 14.5 13.6
Cocaine                        
8th grade 3.1 3.0 2.0 1.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.3
10th grade 5.3 4.5 3.4 3.0 1.3 1.2 2.6 2.5 2.1 1.9 0.5 0.7
12th grade 7.8 7.2 5.2 4.4 2.0 1.9 5.7 6.5 3.9 4.2 0.9 1.4
Inhalants                        
8th grade 15.6 15.7 8.3 8.9 3.9 4.1 12.0 11.8 6.0 5.2 2.1 1.2
10th grade 13.6 12.8 6.6 5.9 2.5 2.1 10.7 9.8 4.3 3.0 1.4 0.7
12th grade 10.5 9.9 3.7 3.8 1.2 1.4 8.2 8.0 2.3 1.7 0.3 0.3
Cigarettes                        
8th grade 22.1 20.5 -- -- 7.1 6.8 17.1 15.2 10.0 8.0 5.4 4.4
10th grade 34.6b 31.7 -- -- 14.0a 12.3 33.9 32.5 22.1 21.6 13.5 12.7
12th grade 46.2 44.7 -- -- 21.6 20.4 43.3 45.2 30.8a 35.3 21.0 23.4
Alcohol                        
8th grade 38.9 38.9 31.8 32.1 15.9 15.9 28.2 27.8 20.9 17.8 8.7 7.7
10th grade 61.7b 58.3 56.3b 52.5 33.4b 28.8 54.4 55.3 45.4 45.7 21.9 20.8
12th grade 72.2 71.9 66.4 65.5 44.4 43.1 70.0 69.5 61.2 60.1 38.1 36.6
Table D.2 – Lifetime and Past Month Substance Use among Students in Grades 9 to 12 in YRBS and NSDUH: Percentages, 2005 and 2007
Substance/Period of Use YRBS (2005) YRBS (2007) NSDUH (2005) NSDUH (2007)
YRBS = Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
-- Not available.
NOTE: NSDUH data have been drawn from January to June of each survey year and subset to persons aged 12 to 20 to be more comparable with YRBS data.
Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, January-June for 2005 and 2007.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005 and 2007.
Marijuana        
Lifetime Use 38.4 38.1 28.1 26.3
Past Month Use 20.2 19.7 11.2 10.9
Cocaine        
Lifetime Use 7.6 7.2 3.8 3.8
Past Month Use 3.4 3.3 0.8 0.6
Inhalants        
Lifetime Use 12.4 13.3 12.0 10.7
Past Month Use -- -- 1.1 1.1
Cigarettes        
Lifetime Use 54.3 50.3 39.0 35.1
Past Month Use 23.0 20.0 17.0 15.4
Alcohol        
Lifetime Use 74.3 75.0 57.5 57.5
Past Month Use 43.3 44.7 26.0 26.3


End Notes

15 To examine estimates that are comparable with MTF data, NSDUH estimates presented in Table D.1 are based on data collected in the first 6 months of the survey year and are subset to ages 12 to 20.

16 To examine estimates that are comparable with YRBS data, NSDUH estimates presented in Table D.2 are based on data collected in the first 6 months of the survey year and are subset to ages 12 to 20.

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