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Misuse of Prescription Drugs

Figure 2.1 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Drug Type: Percentages, 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Six types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are listed: Any Psychotherapeutic, Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, Methamphetamine, and Sedatives. There is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine. For each prescription psychotherapeutic drug type, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, and 2004. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 and .01 levels were performed between 2002 and 2004 estimates and between 2003 and 2004 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of any psychotherapeutic was 6.2 percent in 2002, 6.3 percent in 2003, and 6.1 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of pain relievers was 4.7 percent in 2002, 4.9 percent in 2003, and 4.7 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of tranquilizers was 2.1 percent in 2002, 2.1 percent in 2003, and 2.1 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of stimulants was 1.4 percent in 2002, 1.2 percent in 2003, and 1.2 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of methamphetamine was 0.7 percent in 2002, 0.6 percent in 2003, and 0.6 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of sedatives was 0.4 percent in 2002, 0.3 percent in 2003, and 0.3 percent in 2004.

Click here to return to Figure 2.1



Figure 2.2 is titled "Lifetime Nonmedical Use of OxyContin®, by Age Group: Numbers of Users, 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the age groups are shown on the horizontal axis and the estimated numbers (in thousands) using OxyContin® nonmedically in their lifetime are shown on the vertical axis. Three age groups are listed: 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older. For each age group, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, and 2004. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 and .01 levels were performed between 2002 and 2004 estimates and between 2003 and 2004 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The number of lifetime nonmedical users of OxyContin® for persons aged 12 to 17 was 224,000 in 2002, 254,000 in 2003, and 305,000 in 2004. The number of users was significantly different between the 2002 and 2004 estimates at the .01 level.
The number of lifetime nonmedical users of OxyContin® for persons aged 18 to 25 was 820,000 in 2002, 1,145,000 in 2003, and 1,376,000 in 2004. The number of users was significantly different between the 2002 and 2004 estimates at the .01 level and between the 2003 and 2004 estimates at the .01 level.
The number of lifetime nonmedical users of OxyContin® for persons aged 26 or older was 881,000 in 2002, 1,433,000 in 2003, and 1,392,000 in 2004. The number of users was significantly different between the 2002 and 2004 estimates at the .01 level.

Click here to return to Figure 2.2



Figure 2.3 is titled "Past Year Users of Selected Drugs, Including Nonmedical Users of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the selected drugs are shown on the vertical axis and the estimated numbers of past year users (in millions) are shown on the horizontal axis. Fourteen selected drugs are shown in the following order from top to bottom on the vertical axis: (1) Marijuana and Hashish, (2) Any Psychotherapeutic, (3) Pain Relievers, (4) Cocaine, (5) Tranquilizers, (6) Hallucinogens, (7) Stimulants, (8) Ecstasy, (9) Methamphetamine, (10) Crack, (11) OxyContin®, (12) Sedatives, (13) LSD, and (14) Heroin. There is a footnote for Any Psychotherapeutic: Includes pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. There is a footnote for Any Psychotherapeutic, Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, Methamphetamine, OxyContin®, and Sedatives: Nonmedical use only. OxyContin® also is included with pain relievers, and methamphetamine also is included with stimulants. The OxyContin® estimate is based on 2004 data only. There is a footnote for Cocaine: Includes crack. There is a footnote for Hallucinogens: Includes lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), and Ecstasy.

In Figure 2.3, the following data are displayed:

25.5 million used marijuana or hashish in the past year.
14.8 million used any psychotherapeutic nonmedically in the past year.
11.3 million used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
5.8 million used cocaine in the past year.
5.0 million used tranquilizers nonmedically in the past year.
4.2 million used hallucinogens in the past year.
3.0 million used stimulants nonmedically in the past year.
2.4 million used Ecstasy in the past year.
1.4 million used methamphetamine nonmedically in the past year.
1.4 million used crack in the past year.
1.2 million used OxyContin® in the past year.
0.8 million used sedatives nonmedically in the past year.
0.7 million used LSD in the past year.
0.4 million used heroin in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 2.3



Figure 2.4 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs, by Drug Type and Age Group: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Six types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are listed: Any Psychotherapeutic, Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, Methamphetamine, and Sedatives. There is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine. For each prescription psychotherapeutic drug type, there are bars representing three age groups: 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older.

The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of any psychotherapeutic was 9.1 percent for age 12 to 17, 14.5 percent for age 18 to 25, and 4.4 percent for age 26 or older.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of pain relievers was 7.5 percent for age 12 to 17, 11.8 percent for age 18 to 25, and 3.1 percent for age 26 or older.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of tranquilizers was 2.2 percent for age 12 to 17, 5.1 percent for age 18 to 25, and 1.6 percent for age 26 or older.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of stimulants was 2.3 percent for age 12 to 17, 3.6 percent for age 18 to 25, and 0.7 percent for age 26 or older.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of methamphetamine was 0.7 percent for age 12 to 17, 1.6 percent for age 18 to 25, and 0.4 percent for age 26 or older.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of sedatives was 0.5 percent for age 12 to 17, 0.5 percent for age 18 to 25, and 0.3 percent for age 26 or older.

Click here to return to Figure 2.4



Figure 2.5 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers, by Detailed Age Category: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where age is shown in years on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. There are 23 detailed age categories shown on the horizontal axis.

Among 12 year olds, 2.5 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 13 year olds, 4.2 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 14 year olds, 6.4 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 15 year olds, 8.6 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 16 year olds, 11.0 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 17 year olds, 12.8 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 18 year olds, 13.5 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 19 year olds, 13.9 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 20 year olds, 13.0 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 21 year olds, 12.4 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 22 year olds, 11.2 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 23 year olds, 11.0 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 24 year olds, 10.4 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 25 year olds, 8.1 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 26 to 29 year olds, 7.8 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 30 to 34 year olds, 5.2 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 35 to 39 year olds, 4.6 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 40 to 44 year olds, 4.0 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 45 to 49 year olds, 3.6 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 50 to 54 year olds, 1.9 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 55 to 59 year olds, 1.2 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among 60 to 64 year olds, 1.0 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.
Among persons aged 65 or older, 0.4 percent used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 2.5



Figure 2.6 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Any Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drug, by Race/Ethnicity: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where race/ethnicity is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. The seven categories of race/ethnicity are (1) white, (2) black or African American, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, (4) Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, (5) Asian, (6) two or more races, and (6) Hispanic or Latino.

Among whites, 6.7 percent used any prescription psychotherapeutic drug nonmedically in the past year.
Among blacks or African Americans, 3.9 percent used any prescription psychotherapeutic drug nonmedically in the past year.
Among American Indians or Alaska Natives, 8.1 percent used any prescription psychotherapeutic drug nonmedically in the past year.
Among Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders, 10.1 percent used any prescription psychotherapeutic drug nonmedically in the past year.
Among Asians, 3.0 percent used any prescription psychotherapeutic drug nonmedically in the past year.
Among persons of two or more races, 7.5 percent used any prescription psychotherapeutic drug nonmedically in the past year.
Among Hispanics or Latinos, 6.3 percent used any prescription psychotherapeutic drug nonmedically in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 2.6



Figure 2.7 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Drug Type and Education: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Five types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are listed: Any Psychotherapeutic, Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine. There is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine. For each prescription psychotherapeutic drug type, there are bars representing four education levels: less than high school, high school graduate, some college, and college graduate.

The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of any psychotherapeutic among adults was 6.6 percent for those who had not completed high school, 5.9 percent for high school graduates, 7.0 percent for those who had completed some college, and 4.2 percent for college graduates.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of pain relievers among adults was 5.3 percent for those who had not completed high school, 4.5 percent for high school graduates, 5.3 percent for those who had completed some college, and 2.9 percent for college graduates.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of tranquilizers among adults was 2.2 percent for those who had not completed high school, 2.1 percent for high school graduates, 2.5 percent for those who had completed some college, and 1.6 percent for college graduates.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of stimulants among adults was 1.2 percent for those who had not completed high school, 1.2 percent for high school graduates, 1.5 percent for those who had completed some college, and 0.6 percent for college graduates.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of methamphetamine among adults was 0.8 percent for those who had not completed high school, 0.7 percent for high school graduates, 0.7 percent for those who had completed some college, and 0.2 percent for college graduates.

Click here to return to Figure 2.7



Figure 2.8 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Drug Type and Employment Status: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Six types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are listed: Any Psychotherapeutic, Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, Methamphetamine, and Sedatives. There is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine. For each prescription psychotherapeutic drug type, there are bars representing four employment status categories: employed full time, employed part time, unemployed, and other.

The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of any psychotherapeutic among adults was 6.1 percent for those who were employed full time,7.8 percent for those who were employed part time, 12.5 percent for those who were unemployed, and 3.8 percent for adults who had some other employment status.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of pain relievers among adults was 4.6 percent for those who were employed full time, 5.7 percent for those who were employed part time, 10.0 percent for those who were unemployed, and 2.8 percent for adults who had some other employment status.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of tranquilizers among adults was 2.1 percent for those who were employed full time, 2.7 percent for those who were employed part time, 5.3 percent for those who were unemployed, and 1.4 percent for adults who had some other employment status.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of stimulants among adults was 1.0 percent for those who were employed full time,1.8 percent for those who were employed part time, 3.5 percent for those who were unemployed, and 0.8 percent for adults who had some other employment status.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of methamphetamine among adults was 0.6 percent for those who were employed full time, 0.7 percent for those who were employed part time, 2.2 percent for those who were unemployed, and 0.4 percent for adults who had some other employment status.
The prevalence of past year nonmedical use of sedatives among adults was 0.3 percent for those who were employed full time, 0.4 percent for those who were employed part time, 1.2 percent for those who were unemployed, and 0.2 percent for adults who had some other employment status.

Click here to return to Figure 2.8



Figure 2.9 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs among Lifetime Nonmedical Users of Those Drugs Who Were Aged 26 or Older, by Drug Type and Age at First Nonmedical Use: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage of lifetime users using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Six types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are listed: Any Psychotherapeutic, Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, Methamphetamine, and Sedatives. There is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine. For each prescription psychotherapeutic drug type, there are bars representing adults aged 26 or older who first used before age 16 and those who first used at ages 16 to 20.

Among lifetime nonmedical users of any psychotherapeutic who were aged 26 or older, the prevalence of past year nonmedical use of any psychotherapeutic was 25.7 percent for those who first used any psychotherapeutic nonmedically before age 16 and 18.2 percent for those who were aged 16 to 20 when they first used any psychotherapeutic nonmedically.
Among lifetime nonmedical users of pain relievers who were aged 26 or older, the prevalence of past year nonmedical use of pain relievers was 30.9 percent for those who first used pain relievers nonmedically before age 16 and 23.1 percent for those who first used pain relievers nonmedically at ages 16 to 20.
Among lifetime nonmedical users of tranquilizers who were aged 26 or older, the prevalence of past year nonmedical use of tranquilizers was 15.3 percent for those who first used tranquilizers nonmedically before age 16 and 13.9 percent for those who first used tranquilizers nonmedically at ages 16 to 20.
Among lifetime nonmedical users of stimulants who were aged 26 or older, the prevalence of past year nonmedical use of stimulants was 7.5 percent for those who first used stimulants nonmedically before age 16 and 4.5 percent for those who first used stimulants nonmedically at ages 16 to 20.
Among lifetime nonmedical users of methamphetamine who were aged 26 or older, the prevalence of past year nonmedical use of methamphetamine was 5.1 percent for those who first used methamphetamine nonmedically before age 16 and 4.4 percent for those who first used at ages 16 to 20.
Among lifetime nonmedical users of sedatives who were aged 26 or older, the prevalence of past year nonmedical use of sedatives was 5.6 percent for those who first used sedatives nonmedically before age 16 and 3.2 percent for those who first used sedatives nonmedically at ages 16 to 20.

Click here to return to Figure 2.9



Figure 3.1 is titled "Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Pain Relievers among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of pain relievers are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in their lifetime is shown on the vertical axis. Seven types of prescription pain relievers are shown on the horizontal axis: (1) Darvocet®, Darvon®, or Tylenol® with Codeine, (2) Vicodin®, Lortab®, or Lorcet®, (3) Percocet®, Percodan®, or Tylox®, (4) Codeine, (5) Hydrocodone, (6) Demerol®, and (7) OxyContin®. For each pain reliever type, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, and 2004. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 and .01 levels were performed between 2002 and 2004 estimates and between 2003 and 2004 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Darvocet®, Darvon®, or Tylenol® with Codeine was 8.0 percent in 2002, 8.3 percent in 2003, and 8.1 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Vicodin®, Lortab®, or Lorcet® was 5.6 percent in 2002, 6.6 percent in 2003, and 6.9 percent in 2004. The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .01 level.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Percocet®, Percodan®, or Tylox® was 4.1 percent in 2002, 4.5 percent in 2003, and 4.6 percent in 2004. The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .05 level.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of codeine was 2.9 percent in 2002, 2.9 percent in 2003, and 2.8 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of hydrocodone was 1.9 percent in 2002, 2.4 percent in 2003, and 2.5 percent in 2004. The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .05 level.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Demerol® was 1.2 percent in 2002, 1.3 percent in 2003, and 1.0 percent in 2004.
The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .05 level and between 2003 and 2004 at the .01 level.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of OxyContin® was 0.8 percent in 2002, 1.2 percent in 2003, and 1.3 percent in 2004. The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .01 level.

Click here to return to Figure 3.1



Figure 3.2 is titled "Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Tranquilizers among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of tranquilizers are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in their lifetime is shown on the vertical axis. Five types of tranquilizers are shown on the horizontal axis: (1) Valium® or Diazepam, (2) Xanax®, Alprazolam, Ativan®, or Lorazepam, (3) Klonopin® or Clonazepam, (4) Flexeril®, and (5) Librium®. For each tranquilizer type, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, and 2004. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 and .01 levels were performed between 2002 and 2004 estimates and between 2003 and 2004 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Valium® or Diazepam was 6.1 percent in 2002, 6.2 percent in 2003, and 6.1 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Xanax®, Alprazolam, Ativan®, or Lorazepam was 3.5 percent in 2002, 4.0 percent in 2003, and 3.9 percent in 2004. The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .05 level.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Klonopin® or Clonazepam was 1.0 percent in 2002, 1.2 percent in 2003, and 1.1 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Flexeril® was 0.8 percent in 2002, 0.8 percent in 2003, and 0.8 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Librium® was 0.6 percent in 2002, 0.5 percent in 2003, and 0.4 percent in 2004.
The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .05 level.

Click here to return to Figure 3.2



Figure 3.3 is titled "Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Stimulants among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of stimulants are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in their lifetime is shown on the vertical axis. Five types of stimulants are shown on the horizontal axis: (1) Methamphetamine, Desoxyn®, or Methedrine®, (2) Prescription Diet Pills, (3) Ritalin® or Methylphenidate, (4) Dexedrine®, and (5) Preludin®. For each stimulant type, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, and 2004. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 and .01 levels were performed between 2002 and 2004 estimates and between 2003 and 2004 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of methamphetamine, Desoxyn®, or Methedrine® was 5.3 percent in 2002, 5.2 percent in 2003, and 4.9 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of prescription diet pills was 3.8 percent in 2002, 3.6 percent in 2003, and 3.4 percent in 2004. The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .05 level.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Ritalin® or methylphenidate was 1.9 percent in 2002, 1.8 percent in 2003, and 1.7 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Dexedrine® was 1.4 percent in 2002, 1.1 percent in 2003, and 1.1 percent in 2004. The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .01 level.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of Preludin® was 0.4 percent in 2002, 0.3 percent in 2003, and 0.2 percent in 2004. The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .05 level.

Click here to return to Figure 3.3



Figure 3.4 is titled "Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Sedatives and Groups of Sedatives among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of sedatives are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in their lifetime is shown on the vertical axis. Three types of sedatives are shown on the horizontal axis: (1) Methaqualone, Sopor®, or Quaalude, (2) Any Barbiturates, and (3) Temazepam, Flurazepam, or Triazolam. There is a footnote for Any Barbiturates: Respondents were asked directly about their nonmedical use of barbiturates and were given the following as examples: Nembutal®, pentobarbital, Seconal®, secobarbital, or butalbital. However, respondents were not given an exhaustive list of examples of barbiturates. Therefore, this measure of any nonmedical barbiturate use includes reports from the direct question about barbiturates noted above and also includes Amytal®, Butisol®, phenobarbital, and Tuinal®. In addition, this measure includes other-specify drug responses that are not asked about explicitly in the sedatives module but fall into this category.

For each sedative type, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, and 2004. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 and .01 levels were performed between 2002 and 2004 estimates and between 2003 and 2004 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of methaqualone, Sopor®, or Quaalude® was 3.1 percent in 2002, 2.9 percent in 2003, and 3.0 percent in 2004.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of any barbiturates was 1.7 percent in 2002, 1.7 percent in 2003, and 1.4 percent in 2004. The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .05 level and between 2003 and 2004 at the .05 level.
The prevalence of lifetime nonmedical use of temazepam, flurazepam, or triazolam was 0.9 percent in 2002, 0.7 percent in 2003, and 0.6 percent in 2004. The prevalence was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .01 level.

Click here to return to Figure 3.4



Figure 4.1 is titled "Past Year Initiates of Illicit Drug Use, by Drug: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the estimated numbers of past year initiates (in thousands) are shown on the horizontal axis and the type of illicit drugs are shown on the vertical axis. Thirteen types of illicit drugs are shown in the following order from top to bottom on the vertical axis: (1) Pain Relievers, (2) Marijuana, (3) Tranquilizers, (4) Cocaine, (5) Inhalants, (6) Ecstasy, (7) Stimulants, (8) OxyContin®, (9) Methamphetamine, (10) LSD, (11) Sedatives, (12) PCP, and (13) Heroin. LSD is the abbreviation for lysergic acid diethylamide, and PCP is the abbreviation for phencyclidine. There is a footnote for Pain Relievers, Stimulants, OxyContin®, and Methamphetamine: OxyContin® also is included with pain relievers, and methamphetamine also is included with stimulants. Estimates for OxyContin® are based only on 2004 data because age at first use was not collected for that drug in earlier years.

The estimated number of past year initiates of nonmedical pain reliever use was 2,399,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of marijuana use was 2,104,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of nonmedical tranquilizer use was 1,145,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of cocaine use was 1,005,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of inhalant use was 859,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of Ecstasy use was 818,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of nonmedical stimulant use was 764,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of nonmedical OxyContin® use was 615,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of nonmedical methamphetamine use was 292,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of LSD use was 257,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of nonmedical sedative use was 214,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of PCP use was 111,000.
The estimated number of past year initiates of heroin use was 109,000.

Click here to return to Figure 4.1



Figure 4.2 is titled "Mean Age at First Use of Past Year Initiates of Illicit Drug Use, by Drug: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where mean age (in years) is shown on the horizontal axis and the types of illicit drugs are shown on the vertical axis. Thirteen types of illicit drugs are shown in the following order from top to bottom on the vertical axis: (1) Inhalants, (2) PCP, (3) Marijuana, (4) LSD, (5) Cocaine, (6) Methamphetamine, (7) Ecstasy, (8) Stimulants, (9) Heroin, (10) Pain Relievers, (11) OxyContin®, (12) Tranquilizers, and (13) Sedatives. LSD is the abbreviation for lysergic acid diethylamide, and PCP is the abbreviation for phencyclidine. There is a footnote for Methamphetamine, Stimulants, Pain Relievers, and OxyContin®: OxyContin® also is included with pain relievers, and methamphetamine also is included with stimulants. Estimates for OxyContin® are based only on 2004 data because age at first use was not collected for that drug in earlier years.

The mean age at first use for past year initiates of inhalant use was 16.0 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of PCP use was 17.4 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of marijuana use was 17.5 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of LSD use was 17.7 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of cocaine use was 19.9 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of nonmedical methamphetamine use was 20.5 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of Ecstasy use was 20.6 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of nonmedical stimulant use was 21.8 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of heroin use was 22.2 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of nonmedical pain reliever use was 22.8 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of nonmedical OxyContin® use was 24.5 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of nonmedical tranquilizer use was 24.5 years.
The mean age at first use for past year initiates of nonmedical sedative use was 29.5 years.

Click here to return to Figure 4.2



Figure 4.3 is titled "Mean Age at First Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs, by Drug Type and Gender: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the mean age (in years) is shown on the vertical axis. Six types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are listed: Pain Relievers, OxyContin®, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, Methamphetamine, and Sedatives. There is a footnote for OxyContin®: Estimates for OxyContin® are based only on 2004 data because age at first use was not collected for that drug in earlier years. There is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine. For each drug type, there are bars representing males and females.

The mean age at first nonmedical use of pain relievers was 21.2 years for males and 24.1 years for females.
The mean age at first nonmedical use of OxyContin® was 25.2 years for males and 23.6 years for females.
The mean age at first nonmedical use of tranquilizers was 22.4 years for males and 25.7 years for females.
The mean age at first nonmedical use of stimulants was 21.8 years for males and 21.8 years for females.
The mean age at first nonmedical use of methamphetamine was 19.9 years for males and 21.0 years for females.
The mean age at first nonmedical use of sedatives was 20.9 years for males and 33.5 years for females.

Click here to return to Figure 4.3



Figure 4.4 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Users of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs, by Time Since Initial Use: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the estimated numbers of past year users (in millions) are shown on the vertical axis. Seven types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are listed: Any Psychotherapeutic, Pain Relievers, OxyContin®, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, Methamphetamine, and Sedatives. For each drug type, the bar is separated into two sections corresponding to two types of users: (1) past year initiates and (2) continuing users. There is a footnote for Continuing Users: Continuing users were defined as persons who initiated use prior to the past 12 months. There is a footnote for OxyContin®: Estimates for OxyContin® are based only on 2004 data because age at first use was not collected for that drug in earlier years. There is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine.

There were 14.8 million persons aged 12 or older who used any psychotherapeutic nonmedically in the past year, of whom 2.7 million were past year initiates and the rest were continuing users.
There were 11.3 million persons aged 12 or older who used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year, of whom 2.4 million were past year initiates and the rest were continuing users.
There were 1.2 million persons aged 12 or older who used OxyContin® nonmedically in the past year, of whom 0.6 million were past year initiates and the rest were continuing users.
There were 5.0 million persons aged 12 or older who used tranquilizers nonmedically in the past year, of whom 1.1 million were past year initiates and the rest were continuing users.
There were 3.0 million persons aged 12 or older who used stimulants nonmedically in the past year, of whom 0.8 million were past year initiates and the rest were continuing users.
There were 1.4 million persons aged 12 or older who used methamphetamine nonmedically in the past year, of whom 0.3 million were past year initiates and the rest were continuing users.
There were 0.9 million persons aged 12 or older who used sedatives nonmedically in the past year, of whom 0.2 million were past year initiates and the rest were continuing users.

Click here to return to Figure 4.4



Figure 4.5 is titled "Annual Numbers of New Nonmedical Users of Pain Relievers, by Age at Initiation: 1965-2003." It is a line graph, where the year is shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers of new users (in thousands) of pain relievers in each year are shown on the vertical axis. There are three lines representing annual numbers of new users for (1) persons who initiated use at all ages, (2) persons aged 18 or older at the time of initiation, and (3) persons under the age of 18 at the time of initiation.

The graph shows that in 1965, there were 95,000 new nonmedical users of pain relievers of all ages. The annual number of new nonmedical users of all ages fluctuated around 500,000 to 600,000 from 1975 to 1991 and then began to increase. There were 2.7 million new nonmedical users of pain relievers in 2002 and 2.6 million in 2003.

The number of new nonmedical users of pain relievers who were under the age of 18 was 33,000 in 1965 and 146,000 in 1991. The annual number of new nonmedical users under the age of 18 began to increase in the early 1990s. There were fewer than 1 million new nonmedical users under the age of 18 in 2000, 1.0 million new nonmedical users in 2001, 1.2 million new nonmedical users in 2002, and 1.2 million new nonmedical users in 2003.

The number of new nonmedical users of pain relievers who were aged 18 or older was 62,000 in 1965 and 457,000 in 1991. The annual number of new nonmedical users who were aged 18 or older began to increase in the early 1990s. Since 2000, the number of new nonmedical users aged 18 or older has been at about 1.4 to 1.5 million per year.

Click here to return to Figure 4.5



Figure 4.6 is titled "Annual Numbers of New Nonmedical Users of OxyContin®, by Age at Initiation: 1997-2003." It is a line graph, where the year is shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers of new nonmedical users (in thousands) of OxyContin® in each year are shown on the vertical axis. There are three lines representing annual numbers of new users for (1) persons who initiated use at all ages, (2) persons aged 18 or older at the time of initiation, and (3) persons under the age of 18 at the time of initiation. There is a note associated with this figure: Incidence estimates for OxyContin® are based on 2004 data only.

The graph shows that there were 92,000 new nonmedical users of OxyContin® of all ages in 1997. The number of new nonmedical users increased to more than 700,000 in 2003.

The number of new nonmedical users of OxyContin® who were under the age of 18 was 25,000 in 1997. The annual number of new nonmedical users of OxyContin® who were under the age of 18 was about 40,000 to 60,000 from 1998 to 2000 and has increased sharply since then. There were 200,000 new nonmedical users of OxyContin® in this age group in 2003.

The number of new nonmedical users of OxyContin® who were aged 18 or older was 68,000 in 1997. The number of new nonmedical users of OxyContin® who were aged 18 or older increased to more than 100,000 in 2001 and has increased in each subsequent year. In 2003, there were 500,000 new nonmedical users of OxyContin® in this age group.

Click here to return to Figure 4.6



Figure 4.7 is titled "Annual Numbers of New Nonmedical Users of Tranquilizers, by Age at Initiation: 1965-2003." It is a line graph, where the year is shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers of new nonmedical users (in thousands) of tranquilizers in each year are shown on the vertical axis. There are three lines representing annual numbers of new users for (1) persons who initiated use at all ages, (2) persons aged 18 or older at the time of initiation, and (3) persons under the age of 18 at the time of initiation. There is a note associated with this figure: Estimates are not shown for 1965 through 1968 for initiates under the age of 18 and for those aged 18 or older due to low precision.

The graph shows that the number of new nonmedical users of tranquilizers of all ages was 59,000 in 1965. The annual number of new nonmedical users hovered around 400,000 to 500,000 from 1973 through 1994 and then began to increase, ending at approximately 1.3 million new users in 2000 and 2003.

The annual number of new nonmedical users of tranquilizers who were under the age of 18 declined from 225,000 in 1974 to fewer than 50,000 in 1987 and began to increase again in the early 1990s. Since 2000, the number of new nonmedical users in this age group has been about 400,000 per year.

The line graph for the numbers of new nonmedical users of tranquilizers who were aged 18 or older showed a pattern similar to that for new nonmedical users of all ages. The annual number of new nonmedical users in this age group generally hovered around 200,000 to 300,000 from 1973 through 1994 and then began to increase, ending at approximately 900,000 new users in 2000 and 2003.

Click here to return to Figure 4.7



Figure 4.8 is titled "Annual Numbers of New Nonmedical Users of Stimulants, by Age at Initiation: 1965-2003." It is a line graph, where the year is shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers of new nonmedical users (in thousands) of stimulants in each year are shown on the vertical axis. There are three lines representing annual numbers of new users for (1) persons who initiated use at all ages, (2) persons aged 18 or older at the time of initiation, and (3) persons under the age of 18 at the time of initiation. There is a note associated with this figure: Includes methamphetamine.

The graph shows that the annual number of new nonmedical users of stimulants of all ages hovered around 500,000 to 700,000 from 1970 to the early 1980s, then declined steadily to under 300,000 in 1991. The number of new nonmedical users subsequently increased to around 850,000 in 2000 and turned downward to end at around 760,000 in 2003.

The annual number of new nonmedical users of stimulants who were under the age of 18 hovered around 200,000 to 300,000 from 1970 to the early 1980s and then declined to fewer than 100,000 in 1991. The annual number of new nonmedical users in this age group subsequently increased. Since 2000, there have been approximately 300,000 to 400,000 new nonmedical users per year who were under the age of 18.

The number of new nonmedical users of stimulants who were aged 18 or older hovered around 300,000 from 1970 to the early 1980s and then declined to fewer than 200,000 in 1991 and 1992. The annual number of new nonmedical users in this age group subsequently increased and has been at about 400,000 per year since the late 1990s.

Click here to return to Figure 4.8



Figure 4.9 is titled "Annual Numbers of New Nonmedical Users of Methamphetamine, by Age at Initiation: 1965-2003." It is a line graph, where the year is shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers of new nonmedical users (in thousands) of methamphetamine in each year are shown on the vertical axis. There are three lines representing annual numbers of new users for (1) persons who initiated use at all ages, (2) persons aged 18 or older at the time of initiation, and (3) persons under the age of 18 at the time of initiation.

The graph shows that the annual number of new nonmedical users of methamphetamine of all ages was fewer than 200,000 before 1970, increased in the early 1970s, varied between 320,000 and 465,000 from 1971 to 1987, declined to around 210,000 in 1990, increased to around 350,000 in 1995, and fluctuated around that level in the subsequent years, ending at 363,000 in 2003.

The annual number of new nonmedical users of methamphetamine who were under the age of 18 was about 100,000 to 237,000 in the 1970s, declined to fewer than 100,000 by 1987, but began to increase again in the early 1990s. The annual number of new initiates who were under the age of 18 has been at approximately 130,000 to 160,000 since 2000.

The annual number of new nonmedical users of methamphetamine who were aged 18 or older was about 180,000 to 290,000 in the 1970s, began to decline in the late 1980s and early 1990s to a low of around 130,000 in 1992, and then fluctuated at around 200,000 per year since 1994.

Click here to return to Figure 4.9



Figure 4.10 is titled "Annual Numbers of New Nonmedical Users of Sedatives, by Age at Initiation: 1965-2003." It is a line graph, where the year is shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers of new nonmedical users (in thousands) of sedatives in each year are shown on the vertical axis. There are three lines representing annual numbers of new users for (1) persons who initiated use at all ages, (2) persons aged 18 or older at the time of initiation, and (3) persons under the age of 18 at the time of initiation.

The graph shows that the annual number of new nonmedical users of sedatives of all ages was highest in 1974 at about 550,000, declined at varying rates through the early 1990s, then increased in more recent years, ending at around 250,000 in 2003.

The annual number of new nonmedical users of sedatives who were under the age of 18 fluctuated around 150,000 to 250,000 in the 1970s, declined to fewer than 50,000 new nonmedical users per year from 1983 through the late 1990s and began to increase in more recent years, ending at approximately 90,000 new nonmedical users in 2003.

The annual number of new nonmedical users of sedatives who were aged 18 or older peaked at approximately 330,000 in 1977, declined to fewer than 100,000 per year from 1985 to the late 1990s, and began to increase in more recent years, ending at approximately 150,000 new nonmedical users in 2003.

Click here to return to Figure 4.10



Figure 5.1 is titled "Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs and Lifetime Use of Other Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of psychotherapeutic drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in their lifetime is shown on the vertical axis. Six types of psychotherapeutic drugs are listed: Any Psychotherapeutic, Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, Methamphetamine, and Sedatives. There is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine. For each psychotherapeutic drug on the horizontal axis, there are bars representing any nonpsychotherapeutic drug and any other psychotherapeutic drug.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 16.3 percent had used both any psychotherapeutic drug nonmedically and any nonpsychotherapeutic drug in their lifetime.
Among persons aged 12 or older, 10.4 percent had used both pain relievers nonmedically and any nonpsychotherapeutic drug in their lifetime. An estimated 7.2 percent of persons aged 12 or older were lifetime nonmedical users of both pain relievers and other types of psychotherapeutic drugs.
Among persons aged 12 or older, 7.4 percent had used both tranquilizers nonmedically and any nonpsychotherapeutic drug in their lifetime. An estimated 6.5 percent of persons aged 12 or older were lifetime nonmedical users of both tranquilizers and other types of psychotherapeutic drugs.
Among persons aged 12 or older, 8.1 percent had used both stimulants nonmedically and any nonpsychotherapeutic drug in their lifetime. An estimated 5.7 percent of persons aged 12 or older were lifetime nonmedical users of both stimulants and other types of psychotherapeutic drugs.
Among persons aged 12 or older, 5.0 percent had used both methamphetamine nonmedically and any nonpsychotherapeutic drug in their lifetime. An estimated 3.5 percent of persons aged 12 or older were lifetime nonmedical users of both methamphetamine and other types of psychotherapeutic drugs.
Among persons aged 12 or older, 3.9 percent had used both sedatives nonmedically and any nonpsychotherapeutic drug in their lifetime. An estimated 3.5 percent of persons aged 12 or older were lifetime nonmedical users of both sedatives and other types of psychotherapeutic drugs.

Click here to return to Figure 5.1



Figure 5.2 is titled "Lifetime Use of Nonpsychotherapeutic Drugs among Lifetime Nonmedical Pain Reliever Users and Nonusers Aged 12 or Older: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of nonpsychotherapeutic drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in their lifetime is shown on the vertical axis. Five types of nonpsychotherapeutic drugs are listed: Any Nonpsychotherapeutic, Marijuana, Cocaine, Hallucinogens, and Inhalants. For each nonpsychotherapeutic drug, there are bars for lifetime nonmedical users of pain relievers and persons who had never used pain relievers nonmedically.

The prevalence of lifetime use of any nonpsychotherapeutic drug was 80.4 percent among lifetime nonmedical users of pain relievers and 36.8 percent among persons who had never used pain relievers nonmedically.
The prevalence of lifetime use of marijuana was 77.0 percent among lifetime nonmedical users of pain relievers and 35.0 percent among persons who had never used pain relievers nonmedically.
The prevalence of lifetime use of cocaine was 44.5 percent among lifetime nonmedical users of pain relievers and 10.0 percent among persons who had never used pain relievers nonmedically.
The prevalence of lifetime use of hallucinogens was 49.0 percent among lifetime nonmedical users of pain relievers and 9.3 percent among persons who had never used pain relievers nonmedically.
The prevalence of lifetime use of inhalants was 33.8 percent among lifetime nonmedical users of pain relievers and 6.0 percent among persons who had never used pain relievers nonmedically.

Click here to return to Figure 5.2



Figure 5.3 is titled "Order of First Use of Pain Relievers and First Use of Other Drugs among Lifetime Users of Both Pain Relievers and Other Drugs: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of other drugs are shown on the vertical axis and the percentage initiating use is shown on the horizontal axis. Fifteen drugs are shown in the following order from top to bottom on the vertical axis: (1) Crack Cocaine, (2) Heroin, (3) Ecstasy, (4) Cocaine, (5) PCP, (6) Tranquilizers, (7) Methamphetamine, (8) Sedatives, (9) Stimulants, (10) LSD, (11) Inhalants, (12) Hallucinogens, (13) Marijuana, (14) Alcohol, and (15) Cigarettes. There is a footnote for Cocaine: Includes crack cocaine. There is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine. And there is a footnote for Hallucinogens: Includes lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), and Ecstasy.

For each drug, the bar is separated into two sections corresponding to two types of users: (1) used pain relievers first and (2) used other drug first. There is an overall note for the graph: Percentages do not sum to 100 because of persons who initiated use of both drugs at the same age.

Among persons who used both pain relievers and crack cocaine, 65.7 percent used pain relievers first, and 22.1 percent used crack cocaine first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and heroin, 62.6 percent used pain relievers first, and 22.1 percent used heroin first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and Ecstasy, 52.1 percent used pain relievers first, and 27.9 percent used Ecstasy first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and cocaine, 39.7 percent used pain relievers first, and 43.1 percent used cocaine first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and PCP, 37.4 percent used pain relievers first, and 41.0 percent used PCP first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and tranquilizers, 35.0 percent used pain relievers first, and 21.0 percent used tranquilizers first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and methamphetamine, 34.7 percent used pain relievers first, and 41.5 percent used methamphetamine first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and sedatives, 27.8 percent used pain relievers first, and 37.7 percent used sedatives first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and stimulants, 27.3 percent used pain relievers first, and 45.8 percent used stimulants first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and LSD, 23.4 percent used pain relievers first, and 55.5 percent used LSD first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and inhalants, 23.0 percent used pain relievers first, and 59.4 percent used inhalants first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and hallucinogens, 23.0 percent used pain relievers first, and 55.5 percent used hallucinogens first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and marijuana, 9.8 percent used pain relievers first, and 80.3 percent used marijuana first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and alcohol, 8.5 percent used pain relievers first, and 84.9 percent used alcohol first.
Among persons who used both pain relievers and cigarettes, 6.9 percent used pain relievers first, and 87.6 percent used cigarettes first.

Click here to return to Figure 5.3



Figure 5.4 is titled "Order of First Use of Tranquilizers and First Use of Other Drugs among Lifetime Users of Both Tranquilizers and Other Drugs: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of other drugs are shown on the vertical axis and the percentage initiating use is shown on the horizontal axis. Fifteen drugs are shown in the following order from top to bottom on the vertical axis: (1) Crack Cocaine, (2) Heroin, (3) Ecstasy, (4) Cocaine, (5) PCP, (6) Methamphetamine, (7) Sedatives, (8) Stimulants, (9) Pain Relievers, (10) LSD, (11) Inhalants, (12) Hallucinogens, (13) Marijuana, (14) Cigarettes, and (15) Alcohol. There is a footnote for Cocaine: Includes crack cocaine. There is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine. And there is a footnote for Hallucinogens: Includes lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), and Ecstasy.

For each drug, the bar is separated into two sections corresponding to two types of users: (1) used tranquilizers first and (2) used other drug first. There is an overall note for the graph: Percentages do not sum to 100 because of persons who initiated use of both drugs at the same age.

Among persons who used both tranquilizers and crack cocaine, 65.2 percent used tranquilizers first, and 21.8 percent used crack cocaine first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and heroin, 58.0 percent used tranquilizers first, and 26.2 percent used heroin first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and Ecstasy, 50.1 percent used tranquilizers first, and 31.1 percent used Ecstasy first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and cocaine, 38.2 percent used tranquilizers first, and 43.6 percent used cocaine first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and PCP, 35.0 percent used tranquilizers first, and 41.7 percent used PCP first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and methamphetamine, 31.1 percent used tranquilizers first, and 42.8 percent used methamphetamine first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and sedatives, 22.3 percent used tranquilizers first, and 36.7 percent used sedatives first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and stimulants, 21.8 percent used tranquilizers first, and 47.9 percent used stimulants first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and pain relievers, 21.0 percent used tranquilizers first, and 35.0 percent used pain relievers first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and LSD, 19.0 percent used tranquilizers first, and 59.2 percent used LSD first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and inhalants, 19.6 percent used tranquilizers first, and 62.6 percent used inhalants first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and hallucinogens, 18.6 percent used tranquilizers first, and 60.5 percent used hallucinogens first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and marijuana, 6.3 percent used tranquilizers first, and 85.0 percent used marijuana first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and alcohol, 3.7 percent used tranquilizers first, and 90.9 percent used alcohol first.
Among persons who used both tranquilizers and cigarettes, 3.7 percent used tranquilizers first, and 91.9 percent used cigarettes first.

Click here to return to Figure 5.4



Figure 5.5 is titled "Order of First Use of Stimulants and First Use of Other Drugs among Lifetime Users of Both Stimulants and Other Drugs: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of other drugs are shown on the vertical axis and the percentage initiating use is shown on the horizontal axis. Fourteen drugs are shown in the following order from top to bottom on the vertical axis: (1) Crack Cocaine, (2) Heroin, (3) Ecstasy, (4) Cocaine, (5) Tranquilizers, (6) PCP, (7) Pain Relievers, (8) Sedatives, (9) LSD, (10) Inhalants, (11) Hallucinogens, (12) Marijuana, (13) Cigarettes, and (14) Alcohol. There is a footnote for Cocaine: Includes crack cocaine. There is a footnote for Hallucinogens: Includes lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), and Ecstasy.

For each drug, the bar is separated into two sections corresponding to two types of users: (1) used stimulants first and (2) used other drug first. There is an overall note for the graph: Percentages do not sum to 100 because of persons who initiated use of both drugs at the same age.

Among persons who used both stimulants and crack cocaine, 71.4 percent used stimulants first, and 13.0 percent used crack cocaine first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and heroin, 71.0 percent used stimulants first, and 14.7 percent used heroin first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and Ecstasy, 60.0 percent used stimulants first, and 20.1 percent used Ecstasy first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and cocaine, 52.7 percent used stimulants first, and 26.4 percent used cocaine first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and tranquilizers, 47.9 percent used stimulants first, and 21.8 percent used tranquilizers first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and PCP, 46.4 percent used stimulants first, and 26.6 percent used PCP first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and pain relievers, 45.8 percent used stimulants first, and 27.3 percent used pain relievers first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and sedatives, 33.1 percent used stimulants first, and 21.5 percent used sedatives first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and LSD, 32.0 percent used stimulants first, and 38.6 percent used LSD first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and inhalants, 30.5 percent used stimulants first, and 48.5 percent used inhalants first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and hallucinogens, 29.4 percent used stimulants first, and 41.1 percent used hallucinogens first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and marijuana, 9.8 percent used stimulants first, and 75.1 percent used marijuana first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and cigarettes, 5.8 percent used stimulants first, and 87.8 percent used cigarettes first.
Among persons who used both stimulants and alcohol, 5.2 percent used stimulants first, and 86.2 percent used alcohol first.

Click here to return to Figure 5.5



Figure 5.6 is titled "Order of First Use of Methamphetamine and First Use of Other Drugs among Lifetime Users of Both Methamphetamine and Other Drugs: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of other drugs are shown on the vertical axis and the percentage initiating use is shown on the horizontal axis. Fourteen drugs are shown in the following order from top to bottom on the vertical axis: (1) Crack Cocaine, (2) Heroin, (3) Ecstasy, (4) Cocaine, (5) Tranquilizers, (6) Pain Relievers, (7) PCP, (8) Sedatives, (9) Inhalants, (10) LSD, (11) Hallucinogens, (12) Marijuana, (13) Cigarettes, and (14) Alcohol. There is a footnote for Cocaine: Includes crack cocaine. There is a footnote for Hallucinogens: Includes lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), and Ecstasy.

For each drug, the bar is separated into two sections corresponding to two types of users: (1) used methamphetamine first and (2) used other drug first. There is an overall note for the graph: Percentages do not sum to 100 because of persons who initiated use of both drugs at the same age.

Among persons who used both methamphetamine and crack cocaine, 68.4 percent used methamphetamine first, and 15.4 percent used crack cocaine first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and heroin, 65.1 percent used methamphetamine first, and 19.6 percent used heroin first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and Ecstasy, 57.6 percent used methamphetamine first, and 21.0 percent used Ecstasy first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and cocaine, 45.3 percent used methamphetamine first, and 31.6 percent used cocaine first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and tranquilizers, 42.8 percent used methamphetamine first, and 31.1 percent used tranquilizers first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and pain relievers, 41.5 percent used methamphetamine first, and 34.7 percent used pain relievers first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and PCP, 38.4 percent used methamphetamine first, and 33.3 percent used PCP first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and sedatives, 26.3 percent used methamphetamine first, and 31.4 percent used sedatives first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and inhalants, 25.6 percent used methamphetamine first, and 53.3 percent used inhalants first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and LSD, 25.0 percent used methamphetamine first, and 45.4 percent used LSD first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and hallucinogens, 22.7 percent used methamphetamine first, and 48.2 percent used hallucinogens first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and marijuana, 5.7 percent used methamphetamine first, and 80.8 percent used marijuana first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and cigarettes, 4.5 percent used methamphetamine first, and 90.2 percent used cigarettes first.
Among persons who used both methamphetamine and alcohol, 3.2 percent used methamphetamine first, and 88.9 percent used alcohol first.

Click here to return to Figure 5.6



Figure 5.7 is titled "Order of First Use of Sedatives and First Use of Other Drugs among Lifetime Users of Both Sedatives and Other Drugs: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of other drugs are shown on the vertical axis and the percentage initiating use is shown on the horizontal axis. Fifteen drugs are shown in the following order from top to bottom on the vertical axis: (1) Crack Cocaine, (2) Ecstasy, (3) Heroin, (4) Cocaine, (5) PCP, (6) Pain Relievers, (7) Tranquilizers, (8) Methamphetamine, (9) Inhalants, (10) LSD, (11) Hallucinogens, (12) Stimulants, (13) Marijuana, (14) Cigarettes, and (15) Alcohol. There is a footnote for Cocaine: Includes crack cocaine. There is a footnote for Hallucinogens: Includes lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), and Ecstasy. And there is a footnote for Stimulants: Includes methamphetamine.

For each drug, the bar is separated into two sections corresponding to two types of users: (1) used sedatives first and (2) used other drug first. There is an overall note for the graph: Percentages do not sum to 100 because of persons who initiated use of both drugs at the same age.

Among persons who used both sedatives and crack cocaine, 81.5 percent used sedatives first, and 10.3 percent used crack cocaine first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and Ecstasy, 66.7 percent used sedatives first, and 17.8 percent used Ecstasy first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and heroin, 66.4 percent used sedatives first, and 16.7 percent used heroin first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and cocaine, 53.2 percent used sedatives first, and 25.2 percent used cocaine first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and PCP, 46.2 percent used sedatives first, and 27.3 percent used PCP first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and pain relievers, 37.7 percent used sedatives first, and 27.8 percent used pain relievers first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and tranquilizers, 36.7 percent used sedatives first, and 22.3 percent used tranquilizers first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and methamphetamine, 31.4 percent used sedatives first, and 26.3 percent used methamphetamine first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and inhalants, 28.3 percent used sedatives first, and 49.2 percent used inhalants first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and LSD, 27.1 percent used sedatives first, and 42.9 percent used LSD first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and hallucinogens, 23.5 percent used sedatives first, and 46.3 percent used hallucinogens first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and stimulants, 21.5 percent used sedatives first, and 33.1 percent used stimulants first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and marijuana, 6.3 percent used sedatives first, and 79.9 percent used marijuana first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and cigarettes, 5.2 percent used sedatives first, and 88.5 percent used cigarettes first.
Among persons who used both sedatives and alcohol, 4.9 percent used sedatives first, and 87.1 percent used alcohol first.

Click here to return to Figure 5.7



Figure 6.1 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse for Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs in the Past Year for Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Drug Type: Numbers (in Thousands), 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers (in thousands) who were dependent or abusing in the past year are shown on the vertical axis. Five types of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs are listed: Any Psychotherapeutic, Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, and Sedatives. For each prescription psychotherapeutic drug type, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, and 2004. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 and .01 levels were performed between 2002 and 2004 estimates and between 2003 and 2004 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The number of persons dependent on or abusing any psychotherapeutic drug in the past year was 2,018,000 in 2002, 1,923,000 in 2003, and 2,048,000 in 2004.
The number of persons dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year was 1,509,000 in 2002, 1,424,000 in 2003, and 1,388,000 in 2004.
The number of persons dependent on or abusing tranquilizers in the past year was 509,000 in 2002, 435,000 in 2003, and 573,000 in 2004.
The number of persons dependent on or abusing stimulants in the past year was 436,000 in 2002, 378,000 in 2003, and 470,000 in 2004.
The number of persons dependent on or abusing sedatives in the past year was 154,000 in 2002, 158,000 in 2003, and 128,000 in 2004.

Click here to return to Figure 6.1



Figure 6.2 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse for Nonmedical Use of Prescription Pain Relievers in the Past Year, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the age groups are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Three age groups are listed: aged 12 to 17, aged 18 to 25, and aged 26 or older. For each age group, there are bars representing 2002, 2003, and 2004. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 and .01 levels were performed between 2002 and 2004 estimates and between 2003 and 2004 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of persons aged 12 to 17 who were dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year was 1.0 percent in 2002, 1.1 percent in 2003, and 1.2 percent in 2004. The percentage was significantly different between 2002 and 2004 at the .05 level.
The percentage of persons aged 18 to 25 who were dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year was 1.4 percent in 2002, 1.1 percent in 2003, and 1.4 percent in 2004. The percentage was significantly different between 2003 and 2004 at the .05 level.
The percentage of persons aged 26 or older who were dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year was 0.5 percent in 2002, 0.4 percent in 2003, and 0.3 percent in 2004.

Click here to return to Figure 6.2



Figure 6.3 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse for Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, and Stimulants in the Past Year, by Age Group: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Three types of drugs are listed: Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, and Stimulants. For each drug type, there are bars representing five age groups: (1) 12 to 17, (2) 18 to 25, (3) 26 to 34, (4) 35 to 49, and (5) 50 or older.

The percentage of persons dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year was 1.1 percent for persons aged 12 to 17, 1.3 percent for persons aged 18 to 25, 0.7 percent for persons aged 26 to 34, 0.6 percent for persons aged 35 to 49, and 0.2 percent for persons aged 50 or older.
The percentage of persons dependent on or abusing tranquilizers in the past year was 0.3 percent for persons aged 12 to 17, 0.5 percent for persons aged 18 to 25, 0.2 percent for persons aged 26 to 34, 0.2 percent for persons aged 35 to 49, and 0.1 percent for persons aged 50 or older.
The percentage of persons dependent on or abusing stimulants in the past year was 0.4 percent for persons aged 12 to 17, 0.5 percent for persons aged 18 to 25, 0.2 percent for persons aged 26 to 34, 0.1 percent for persons aged 35 to 49, and less than 0.1 percent for persons aged 50 or older.

Click here to return to Figure 6.3



Figure 6.4 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse for Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in the Past Year, by Age Group and Gender: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the age groups are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Three age groups are listed: aged 12 to 17, aged 18 to 25, and aged 26 or older. For each age group, there are bars representing males and females.

The percentage of persons aged 12 to 17 who were dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year was 0.8 percent for males and 1.4 percent for females.
The percentage of persons aged 18 to 25 who were dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year was 1.4 percent for males and 1.1 percent for females.
The percentage of persons aged 26 or older who were dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year was 0.5 percent for males and 0.4 percent for females.

Click here to return to Figure 6.4



Figure 6.5 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse for Nonmedical Use of Any Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drug in the Past Year, by Race/Ethnicity: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where race/ethnicity is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage who were dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Seven categories of race/ethnicity are shown: (1) white, (2) black or African American, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, (4) Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, (5) Asian, (6) two or more races, and (7) Hispanic or Latino.

Among whites, 0.9 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among blacks or African Americans, 0.5 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among American Indians or Alaska Natives, 2.0 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders, 1.6 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among Asians, 0.5 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among persons of two or more races, 1.1 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among Hispanics or Latinos, 0.8 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 6.5



Figure 6.6 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse for Nonmedical Use of Any Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drug in the Past Year, by Census Division: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the percentage who were dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the horizontal axis and the census divisions are shown on the vertical axis. Nine census divisions are shown in the following order from top to bottom on the vertical axis: (1) East South Central, (2) New England, (3) Pacific, (4) West South Central, (5) Mountain, (6) South Atlantic, (7) East North Central, (8) West North Central, and (9) Middle Atlantic.

Among persons in the East South Central division, 1.2 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among persons in the New England division, 1.1 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among persons in the Pacific division, 1.0 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among persons in the West South Central division, 1.0 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among persons in the Mountain division, 0.9 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among persons in the South Atlantic division, 0.8 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among persons in the East North Central division, 0.7 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among persons in the West North Central division, 0.6 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among persons in the Middle Atlantic division, 0.6 percent were dependent on or abusing any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 6.6



Figure 6.7 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse for Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs in the Past Year among Past Year Nonmedical Users of Those Drugs, by Drug Type and Age Group: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage who were dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Four types of drugs are listed: Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, and Sedatives. For each drug type, there are bars representing three age groups: (1) 12 to 17, (2) 18 to 25, and (3) 26 or older.

The percentages of past year nonmedical users of pain relievers in each age group who were dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year were 14.6 percent for nonmedical users aged 12 to 17, 10.9 percent for nonmedical users aged 18 to 25, and 13.3 percent for nonmedical users aged 26 or older.
The percentages of past year nonmedical users of tranquilizers in each age group who were dependent on or abusing tranquilizers in the past year were 15.3 percent for nonmedical users aged 12 to 17, 9.2 percent for nonmedical users aged 18 to 25, and 9.7 percent for nonmedical users aged 26 or older.
The percentages of past year nonmedical users of stimulants in each age group who were dependent on or abusing stimulants in the past year were 16.4 percent for nonmedical users aged 12 to 17, 12.8 percent for nonmedical users aged 18 to 25, and 14.9 percent for nonmedical users aged 26 or older.
The percentages of past year nonmedical users of sedatives in each age group who were dependent on or abusing sedatives in the past year were 22.3 percent for nonmedical users aged 12 to 17, 14.5 percent for nonmedical users aged 18 to 25, and 16.8 percent for nonmedical users aged 26 or older.

Click here to return to Figure 6.7



Figure 6.8 is titled "Past Year Substance Dependence or Abuse for Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs among Lifetime Users Aged 18 or Older, by Drug Type and Age at First Use: Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of drugs are shown on the horizontal axis and percentage who were dependent or abusing in past year is shown on the vertical axis. Five types of drugs are listed: Any Psychotherapeutic, Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, and Sedatives. For each drug type, there are bars representing persons who first used the drug under the age of 16 years and those who used the drug at 16 years old or older.

Among lifetime nonmedical users of any psychotherapeutic drug who were aged 18 or older, 7.5 percent of those who first used before the age of 16 were dependent on or abusing any psychotherapeutic in the past year, and 3.0 percent of those who first used at age 16 or older were dependent on or abusing any psychotherapeutic drug in the past year.
Among lifetime nonmedical users of pain relievers who were aged 18 or older, 7.4 percent of those who first used before the age of 16 were dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year, and 3.7 percent of those who first used at age 16 or older were dependent on or abusing pain relievers in the past year.
Among lifetime nonmedical users of tranquilizers who were aged 18 or older, 5.1 percent of those who first used before the age of 16 were dependent on or abusing tranquilizers in the past year, and 1.9 percent of those who first used at age 16 or older were dependent on or abusing tranquilizers in the past year.
Among lifetime nonmedical users of stimulants who were aged 18 or older, 3.9 percent of those who first used before the age of 16 were dependent on or abusing stimulants in the past year, and 1.3 percent of those who first used at age 16 or older were dependent on or abusing tranquilizers in the past year.
Among lifetime nonmedical users of sedatives who were aged 18 or older, 2.3 percent of those who first used before the age of 16 were dependent on or abusing sedatives in the past year, and 1.0 percent of those who first used at age 16 or older were dependent on or abusing sedatives in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 6.8



Figure 7.1 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is U.S. map in which States and the District of Columbia were divided into three groups according to the percentages of their populations aged 12 or older who were nonmedical users of any prescription psychotherapeutic drug in the past year. States in each group are listed below in alphabetical order.

States in the highest group (7.46 to 8.54 percent) were Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Utah.
States in the middle group (4.95 to 7.45 percent) were Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
States in the lowest group (4.04 to 4.94 percent) were Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, and Virginia.

Click here to return to Figure 7.1



Figure 7.2 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is U.S. map in which States and the District of Columbia were divided into three groups according to the percentages of their populations aged 12 or older who were nonmedical users of pain relievers in the past year. States in each group are listed below in alphabetical order.

States in the highest group (5.68 to 7.00 percent) were Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Nevada, Oregon, Rhode Island, Utah, and Washington.
States in the middle group (3.76 to 5.67 percent) were Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
States in the lowest group (2.61 to 3.75 percent) were the District of Columbia, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

Click here to return to Figure 7.2



Figure 7.3 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Tranquilizers among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is U.S. map in which States and the District of Columbia were divided into three groups according to the percentages of their populations aged 12 or older who were nonmedical users of tranquilizers in the past year. States in each group are listed below in alphabetical order.

States in the highest group (2.68 to 4.64 percent) were Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Tennessee.
States in the middle group (1.60 to 2.67 percent) were Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
States in the lowest group (0.62 to 1.59 percent) were Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New York, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

Click here to return to Figure 7.3



Figure 7.4 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Stimulants among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is U.S. map in which States and the District of Columbia were divided into three groups according to the percentages of their populations aged 12 or older who were nonmedical users of stimulants in the past year. States in each group are listed below in alphabetical order. There is a note for the map: Includes methamphetamine.

States in the highest group (1.80 to 2.66 percent) were Arkansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming.
States in the middle group (0.94 to 1.79 percent) were Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Vermont, and West Virginia.
States in the lowest group (0.44 to 0.93 percent) were Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and Wisconsin.

Click here to return to Figure 7.4



Figure 7.5 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Methamphetamine among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is U.S. map in which States and the District of Columbia were divided into three groups according to the percentages of their populations aged 12 or older who were nonmedical users of methamphetamine in the past year. States in each group are listed below in alphabetical order.

States in the highest group (1.19 to 2.21 percent) were Arizona, Arkansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.
States in the middle group (0.21 to 1.18 percent) were Alabama, Alaska, California, Colorado, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.
States in the lowest group (0.04 to 0.20 percent) were Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Vermont.

Click here to return to Figure 7.5



Figure 7.6 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Sedatives among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004." It is U.S. map in which States and the District of Columbia were divided into three groups according to the percentages of their populations aged 12 or older who were nonmedical users of sedatives in the past year. States in each group are listed below in alphabetical order.

States in the highest group (0.54 to 0.96 percent) were Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Missouri, Rhode Island, and Washington.
States in the middle group (0.22 to 0.53 percent) were Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming.
States in the lowest group (0.07 to 0.21 percent) were Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin.

Click here to return to Figure 7.6



Figure 8.1 is titled "Past Month Methamphetamine Use, by Past Year Dependence and Abuse, among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers (in thousands) of past month methamphetamine users are shown on the vertical axis. There are 3 years listed: 2002, 2003, and 2004. For each year, the bar is separated into three sections corresponding to three types of users: (1) no dependence/abuse; (2) other illicit drug dependence/abuse; or (3) stimulant dependence/abuse.

In 2002, 597,000 persons used methamphetamine in the past month, among whom 433,000 had no dependence or abuse for stimulants or other illicit drugs, 101,000 had other illicit drug dependence or abuse, and 63,000 had stimulant dependence or abuse.
In 2003, 607,000 persons used methamphetamine in the past month, among whom 357,000 had no dependence or abuse for stimulants or other illicit drugs, 158,000 had other illicit drug dependence or abuse, and 92,000 had stimulant dependence or abuse.
In 2004, 583,000 persons used methamphetamine in the past month, among whom 237,000 had no dependence or abuse for stimulants or other illicit drugs, 216,000 had other illicit drug dependence or abuse, and 130,000 had stimulant dependence or abuse.

Click here to return to Figure 8.1



Figure 8.2 is titled "Primary Stimulant Admissions to Treatment (TEDS) and Specialty Treatment for a Stimulant Use Problem during Last Treatment Episode in the Past Year (NSDUH), 2002-2004." It is a bar graph, where the types of treatment and years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers (in thousands) of admissions or persons receiving treatment are shown on the vertical axis. There are two types of treatment measures on the horizontal axis. One is admissions to treatment, based on data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), in which treatment was for a primary stimulant problem. The second treatment measure is for persons receiving specialty treatment for a stimulant use problem, based on NSDUH data. For each treatment measure, there are three bars representing 2002, 2003, and 2004.

The numbers of TEDS admissions to treatment for a primary stimulant problem were 130,000 in 2002, 140,000 in 2003, and 151,000 in 2004.
The numbers of persons receiving specialty treatment for a stimulant problem based on NSDUH were 146,000 in 2002, 157,000 in 2003, and 192,000 in 2004.

Click here to return to Figure 8.2



Figure 8.3 is titled "Rate of Past Year Nonmedical Methamphetamine Use and Rate of Treatment Admissions for Primary Problems with Methamphetamine or Amphetamine Use." The figure contains two U.S. maps.

The first U.S. map is titled "Percentage Using Methamphetamine Nonmedically in Past Year (NSDUH): Average of 2002-2004." States and the District of Columbia were divided into three groups of 17 according to the percentages of their populations aged 12 or older who were nonmedical users of methamphetamine in the past year. States in each group are listed below in alphabetical order.

States in the highest group (0.98 to 2.21 percent) were Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming.
States in the middle group (0.33 to 0.97 percent) were Alabama, Alaska, the District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, and West Virginia.
States in the lowest group (0.04 to 0.32 percent) were Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin.

The second U.S. map is titled "Primary Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Treatment Admissions per 100,000 Population (TEDS): Average of 2001-2003." This map is based on data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). States and the District of Columbia were divided into three groups of 17 according to the percentages of their populations aged 12 or older who were nonmedical users of methamphetamine in the past year. States in each group are listed below in alphabetical order.

States in the highest group (59.34 to 294.0 admissions per 100,000 population) were Arkansas, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
States in the middle group (4.34 to 59.33 admissions per 100,000 population) were Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas.
States in the lowest group (1.33 to 4.33 percent) were Connecticut, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

Click here to return to Figure 8.3



Figure B.1 is titled "Required Effective Sample as a Function of the Proportion Estimated." It is a graph of a function within a coordinate plane; the horizontal axis shows the proportion estimated, and the vertical axis shows the required effective sample size. The following comment is shown: "Current Rule: NSDUH 2005." A horizontal line through the graph indicates that an effective sample size of 68 is required for the current rule. The graph decreases from an infinitely large required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is close to zero and approaches a local minimum of 50 when the estimated proportion is 0.20. The graph increases for estimated proportions greater than 0.20 until a required effective sample size of 68 is reached for an estimated proportion of 0.50. The graph decreases for estimated proportions greater than 0.50 and approaches a local minimum of 50 for the required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is 0.80. The graph increases for estimated proportions greater than 0.80 and reaches an infinitely large required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is close to 1.

Click here to return to Figure B.1



Figure C.1 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Any Prescription Psychotherapeutic Drug among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 1985-2004." It is a line graph, where the survey year is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Four lines represent percentages for the following age groups: (1) aged 12 or older, (2) aged 12 to 17, (3) aged 18 to 25, and (4) aged 26 or older. For each line, there are breaks in the trend line between 1998 and 1999 and between 2001 and 2002. The content of the data in the figure is discussed in the text. There is a note associated with this figure: Estimates are not comparable from 1998 to 1999 or from 2001 to 2002; no conclusions should be drawn regarding trends over these breaks. Comparable disaggregations by age were not available for past year use for survey years 1985, 1988, and 1990-1993.

Click here to return to Figure C.1



Figure C.2 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 1985-2004." It is a line graph, where the survey year is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Four lines represent percentages for the following age groups: (1) aged 12 or older, (2) aged 12 to 17, (3) aged 18 to 25, and (4) aged 26 or older. For each line, there are breaks in the trend line between 1998 and 1999 and between 2001 and 2002. The content of the data in the figure is discussed in the text. There is a note associated with this figure: Estimates are not comparable from 1998 to 1999 or from 2001 to 2002; no conclusions should be drawn regarding trends over these breaks. Comparable disaggregations by age were not available for past year use for survey years 1985, 1988, and 1990-1993.

Click here to return to Figure C.2



Figure C.3 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Tranquilizers among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 1985-2004." It is a line graph, where the survey year is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Four lines represent percentages for the following age groups: (1) aged 12 or older, (2) aged 12 to 17, (3) aged 18 to 25, and (4) aged 26 or older. For each line, there are breaks in the trend line between 1998 and 1999 and between 2001 and 2002. The content of the data in the figure is discussed in the text. There is a note associated with this figure: Estimates are not comparable from 1998 to 1999 or from 2001 to 2002; no conclusions should be drawn regarding trends over these breaks. Comparable disaggregations by age were not available for past year use for survey years 1985, 1988, and 1990-1993.

Click here to return to Figure C.3



Figure C.4 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Stimulants among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 1985-2004." It is a line graph, where the survey year is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Four lines represent percentages for the following age groups: (1) aged 12 or older, (2) aged 12 to 17, (3) aged 18 to 25, and (4) aged 26 or older. For each line, there are breaks in the trend line between 1998 and 1999 and between 2001 and 2002. The content of the data in the figure is discussed in the text. There is a note associated with this figure: Estimates are not comparable from 1998 to 1999 or from 2001 to 2002; no conclusions should be drawn regarding trends over these breaks. Comparable disaggregations by age were not available for past year use for survey years 1985, 1988, and 1990-1993. Estimates for stimulants in 1999-2004 include methamphetamine.

Click here to return to Figure C.4



Figure C.5 is titled "Past Year Nonmedical Use of Methamphetamine among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 1999-2004." It is a line graph, where the survey year is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Four lines represent percentages for the following age groups: (1) aged 12 or older, (2) aged 12 to 17, (3) aged 18 to 25, and (4) aged 26 or older. For each line, there is a break in the trend line between 2001 and 2002. The content of the data in the figure is discussed in the text. There is a note associated with this figure: Estimates are not comparable from 2001 to 2002; no conclusions should be drawn regarding trends over this break.

Click here to return to Figure C.5



Figure C.6 is titled " Past Year Nonmedical Use of Sedatives among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 1985-2004." It is a line graph, where the survey year is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Four lines represent percentages for the following age groups: (1) aged 12 or older, (2) aged 12 to 17, (3) aged 18 to 25, and (4) aged 26 or older. For each line, there are breaks in the trend line between 1998 and 1999 and between 2001 and 2002. The content of the data in the figure is discussed in the text. There is a note associated with this figure: Estimates are not comparable from 1998 to 1999 or from 2001 to 2002; no conclusions should be drawn regarding trends over these breaks. Comparable disaggregations by age were not available for past year use for survey years 1985, 1988, and 1990-1993.

Click here to return to Figure C.6



The adjustment factor a sub k as a function of lambda is defined as the ratio of two quantities. The quantity in the numerator is defined as the sum of two terms. The first term is calculated as the product of l sub k and the difference between u sub k and c sub k. The second term is calculated as the product of u sub k, the difference between c sub k and l sub k, and the value of the exponential function evaluated at the following product: capital A sub k multiplied by the transpose of the vector x sub k, multiplied by lambda. The quantity in the denominator is defined as the sum of two terms. The first term is the difference between u sub k and c sub k. The second term is calculated as the product of the difference between c sub k and l sub k, and the value of the exponential function evaluated at the following product: capital A sub k multiplied by the transpose of the vector x sub k, multiplied by lambda.

Click here to return to Equation A-1



The lambda parameters are estimated by solving the following equation. The quantity of the summation over s of the product of (x sub k, d sub k, and a sub k as a function of lambda), minus the quantity capital T tilde sub x is equal to zero.

Click here to return to Equation A-2



Delta of the parameters w and d equals the summation over all k in s of the ratio of d sub k to capital A sub k multiplied by the sum of the following two quantities. The first quantity is calculated as the product of the difference between a sub k and l sub k, and the logarithm of the ratio of the difference between a sub k and l sub k to the difference between c sub k and l sub k. The second quantity is defined as the product of the difference between u sub k and a sub k, and the logarithm of the ratio of the difference between u sub k and a sub k to the difference between u sub k and c sub k.

Click here to return to Equation A-3



p hat sub d is equal to capital Y hat sub d divided by capital N hat sub d

Click here to return to Equation B-1



The standard error of capital Y hat sub d equals the product of capital N hat sub d and the standard error of p hat sub d.

Click here to return to Equation B-2



Two computational forms of the suppression rule are presented. The first indicates that suppressions occurred when p hat was less than or equal to 0.5 and the following ratio was greater than 0.175: the numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat, divided by p hat; the denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of p hat. The second computational form indicates that suppressions also occurred whenever p hat was greater than 0.5 and the following ratio was greater than 0.175: the numerator is the standard error of p hat, divided by 1 minus p hat; the denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of the quantity 1 minus p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B-3



Two computational forms of the suppression rule are presented. The first indicates that suppressions occurred when p hat was less than or equal to 0.5 and the following ratio was greater than 0.175: the numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat, divided by p hat; the denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of p hat. The second computational form indicates that suppressions also occurred whenever p hat was greater than 0.5 and the following ratio was greater than 0.175: the numerator is the standard error of p hat, divided by 1 minus p hat; the denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of the quantity 1 minus p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B-4



Capital Z is equal to the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is p hat sub 1 minus p hat sub 2. The denominator is the square root of the following quantity: the variance of p hat sub1, plus the variance of p hat sub 2, minus twice the covariance of p hat sub 1 and p hat sub 2.

Click here to return to Equation B-5



The incidence rate is equal to the number of new cases divided by the person time of exposure.

Click here to return to Equation B-6



Capital L sub t comma a comma i equals the time period during which the target period (t) was occurring intersected with the period in which person i was at least a sub 1 years old, but not yet a sub 2 years old, and also intersected with the period since person i entered the United States, if person i is an immigrant.

Click here to return to Equation B-7



Capital L sub t comma a comma i equals the time period during which the target period (t) was occurring intersected with the period in which person i was at least a sub 1 years old, but not yet a sub 2 years old, and also intersected with the period since person i entered the United States, if person i is an immigrant.

Click here to return to Equation B-8



Person-time exposure is equal to the difference between m sub 2 comma i and m sub 1 comma i divided by 365.

Click here to return to Equation B-9



Person-time exposure equals the difference of t sub the quantity f u comma d comma i minus m sub 1 comma i divided by 365.

Click here to return to Equation B-10



The incidence rate as a function of d, a, and t is equal to the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is the summation over i of w sub i times cap I sub i as a function of d, a, and t. The denominator is the summation over i of w sub i times e sub i as a function of d, a, and t.

Click here to return to Equation B-11



Capital I as a function of i is equal to 1 if the date of the interview minus the date of initiation is less than or equal to 365. Capital I is equal to 0 otherwise.

Click here to return to Equation B-12



The ratio of two quantities is greater than 0.175. The numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat divided by p hat. The denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B-13



The ratio of two quantities is greater than 0.175. The numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat divided by 1 minus p hat. The denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of 1 minus p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B-14



Effective n is the ratio of n over the design effect.

Click here to return to Equation B-15

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This page was last updated on June 03, 2008.