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Behavioral Health Trends in the United States:
Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health

SAMHSA Authors

Sarra L. Hedden
Joel Kennet
Rachel Lipari
Grace Medley
Peter Tice

RTI Authors

Elizabeth A. P. Copello
Larry A. Kroutil

SAMHSA Project Officer

Peter Tice

RTI Project Director

David Hunter

For questions about this report, please e-mail Peter.Tice@samhsa.hhs.gov.


This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under Contract No. HHSS283201300001C with SAMHSA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

Public Domain Notice

All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from SAMHSA. Citation of the source is appreciated. However, this publication may not be reproduced or distributed for a fee without the specific, written authorization of the Office of Communications, SAMHSA, HHS.

Electronic Access and Printed Copies

This publication may be downloaded or ordered at http://store.samhsa.gov. Or call SAMHSA at 1-877-SAMHSA-7 (1-877-726-4727) (English and Español).

Recommended Citation

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2015). Behavioral health trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 15-4927, NSDUH Series H-50). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/

Originating Office

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, MD 20857.


September 2015


Table of Contents

Foreword

Summary

Introduction

Survey Background

Data Presentation and Interpretation

Illicit Drug Use
Any Illicit Drug Use
Marijuana Use
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutic Drugs
Pain Relievers
Tranquilizers
Stimulants and Methamphetamine
Sedatives
Cocaine Use
Heroin Use
Hallucinogen Use
Use of Specific Hallucinogens: LSD and Ecstasy
Inhalant Use

Tobacco Use
Any Tobacco Use and Cigarette Use
Daily Cigarette Use
Cigar, Pipe Tobacco, and Smokeless Tobacco Use

Alcohol Use
Current Alcohol Use
Binge Alcohol Use
Heavy Alcohol Use
Underage Alcohol Use

Substance Use Disorders
Alcohol Use Disorder
Illicit Drug Use Disorder
Marijuana Use Disorder
Pain Reliever Use Disorder
Cocaine Use Disorder
Heroin Use Disorder

Mental Health Issues among Adults and Adolescents
Past Year Any Mental Illness (AMI), Serious Mental Illness (SMI), and AMI without SMI among Adults Aged 18 or Older
Past Year Major Depressive Episode (MDE) and MDE with Severe Impairment among Adults Aged 18 or Older
Past Year Major Depressive Episode (MDE) and MDE with Severe Impairment among Adolescents Aged 12 to 17

Co-Occurring Mental Health Issues and Substance Use Disorders among Adults
Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders among Adults with a Disorder
Co-Occurring Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders among Adults in the General Population

Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Issues among Adolescents
Substance Use and Substance Use Disorders among Adolescents with Major Depressive Episode
Major Depressive Episode among Adolescents with a Substance Use Disorder
Co-Occurring Major Depressive Episode and Substance Use Disorder among Adolescents in the General Population

Endnotes

Appendix A: Supplemental Tables of Estimates for Behavioral Health Trends in the United States

Appendix B: List of Contributors


Foreword

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), an operating division within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is charged with reducing the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. SAMHSA is pursuing this mission at a time of significant change. Health reform has been enacted, bringing sweeping changes to how the United States delivers, pays for, and monitors health care. Examining trends in behavioral health data is critical to providing the most appropriate and highest quality behavioral health care.

Each year, SAMHSA publishes the most recent annual results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). This survey is the primary source of statistical information on the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco by the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years old or older. The survey also covers mental health issues, allowing for a comprehensive look at the behavioral health of the United States.

This national report, Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, presents a set of substance use and mental health indicators. For most of the indicators, the results represent the nation as a whole (i.e., people aged 12 or older). Where applicable, however, results are also presented for selected age groups: adolescents aged 12 to 17, young adults aged 18 to 25, and adults aged 26 or older. Mental health indicators for adults also are presented for young adults aged 18 to 25, adults aged 26 to 49, and those aged 50 or older. NSDUH provides a unique overview of the nation's behavioral health at a single point in time (e.g., 2014) and a mechanism for tracking changes and trends over time.

This national report covers key indicators of behavioral health. Other topics included in the 2014 NSDUH are being published separately as data reviews. These data reviews cover national trends in suicidal thoughts and behavior among adults, substance use treatment, mental health service use, initiation of substance use, and substance use risk and protective factors. As part of SAMHSA's larger behavioral health quality improvement approach, SAMHSA is also publishing detailed tables and mental health detailed tables that provide estimates of substance use and mental health by key demographic categories. NSDUH is a critical element in supporting SAMHSA's larger behavioral health quality improvement approach, and this report provides a first look at the latest trends in the behavioral health of the United States.

Peter J. Delany, Ph.D., LCSW-C
RADM, U.S. Public Health Service
Director, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality

Summary

This national report summarizes findings from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) on trends in the behavioral health of people aged 12 years old or older in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Results are provided by age subgroups. Substance use trends are presented for 2002 to 2014, while trends for most mental health issues are reported for 2008 to 2014.

Illicit Drug Use

In 2014, 27.0 million people aged 12 or older used an illicit drug in the past 30 days, which corresponds to about 1 in 10 Americans (10.2 percent).1 This percentage in 2014 was higher than those in every year from 2002 through 2013. The illicit drug use estimate for 2014 continues to be driven primarily by marijuana use and the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers, with 22.2 million current marijuana users aged 12 or older (i.e., users in the past 30 days) and 4.3 million people aged 12 or older who reported current nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers.

The higher percentage of people who were current illicit drug users in 2014 than in prior years appears to reflect trends in marijuana use. The percentage of people aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current marijuana users (8.4 percent) also was greater than the percentages in 2002 to 2013. In addition, the estimate of current marijuana use was greater in 2014 than the estimates in 2002 to 2009 for young adults aged 18 to 25 and in 2002 to 2013 for adults aged 26 or older.

Although nonmedical pain reliever use continued to be the second most common type of illicit drug use in 2014, the percentage of people aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of pain relievers (1.6 percent) was lower than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2012, but it was similar to the percentage in 2013. Percentages for current nonmedical use of pain relievers also were lower in 2014 than in 2002 to 2011 for adolescents aged 12 to 17 and in 2002 to 2012 for young adults aged 18 to 25.

The use of many types of other illicit drugs has not increased in recent years. However, the percentage of people aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current heroin users was higher than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2013.

Tobacco Use

In 2014, an estimated 66.9 million people aged 12 or older were current users of a tobacco product, including 55.2 million cigarette smokers. Across all age groups, tobacco use and cigarette use were lower in 2014 than in most years from 2002 to 2013. For example, about 1 in 8 adolescents aged 12 to 17 (13.0 percent) were current cigarette smokers in 2002. By 2014, about 1 in 20 adolescents (4.9 percent) were current smokers.

Alcohol Use

There were 139.7 million past month alcohol drinkers aged 12 or older in 2014, including 60.9 million who were binge alcohol users and 16.3 million who were heavy alcohol users.2 In 2014, the percentage of people aged 12 or older who were past month alcohol users (52.7 percent) was similar to the percentages in 2009 through 2013. The percentage of people aged 12 or older in 2014 who were past month heavy alcohol users (6.2 percent) also was similar to the percentages in 2011 through 2013. However, estimates of binge drinking among people aged 12 or older did not change over the period from 2002 to 2014 (23.0 percent in 2014).

Underage alcohol use (i.e., among people aged 12 to 20) and binge and heavy use among young adults aged 18 to 25 have declined over time but remain a concern. In 2014, 22.8 percent of underage people were current alcohol users, 13.8 percent were binge alcohol users, and 3.4 percent were heavy alcohol users. These percentages were lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2012, but they were similar to the percentages in 2013. Among young adults aged 18 to 25, the percentages who were binge or heavy alcohol users in 2014 were lower than those in 2002 to 2012. Nevertheless, more than one third of young adults in 2014 were binge alcohol users (37.7 percent), and about 1 in 10 were heavy alcohol users (10.8 percent).

Substance Use Disorders

Approximately 21.5 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 had a substance use disorder (SUD) in the past year,3 including 17.0 million people with an alcohol use disorder, 7.1 million with an illicit drug use disorder, and 2.6 million who had both an alcohol use and an illicit drug use disorder. The percentage of people aged 12 or older in 2014 who had an SUD (8.1 percent) was similar to the percentages in 2011 to 2013, but it was lower than those in 2002 through 2010. Percentages of adolescents aged 12 to 17 and young adults aged 18 to 25 who had an alcohol use disorder, marijuana use disorder, or pain reliever use disorder in 2014 were lower than the percentages in several or all years from 2002 to 2012.

Mental Health Issues

In 2014, about 1 in 5 adults aged 18 or older (18.1 percent, or 43.6 million adults) had any mental illness (AMI) in the past year, and 4.1 percent (9.8 million adults) had serious mental illness (SMI).4 The percentage of adults with AMI remained stable from 2008 to 2014, and the percentage of adults with SMI in 2014 was similar to the percentages in 2010 to 2013.

In 2014, 11.4 percent of youths aged 12 to 17 (2.8 million adolescents) had a major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year.5 The 2014 percentage was higher than the percentages in 2004 to 2012, but it was similar to the percentage in 2013. Youths aged 12 to 17 in 2014 who had a past year MDE were more likely than those without a past year MDE to have used any illicit drugs in the past year (33.0 vs. 15.2 percent).

Co-Occurring Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders

About 3.3 percent of all adults in 2014 had both AMI and an SUD in the past year, and 1.0 percent had both SMI and an SUD. An estimated 340,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 (1.4 percent of adolescents) had an SUD and an MDE in the past year. The estimate in 2014 for the co-occurrence of an MDE and an SUD in the past year among adolescents was similar to those in most years between 2006 and 2013.


Introduction

Behavioral health disorders, which include substance use and mental health disorders, affect millions of adolescents and adults in the United States and contribute heavily to the burden of disease.1,2,3 The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) seeks to improve behavioral health in the United States through implementation of evidence-based approaches to prevent behavioral health problems and by promoting recovery support services for those with behavioral health conditions.

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is the primary source for statistical information on illicit drug use, alcohol use, substance use disorders (SUDs), mental health issues, and co-occurring SUDs and mental health issues for the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States. NSDUH data play an important role in SAMHSA's mission to reduce the impact of substance use and mental health issues on America's communities. Information from NSDUH on behavioral health trends allows policymakers to gauge progress toward improving the behavioral health of the nation.

This report contains the first release of 2014 NSDUH estimates on trends in substance use and mental health issues in the United States. Comprehensive 2014 NSDUH detailed tables that show additional substance use and mental health-related outcomes, including data for various subpopulations covered in NSDUH, are available separately at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/.4

Survey Background

NSDUH is an annual survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years old or older.5 The survey is sponsored by SAMHSA within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The survey covers residents of households and individuals in noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, boarding houses, college dormitories, migratory workers' camps, halfway houses). The survey excludes people with no fixed address (e.g., homeless people not in shelters), military personnel on active duty, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as jails, nursing homes, mental institutions, and long-term hospitals.

NSDUH employs a stratified multistage area probability sample that is designed to be representative of both the nation as a whole and for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The 2014 NSDUH target sample size of 67,500 interviews was distributed across three age groups, with 25 percent allocated to adolescents aged 12 to 17, 25 percent allocated to young adults aged 18 to 25, and 50 percent allocated to adults aged 26 or older. In 2002 through 2013, the NSDUH sample was allocated equally across these three age groups and had the same total target sample size per year as in 2014.6

NSDUH is a face-to-face household interview survey that is conducted in two phases: the screening phase and the interview phase. The interviewer conducts a screening of the eligible household with an adult resident (aged 18 or older) in order to determine whether zero, one, or two residents aged 12 or older should be selected for the interview.7 NSDUH collects data using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI), in which respondents read or listen to the questions on headphones and then enter their answers directly on the NSDUH laptop computer. ACASI is designed to encourage accurate reporting of information by providing respondents with a highly private and confidential mode for responding to questions about illicit drug use, mental health, and other sensitive behaviors. NSDUH also uses computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI), in which interviewers read less sensitive questions to respondents and enter the respondents' answers on the laptop.

In 2014, screening was completed at 127,605 addresses, and 67,901 completed interviews were obtained, including 17,046 interviews from adolescents aged 12 to 17 and 50,855 interviews from adults aged 18 or older. Weighted response rates for household screening and for interviewing were 81.9 and 71.2 percent, respectively, for an overall response rate of 58.3 percent for people aged 12 or older. Weighted interview response rates were 80.0 percent for adolescents and 70.3 percent for adults.8 Further details about the 2014 NSDUH design and methods can be found on the web at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/.9

Data Presentation and Interpretation

This report focuses on substance use, SUDs, and mental disorders in the United States based on NSDUH data from 2014 and earlier years.10 Estimates of substance use are presented for individuals aged 12 or older, adolescents, and adults.11 However, estimates of mental health issues are not presented jointly for individuals aged 12 or older. Rather, these estimates are presented separately for adolescents aged 12 to 17 and adults aged 18 or older because adolescents and adults completed different sets of questions regarding mental health and mental health service utilization.

All estimates (e.g., percentages and numbers) presented in the report are derived from NSDUH survey data that are subject to sampling errors. The estimates have met the criteria for statistical reliability. Estimates that do not meet these criteria for reliability have been suppressed and are not shown.12 Trend analyses in this report focus on percentages because the percentages take into account any changes in the size of the total population and facilitate the comparison of estimates across years.13 This report focuses on long-term trends by comparing percentages in 2014 with percentages in each of the years from 2002 to 2013. Statistical tests also have been conducted for comparisons that appear in the text of the report. Statistically significant differences are described using terms such as "higher," "lower," "increased," or "decreased." Statements use terms such as "similar," "remained steady," or "stable" when a difference is not statistically significant. Analyses of long-term trends in this report summarize whether the 2014 estimates are different from or similar to estimates in most or all previous years,14 while minimizing discussion of anomalous differences between any 2 years that can occur due to these estimates being based on samples.15 Graphics and tables contain estimates that support the statements in this report, and supplemental tables of estimates (including standard errors) are included in Appendix A.

Illicit Drug Use

Illicit drug use, including the misuse of prescription medications, affects the health and well-being of millions of Americans. Cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer, infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis, and lung disease can all be affected by drug use. Some of these effects occur when drugs are used at high doses or after prolonged use. However, other adverse effects can occur after only one or a few occasions of use.16 Addressing the impact of substance use alone is estimated to cost Americans more than $600 billion each year.17

NSDUH obtains information on nine categories of illicit drugs: marijuana (including hashish), cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, and inhalants, as well as the nonmedical use of prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives; see the section on nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs for the definition of nonmedical use. Estimates of "illicit drug use" reported from NSDUH reflect the use of these nine drug categories.

In 2014, an estimated 27.0 million Americans aged 12 or older were current (past month) illicit drug users, meaning that they had used an illicit drug during the month prior to the survey interview (Figure 1). The most commonly used illicit drug in the past month was marijuana, which was used by 22.2 million people aged 12 or older. An estimated 6.5 million people reported nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs in the past month, including 4.3 million nonmedical users of prescription pain relievers. Thus, the number of current nonmedical users of pain relievers was second to marijuana among specific illicit drugs. Smaller numbers of people in 2014 were current users of the other illicit drugs shown in Figure 1.18

Figure 1. Numbers of Past Month Illicit Drug Users among People Aged 12 or Older: 2014

Figure 1     D

Note: Estimated numbers of people refer to people aged 12 or older in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population in the United States. The numbers do not sum to the total population of the United States because the population for NSDUH does not include people aged 11 years old or younger, people with no fixed household address (e.g., homeless or transient people not in shelters), active-duty military personnel, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as correctional facilities, nursing homes, mental institutions, and long-term hospitals.
Note: The estimated numbers of current users of different illicit drugs are not mutually exclusive because people could have used more than one type of illicit drug in the past month.

Any Illicit Drug Use

The estimated 27.0 million people aged 12 or older who were current illicit drug users in 2014 (Figure 1) represent 10.2 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 2). Stated another way, 1 in 10 individuals aged 12 or older in the United States used illicit drugs in the past month. The percentage of people aged 12 or older who were current illicit drug users in 2014 was higher than the percentages from 2002 to 2013. The rise in illicit drug use among those aged 12 or older since 2002 may reflect an increase in illicit drug use by adults aged 26 or older and, to a lesser extent, increases in illicit drug use among young adults aged 18 to 25 relative to the years before 2009.

Figure 2. Past Month Illicit Drug Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 2     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 2 Table. Past Month Illicit Drug Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 8.3+ 8.2+ 7.9+ 8.1+ 8.3+ 8.0+ 8.1+ 8.7+ 8.9+ 8.7+ 9.2+ 9.4+ 10.2  
12 to 17 11.6+ 11.2+ 10.6+ 9.9   9.8   9.6   9.3   10.1   10.1   10.1   9.5   8.8   9.4  
18 to 25 20.2+ 20.3+ 19.4+ 20.1+ 19.8+ 19.8+ 19.7+ 21.4   21.6   21.4   21.3   21.5   22.0  
26 or Older 5.8+ 5.6+ 5.5+ 5.8+ 6.1+ 5.8+ 5.9+ 6.3+ 6.6+ 6.3+ 7.0+ 7.3+ 8.3  

Aged 12 to 17

Slightly more than 2.3 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 were current users of illicit drugs, which represents 9.4 percent of adolescents (Figure 2). The 2014 percentage was lower than the percentages from 2002 to 2004 and was similar to the percentages between 2005 and 2013. In 2002, for example, 11.6 percent of adolescents used an illicit drug in the past month.

Aged 18 to 25

More than 1 in 5 young adults aged 18 to 25 (22.0 percent) were current users of illicit drugs in 2014 (Figure 2). This percentage corresponds to about 7.7 million young adults in 2014 who were current users of illicit drugs. The percentage of young adults who were current illicit drug users was stable between 2009 and 2014. However, the 2014 estimate was higher than the estimates from 2002 through 2008.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, 8.3 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current users of illicit drugs (Figure 2), or about 17.0 million adults in this age group. The percentage of adults aged 26 or older who were current illicit drug users in 2014 was higher than the percentages from 2002 to 2013.

Marijuana Use

As noted in the illicit drug use section, an estimated 22.2 million Americans aged 12 or older in 2014 were current users of marijuana (Figure 1). This number of past month marijuana users corresponds to 8.4 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 3). The percentage of people aged 12 or older who were current marijuana users in 2014 was higher than the percentages from 2002 to 2013. This rise in marijuana use among those aged 12 or older may reflect the increase in marijuana use by adults aged 26 or older and, to a lesser extent, increases in marijuana use among young adults aged 18 to 25 compared with the percentages of young adults who reported marijuana use in 2002 to 2009.

Figure 3. Past Month Marijuana Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 3     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 3 Table. Past Month Marijuana Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 6.2+ 6.2+ 6.1+ 6.0+ 6.0+ 5.8+ 6.1+ 6.7+ 6.9+ 7.0+ 7.3+ 7.5+ 8.4  
12 to 17 8.2+ 7.9   7.6   6.8   6.7+ 6.7   6.7   7.4   7.4   7.9   7.2   7.1   7.4  
18 to 25 17.3+ 17.0+ 16.1+ 16.6+ 16.3+ 16.5+ 16.6+ 18.2+ 18.5   19.0   18.7   19.1   19.6  
26 or Older 4.0+ 4.0+ 4.1+ 4.1+ 4.2+ 3.9+ 4.2+ 4.6+ 4.8+ 4.8+ 5.3+ 5.6+ 6.6  

Aged 12 to 17

In 2014, 7.4 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current users of marijuana (Figure 3). This means that approximately 1.8 million adolescents used marijuana in the past month. The percentage of adolescents in 2014 who were current marijuana users was similar to the percentages in most years between 2003 and 2013.

Aged 18 to 25

An estimated 6.8 million young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 were current users of marijuana. This number corresponds to about 1 in 5 young adults (19.6 percent) who used marijuana in the past month (Figure 3). The percentage of young adults who were current marijuana users in 2014 was stable compared with the percentages between 2010 and 2013. However, the 2014 estimate was higher than the estimates from 2002 through 2009.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, 6.6 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current users of marijuana (Figure 3), which represents about 13.5 million adults in this age group. The percentage of adults aged 26 or older who were current marijuana users in 2014 was higher than the percentages from 2002 to 2013.

Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutic Drugs

The four categories of prescription-type drugs (pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives) cover numerous medications that currently are or have been available by prescription. They also include drugs within these groupings that may be available as prescription medications but currently are much more likely to be manufactured and distributed illegally; one such drug is methamphetamine, which is included under stimulants. NSDUH respondents are asked to report only nonmedical use of these drugs, defined as use without a prescription of the individual's own or simply for the experience or feeling the drugs caused. Use of over-the-counter drugs and legitimate use of prescription drugs are not included. NSDUH reports combine the four prescription-type drug groups into a category referred to as "psychotherapeutics."

In this section, a summary of any nonmedical use of prescription-type drugs is presented first, followed by sections on the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants and methamphetamine, and sedatives. In 2014, the estimate of 6.5 million Americans aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of psychotherapeutic drugs represents 2.5 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figures 1 and 4). The 2014 estimate for current nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs among people aged 12 or older was slightly lower than the estimates in 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010 (ranging from 2.7 to 2.9 percent), and it was similar to the estimates in the other years between 2002 and 2013.19

Figure 4. Past Month Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutic Drugs among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 4     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 4 Table. Past Month Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutic Drugs among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 2.7   2.7   2.5   2.7   2.9+ 2.8+ 2.5   2.8+ 2.7+ 2.4   2.6   2.5   2.5  
12 to 17 4.0+ 4.0+ 3.6+ 3.3+ 3.3+ 3.3+ 2.9   3.1+ 3.0   2.8   2.8   2.2+ 2.6  
18 to 25 5.5+ 6.1+ 6.1+ 6.3+ 6.5+ 5.9+ 5.9+ 6.4+ 5.9+ 5.0   5.3+ 4.8   4.4  
26 or Older 2.0   2.0   1.8+ 1.9   2.2   2.2   1.9   2.1   2.2   1.9   2.1   2.1   2.1  

Aged 12 to 17

An estimated 655,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current nonmedical users of psychotherapeutic drugs in 2014. This number corresponds to 2.6 percent of adolescents (Figure 4). The 2014 estimate for current nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs among adolescents was lower than the estimates in most years from 2002 to 2009.

Aged 18 to 25

In 2014, an estimated 1.6 million young adults aged 18 to 25 were current nonmedical users of psychotherapeutic drugs, which corresponds to 4.4 percent of young adults (Figure 4). The 2014 estimate for current nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs among young adults was lower than the estimates from 2002 to 2010.

Aged 26 or Older

There were 4.3 million adults aged 26 or older in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of psychotherapeutic drugs. This number corresponds to 2.1 percent of adults aged 26 or older (Figure 4). The 2014 estimate for current nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs among those aged 26 or older was similar to the estimates for most years between 2002 and 2013.

Pain Relievers

Overall estimates of current nonmedical use of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs among the population aged 12 or older that were described previously have largely been driven by the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers. In 2014, about two thirds of the current nonmedical users of psychotherapeutic drugs who were aged 12 or older reported current nonmedical use of pain relievers (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers and Other Psychotherapeutic Drugs among Current Nonmedical Users of Any Psychotherapeutic Drug Aged 12 or Older: 2014

Figure 5     D

The estimated 4.3 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of pain relievers represent 1.6 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figures 5 and 6). The percentage of people aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of pain relievers in 2014 was lower than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2012, but it was similar to the percentage in 2013.

Figure 6. Past Month Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 6     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 6 Table. Past Month Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 1.9+ 2.0+ 1.8+ 1.9+ 2.1+ 2.1+ 1.9+ 2.1+ 2.0+ 1.7   1.9+ 1.7   1.6  
12 to 17 3.2+ 3.2+ 3.0+ 2.7+ 2.7+ 2.7+ 2.3+ 2.7+ 2.5+ 2.3+ 2.2   1.7   1.9  
18 to 25 4.1+ 4.7+ 4.7+ 4.7+ 5.0+ 4.6+ 4.5+ 4.8+ 4.4+ 3.6+ 3.8+ 3.3   2.8  
26 or Older 1.3   1.3   1.2+ 1.3   1.5   1.6   1.4   1.6   1.5   1.4   1.5   1.5   1.4  

Aged 12 to 17

In 2014, an estimated 467,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current nonmedical users of pain relievers, which corresponds to 1.9 percent of adolescents (Figure 6). The 2014 estimate for current nonmedical use of pain relievers among adolescents was lower than the estimates from 2002 to 2011, and it was similar to those in 2012 and 2013.

Aged 18 to 25

An estimated 978,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 were current nonmedical users of pain relievers in 2014, which represents 2.8 percent of young adults (Figure 6). The 2014 estimate for current nonmedical use of pain relievers was lower than the estimates from 2002 to 2012, but it was similar to the estimate in 2013.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, an estimated 2.9 million adults aged 26 or older were current nonmedical users of pain relievers, which corresponds to 1.4 percent of adults aged 26 or older (Figure 6). The 2014 estimate for current nonmedical use of pain relievers among adults aged 26 or older was similar to the estimates for most years between 2002 and 2013.

Tranquilizers

The estimated 1.9 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of tranquilizers represent 0.7 percent of people aged 12 or older (Figures 1 and 7). The estimate of current nonmedical use of tranquilizers in 2014 was similar to the estimates for most years between 2002 and 2013.

Figure 7. Past Month Nonmedical Use of Tranquilizers among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 7     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 7 Table. Past Month Nonmedical Use of Tranquilizers among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.8   0.8   0.7   0.7   0.7   0.7   0.7   0.8   0.9+ 0.7   0.8   0.6   0.7  
12 to 17 0.8+ 0.9+ 0.6+ 0.6+ 0.5   0.7+ 0.6+ 0.6   0.5   0.6+ 0.6   0.4   0.4  
18 to 25 1.6+ 1.7+ 1.8+ 1.9+ 2.0+ 1.7+ 1.7+ 1.9+ 1.7+ 1.6+ 1.6+ 1.2   1.2  
26 or Older 0.6   0.6   0.5+ 0.6   0.5   0.6   0.6   0.7   0.7   0.6   0.7   0.6   0.7  

Aged 12 to 17

In 2014, an estimated 103,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current nonmedical users of tranquilizers, which represents 0.4 percent of adolescents (Figure 7). The 2014 estimate for current nonmedical use of tranquilizers among adolescents was lower than the estimates in most years from 2002 to 2008, and it was similar to the estimates in most years from 2009 to 2013.

Aged 18 to 25

An estimated 416,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 were current nonmedical users of tranquilizers in 2014, which represents 1.2 percent of young adults (Figure 7). The percentage of young adults in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of tranquilizers was similar to the percentage in 2013, but it was lower than estimates in 2002 to 2012.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, an estimated 1.4 million adults aged 26 or older were current nonmedical users of tranquilizers, which corresponds to 0.7 percent of adults in this age group (Figure 7). The percentage of adults aged 26 or older in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of tranquilizers was similar to the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2013.

Stimulants and Methamphetamine

Respondents in 2014 were asked about the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and also were asked about their use of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine is chemically similar to amphetamine stimulants. Although most methamphetamine that is used in the United States is currently being manufactured illegally rather than representing nonmedical use of the drug in prescription form (i.e., Desoxyn®), methamphetamine has been included in the section of the NSDUH interview on the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants to maintain historical trends.19,20

In 2014, the estimated 1.6 million people aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of stimulants included 569,000 people who were current methamphetamine users (Figure 8). Thus, almost two thirds of current nonmedical users of stimulants in 2014 who were aged 12 or older reported current nonmedical use of prescription stimulants but not methamphetamine.

Figure 8. Nonmedical Use of Methamphetamine and Other Stimulants among Current Nonmedical Users of Any Stimulant Aged 12 or Older: 2014

Figure 8     D

These numbers of nonmedical users of stimulants and methamphetamine users represent 0.6 percent of the population aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of stimulants (Figure 9) and 0.2 percent who were current users of methamphetamine in 2014 (Figure 10). The percentage of the population aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of stimulants was higher than the percentages for most years between 2005 and 2012. Meanwhile, the percentage of the population aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current users of methamphetamine was similar to the percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013.

Figure 9. Past Month Nonmedical Use of Stimulants among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 9     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 9 Table. Past Month Nonmedical Use of Stimulants among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.6   0.6   0.5   0.5+ 0.6   0.4+ 0.4+ 0.5   0.4+ 0.4+ 0.5+ 0.5   0.6  
12 to 17 0.8   0.9   0.7   0.7   0.7   0.5   0.5+ 0.5   0.4+ 0.4+ 0.5   0.3+ 0.7  
18 to 25 1.3   1.3   1.5+ 1.4   1.4   1.1   1.1   1.3   1.2   1.0   1.2   1.3   1.2  
26 or Older 0.4   0.4   0.4+ 0.3+ 0.4   0.3+ 0.2+ 0.4   0.3+ 0.3+ 0.3+ 0.4   0.5  

Figure 10. Past Month Nonmedical Use of Methamphetamine among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 10     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 10 Table. Past Month Nonmedical Use of Methamphetamine among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.3   0.3+ 0.3   0.3   0.3   0.2   0.1+ 0.2   0.1+ 0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2  
12 to 17 0.3   0.3   0.2   0.3   0.2   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.2  
18 to 25 0.6+ 0.6+ 0.7+ 0.7+ 0.6+ 0.4   0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2   0.3   0.3   0.2  
26 or Older 0.2   0.3   0.2   0.2   0.3   0.2   0.1+ 0.2   0.1+ 0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2  

Aged 12 to 17

About 169,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current nonmedical users of stimulants in 2014, including about 45,000 current methamphetamine users. These numbers correspond to about 0.7 percent of adolescents in 2014 being current nonmedical users of stimulants (Figure 9) and 0.2 percent being current users of methamphetamine (Figure 10). The estimate for the current nonmedical use of stimulants in 2014 among adolescents was similar to the estimates in 2002 through 2007, although the 2014 estimate was higher than estimates for most years between 2008 and 2013. For methamphetamine, current use among adolescents was stable between 2002 and 2014.

Aged 18 to 25

There were about 406,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of stimulants, including about 86,000 current methamphetamine users. These numbers correspond to about 1.2 percent of young adults in 2014 being current nonmedical users of stimulants (Figure 9) and 0.2 percent being current users of methamphetamine (Figure 10). The percentage of young adults in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of stimulants was similar to the percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013. The percentage of young adults in 2014 who were current methamphetamine users was lower than the percentages between 2002 and 2006, but it was comparable with the percentages between 2007 and 2013.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, an estimated 1.0 million adults aged 26 or older were current nonmedical users of stimulants, which represents 0.5 percent of adults aged 26 or older (Figure 9). An estimated 438,000 adults aged 26 or older were current methamphetamine users, which corresponds to 0.2 percent of the adults in this age group (Figure 10). The estimate of 0.5 percent of adults aged 26 or older in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of stimulants was higher than the estimates for most years between 2004 and 2012, but it was similar to the estimate in 2013. The 2014 estimate for current methamphetamine use was similar to the estimates for most years between 2002 and 2013.

Sedatives

An estimated 330,000 people aged 12 or older were current nonmedical users of sedatives in 2014, which rounds to the 0.3 million people shown in Figure 1. This number represents 0.1 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Table A.1B in Appendix A). The percentage of the population aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of sedatives was stable from 2002 to 2014, ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 percent.

Aged 12 to 17

There were an estimated 41,000 adolescents in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of sedatives (0.2 percent of adolescents). The percentage of adolescents who were current nonmedical users of sedatives was stable from 2002 to 2014, ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 percent (Table A.2B in Appendix A).

Aged 18 to 25

In 2014, an estimated 56,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 were current nonmedical users of sedatives (0.2 percent of young adults). The percentage of young adults who were current nonmedical users of sedatives in 2014 was similar to the percentages from 2002 to 2013 (Table A.3B in Appendix A).

Aged 26 or Older

An estimated 233,000 adults aged 26 or older were current nonmedical users of sedatives in 2014 (0.1 percent of adults aged 26 or older). The percentage of adults aged 26 or older who were current nonmedical users of sedatives in 2014 was similar to the percentages between 2002 and 2013 (Table A.4B in Appendix A).

Cocaine Use

In this report, estimates of the use of cocaine in any form include use of crack cocaine. Estimates also are presented specifically for crack use. In 2014, the estimate of about 1.5 million people aged 12 or older who were current users of cocaine (Figure 1) included about 354,000 current users of crack. These numbers correspond to about 0.6 percent of the population aged 12 or older who were current users of cocaine (Figure 11) and 0.1 percent who were current users of crack (Table A.1B in Appendix A). The 2014 estimates for current cocaine and crack use were similar to the estimates between 2009 and 2013 for cocaine and between 2008 and 2013 for crack, although the 2014 estimates were lower than those from most previous years.

Figure 11. Past Month Cocaine Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 11     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 11 Table. Past Month Cocaine Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.9+ 1.0+ 0.8+ 1.0+ 1.0+ 0.8+ 0.7+ 0.7   0.6   0.5   0.6   0.6   0.6  
12 to 17 0.6+ 0.6+ 0.5+ 0.6+ 0.4+ 0.4+ 0.4+ 0.3   0.2   0.3   0.1   0.2   0.2  
18 to 25 2.0+ 2.2+ 2.1+ 2.6+ 2.2+ 1.7+ 1.6   1.4   1.5   1.4   1.1   1.1   1.4  
26 or Older 0.7+ 0.8+ 0.7+ 0.8+ 0.8+ 0.7+ 0.7+ 0.6   0.5   0.4   0.6   0.5   0.5  

Aged 12 to 17

There were 39,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 who were current users of cocaine in 2014, including 8,000 who used crack. These numbers represent 0.2 percent of adolescents who used cocaine (Figure 11) and less than 0.1 percent who used crack (Table A.2B in Appendix A). The 2014 estimate for current cocaine use among adolescents was similar to the estimates between 2009 and 2013, but the 2014 estimate was lower than the estimates in the years from 2002 to 2008. The percentage of adolescents who were current users of crack in 2014 was similar to the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2013.

Aged 18 to 25

An estimated 1.4 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 were current users of cocaine in 2014 (Figure 11), and 0.1 percent used crack in the past month (Table A.3B in Appendix A). These percentages represent 473,000 young adults who used cocaine, including 29,000 who used crack. The 2014 percentage of young adults who were current cocaine users was lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2007, and it was similar to the percentages between 2008 and 2013. Estimates of current crack use among young adults were similar for most years between 2008 and 2014.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, 0.5 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current users of cocaine (Figure 11), and 0.2 percent used crack in the past month (Table A.4B in Appendix A). These percentages represent 1.0 million adults aged 26 or older who currently used cocaine, including 317,000 who currently used crack. Current cocaine use among adults aged 26 or older was stable between 2009 and 2014, and current crack use was stable between 2008 and 2014.

Heroin Use

Heroin is a highly addictive opioid that is illegal and has no accepted medical use in the United States. About 435,000 people aged 12 or older were current heroin users in 2014, which rounds to the 0.4 million people shown in Figure 1. This number corresponds to about 0.2 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 12). Because heroin use is not as common as the use of other illicit drugs, monitoring both past month and past year heroin use provides additional context for interpreting the trends. For past year use, 0.3 percent of people aged 12 or older in 2014 had used heroin (Figure 13), which represents about 914,000 people.

Figure 12. Past Month Heroin Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 12     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 12 Table. Past Month Heroin Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
* Low precision; no estimate reported.
12 or Older 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1   0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1   0.1+ 0.2  
12 to 17 0.0   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.0+ 0.1   0.1   0.0   0.1   *   0.1   0.1  
18 to 25 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1   0.2   0.2   0.1   0.2   0.2   0.3   0.3   0.4+ 0.3   0.2  
26 or Older 0.1+ 0.0+ 0.1+ 0.0+ 0.1   0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1   0.1+ 0.2  

Figure 13. Past Year Heroin Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 13     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 13 Table. Past Year Heroin Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.2+ 0.1+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.3+ 0.3+ 0.3  
12 to 17 0.2   0.1   0.2   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.2   0.1   0.1   0.2   0.1   0.1   0.1  
18 to 25 0.4+ 0.3+ 0.4+ 0.5+ 0.4+ 0.4+ 0.5+ 0.5+ 0.6   0.7   0.8   0.7   0.8  
26 or Older 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.2   0.1+ 0.1+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.3  

Despite the dangers associated with heroin use, its use has increased in the population. The estimate of current heroin use in 2014 among people aged 12 or older was higher than the estimates for most years between 2002 and 2013. However, this difference represents a change from 0.1 percent in 2002 to 2013 to 0.2 percent in 2014. Data from future survey years would be useful for monitoring whether this increase in 2014 signals the start of a change in the trend, or if the percentage goes back down.

The estimate of past year heroin use in 2014 (0.3 percent) also was greater than the estimates from 2002 to 2013 (ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 percent). This rise in heroin use among people aged 12 or older may reflect increases in heroin use by adults aged 26 or older and, to a lesser extent, increases in heroin use among young adults aged 18 to 25.

Aged 12 to 17

In 2014, 0.1 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current heroin users (Figure 12), and 0.1 percent were past year users (Figure 13). These percentages represent 28,000 adolescents who used heroin in the past year, including 16,000 who currently used heroin. The percentage of adolescents in 2014 who were current heroin users was similar to the estimates for heroin use in most years from 2002 to 2013. The percentage of adolescents in 2014 who were past year heroin users was similar to the percentages for 2002 through 2013.

Aged 18 to 25

Among young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014, 0.2 percent were current heroin users (Figure 12), and 0.8 percent were past year users (Figure 13). These percentages represent 268,000 young adults who used heroin in the past year, including 82,000 who currently used heroin. The percentage of young adults in 2014 who were current heroin users (0.2 percent) was higher than the percentages in 2002 and 2003, and it was similar to the percentages in most years since 2004. The exception was in 2012, when the percentage of young adults who were current heroin users peaked at 0.4 percent. The percentages of young adults who were past year heroin users were similar for most years between 2010 and 2014 (ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 percent), but the percentage in 2014 (0.8 percent) was higher than the percentages from 2002 through 2009 (ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 percent).

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, 0.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current heroin users (Figure 12), and 0.3 percent were past year users (Figure 13). These percentages represent 618,000 adults aged 26 or older who used heroin in the past year, including 337,000 who currently used heroin. The percentage of adults aged 26 or older in 2014 who were current heroin users (0.2 percent) was higher than the percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013 (ranging from less than 0.1 percent to 0.1 percent). The percentage of adults aged 26 or older in 2014 who were past year heroin users (0.3 percent) was also higher than the percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013 (ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 percent).

Hallucinogen Use

Several drugs are grouped under the category of hallucinogens, including LSD, PCP, peyote, mescaline, psilocybin mushrooms, and "Ecstasy" (MDMA).21 Any hallucinogen use is presented in this section, and estimates of LSD and Ecstasy use are presented separately. In 2014, an estimated 1.2 million people aged 12 or older were current users of hallucinogens, representing 0.4 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 14). The percentage of the population aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current users of hallucinogens was similar to the percentages between 2002 and 2013.

Figure 14. Past Month Hallucinogen Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 14     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 14 Table. Past Month Hallucinogen Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.5   0.4   0.4   0.4   0.4   0.4   0.4   0.5   0.5   0.4   0.4   0.5   0.4  
12 to 17 1.0+ 1.0+ 0.8+ 0.8+ 0.7   0.7   1.0+ 0.9+ 0.9+ 0.9+ 0.6   0.6   0.5  
18 to 25 1.9+ 1.7   1.5   1.5   1.7   1.5   1.7   1.8+ 2.0+ 1.6   1.7   1.8   1.4  
26 or Older 0.2   0.1+ 0.1+ 0.2   0.1+ 0.2   0.1+ 0.2   0.2+ 0.1+ 0.2   0.3   0.3  

Aged 12 to 17

An estimated 136,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current users of hallucinogens in 2014, or 0.5 percent of adolescents (Figure 14). The percentage of adolescents in 2014 who were current hallucinogen users was similar to the percentages in 2012 and 2013, but it was lower than the percentages in most years from 2002 through 2011.

Aged 18 to 25

In 2014, 1.4 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 were current users of hallucinogens (Figure 14), which represents 502,000 young adults who used hallucinogens. The 2014 estimate of current hallucinogen use among young adults was similar to the estimates for most years between 2002 and 2013. However, the estimate in 2014 was lower than the estimates in 2002, 2009, and 2010.

Aged 26 or Older

An estimated 0.3 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current users of hallucinogens in 2014 (Figure 14), which represents 535,000 individuals in this age group who were using hallucinogens. Estimates of current hallucinogen use among adults aged 26 or older ranged between 0.1 and 0.3 percent from 2002 to 2014, with the 2014 estimate being slightly higher than the estimates in 2003, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2011.

Use of Specific Hallucinogens: LSD and Ecstasy

Among people aged 12 or older in 2014, 0.1 percent used LSD in the past month (Table A.1B in Appendix A), and 0.2 percent used Ecstasy (Figure 15). These percentages represent approximately 287,000 people aged 12 or older who used LSD and 609,000 who used Ecstasy. Over the period from 2002 to 2014, the percentages of the population aged 12 or older using LSD in the past month ranged from less than 0.1 percent to 0.1 percent. The percentage of people aged 12 or older using Ecstasy in the past month in 2014 was similar to estimates for most years between 2002 and 2013.

Figure 15. Past Month Ecstasy Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 15     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 15 Table. Past Month Ecstasy Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.3   0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2   0.3+ 0.3   0.2   0.2   0.3   0.2  
12 to 17 0.5+ 0.4+ 0.3+ 0.3+ 0.3+ 0.3   0.4+ 0.5+ 0.5+ 0.4+ 0.3+ 0.2   0.2  
18 to 25 1.1+ 0.7   0.7   0.8   1.0   0.7   0.9   1.1+ 1.2+ 0.9   1.0   0.9   0.8  
26 or Older 0.1   0.1   0.1+ 0.1   0.1+ 0.1   0.1+ 0.1   0.1   0.1+ 0.1   0.1   0.1  

Aged 12 to 17

About 65,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current users of LSD in 2014, and 39,000 adolescents were current users of Ecstasy. These numbers represent 0.3 percent of adolescents who used LSD (Table A.2B in Appendix A) and 0.2 percent who used Ecstasy (Figure 15). The 2014 estimate of current LSD use among adolescents was greater than the estimates in 2005 to 2007, but it was similar to the estimates in most other years. The percentage of adolescents in 2014 who were current Ecstasy users was lower than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2013.

Aged 18 to 25

In 2014, 0.3 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 were current users of LSD (Table A.3B in Appendix A), and 0.8 percent were current users of Ecstasy (Figure 15). These percentages represent 118,000 young adults who were current users of LSD and 270,000 who were current users of Ecstasy. The estimate for current use of LSD among young adults in 2014 was similar to estimates for most years between 2007 and 2013. Current use of Ecstasy among young adults was stable between 2011 and 2014.

Aged 26 or Older

About 104,000 adults aged 26 or older were current users of LSD in 2014, and 300,000 were current Ecstasy users. These numbers correspond to 0.1 percent of adults aged 26 or older who were current users of LSD (Table A.4B in Appendix A) and 0.1 percent who were current Ecstasy users (Figure 15). The estimate of current use of LSD among adults aged 26 or older in 2014 was similar to the estimates in 2012 and 2013, but it was higher than the published (i.e., nonsuppressed) estimates for most years between 2002 and 2011.12 The 2014 estimate of current Ecstasy use among adults aged 26 or older was similar to the estimates from most years between 2002 and 2013.

Inhalant Use

Inhalants include a variety of substances, such as nitrous oxide, amyl nitrite, cleaning fluids, gasoline, spray paint, other aerosol sprays, and glue. Respondents are asked to report use of inhalants to get high but not to report times when they accidentally inhaled a substance. In 2014, approximately 546,000 people aged 12 or older were current users of inhalants, which rounds to the estimate of 0.5 million people shown in Figure 1. This number represents 0.2 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 16). The percentage of the population aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current users of inhalants was similar to the percentages for most years dating back to 2002.

Figure 16. Past Month Inhalant Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 16     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 16 Table. Past Month Inhalant Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.3   0.2   0.3   0.3   0.3+ 0.2   0.3   0.2   0.3   0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2  
12 to 17 1.2+ 1.3+ 1.2+ 1.2+ 1.3+ 1.2+ 1.1+ 1.0+ 1.1+ 0.9+ 0.8   0.5   0.6  
18 to 25 0.5+ 0.4+ 0.4+ 0.5+ 0.4+ 0.4+ 0.3   0.4+ 0.4+ 0.4   0.4   0.3   0.2  
26 or Older 0.1   0.1+ 0.1   0.1   0.2   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.2   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.2  

Current use of inhalants in 2014 was more common among adolescents aged 12 to 17 than among people in other age groups. Percentages of people in different age groups who were current users of inhalants in 2014 were 0.6 percent of adolescents, 0.2 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25, and 0.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older (Figure 16).

Aged 12 to 17

The 0.6 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 who were current users of inhalants represents about 149,000 adolescents. The percentage of adolescents in 2014 who were current users of inhalants was similar to the percentages in 2012 and 2013, but it was lower than the percentages from 2002 through 2011 (Figure 16). In 2003 and 2006, for example, 1.3 percent of adolescents were current users of inhalants.

Aged 18 to 25

In 2014, the 0.2 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 who were current users of inhalants corresponds to about 80,000 young adults. The percentage of young adults in 2014 who were current users of inhalants was lower than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2010 (Figure 16).

Aged 26 or Older

Approximately 316,000 adults aged 26 or older were current users of inhalants in 2014. This number corresponds to about 0.2 percent of adults in this age group who were using inhalants in the past month (Figure 16). The 2014 percentage of adults aged 26 or older who were current inhalant users was similar to the percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013.

Tobacco Use

Tobacco use continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Tobacco use, particularly cigarette smoking, imposes substantial health and financial costs on our nation.22,23

NSDUH data can estimate the percentage of individuals who use tobacco products and, in turn, can be used to monitor changes in use over time. NSDUH asks respondents aged 12 or older about their tobacco use in the 30 days before the interview. Tobacco products include cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipe tobacco. Cigarette use is defined as smoking "part or all of a cigarette." In this report, use of chewing tobacco or snuff is referred to as "smokeless tobacco use." Because the majority of current (i.e., past month) tobacco users historically have been current cigarette users,24 estimates of any tobacco use and cigarette use are presented in the same section. A discussion of the estimates for daily cigarette use follows a presentation of the estimates for any tobacco use and cigarette use. Finally, this section presents estimates for current use of cigars, pipe tobacco, and smokeless tobacco.

Any Tobacco Use and Cigarette Use

In 2014, an estimated 66.9 million people aged 12 or older were current users of a tobacco product, including 55.2 million cigarette smokers. These 2014 numbers correspond to 25.2 percent of the population being current users of tobacco products (Figure 17) and 20.8 percent being current cigarette smokers (Figure 18). The percentage of people aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current users of tobacco products was lower than in 2002 to 2012.

Figure 17. Past Month Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 17     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 17 Table. Past Month Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 30.4+ 29.8+ 29.2+ 29.4+ 29.6+ 28.7+ 28.4+ 27.7+ 27.5+ 26.5+ 26.7+ 25.5   25.2  
12 to 17 15.2+ 14.4+ 14.4+ 13.1+ 12.9+ 12.4+ 11.5+ 11.8+ 10.7+ 10.0+ 8.6+ 7.8+ 7.0  
18 to 25 45.3+ 44.8+ 44.6+ 44.3+ 44.0+ 41.9+ 41.4+ 41.6+ 40.9+ 39.5+ 38.1+ 37.0+ 35.0  
26 or Older 29.9+ 29.3+ 28.5+ 29.0+ 29.4+ 28.6+ 28.4+ 27.3+ 27.2+ 26.3   27.0+ 25.7   25.8  

Figure 18. Past Month Cigarette Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 18     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 18 Table. Past Month Cigarette Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 26.0+ 25.4+ 24.9+ 24.9+ 25.0+ 24.3+ 24.0+ 23.3+ 23.0+ 22.1+ 22.1+ 21.3   20.8  
12 to 17 13.0+ 12.2+ 11.9+ 10.8+ 10.4+ 9.9+ 9.2+ 9.0+ 8.4+ 7.8+ 6.6+ 5.6+ 4.9  
18 to 25 40.8+ 40.2+ 39.5+ 39.0+ 38.5+ 36.2+ 35.7+ 35.8+ 34.3+ 33.5+ 31.8+ 30.6+ 28.4  
26 or Older 25.2+ 24.7+ 24.1+ 24.3+ 24.7+ 24.1+ 23.8+ 23.0+ 22.8+ 21.9   22.4   21.6   21.5  

Similarly, past month cigarette use among the population aged 12 or older was lower in 2014 than in 2002 to 2012, but 2014's estimate was similar to the estimate in 2013. Stated another way, about 1 in 5 people aged 12 or older in 2014 (20.8 percent) were current cigarette smokers. In comparison, about 1 in 4 people aged 12 or older were current cigarette smokers in 2002 to 2008 (ranging from 24.0 to 26.0 percent).

Aged 12 to 17

Among adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014, 1.7 million used tobacco products in the past month, including 1.2 million current cigarette smokers. These 2014 numbers represent 7.0 percent of adolescents who were current tobacco users (Figure 17) and 4.9 percent who were current cigarette smokers (Figure 18). From 2002 to 2014, the percentage of adolescents who were past month tobacco users declined roughly by half, from 15.2 to 7.0 percent. Similarly, the percentage of adolescents who were current cigarette smokers in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2013. In 2002, for example, about 1 in 8 adolescents (13.0 percent) were current cigarette smokers. Although the estimate of current use of cigarettes among adolescents continued to decrease from 2013 (5.6 percent) to 2014, about 1 in 20 adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 were current cigarette smokers.

Aged 18 to 25

Among young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014, 12.2 million used tobacco products in the past month, including 9.9 million current cigarette smokers. These numbers represent about one third of young adults (35.0 percent) who were current tobacco users (Figure 17) and 28.4 percent who were current cigarette smokers (Figure 18). The percentage of young adults who were current users of a tobacco product in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2013. This decline in tobacco use was driven by a decline in past month cigarette smoking among young adults between 2002 (40.8 percent) and 2014.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, 52.9 million adults aged 26 or older used tobacco products in the past month, including 44.1 million current cigarette smokers. These 2014 numbers represent 25.8 percent of adults aged 26 or older who were current tobacco users (Figure 17) and 21.5 percent who were current cigarette smokers (Figure 18). The trends for current use of tobacco products among adults aged 26 or older and for current use of cigarettes correspond closely to the trends for the population aged 12 or older.

Daily Cigarette Use

Among the 55.2 million current cigarette smokers aged 12 or older in 2014, 32.5 million were daily cigarette smokers. The 32.5 million daily smokers represent 58.8 percent of current cigarette smokers (Figure 19). The percentage of current smokers aged 12 or older in 2014 who smoked cigarettes daily was lower than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2013 (Table 1). Nevertheless, about three fifths of current cigarette smokers in 2014 smoked cigarettes daily.

Figure 19. Daily Cigarette Use among Past Month Cigarette Smokers Aged 12 or Older and Smoking of One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day among Current Daily Smokers: Percentages, 2014

Figure 19     D

Note: Current daily smokers with unknown data about the number of cigarettes smoked per day were excluded.

Table 1. Daily Cigarette Use among Past Month Cigarette Smokers Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 63.4+ 62.9+ 62.3+ 63.0+ 62.3+ 61.3+ 61.5+ 61.0+ 59.5   60.7+ 60.7+ 59.6   58.8  
12 to 17 31.8+ 29.7+ 27.6   25.8   26.5   26.4   22.3   23.0   22.5   22.7   22.0   19.4+ 24.1  
18 to 25 51.8+ 52.7+ 51.6+ 50.1+ 48.8+ 49.2+ 47.8+ 45.3   45.8+ 45.3   45.1   43.1   43.0  
26 or Older 68.8+ 68.0+ 67.8+ 68.9+ 67.9+ 66.3+ 67.0+ 67.2+ 64.8   66.5+ 66.0+ 64.9   63.3  

Among the 32.5 million daily smokers aged 12 or older in 2014, 40.3 percent, or 2 out of 5 daily smokers, reported smoking 16 or more cigarettes per day (i.e., approximately one pack or more) (Figure 20). The percentage of daily smokers aged 12 or older who smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day was lower in 2014 than the percentages in 2002 to 2011.

Figure 20. Smokers of One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day among Past Month Daily Cigarette Smokers Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 20     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 20 Table. Smokers of One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day among Past Month Daily Cigarette Smokers Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 53.1+ 53.5+ 54.0+ 51.4+ 50.6+ 50.9+ 49.2+ 45.9+ 45.1+ 43.8+ 42.0   41.3   40.3  
12 to 17 21.8+ 22.0+ 19.4+ 20.1+ 17.9   18.7+ 18.4+ 17.9   16.7   14.8   10.8   11.9   11.9  
18 to 25 39.1+ 37.1+ 34.9+ 36.9+ 34.4+ 32.9+ 31.6+ 29.5+ 27.3+ 26.1+ 25.1   22.3   22.5  
26 or Older 57.1+ 58.0+ 59.2+ 55.1+ 54.5+ 55.1+ 53.0+ 49.4+ 48.8+ 47.4+ 45.2   44.7   43.3  

Aged 12 to 17

In 2014, about 292,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 smoked cigarettes every day, which represents about one fourth (24.1 percent) of adolescents who were current smokers (Table 1). The 2014 percentage was lower than the percentages in 2002 and 2003, but it was similar to the percentages in most years from 2004 to 2013. The percentage of adolescent daily smokers who smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day was lower in 2014 (11.9 percent) than in 2002 (21.8 percent) (Figure 20).

Aged 18 to 25

About 4.3 million young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 were daily cigarette smokers, or 43.0 percent of young adults who were current cigarette smokers (Table 1). The percentage of young adult current smokers who smoked cigarettes daily in 2014 was lower than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2010, and it was stable between 2011 and 2014. In particular, at least half of the young adults who were current smokers in 2002 to 2005 smoked cigarettes every day (ranging from 50.1 to 52.7 percent). Nevertheless, about 2 in 5 young adults in 2014 who were current cigarette users smoked cigarettes daily. The percentage of young adult daily smokers who smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day was lower in 2014 (22.5 percent) than in 2002 to 2011 (Figure 20).

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, about 27.9 million adults aged 26 or older smoked cigarettes every day, which represents 63.3 percent of the adults aged 26 or older who were current smokers (Table 1). The percentage of current smokers aged 26 or older in 2014 who smoked cigarettes every day was lower than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2012. Despite this decline, daily smokers represented nearly two thirds of current smokers in this age group in 2014. Among daily smokers aged 26 or older, the percentage who smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day was lower in 2014 (43.3 percent) than in 2002 to 2011 (Figure 20).

Cigar, Pipe Tobacco, and Smokeless Tobacco Use

An estimated 12.0 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 were current cigar smokers, 2.2 million smoked pipe tobacco in the past month, and 8.7 million were current smokeless tobacco users. These numbers correspond to 4.5 percent of the population aged 12 or older who were current cigar smokers (Figure 21), 0.8 percent who were current pipe tobacco smokers (Figure 22), and 3.3 percent who were current smokeless tobacco users (Figure 23). Among people aged 12 or older, the percentage who were current cigar smokers was lower in 2014 than in 2002 to 2012, but it was similar to the percentage in 2013. The percentages of people who were current pipe tobacco smokers or smokeless tobacco users in 2014 were similar to the percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013.

Figure 21. Past Month Cigar Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 21     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 21 Table. Past Month Cigar Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 5.4+ 5.4+ 5.7+ 5.6+ 5.6+ 5.4+ 5.3+ 5.3+ 5.2+ 5.0+ 5.2+ 4.7   4.5  
12 to 17 4.5+ 4.5+ 4.8+ 4.2+ 4.1+ 4.3+ 3.8+ 4.0+ 3.2+ 3.4+ 2.6+ 2.3   2.1  
18 to 25 11.0+ 11.4+ 12.7+ 12.0+ 12.1+ 11.9+ 11.4+ 11.5+ 11.3+ 10.9+ 10.7+ 10.0   9.7  
26 or Older 4.6+ 4.5+ 4.6+ 4.7+ 4.6+ 4.4+ 4.4+ 4.4+ 4.4+ 4.2   4.5+ 4.1   3.9  

Figure 22. Past Month Pipe Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 22     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 22 Table. Past Month Pipe Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.8   0.7+ 0.8   0.9   0.9   0.8   0.8   0.8   0.8   0.8   1.0   0.9   0.8  
12 to 17 0.6   0.6   0.7   0.6   0.7   0.7   0.7   0.9   0.6   0.7   0.7   0.6   0.7  
18 to 25 1.1+ 0.9+ 1.2+ 1.5+ 1.3+ 1.2+ 1.4+ 1.8   1.8   1.9   1.8   2.2   1.9  
26 or Older 0.8   0.6   0.7   0.8   0.9+ 0.8   0.6   0.7   0.7   0.7   0.9   0.7   0.7  

Figure 23. Past Month Smokeless Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 23     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 23 Table. Past Month Smokeless Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 3.3   3.3   3.0+ 3.2   3.3   3.3   3.5   3.4   3.5   3.2   3.5   3.4   3.3  
12 to 17 2.0   2.0   2.3   2.1   2.4+ 2.5+ 2.2   2.4+ 2.3+ 2.1   2.1   2.0   2.0  
18 to 25 4.8+ 4.7+ 4.9+ 5.1   5.2   5.2   5.3   6.1   6.4+ 5.4   5.5   5.8   5.6  
26 or Older 3.2   3.2   2.7   3.0   3.1   3.0   3.3   3.1   3.1   3.0   3.3   3.1   3.0  

Aged 12 to 17

Among adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014, 521,000 smoked cigars, 179,000 smoked pipe tobacco, and 490,000 used smokeless tobacco in the past month. These 2014 numbers represent 2.1 percent of adolescents who were current cigar smokers (Figure 21), 0.7 percent who were current pipe tobacco smokers (Figure 22), and 2.0 percent who were current smokeless tobacco users (Figure 23). A lower percentage of adolescents in 2014 were current cigar smokers than in 2002 to 2012. The estimate for current smokeless tobacco use among adolescents in 2014 was lower than the estimates in most years from 2006 to 2010, but it was similar to the estimates in 2002 to 2005 and in 2011 to 2013.

Aged 18 to 25

In 2014, 3.4 million young adults aged 18 to 25 smoked cigars, 0.7 million smoked pipe tobacco, and 2.0 million used smokeless tobacco in the past month. These 2014 numbers represent 9.7 percent of young adults who were current cigar smokers (Figure 21), 1.9 percent who were current pipe tobacco smokers (Figure 22), and 5.6 percent who were current smokeless tobacco users (Figure 23). The percentage of young adults in 2014 who were current cigar smokers was lower than in 2002 to 2012. In contrast to the trend for current cigar smoking among young adults, the percentages of young adults in 2014 who were current users of smokeless tobacco or who currently smoked pipe tobacco were greater than the percentages in some prior years. For smokeless tobacco, the percentage in 2014 was greater than the percentages in 2002 to 2004, but it was similar to the percentages for most years between 2005 and 2013. The percentage of young adults in 2014 who were current pipe tobacco smokers was greater than the percentages in 2002 to 2008. Nevertheless, current smoking of pipe tobacco among young adults in 2014 was less common than the use of other types of tobacco.

Aged 26 or Older

About 8.1 million adults aged 26 or older in 2014 smoked cigars, 1.4 million smoked pipe tobacco, and 6.2 million used smokeless tobacco in the past month. These numbers represent 3.9 percent of adults aged 26 or older who were current cigar smokers (Figure 21), 0.7 percent who were current pipe tobacco smokers (Figure 22), and 3.0 percent who were current smokeless tobacco users (Figure 23). The estimate of current cigar smoking in 2014 among adults aged 26 or older was lower than the estimates in most years from 2002 to 2010, but it was similar to the estimates in 2011 and 2013 (Figure 21). Estimates for current pipe tobacco smoking and current smokeless tobacco use among adults aged 26 or older were similar for most years between 2002 and 2014.

Alcohol Use

Excessive alcohol use is associated with an array of social, economic, and health costs.25,26 NSDUH asks respondents aged 12 or older about their alcohol use in the 30 days before the interview. Current alcohol use is defined as any use of alcohol in the past 30 days. Binge alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.27 Heavy alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on 5 or more days in the past 30 days. These levels are not mutually exclusive categories of use; heavy use is included in estimates of binge and current use, and binge use is included in estimates of current use.

In 2014, 139.7 million Americans aged 12 or older reported current use of alcohol, 60.9 million reported binge alcohol use in the past month, and 16.3 million reported heavy alcohol use in the past month (Figure 24). Thus, slightly more than 2 in 5 current alcohol users reported binge alcohol use (43.6 percent), and about 1 in 9 current alcohol users reported heavy alcohol use (11.7 percent). Among binge alcohol users, more than 1 in 4 (26.8 percent) were heavy users.

Figure 24. Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older: 2014

Figure 24     D

Current Alcohol Use

The estimate of 139.7 million current alcohol users aged 12 or older in 2014 (Figure 24) corresponds to alcohol use in the past month by slightly more than half (52.7 percent) of the people aged 12 or older (Figure 25). The estimates of past month alcohol use remained steady between 2009 and 2014, but the 2014 estimate was higher than the estimates in most years between 2002 and 2008.

Figure 25. Past Month Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 25     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 25 Table. Past Month Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 51.0+ 50.1+ 50.3+ 51.8   51.0+ 51.2+ 51.6+ 51.9   51.8   51.8   52.1   52.2   52.7  
12 to 17 17.6+ 17.7+ 17.6+ 16.5+ 16.7+ 16.0+ 14.7+ 14.8+ 13.6+ 13.3+ 12.9+ 11.6   11.5  
18 to 25 60.5   61.4+ 60.5   60.9   62.0+ 61.3+ 61.1+ 61.8+ 61.4+ 60.7   60.2   59.6   59.6  
26 or Older 53.9+ 52.5+ 53.0+ 55.1+ 53.7+ 54.1+ 54.7+ 54.9+ 54.9+ 55.1+ 55.6   55.9   56.5  

Aged 12 to 17

The percentage of adolescents aged 12 to 17 who were current alcohol users was 11.5 percent in 2014 (Figure 25). This percentage corresponds to 2.9 million adolescents in 2014 who drank alcohol in the past month. The percentage of adolescents who were current alcohol users in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2012. Although the estimate of current alcohol use among adolescents decreased between 2002 and 2014, about 1 in 9 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current alcohol users in 2014.

Aged 18 to 25

In 2014, 59.6 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 were current alcohol users (Figure 25), which corresponds to about 20.8 million young adults. The percentage of young adults in 2014 who drank alcohol in the past month was similar to the percentages in 2011 through 2013. Although the 2014 estimate was lower than the estimates in 2006 through 2010, about three fifths of young adults were current alcohol users in each year between 2002 and 2014 (ranging from 59.6 to 62.0 percent).

Aged 26 or Older

More than half (56.5 percent) of adults aged 26 or older in 2014 were current alcohol users (Figure 25). This percentage corresponds to about 116.0 million adults in this age group who drank alcohol in the past month. The percentage of adults aged 26 or older in 2014 who were current alcohol users was higher than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2011, but it was similar to the percentages in 2012 and 2013. In each year between 2002 and 2014, however, more than half of adults aged 26 or older were current alcohol users (ranging from 52.5 to 56.5 percent).

Binge Alcohol Use

In 2014, the estimate of 60.9 million binge alcohol users in the past 30 days (Figure 24) represents nearly one quarter (23.0 percent) of people aged 12 or older (Figure 26). Estimates of binge drinking among people aged 12 or older did not change over the period from 2002 to 2014.

Figure 26. Past Month Binge Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 26     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 26 Table. Past Month Binge Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 22.9   22.6   22.8   22.7   23.0   23.3   23.4   23.7   23.1   22.6   23.0   22.9   23.0  
12 to 17 10.7+ 10.6+ 11.1+ 9.9+ 10.3+ 9.7+ 8.9+ 8.9+ 7.9+ 7.4+ 7.2+ 6.2   6.1  
18 to 25 40.9+ 41.6+ 41.2+ 41.9+ 42.3+ 41.9+ 41.2+ 41.8+ 40.5+ 39.8+ 39.5+ 37.9   37.7  
26 or Older 21.4+ 21.0+ 21.1+ 21.0+ 21.4+ 22.0   22.2   22.4   21.9   21.6+ 22.1   22.4   22.5  

Aged 12 to 17

About 1.5 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 were past month binge alcohol users. This number corresponds to 6.1 percent of adolescents who reported binge drinking in the past month (Figure 26). The percentages of adolescents who were binge drinkers in 2013 and 2014 were lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2012. Although the estimate of current binge alcohol use among adolescents decreased between 2002 and 2014, about 1 in 16 adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 were current binge drinkers.

Aged 18 to 25

An estimated 37.7 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 were binge alcohol users in the past month (Figure 26), which corresponds to about 13.2 million young adults. The percentages of young adults who were past month binge drinkers in 2013 and 2014 were lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2012. Despite this decrease over time, more than one third of young adults in 2014 were current binge alcohol users.

Aged 26 or Older

Nearly a quarter (22.5 percent) of adults aged 26 or older in 2014 were current binge alcohol users (Figure 26). This percentage corresponds to about 46.2 million adults in this age group who were binge drinkers. The percentage of adults aged 26 or older in 2014 who were past month binge drinkers was similar to the percentages in most years from 2007 to 2013, but it was higher than the percentages in 2002 to 2006.

Heavy Alcohol Use

The estimate of 16.3 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 who were heavy alcohol users in the past month (Figure 24) represents 6.2 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 27). The estimates of past month heavy alcohol use among the population aged 12 or older remained steady between 2011 and 2014, but they were lower than the estimates in 2002 to 2010. Nevertheless, the differences between the estimate in 2014 and the estimates in 2002 to 2010 were relatively modest (the latter estimates ranged from 6.6 to 7.0 percent).

Figure 27. Past Month Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 27     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 27 Table. Past Month Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 6.7+ 6.8+ 6.9+ 6.6+ 6.9+ 6.9+ 7.0+ 6.8+ 6.7+ 6.2   6.5   6.3   6.2  
12 to 17 2.5+ 2.6+ 2.7+ 2.4+ 2.4+ 2.3+ 2.0+ 2.1+ 1.7+ 1.5+ 1.3   1.2   1.0  
18 to 25 14.9+ 15.1+ 15.1+ 15.3+ 15.6+ 14.8+ 14.6+ 13.8+ 13.5+ 12.1+ 12.7+ 11.3   10.8  
26 or Older 5.9   5.9   6.1   5.6   6.0   6.1   6.3   6.2   6.1   5.7   6.1   6.1   6.0  

Aged 12 to 17

In 2014, 1.0 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current heavy alcohol users (Figure 27), or about 257,000 adolescents. The estimate of past month heavy alcohol use among adolescents in 2014 was lower than the estimates in 2002 to 2011.

Aged 18 to 25

Heavy alcohol use was reported by 10.8 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 (Figure 27), which represents 3.8 million young adults. The percentage of young adults in 2014 who were heavy drinkers was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2012. Nevertheless, about 1 in 10 young adults in 2014 were heavy alcohol users.

Aged 26 or Older

An estimated 6.0 percent of adults aged 26 or older in 2014 were current heavy alcohol users (Figure 27). This percentage corresponds to about 12.3 million adults aged 26 or older who were heavy drinkers in the past month. The percentage of adults aged 26 or older who were heavy alcohol users in the past month remained stable between 2002 and 2014.

Underage Alcohol Use

In 2014, about 8.7 million underage people aged 12 to 20 reported drinking alcohol in the past month, including 5.3 million who reported binge alcohol use and 1.3 million who reported heavy alcohol use (Figure 28). Thus, about three fifths of underage current drinkers (60.6 percent) were binge alcohol users, and about 1 in 7 were heavy alcohol users (15.0 percent). About one fourth of underage binge alcohol users (24.8 percent) were heavy drinkers.

Figure 28. Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 to 20: 2014

Figure 28     D

The estimate of 8.7 million underage people in 2014 who reported current alcohol use represents 22.8 percent of underage people (Figure 29). Among all underage people in 2014, 13.8 percent were binge drinkers, and 3.4 percent were heavy drinkers (Figure 29). Percentages of underage individuals who reported current, binge, and heavy alcohol use in 2014 were lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2012, but they were similar to the percentages in 2013. Despite these declines over time, about 1 in 5 underage individuals in 2014 drank alcohol in the past month, and about 1 in 7 engaged in binge drinking.

Figure 29. Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 to 20: 2002-2014

Figure 29     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 29 Table. Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 to 20: 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
Current 28.8+ 29.0+ 28.7+ 28.2+ 28.4+ 28.0+ 26.5+ 27.2+ 26.2+ 25.1+ 24.3+ 22.7   22.8  
Binge 19.3+ 19.2+ 19.6+ 18.8+ 19.0+ 18.7+ 17.5+ 18.2+ 16.9+ 15.8+ 15.3+ 14.2   13.8  
Heavy 6.2+ 6.1+ 6.3+ 6.0+ 6.2+ 6.0+ 5.6+ 5.4+ 5.1+ 4.4+ 4.3+ 3.7   3.4  

Substance Use Disorders

Reducing substance use disorders (SUDs) and related problems is critical to Americans' mental and physical health, safety, and quality of life. SUDs occur when the recurrent use of alcohol or other drugs (or both) causes clinically significant impairment, including health problems, disability, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. These disorders contribute heavily to the burden of disease in the United States. Excessive substance use and SUDs are costly to our nation due to lost productivity, health care, and crime.26,28,29 However, SUDs are preventable and treatable.

NSDUH includes a series of questions to estimate the percentage of the population aged 12 or older who had SUDs in the past 12 months. Respondents were asked questions about SUDs if they previously reported use in the past 12 months of alcohol or illicit drugs. Illicit drugs include marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and the nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutic drugs. These SUD questions classify people as having an SUD in the past 12 months and are based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV).30,31 This section provides trends in past year SUDs in the United States between 2002 and 2014.

For many of the trends that are discussed in this section, the percentage of people with SUDs in 2014 was significantly different from the percentages in several of the years from 2002 to 2012, but the percentage was similar to that in 2013. Where possible,32 SUD estimates from the 2015 NSDUH may help in assessing whether similarities in estimates between 2013 and 2014 represent a stabilizing of the trends in SUDs.

Approximately 21.5 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 had SUDs in the past year, including 17.0 million people with an alcohol use disorder and 7.1 million people with an illicit drug use disorder (Figure 30). An estimated 2.6 million people aged 12 or older had both an alcohol use disorder and an illicit drug use disorder in the past year. Thus, among people aged 12 or older in 2014 who had SUDs in the past year, nearly 4 out of 5 had an alcohol use disorder, and about 1 out of 3 had an illicit drug use disorder. About 1 in 8 people aged 12 or older who had SUDs in the past year had both an alcohol use disorder and an illicit drug use disorder. However, most people in 2014 who had an alcohol use disorder did not have an illicit drug use disorder, and most people with an illicit drug use disorder did not have an alcohol use disorder.

Figure 30. Alcohol Use Disorder or Illicit Drug Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older with Past Year Substance Use Disorders: 2014

Figure 30     D

SUD = substance use disorder.

In addition, 4.2 million people had past year disorders related to their use of marijuana, and 1.9 million people had disorders related to their nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers in the past year (Figure 31). Smaller numbers of people in 2014 had disorders in the past year related to their use of cocaine or heroin.

Figure 31. Numbers of People Aged 12 or Older with a Past Year Substance Use Disorder: 2014

Figure 31     D

SUD = substance use disorder.
Note: SUD refers to dependence or abuse in the past year related to the use of alcohol or illicit drugs in that same period. Estimated numbers of people having disorders for specific substances do not sum to the 21.5 million people with any SUD because people could have disorders associated with their use of more than one substance.

The 21.5 million people who had SUDs in 2014 (Figure 30) represent 8.1 percent of the people aged 12 or older (Figure 31). This 2014 percentage of those who had SUDs corresponds to about 1 in 12 people aged 12 or older. The percentage of people aged 12 or older who had past year SUDs in 2014 was similar to the percentages in 2011 to 2013, but it was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2010 (Figure 32).

Figure 32. Substance Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 32     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 32 Table. Substance Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 9.4+ 9.1+ 9.4+ 9.1+ 9.2+ 9.0+ 9.0+ 9.0+ 8.8+ 8.0   8.5   8.2   8.1  
12 to 17 8.9+ 8.9+ 8.8+ 8.0+ 8.1+ 7.7+ 7.7+ 7.1+ 7.3+ 6.9+ 6.1+ 5.2   5.0  
18 to 25 21.7+ 21.0+ 21.2+ 21.8+ 21.4+ 20.7+ 21.0+ 20.1+ 20.0+ 18.6+ 18.9+ 17.3   16.3  
26 or Older 7.3   7.0   7.3   7.1   7.2   7.2   7.1   7.3   7.0   6.3+ 7.0   7.0   7.1  

Aged 12 to 17

An estimated 1.3 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 had SUDs in 2014, which represents 5.0 percent of adolescents (Figure 32), or about 1 in 20 adolescents. The 2014 percentage of adolescents who had SUDs was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2012.

Aged 18 to 25

In 2014, 5.7 million young adults aged 18 to 25 had SUDs, which represents 16.3 percent of young adults (Figure 32). The percentage of young adults who had SUDs in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2012. However, this change represents a decline from about 1 in 5 young adults in 2002 to 2010 to about 1 in 6 young adults in 2014.

Aged 26 or Older

An estimated 14.5 million adults aged 26 or older in 2014 had SUDs, which represents 7.1 percent of adults aged 26 or older, or about 1 in 14 adults in this age group (Figure 32). Unlike the declines in the percentages with SUDs for adolescents and young adults over time, the 2014 percentage of adults aged 26 or older who had SUDs was similar to the percentages with SUDs in most years from 2002 to 2013.

Alcohol Use Disorder

The 17.0 million people aged 12 or older who had an alcohol use disorder in 2014 (Figure 31) represent 6.4 percent of people aged 12 or older (Figure 33). The percentage of people aged 12 or older with an alcohol use disorder remained steady between 2011 and 2014. However, the percentage in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2010.

Figure 33. Alcohol Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 33     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 33 Table. Alcohol Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 7.7+ 7.5+ 7.8+ 7.7+ 7.7+ 7.5+ 7.4+ 7.5+ 7.1+ 6.5   6.8   6.6   6.4  
12 to 17 5.9+ 5.9+ 6.0+ 5.5+ 5.4+ 5.4+ 4.9+ 4.6+ 4.6+ 3.8+ 3.4+ 2.8   2.7  
18 to 25 17.7+ 17.2+ 17.4+ 17.5+ 17.6+ 16.9+ 17.4+ 16.1+ 15.7+ 14.4+ 14.3+ 13.0   12.3  
26 or Older 6.2   6.0   6.3   6.2   6.2   6.2   6.0   6.3   5.9   5.4   5.9   6.0   5.9  

Aged 12 to 17

There were 679,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 with a past year alcohol use disorder, or 2.7 percent of adolescents (Figure 33). The percentage of adolescents with an alcohol use disorder in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2012. In particular, the percentage of adolescents in 2014 with an alcohol use disorder was roughly half the percentages in 2002 to 2004 (5.9 to 6.0 percent).

Aged 18 to 25

Approximately 4.3 million young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 had an alcohol use disorder in the past year. This number represents 12.3 percent of young adults, or about 1 in 8 young adults who had an alcohol use disorder (Figure 33). The percentage of young adults with an alcohol use disorder in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2012.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, approximately 12.0 million adults aged 26 or older had an alcohol use disorder in the past year, which represents 5.9 percent of the adults in this age group (Figure 33). The percentage of adults aged 26 or older with an alcohol use disorder remained stable from 2002 to 2014.

Illicit Drug Use Disorder

The 7.1 million people aged 12 or older who had an illicit drug use disorder in 2014 (Figure 31) represent 2.7 percent of the people aged 12 or older (Figure 34). The percentage of the population aged 12 or older with an illicit drug use disorder remained steady between 2005 and 2014. However, the percentage in 2014 was lower than the percentage of 3.0 percent in 2002 and 2004.

Figure 34. Illicit Drug Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 34     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 34 Table. Illicit Drug Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 3.0+ 2.9   3.0+ 2.8   2.9   2.8   2.8   2.8   2.8   2.5   2.8   2.6   2.7  
12 to 17 5.6+ 5.1+ 5.3+ 4.7+ 4.6+ 4.3+ 4.6+ 4.3+ 4.7+ 4.6+ 4.0+ 3.5   3.5  
18 to 25 8.2+ 7.8+ 8.3+ 8.4+ 7.9+ 7.9+ 7.9+ 7.7+ 7.9+ 7.5+ 7.8+ 7.4   6.6  
26 or Older 1.8   1.7   1.8   1.6+ 1.7   1.7   1.7   1.8   1.7   1.4+ 1.8   1.7   1.9  

Aged 12 to 17

An estimated 3.5 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 had an illicit drug use disorder in 2014 (Figure 34), or about 867,000 adolescents. The percentage of adolescents with an illicit drug use disorder in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2012.

Aged 18 to 25

Approximately 2.3 million young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 had an illicit drug use disorder in the past year, which represents 6.6 percent of young adults (Figure 34). The percentage of young adults with an illicit drug use disorder in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2012.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, approximately 3.9 million adults aged 26 or older had an illicit drug use disorder in the past year, which represents 1.9 percent of adults aged 26 or older (Figure 34). The 2014 percentage of adults aged 26 or older with an illicit drug use disorder was similar to percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013.

Marijuana Use Disorder

The approximately 4.2 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 who had a marijuana use disorder in the past year (Figure 31) represent 1.6 percent of the people aged 12 or older (Figure 35). The 2014 percentage of the population aged 12 or older with a marijuana use disorder was similar to the percentages for most years between 2005 and 2014.

Figure 35. Marijuana Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 35     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 35 Table. Marijuana Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 1.8+ 1.8+ 1.9+ 1.7   1.7   1.6   1.7   1.7   1.8+ 1.6   1.7   1.6   1.6  
12 to 17 4.3+ 3.8+ 3.9+ 3.6+ 3.4+ 3.1+ 3.4+ 3.4+ 3.6+ 3.5+ 3.2+ 2.9   2.7  
18 to 25 6.0+ 5.9+ 6.0+ 5.9+ 5.7+ 5.6+ 5.6+ 5.6+ 5.7+ 5.7+ 5.5   5.4   4.9  
26 or Older 0.8   0.7   0.8   0.7+ 0.8   0.7+ 0.8   0.8   0.9   0.7+ 0.8   0.8   0.9  

Aged 12 to 17

In 2014, 2.7 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 had a marijuana use disorder in the past year (Figure 35), or about 667,000 adolescents. The percentage of adolescents with a marijuana use disorder in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2012.

Aged 18 to 25

Approximately 1.7 million young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 had a marijuana use disorder in the past year, or 4.9 percent of young adults (Figure 35). The percentage of young adults with a marijuana use disorder in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2011, but it was similar to the percentages in 2012 and 2013.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, approximately 1.8 million adults aged 26 or older had a marijuana use disorder in the past year, or 0.9 percent of the population aged 26 or older (Figure 35). The 2014 percentage of adults aged 26 or older with a marijuana use disorder was similar to the percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013.

Pain Reliever Use Disorder

The estimated 1.9 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 who had a pain reliever use disorder (Figure 31) represent 0.7 percent of the people aged 12 or older (Figure 36). The percentage of the population aged 12 or older with a pain reliever use disorder in 2014 was similar to the percentages in most years from 2005 to 2013.

Figure 36. Pain Reliever Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 36     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 36 Table. Pain Reliever Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.6   0.6+ 0.6+ 0.6   0.7   0.7   0.7   0.7   0.8   0.7   0.8   0.7   0.7  
12 to 17 1.0+ 1.1+ 1.2+ 1.1+ 1.0+ 0.9+ 1.0+ 0.9+ 1.0+ 1.0+ 0.6   0.5   0.7  
18 to 25 1.4   1.1   1.4   1.7+ 1.5   1.7+ 1.8+ 1.7+ 1.8+ 1.7+ 1.9+ 1.4   1.2  
26 or Older 0.5+ 0.4+ 0.3+ 0.4+ 0.5+ 0.5+ 0.5+ 0.6   0.6   0.5+ 0.6   0.6   0.6  

Aged 12 to 17

An estimated 0.7 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 had a pain reliever use disorder in the past year (Figure 36), which represents about 168,000 adolescents. The percentage of adolescents with a pain reliever use disorder in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2011, but it was similar to the percentages in 2012 and 2013.

Aged 18 to 25

Approximately 430,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 had a pain reliever use disorder in the past year, or 1.2 percent of young adults (Figure 36). The percentage of young adults with a pain reliever use disorder in 2014 was similar to the percentages in 2002 to 2004, and it was lower than the percentages in most years from 2005 to 2012.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, approximately 1.3 million adults aged 26 or older had a pain reliever use disorder in the past year, or 0.6 percent of the population aged 26 or older (Figure 36). The percentage of adults aged 26 or older with a pain reliever use disorder was greater in 2014 than the percentages in 2002 to 2008, but it was similar to the percentages in most years from 2009 to 2014.

Cocaine Use Disorder

About 913,000 people aged 12 or older in 2014 had a cocaine use disorder, which represents 0.3 percent of the people aged 12 or older (Figure 37). The percentage of the population aged 12 or older with a cocaine use disorder remained stable between 2009 and 2014. However, the percentage in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2008.

Figure 37. Cocaine Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 37     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 37 Table. Cocaine Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.6+ 0.6+ 0.7+ 0.6+ 0.7+ 0.6+ 0.6+ 0.4   0.4   0.3   0.4   0.3   0.3  
12 to 17 0.4+ 0.3+ 0.4+ 0.4+ 0.4+ 0.4+ 0.3+ 0.2   0.1   0.2   0.2   0.1   0.1  
18 to 25 1.2+ 1.2+ 1.4+ 1.5+ 1.3+ 1.4+ 1.2+ 0.9+ 0.7   0.6   0.6   0.7   0.5  
26 or Older 0.6+ 0.6+ 0.6+ 0.5+ 0.6+ 0.6+ 0.5+ 0.4   0.4   0.3   0.4   0.3   0.3  

Aged 12 to 17

An estimated 0.1 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 had a cocaine use disorder in the past year (Figure 37), or about 27,000 adolescents. The percentage of adolescents with a cocaine use disorder in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2008, but it was similar to the percentages in 2009 to 2013.

Aged 18 to 25

Approximately 185,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 had a cocaine use disorder in the past year, which represents 0.5 percent of young adults (Figure 37). Similar to the pattern for adolescents aged 12 to 17, the percentage of young adults with a cocaine use disorder in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2009, but it was similar to the percentages in 2010 to 2013.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, approximately 702,000 adults aged 26 or older had a cocaine use disorder in the past year, which represents 0.3 percent of adults in this age group (Figure 37). The percentage of adults aged 26 or older with a cocaine use disorder in 2014 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2008, but it remained steady when compared with the percentages between 2009 and 2013.

Heroin Use Disorder

About 586,000 people aged 12 or older in 2014 had a heroin use disorder, which represents 0.2 percent of the people aged 12 or older (Figure 38). Although the percentage of people aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current heroin users was higher than the percentages in most years between 2002 and 2013 (Figure 12), the percentage of people aged 12 or older with a heroin use disorder remained steady from 2011 to 2014. However, the percentage in 2014 was higher than the percentages in 2002 to 2010 (0.1 percent in each year).

Figure 38. Heroin Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014

Figure 38     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 38 Table. Heroin Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
12 or Older 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2  
12 to 17 0.1   0.0   0.1   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1   0.1   0.0   0.1   0.1   0.0   0.1  
18 to 25 0.2+ 0.1+ 0.2+ 0.3+ 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.3+ 0.3+ 0.3   0.4   0.5   0.5   0.5  
26 or Older 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1   0.1+ 0.1+ 0.1   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.2   0.2  

Aged 12 to 17

An estimated 0.1 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 had a heroin use disorder in the past year (Figure 38), which corresponds to about 18,000 adolescents. The percentage of adolescents with a heroin use disorder remained stable from 2002 to 2014.

Aged 18 to 25

Approximately 168,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 had a heroin use disorder in the past year, which represents 0.5 percent of young adults (Figure 38). The percentage of young adults with a heroin use disorder in 2014 was greater than the percentages in 2002 to 2009, but it was similar to the percentages in 2010 to 2013.

Aged 26 or Older

In 2014, approximately 400,000 adults aged 26 or older had a heroin use disorder in the past year, which represents 0.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older (Figure 38). Between 2002 and 2014, 0.1 to 0.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older had a heroin use disorder in the past year.

Mental Health Issues among Adults and Adolescents

Promoting mental health and preventing mental disorders and SUDs are fundamental to SAMHSA's mission to reduce the impact of behavioral health issues in America's communities. Mental disorders are generally characterized by changes in mood, thought, or behavior. They can make carrying out daily activities difficult and can impair an individual's ability to work or function in school, interact with family, and fulfill other major life functions. Understanding the percentage of the population with mental disorders is important for gauging progress toward preventing the occurrence or progression of mental health concerns and in assessing the need for mental health services among adolescents or adults. As noted in this report's survey background section, NSDUH collects different mental health information for adults and adolescents, unlike the information that is collected on substance use. Therefore, this section presents mental health results separately for adults and adolescents.

Past Year Any Mental Illness (AMI), Serious Mental Illness (SMI), and AMI without SMI among Adults Aged 18 or Older

NSDUH provides estimates of any mental illness (AMI) and serious mental illness (SMI) for adults aged 18 or older.33 An adult with AMI was defined as having any mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder in the past year that met DSM-IV criteria (excluding developmental disorders and SUDs).30 Adults with AMI were defined as having SMI if they had any mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder that substantially interfered with or limited one or more major life activities. This section includes past year estimates of adults with AMI, SMI, and AMI without SMI.34

In 2014, an estimated 43.6 million adults aged 18 or older had AMI in the United States (Figure 39). This number of adults who had AMI represents 18.1 percent of all adults in the United States. An estimated 9.8 million adults aged 18 or older in the nation had SMI in the past year, and 33.7 million adults had AMI without SMI in the past year. The number of adults with SMI represents 4.1 percent of all U.S. adults in 2014, and the number of adults with AMI without SMI represents 14.0 percent of all U.S. adults in 2014. Among adults with AMI in the past year, 22.6 percent had SMI, and 77.4 percent did not have SMI.35,36

Figure 39. Any Mental Illness, Serious Mental Illness, and Any Mental Illness Excluding Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older: 2014

Figure 39     D

AMI = any mental illness; SMI = serious mental illness.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older with AMI remained stable from 2008 to 2014 (Figure 40). Although the percentage of adults aged 18 or older with past year SMI remained stable between 2010 and 2014, the 2014 estimate was slightly higher than the estimates in 2008 and 2009 (3.7 percent in both years) (Figure 41). The percentage of adults aged 18 or older who had AMI without SMI was stable between 2008 and 2014 (Figure 42).

Figure 40. Any Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014

Figure 40     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 40 Table. Any Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
18 or Older 17.7   18.1   18.1   17.8   18.6   18.5   18.1  
18 to 25 18.5+ 18.0+ 18.1+ 18.5+ 19.6   19.4   20.1  
26 to 49 20.7   21.6+ 20.9   20.3   21.2   21.5+ 20.4  
50 or Older 14.1   14.5   15.1   15.0   15.8   15.3   15.4  

Figure 41. Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014

Figure 41     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 41 Table. Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
18 or Older 3.7+ 3.7+ 4.1   3.9   4.1   4.2   4.1  
18 to 25 3.8+ 3.3+ 3.9+ 3.8+ 4.1+ 4.2+ 4.8  
26 to 49 4.8   4.9   5.2   5.0   5.2   5.3   4.9  
50 or Older 2.5   2.5   3.0   2.8   3.0   3.2   3.1  

Figure 42. Any Mental Illness Excluding Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014

Figure 42     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 42 Table. Any Mental Illness Excluding Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
18 or Older 14.0   14.4   14.0   13.9   14.5   14.2   14.0  
18 to 25 14.8   14.6   14.1+ 14.8   15.5   15.2   15.3  
26 to 49 16.0   16.7+ 15.7   15.3   16.0   16.2   15.5  
50 or Older 11.6   12.0   12.2   12.3   12.8   12.1   12.3  

By Adult Age Groups

The percentage of adults with AMI in the past year was higher for adults aged 18 to 25 in 2014 (20.1 percent) and those aged 26 to 49 (20.4 percent) compared with those aged 50 or older (15.4 percent) (Figure 40). This pattern differed in 2008 to 2013 compared with that in 2014. In 2008 to 2013, the percentage of adults with AMI was highest among adults aged 26 to 49, followed by those aged 18 to 25, then by those aged 50 or older. The percentage of adults aged 18 to 25 with AMI was stable between 2012 and 2014; however, the 2014 estimate was greater than the estimates in 2008 to 2011. Estimates of AMI among adults aged 26 to 49 and those aged 50 or older in 2014 were similar to the estimates in most years between 2008 and 2013.

The percentage of adults with past year SMI in 2014 was higher among adults aged 18 to 25 (4.8 percent) and those aged 26 to 49 (4.9 percent) compared with adults aged 50 or older (3.1 percent) (Figure 41). In 2008 to 2013, however, the percentage of adults with SMI was highest among adults aged 26 to 49, followed by those aged 18 to 25, then by those aged 50 or older. The percentage of young adults aged 18 to 25 with past year SMI was greater in 2014 than the percentages in 2008 to 2013. For adults aged 26 to 49 and those aged 50 or older, the percentages with past year SMI in 2014 were similar to the percentages in 2008 to 2013.

In 2014, 15.3 percent of adults aged 18 to 25 and 15.5 percent of adults 26 to 49 had AMI without SMI compared with 12.3 percent of adults aged 50 or older (Figure 42). In 2008 to 2013, however, the percentage of adults who had AMI without SMI was highest among those aged 26 to 49, followed by those aged 18 to 25, then by those aged 50 or older. For each age group, the percentages of adults who had AMI without SMI in 2014 were similar to the percentages in most years from 2008 to 2013.

Past Year Major Depressive Episode (MDE) and MDE with Severe Impairment among Adults Aged 18 or Older

NSDUH also provides estimates of having a past year major depressive episode (MDE) among adults. MDE is defined using the diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV.30 Adults were defined as having an MDE if they had a period of 2 weeks or longer in the past 12 months when they experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities, and they had at least some additional symptoms, such as problems with sleep, eating, energy, concentration, and self-worth.37 Adults were defined as having an MDE with severe impairment if their depression caused severe problems with their ability to manage at home, manage well at work, have relationships with others, or have a social life.38

In 2014, 6.6 percent of adults aged 18 or older (15.7 million people) had at least one MDE in the past year, and 4.3 percent of adults (10.2 million people) had an MDE with severe impairment in the past year (Figure 43). Adults in 2014 who had an MDE with severe impairment represent nearly two thirds (65.5 percent) of adults who had a past year MDE.39

Figure 43. Major Depressive Episode and Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older: 2014

Figure 43     D

MDE = major depressive episode.
Note: Adult respondents with unknown past year MDE data or unknown impairment data were excluded.

The percentage of adults who had a past year MDE remained stable between 2005 and 2014 (Figure 44). The percentage of adults with a past year MDE with severe impairment also remained stable between 2009 and 2014 (Figure 45).

Figure 44. Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2005-2014

Figure 44     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 44 Table. Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2005-2014
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
18 or Older 6.6   6.5   6.7   6.5   6.6   6.8   6.6   6.9   6.7   6.6  
18 to 25 8.8   8.1+ 8.0+ 8.4+ 8.0+ 8.3+ 8.3+ 8.9   8.7   9.3  
26 to 49 7.6   7.7   7.6   7.4   7.6   7.5   7.7   7.6   7.6   7.2  
50 or Older 4.5   4.5   5.2   4.8   4.9   5.6   4.8   5.5   5.1   5.2  

Figure 45. Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2009-2014

Figure 45     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 45 Table. Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2009-2014
  2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
18 or Older 4.0   4.2   4.2   4.5   4.3   4.3  
18 to 25 5.2+ 5.2+ 5.2+ 5.8   5.7   6.0  
26 to 49 4.8   4.7   5.2   5.1   4.9   4.6  
50 or Older 2.6+ 3.5   2.9   3.4   3.2   3.5  

By Adult Age Groups

Among adults aged 18 or older, the percentage having a past year MDE in 2014 was highest for young adults aged 18 to 25 (9.3 percent), followed by adults aged 26 to 49 (7.2 percent), then by those aged 50 or older (5.2 percent) (Figure 44). However, the percentages of adults aged 18 to 25 and those aged 26 to 49 who had a past year MDE were similar in 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2011. In addition, adults aged 50 or older in 2005 to 2013 were less likely than other adults to have a past year MDE.

The percentage of young adults aged 18 to 25 with a past year MDE was greater in 2014 than the percentages in 2006 to 2011 (Figure 44). Percentages of adults aged 26 to 49 and 50 or older in 2014 who had a past year MDE were similar to the corresponding percentages in 2005 to 2013.

Among adults aged 18 or older, the percentage having a past year MDE with severe impairment in 2014 was highest for those aged 18 to 25 (6.0 percent), followed by those aged 26 to 49 (4.6 percent), then by those aged 50 or older (3.5 percent) (Figure 45). Adults aged 50 or older in 2009 to 2013 also were less likely than other adults to have an MDE with severe impairment. In addition, young adults aged 18 to 25 were more likely than adults aged 26 to 49 in 2010 and 2012 to have an MDE with severe impairment. In other years from 2009 to 2013, however, similar percentages of young adults and adults aged 26 to 49 had an MDE with severe impairment.

The percentage of young adults aged 18 to 25 with a past year MDE with severe impairment was greater in 2014 than in 2009 to 2011 (Figure 45). Percentages of adults aged 26 to 49 and 50 or older in 2014 who had a past year MDE with severe impairment were similar to the percentages in most years from 2009 to 2013.

Past Year Major Depressive Episode (MDE) and MDE with Severe Impairment among Adolescents Aged 12 to 17

Although NSDUH does not have an overall measure of mental illness among adolescents aged 12 to 17, the survey provides estimates of having a past year MDE for this age group. MDE is defined using the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV.30 Similar to adults, adolescents were defined as having an MDE if they had a period of 2 weeks or longer in the past 12 months when they experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities, and they had at least some additional symptoms, such as problems with sleep, eating, energy, concentration, and self-worth. However, some wordings to the questions for adolescents were designed to make them more developmentally appropriate for youths.40 Adolescents were defined as having an MDE with severe impairment if their depression caused severe problems with their ability to do chores at home, do well at work or school, get along with their family, or have a social life.41

In 2014, 11.4 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (2.8 million adolescents) had an MDE during the past year, and 8.2 percent of adolescents (2.0 million adolescents) had a past year MDE with severe impairment in one or more role domains (Figure 46). Adolescents in 2014 who had an MDE with severe impairment represent nearly three fourths (72.6 percent) of adolescents who had a past year MDE.40

Figure 46. Major Depressive Episode and Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2014

Figure 46     D

MDE = major depressive episode.
Note: Youth respondents with unknown past year MDE data or unknown impairment data were excluded.

This percentage of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 who had a past year MDE was higher than the percentages in 2004 to 2012 (ranging from 7.9 to 9.1 percent), but it was similar to the percentage in 2013 (Figure 47). The percentage of adolescents in 2014 who had a past year MDE with severe impairment also was higher than the percentages in 2006 to 2012, which ranged from 5.5 to 6.3 percent.

Figure 47. Major Depressive Episode and Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2004-2014

Figure 47     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 47 Table. Major Depressive Episode and Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2004-2014
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
N/A = not available.
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
MDE 9.0+ 8.8+ 7.9+ 8.2+ 8.3+ 8.1+ 8.0+ 8.2+ 9.1+ 10.7   11.4  
MDE with Severe Impairment N/A N/A 5.5+ 5.5+ 6.0+ 5.8+ 5.7+ 5.7+ 6.3+ 7.7   8.2  

Co-Occurring Mental Health Issues and Substance Use Disorders among Adults

The coexistence of both a mental health issue and an SUD is referred to as a co-occurring disorder (i.e., a mental disorder and an SUD). Because NSDUH data allow estimates to be made for mental health issues and SUDs, it is possible to estimate the percentages of adults and adolescents with co-occurring disorders. This section presents findings on co-occurring mental health issues (including AMI, SMI, and MDE) and SUDs (i.e., illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse) among adults aged 18 or older in the United States. In addition, findings for adolescents aged 12 to 17 are presented in a later section on the co-occurrence of MDE and substance use and SUDs.

Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders among Adults with a Disorder

In 2014, among the 20.2 million adults with a past year SUD, 7.9 million (39.1 percent) had AMI in the past year (Figure 48 and Table A.18B in Appendix A). In contrast, among adults without a past year SUD, 16.2 percent (35.6 million adults) had AMI in the past year. Among adults with a past year SUD, the percentage of adults with co-occurring AMI in 2014 was similar to the percentages of adults with AMI in most years from 2008 to 2013.

Figure 48. Past Year Substance Use Disorders and Mental Illness among Adults Aged 18 or Older: 2014

Figure 48     D

SUD = substance use disorder.

The 7.9 million adults with AMI who met the criteria for an SUD in the past year (Figure 48) represent 18.2 percent of the 43.6 million adults with AMI (Figure 49). In contrast, 6.3 percent of adults who did not have past year AMI (12.3 million adults) met the criteria for an SUD (Figure 48 and Table A.19B in Appendix A). Among adults who had AMI in the past year, the percentage of adults with a co-occurring SUD in 2014 was similar to the percentages of adults with a co-occurring SUD in most years from 2008 to 2013 (Figure 49).

Figure 49. Past Year Substance Use Disorder among Adults Aged 18 or Older with Any Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014

Figure 49     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 49 Table. Past Year Substance Use Disorder among Adults Aged 18 or Older with Any Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
18 or Older 18.4   19.0   19.0   16.5+ 19.2   17.5   18.2  
18 to 25 36.9+ 35.1+ 35.5+ 32.4+ 34.5+ 31.1   29.3  
26 to 49 20.5   20.8   21.7   18.2+ 22.6   21.0   20.8  
50 or Older 6.3+ 9.1   8.2   7.4+ 8.6   7.2+ 10.3  

Among the 20.2 million adults aged 18 or older in 2014 who had a past year SUD, 2.3 million (11.3 percent) also had SMI in the past year (Figure 50 and Table A.18B). Among adults with a past year SUD, the percentage of adults with SMI in 2014 was similar to the percentages of adults with SMI in most years from 2008 to 2013.

Figure 50. Past Year Substance Use Disorders and Serious Mental Illness among Adults Aged 18 or Older: 2014

Figure 50     D

SMI = serious mental illness; SUD = substance use disorder.

Among the 9.8 million adults aged 18 or older in 2014 who had past year SMI, the 2.3 million adults who met the criteria for an SUD in the past year represent 23.3 percent of adults with SMI (Figure 50 and Table A.19B). Among adults who had SMI in the past year, the percentage of adults with an SUD in 2014 was similar to the percentages in most years from 2008 to 2013 (Figure 51).

Figure 51. Past Year Substance Use Disorder among Adults Aged 18 or Older with Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014

Figure 51     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 51 Table. Past Year Substance Use Disorder among Adults Aged 18 or Older with Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
18 or Older 23.4   24.6   25.6   23.6   27.3+ 23.1   23.3  
18 to 25 46.8+ 39.7   42.7+ 40.8   39.9   39.6   35.3  
26 to 49 25.2   25.3   29.4   23.3   29.4   25.6   24.9  
50 or Older 7.3+ 16.1   10.8   16.0   18.0   12.0   15.1  

By Adult Age Groups in 2014

Among adults aged 18 or older in 2014 with past year SUDs, the percentage of adults who had co-occurring AMI in the past year was highest among those aged 26 to 49 (42.7 percent) than among those aged 18 to 25 (36.0 percent) or those aged 50 or older (35.6 percent) (Table A.18B in Appendix A). The percentages of adults with SUDs who had co-occurring SMI in the past year were 12.3 percent for adults aged 26 to 49, 10.5 percent for those aged 50 or older, and 10.4 percent for those aged 18 to 25.

Among adults aged 18 or older in 2014 with past year AMI, the percentage of adults who had a co-occurring SUD in the past year was highest among those aged 18 to 25 (29.3 percent), followed by those aged 26 to 49 (20.8 percent), then by those aged 50 or older (10.3 percent) (Figure 49). Among adults aged 18 or older in 2014 with past year SMI, the percentage of adults who had a past year SUD was highest among those aged 18 to 25 (35.3 percent), followed by those aged 26 to 49 (24.9 percent), then by those aged 50 or older (15.1 percent) (Figure 51).

Co-Occurring Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders among Adults in the General Population

Prior sections described the percentage of adults with mental illness among the subpopulation of adults who had a past year SUD or described the percentage of adults with an SUD among the subpopulation of adults with mental illness. This section presents findings on the percentages of adults who had co-occurring SUDs and mental illness among all adults in the United States. This type of presentation helps to provide further context for discussions of co-occurring disorders. Although the numbers of adults in the population who had co-occurring disorders are the same as presented in previous sections, the percentages presented in this section are based on the total population of adults.

In 2014, the estimate of 7.9 million adults aged 18 or older who had both mental illness and SUDs in the past year (Figure 48) corresponds to 3.3 percent of all adults (Table A.22B in Appendix A). This percentage for 2014 among all adults was similar to the percentages in most years from 2008 to 2013.

The estimate of 2.3 million adults aged 18 or older in 2014 who had co-occurring SMI and SUDs in the past year (Figure 50) corresponds to 1.0 percent of all adults (Table A.22B). This percentage among all adults in 2014 was similar to the percentages in 2008 to 2013.

Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Issues among Adolescents

This section discusses co-occurring MDE and substance use among adolescents aged 12 to 17 in addition to discussing co-occurring MDE and SUDs among adolescents. Specifically, estimates of substance use and SUDs are described among adolescents with an MDE, estimates of MDE are described among those with SUDs, and estimates of co-occurring MDE and SUDs are described among all adolescents.

Substance Use and Substance Use Disorders among Adolescents with Major Depressive Episode

In 2014, the percentage of adolescents aged 12 to 17 who used illicit drugs in the past year was higher among those with a past year MDE than it was among those without a past year MDE (33.0 vs. 15.2 percent) (Figure 52). Youths with a past year MDE in 2014 also were more likely than those without an MDE to be users of marijuana, nonmedical users of psychotherapeutics, users of inhalants, and users of hallucinogens in the past year. (Because estimates of illicit drug use among adolescents that previously were mentioned in this report pertain to use in the past 30 days, percentages for past year illicit drug use measures among all adolescents are shown in Figure 52 as additional points of reference.)

Figure 52. Past Year Illicit Drug Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Past Year Major Depressive Episode: Percentages, 2014

Figure 52     D

Among adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014, 1.6 percent of those with a past year MDE and 1.1 percent of those without a past year MDE were daily cigarette smokers in the past month (Table A.24B in Appendix A). In addition, 1.8 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 with a past year MDE and 0.9 percent of those without a past year MDE were heavy alcohol drinkers in the past month.

Among the 2.8 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 who had a past year MDE, a total of 340,000 adolescents (12.4 percent) had a past year SUD (Figure 53). In contrast, among adolescents without a past year MDE, 858,000 (4.0 percent) had an SUD in the past year.

Figure 53. Past Year Substance Use Disorders and Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2014

Figure 53     D

MDE = major depressive episode; SUD = substance use disorder.
Note: Youth respondents with unknown MDE data were excluded.

Major Depressive Episode among Adolescents with a Substance Use Disorder

An estimated 340,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 had a co-occurring MDE and an SUD in the past year (Figure 53) in 2014. This number of adolescents with a co-occurring MDE and an SUD represents 28.4 percent of the 1.3 million adolescents who had a past year SUD. Among adolescents without a past year SUD, 10.5 percent (2.4 million adolescents) had an MDE in the past year.

Co-Occurring Major Depressive Episode and Substance Use Disorder among Adolescents in the General Population

The previous section presented findings among adolescents who had an MDE or an SUD. This section presents findings on co-occurring SUD and MDE among all adolescents aged 12 to 17.

The estimated 340,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2014 who had an SUD and an MDE in the past year (Figure 53) represent 1.4 percent of all adolescents (Table A.23B in Appendix A). An estimated 271,000 adolescents in 2014 (1.1 percent of adolescents) had an SUD and an MDE with severe impairment in the past year.

The 2014 percentage of adolescents with co-occurring SUD and MDE was similar to the percentages in most years between 2006 and 2013, but it was lower than those in 2004 and 2005 (Figure 54). Percentages of adolescents with co-occurring SUD and MDE with severe impairment were stable between 2006 and 2014.

Figure 54. Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and Past Year Major Depressive Episode (MDE) or MDE with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2004-2014

Figure 54     D

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

Figure 54 Table. Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and Past Year Major Depressive Episode (MDE) or MDE with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2004-2014
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
N/A = not available.
+ Difference between this estimate and the 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
Co-Occurring SUD and MDE 1.8+ 1.7+ 1.5   1.5   1.8+ 1.5   1.6   1.5   1.4   1.5   1.4  
Co-Occurring SUD and MDE with Severe Impairment N/A N/A 1.2   1.2   1.4   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.1   1.2   1.1  


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Summary Footnotes

1. NSDUH obtains information on the following nine categories of drugs: marijuana (including hashish), cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, and inhalants, as well as the nonmedical use of prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. Nonmedical use refers to use of prescription drugs without a prescription of the individual's own or simply for the experience or feeling the drugs caused. Estimates of "illicit drug use" reported from NSDUH reflect the use of these nine drug categories.

2. Binge alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days, and heavy alcohol use is defined as having this number of drinks on the same occasion on 5 or more days in the past 30 days.

3. People who met the criteria for dependence or abuse for alcohol or illicit drugs in the past 12 months based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) were defined as having an SUD. See the following reference: American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

4. Adults with AMI were defined as having any mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder in the past year that met DSM-IV criteria (excluding developmental disorders and SUDs). Adults with AMI were defined as having SMI if they had any mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder that substantially interfered with or limited one or more major life activities. See footnote 3 for the reference for the DSM-IV criteria.

5. Based on DSM-IV criteria, adolescents were defined as having an MDE if they had a period of 2 weeks or longer in the past 12 months when they experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities, and they had at least some additional symptoms, such as problems with sleep, eating, energy, concentration, and self-worth. See footnote 3 for the reference for the DSM-IV criteria.


Endnotes

1. World Health Organization. (2013). Mental health action plan 2013-2020. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mental_health/publications/action_plan/en/

2. Reeves, W. C., Strine, T. W., Pratt, L. A., Thompson, W., Ahluwalia, I., Dhingra, S. S., McKnight-Eily, L. R., Harrison, L., D'Angelo, D. V., Williams, L., Morrow, B., Gould, D., & Safran, M. A. (2011). Mental illness surveillance among adults in the United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report CDC Surveillance Summaries, 60(Suppl. 3), 1-29.

3. Murray, C. J. L., & Lopez, A. D. (2013). Measuring the global burden of disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 369, 448-457. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1201534

4. This report occasionally presents estimated numbers of people with a specific characteristic (e.g., estimated numbers of substance users). Some of these estimated numbers are not included in figures or tables in the report but may be found in the detailed tables or mental health detailed tables for the 2014 NSDUH available at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/.

5. In this report, terms such as "Americans," "people in this country," "general population," or similar terms are used broadly to refer to the civilian, noninstitutionalized population that is covered by NSDUH. Although some people in the general population of the United States are outside of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population, information from the 2010 census suggests that the civilian, noninstitutionalized population includes at least 97 percent of the total U.S. population. See the following reference: Lofquist, D., Lugaila, T., O'Connell, M., & Feliz, S. (2012, April). Households and families: 2010 (C2010BR-14, 2010 Census Briefs). Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-14.pdf

6. Details about the sample design, weighting, and interviewing results for the 2014 NSDUH are provided in Sections A.1, A.3.3, and B.3.1 of CBHSQ (2015). In particular, Tables A.1 and A.2 in CBHSQ (2015) provide sample design information on the targeted numbers of completed interviews by state and by age group, respectively. See the following reference: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2015). 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Methodological summary and definitions. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/

7. The screening procedure involves listing all household members in order to determine whether zero, one, or two individuals aged 12 or older should be selected for the interview.

8. An overall response rate is not calculated for adolescents or adults because the screening response rate is not specific to age groups.

9. See the CBHSQ (2015) reference in endnote 6.

10. Trend data are presented for 2002 to 2014. Methodological changes to the survey in 2002 affect the comparability of the 2002 to 2014 estimates with estimates from prior surveys, including the addition of a $30 incentive to respondents and the change in the survey's name from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) to NSDUH. For more details, see Appendix C in the following report for the 2004 NSDUH: Office of Applied Studies. (2005). Results from the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings (HHS Publication No. SMA 05-4062, NSDUH Series H-28). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

11. Estimates presented in this report have been weighted to reflect characteristics of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population aged 12 or older in the United States. The calculation of NSDUH weights for analysis includes a step that yields weights that are consistent with population totals obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau based on the most recently available decennial census.

12. For a discussion of the criteria for suppressing (i.e., not publishing) unreliable estimates, see Section B.2.2 in CBHSQ (2015). See endnote 6 for the reference.

13. If the number of people in the population with a characteristic of interest has increased (e.g., the number of substance users) simply because the size of the overall population has increased, then the percentages will control for the increases both in the number of people with the characteristic of interest and the total number of people in the population.

14. The term "most years" is used when the 2014 estimate is either similar to or significantly different from the estimates in the majority of prior years. However, estimates may not follow the overall pattern in up to 3 nonsequential years for estimates that are available in 2002 to 2014 and in up to 1 or 2 nonsequential years for mental health estimates that are available in 2008 (or 2009) to 2014.

15. Anomalous differences between 2 years of data usually "correct" themselves with 1 or 2 additional years of data.

16. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2012, November). Medical consequences of drug abuse. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/medical-consequences-drug-abuse

17. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014, October 3). Prevention of substance abuse and mental illness. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/prevention

18. The estimated numbers of current users of different illicit drugs are not mutually exclusive because people could have used more than one type of illicit drug in the past month.

19. Because of changes in the questionnaire in 2005, 2006, and 2007, estimates for methamphetamine, stimulants, and psychotherapeutics in this report should not be compared with corresponding estimates presented in previous NSDUH reports for data years prior to 2007. Estimates for 2002 to 2006 for these drug categories in this report incorporate statistical adjustments that enable year-to-year comparisons to be made over the period from 2002 to 2014.

20. The redesigned questionnaire for the 2015 NSDUH will include questions about methamphetamine use that are separate from questions about nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. See the following reference: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2015). National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 2014 and 2015 redesign changes. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/

21. LSD = lysergic acid diethylamide; PCP = phencyclidine; MDMA = methylenedioxy-methamphetamine. Definitions for these hallucinogens also are included in Section C of CBHSQ (2015). See endnote 6 for the reference.

22. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014, January). The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: A report of the Surgeon General, 2014. Retrieved from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/

23. Adhikari, B., Kahende, J., Malarcher, A., Pechacek, T., & Tong, V. (2008). Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses—United States, 2000-2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 57(45), 1226-1228.

24. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2014). Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of national findings (HHS Publication No. SMA 14-4863, NSDUH Series H-48). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/

25. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2015). Rethinking drinking. Alcohol and your health. What are the risks? Retrieved from http://rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih.gov/WhatsTheHarm/WhatAreTheRisks.asp

26. Bouchery, E. E., Harwood, H. J., Sacks, J. J., Simon, C. J., & Brewer, R. D. (2011). Economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in the U.S., 2006. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41, 516-524. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.06.045

27. In NSDUH, a "drink" is defined as a can or bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a wine cooler, a shot of liquor, or a mixed drink with liquor in it. Times when respondents only had a sip or two from a drink are not considered to be alcohol consumption.

28. Office of National Drug Control Policy, Executive Office of the President. (2011). How illicit drug use affects business and the economy. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ondcp/Fact_Sheets/effects_of_drugs_on_economy_jw_5-24-11_0.pdf

29. National Drug Intelligence Center. (2011). National Drug Threat Assessment 2011 (Product No. 2011-Q0317-001). Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs44/44849/44849p.pdf

30. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

31. The DSM-IV criteria for SUDs include separate criteria for dependence or abuse. Individuals who met the criteria for abuse for a given substance (e.g., alcohol) did not meet the criteria for dependence for that substance. For more information, see Section B.4.2 and the definitions for abuse and dependence in Section C of CBHSQ (2015). See endnote 6 for the reference.

32. Some estimates of SUDs in 2015 may no longer be comparable with corresponding estimates in 2002 to 2014 because of changes to the 2015 questionnaire, especially for prescription drugs. More information is provided in CBHSQ (2015). See endnote 20 for the reference.

33. In order to generate estimates of AMI and SMI in the United States, SAMHSA designed and implemented the Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS). Over the 5-year period from 2008 to 2012, a subsample of adults was selected from the main study to participate in a follow-up telephone interview that obtained a detailed mental health assessment administered by trained mental health clinicians. The MHSS interview used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP). A prediction model created from clinical interview data that were collected from 2008 to 2012 was applied to data from the 2008 to 2014 NSDUHs to produce estimates of AMI for the entire NSDUH adult sample in these years. See the following reference: First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (2002). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP). New York, NY: New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research.

34. Details about the definitions and estimation methods for mental illness estimates are provided in Section B.4.4 and Section C of CBHSQ (2015). See endnote 6 for the reference.

35. In this section, estimated numbers or percentages of adults with SMI and the corresponding estimates for adults who had AMI without SMI may not sum to the overall estimates for adults with AMI because of rounding.

36. Percentages shown in Figure 39 may differ from percentages that are calculated from the estimated numbers of people because the estimated numbers are rounded.

37. The specific questions used to measure MDE and a discussion of measurement issues are included in Section B.4.5 of CBHSQ (2015). See endnote 6 for the reference.

38. Adults were first asked whether they ever had a period in their lifetime lasting several days or longer when any of the following was true for most of the day: (a) feeling sad, empty or depressed; (b) feeling discouraged about how things were going in their lives; or (c) losing interest in most things they usually enjoy. Adults who reported any of these problems were asked further questions about having an MDE in their lifetime, including whether they had at least five of nine symptoms in the same 2-week period in their lifetime; at least one of the symptoms needed to be having a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities. Those who had lifetime MDE were asked if they had a period of time in the past 12 months when they felt depressed or lost interest or pleasure in daily activities for 2 weeks or longer, and they reported that they had some of their other lifetime MDE symptoms in the past 12 months. These adults were defined as having past year MDE. Data on MDE in the past year for adults are available in NSDUH since 2005. Data on MDE with severe impairment for adults are available since 2009.

39. Percentages shown in Figure 43 may differ from percentages that are calculated from the estimated numbers of people because the estimated numbers are rounded. Also, respondents with unknown information for past year MDE or MDE with severe impairment were excluded.

40. Adolescents were first asked whether they ever had a period in their lifetime lasting several days or longer when any of the following was true for most of the day: (a) feeling sad, empty or depressed; (b) feeling very discouraged or hopeless about how things were going in their lives; or (c) losing interest and becoming bored with most things they usually enjoy. Adolescents who reported any of these problems were asked further questions about having an MDE in their lifetime, including whether they had at least five of nine symptoms in the same 2-week period in their lifetime; at least one of the symptoms needed to be having a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities. Unlike questions for adults, adolescents who reported gaining weight without trying were asked if this occurred because they were growing. Those who had lifetime MDE were asked if they had a period of time in the past 12 months when they felt depressed or lost interest or pleasure in daily activities for 2 weeks or longer, and they reported that they had some of their other lifetime MDE symptoms in the past 12 months. These adolescents were defined as having past year MDE.

41. Questions measuring adolescents' impairment in carrying out life activities because of MDE were added to the survey in 2006.



Appendix A: Supplemental Tables of Estimates for Behavioral Health Trends in the United States

Table A.1B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Individuals Aged 12 or Older
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
LSD = lysergic acid diethylamide; PCP = phencyclidine.
**Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
ILLICIT DRUGS 8.3* (0.17) 8.2* (0.17) 7.9* (0.17) 8.1* (0.18) 8.3* (0.17) 8.0* (0.18) 8.1* (0.17) 8.7* (0.18) 8.9* (0.19) 8.7* (0.18) 9.2* (0.19) 9.4* (0.19) 10.2   (0.18)
Marijuana and Hashish 6.2* (0.14) 6.2* (0.14) 6.1* (0.15) 6.0* (0.15) 6.0* (0.15) 5.8* (0.14) 6.1* (0.15) 6.7* (0.16) 6.9* (0.16) 7.0* (0.16) 7.3* (0.17) 7.5* (0.17) 8.4   (0.16)
Cocaine 0.9* (0.05) 1.0* (0.06) 0.8* (0.05) 1.0* (0.06) 1.0* (0.06) 0.8* (0.06) 0.7* (0.05) 0.7   (0.05) 0.6   (0.04) 0.5   (0.04) 0.6   (0.05) 0.6   (0.05) 0.6   (0.04)
Crack 0.2* (0.03) 0.3* (0.04) 0.2   (0.03) 0.3* (0.04) 0.3* (0.04) 0.2* (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02)
Heroin 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2   (0.02)
Hallucinogens 0.5   (0.03) 0.4   (0.03) 0.4   (0.02) 0.4   (0.03) 0.4   (0.03) 0.4   (0.03) 0.4   (0.03) 0.5   (0.04) 0.5   (0.03) 0.4   (0.02) 0.4   (0.03) 0.5   (0.05) 0.4   (0.03)
LSD 0.0* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.0* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1   (0.01) 0.1   (0.01) 0.1   (0.02)
PCP 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.00) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.00) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.00) 0.0   (0.00) 0.0   (0.01) **   (**)
Ecstasy 0.3   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.3* (0.03) 0.3   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.3   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02)
Inhalants 0.3   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.3   (0.03) 0.3   (0.02) 0.3* (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.3   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.3   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02)
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics1 2.7   (0.10) 2.7   (0.11) 2.5   (0.09) 2.7   (0.10) 2.9* (0.10) 2.8* (0.10) 2.5   (0.09) 2.8* (0.10) 2.7* (0.11) 2.4   (0.09) 2.6   (0.10) 2.5   (0.10) 2.5   (0.08)
Pain Relievers 1.9* (0.08) 2.0* (0.09) 1.8* (0.07) 1.9* (0.08) 2.1* (0.09) 2.1* (0.09) 1.9* (0.08) 2.1* (0.09) 2.0* (0.08) 1.7   (0.07) 1.9* (0.08) 1.7   (0.08) 1.6   (0.07)
Tranquilizers 0.8   (0.06) 0.8   (0.05) 0.7   (0.04) 0.7   (0.05) 0.7   (0.05) 0.7   (0.05) 0.7   (0.05) 0.8   (0.05) 0.9* (0.05) 0.7   (0.05) 0.8   (0.06) 0.6   (0.05) 0.7   (0.04)
Stimulants1 0.6   (0.04) 0.6   (0.04) 0.5   (0.04) 0.5* (0.03) 0.6   (0.04) 0.4* (0.04) 0.4* (0.03) 0.5   (0.04) 0.4* (0.03) 0.4* (0.03) 0.5* (0.04) 0.5   (0.04) 0.6   (0.04)
Methamphetamine1 0.3   (0.03) 0.3* (0.03) 0.3   (0.03) 0.3   (0.03) 0.3   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03)
Sedatives 0.2   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.01) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02)
Table A.2B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
LSD = lysergic acid diethylamide; PCP = phencyclidine.
**Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
ILLICIT DRUGS 11.6* (0.29) 11.2* (0.27) 10.6* (0.27) 9.9   (0.25) 9.8   (0.27) 9.6   (0.27) 9.3   (0.25) 10.1   (0.27) 10.1   (0.29) 10.1   (0.27) 9.5   (0.25) 8.8   (0.25) 9.4   (0.30)
Marijuana and Hashish 8.2* (0.24) 7.9   (0.24) 7.6   (0.23) 6.8   (0.22) 6.7* (0.21) 6.7   (0.22) 6.7   (0.22) 7.4   (0.24) 7.4   (0.25) 7.9   (0.24) 7.2   (0.22) 7.1   (0.23) 7.4   (0.27)
Cocaine 0.6* (0.07) 0.6* (0.06) 0.5* (0.06) 0.6* (0.06) 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.2   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04)
Crack 0.1   (0.03) 0.1* (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1* (0.03) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) **   (**) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02)
Heroin 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0* (0.01) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.1   (0.03) **   (**) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02)
Hallucinogens 1.0* (0.08) 1.0* (0.08) 0.8* (0.07) 0.8* (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 1.0* (0.08) 0.9* (0.08) 0.9* (0.09) 0.9* (0.09) 0.6   (0.07) 0.6   (0.07) 0.5   (0.08)
LSD 0.2   (0.05) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2   (0.04) 0.3   (0.06)
PCP 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01)
Ecstasy 0.5* (0.06) 0.4* (0.05) 0.3* (0.05) 0.3* (0.04) 0.3* (0.04) 0.3   (0.04) 0.4* (0.06) 0.5* (0.06) 0.5* (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.3* (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04)
Inhalants 1.2* (0.09) 1.3* (0.10) 1.2* (0.10) 1.2* (0.09) 1.3* (0.10) 1.2* (0.10) 1.1* (0.10) 1.0* (0.09) 1.1* (0.10) 0.9* (0.08) 0.8   (0.08) 0.5   (0.06) 0.6   (0.07)
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics1 4.0* (0.17) 4.0* (0.17) 3.6* (0.16) 3.3* (0.14) 3.3* (0.16) 3.3* (0.16) 2.9   (0.13) 3.1* (0.15) 3.0   (0.16) 2.8   (0.14) 2.8   (0.15) 2.2* (0.13) 2.6   (0.16)
Pain Relievers 3.2* (0.16) 3.2* (0.15) 3.0* (0.14) 2.7* (0.13) 2.7* (0.14) 2.7* (0.14) 2.3* (0.12) 2.7* (0.14) 2.5* (0.14) 2.3* (0.12) 2.2   (0.13) 1.7   (0.11) 1.9   (0.13)
Tranquilizers 0.8* (0.07) 0.9* (0.09) 0.6* (0.06) 0.6* (0.07) 0.5   (0.06) 0.7* (0.07) 0.6* (0.07) 0.6   (0.06) 0.5   (0.06) 0.6* (0.07) 0.6   (0.08) 0.4   (0.05) 0.4   (0.06)
Stimulants1 0.8   (0.09) 0.9   (0.08) 0.7   (0.08) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.5   (0.06) 0.5* (0.05) 0.5   (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.4* (0.05) 0.5   (0.06) 0.3* (0.05) 0.7   (0.09)
Methamphetamine1 0.3   (0.06) 0.3   (0.04) 0.2   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.05)
Sedatives 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04)
Table A.3B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Young Adults Aged 18 to 25
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
LSD = lysergic acid diethylamide; PCP = phencyclidine.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
ILLICIT DRUGS 20.2* (0.37) 20.3* (0.40) 19.4* (0.40) 20.1* (0.40) 19.8* (0.37) 19.8* (0.39) 19.7* (0.39) 21.4   (0.40) 21.6   (0.40) 21.4   (0.42) 21.3   (0.40) 21.5   (0.41) 22.0   (0.46)
Marijuana and Hashish 17.3* (0.36) 17.0* (0.37) 16.1* (0.37) 16.6* (0.37) 16.3* (0.35) 16.5* (0.37) 16.6* (0.37) 18.2* (0.38) 18.5   (0.38) 19.0   (0.39) 18.7   (0.39) 19.1   (0.39) 19.6   (0.45)
Cocaine 2.0* (0.12) 2.2* (0.13) 2.1* (0.13) 2.6* (0.15) 2.2* (0.13) 1.7* (0.12) 1.6   (0.12) 1.4   (0.11) 1.5   (0.11) 1.4   (0.12) 1.1   (0.09) 1.1   (0.10) 1.4   (0.11)
Crack 0.2* (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.3* (0.04) 0.3* (0.05) 0.2* (0.04) 0.2* (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2* (0.05) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03)
Heroin 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.3   (0.05) 0.2   (0.05)
Hallucinogens 1.9* (0.12) 1.7   (0.12) 1.5   (0.10) 1.5   (0.11) 1.7   (0.13) 1.5   (0.11) 1.7   (0.12) 1.8* (0.14) 2.0* (0.14) 1.6   (0.12) 1.7   (0.13) 1.8   (0.14) 1.4   (0.13)
LSD 0.1* (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.3   (0.04) 0.2* (0.04) 0.2* (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.04) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05)
PCP 0.0   (0.02) 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01)
Ecstasy 1.1* (0.10) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.8   (0.08) 1.0   (0.10) 0.7   (0.07) 0.9   (0.09) 1.1* (0.10) 1.2* (0.11) 0.9   (0.09) 1.0   (0.11) 0.9   (0.09) 0.8   (0.10)
Inhalants 0.5* (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.5* (0.06) 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.06) 0.3   (0.05) 0.4* (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.4   (0.10) 0.4   (0.06) 0.3   (0.05) 0.2   (0.05)
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics1 5.5* (0.19) 6.1* (0.22) 6.1* (0.21) 6.3* (0.22) 6.5* (0.23) 5.9* (0.21) 5.9* (0.22) 6.4* (0.22) 5.9* (0.21) 5.0   (0.20) 5.3* (0.21) 4.8   (0.20) 4.4   (0.20)
Pain Relievers 4.1* (0.16) 4.7* (0.19) 4.7* (0.19) 4.7* (0.19) 5.0* (0.20) 4.6* (0.18) 4.5* (0.19) 4.8* (0.19) 4.4* (0.19) 3.6* (0.17) 3.8* (0.19) 3.3   (0.17) 2.8   (0.16)
Tranquilizers 1.6* (0.11) 1.7* (0.11) 1.8* (0.12) 1.9* (0.12) 2.0* (0.13) 1.7* (0.12) 1.7* (0.12) 1.9* (0.12) 1.7* (0.11) 1.6* (0.12) 1.6* (0.12) 1.2   (0.10) 1.2   (0.10)
Stimulants1 1.3   (0.10) 1.3   (0.10) 1.5* (0.11) 1.4   (0.11) 1.4   (0.10) 1.1   (0.09) 1.1   (0.09) 1.3   (0.10) 1.2   (0.10) 1.0   (0.10) 1.2   (0.09) 1.3   (0.11) 1.2   (0.10)
Methamphetamine1 0.6* (0.07) 0.6* (0.07) 0.7* (0.07) 0.7* (0.08) 0.6* (0.06) 0.4   (0.06) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.05) 0.2   (0.05) 0.2   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.2   (0.04)
Sedatives 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.05) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.05) 0.2   (0.05) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04)
Table A.4B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Adults Aged 26 or Older
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
LSD = lysergic acid diethylamide; PCP = phencyclidine.
**Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
ILLICIT DRUGS 5.8* (0.20) 5.6* (0.20) 5.5* (0.20) 5.8* (0.21) 6.1* (0.20) 5.8* (0.21) 5.9* (0.20) 6.3* (0.21) 6.6* (0.23) 6.3* (0.21) 7.0* (0.23) 7.3* (0.23) 8.3   (0.20)
Marijuana and Hashish 4.0* (0.16) 4.0* (0.16) 4.1* (0.17) 4.1* (0.17) 4.2* (0.17) 3.9* (0.16) 4.2* (0.18) 4.6* (0.18) 4.8* (0.19) 4.8* (0.19) 5.3* (0.20) 5.6* (0.20) 6.6   (0.18)
Cocaine 0.7* (0.07) 0.8* (0.08) 0.7* (0.06) 0.8* (0.07) 0.8* (0.08) 0.7* (0.08) 0.7* (0.06) 0.6   (0.07) 0.5   (0.05) 0.4   (0.05) 0.6   (0.07) 0.5   (0.06) 0.5   (0.05)
Crack 0.3* (0.04) 0.3* (0.05) 0.2   (0.03) 0.3* (0.05) 0.3* (0.05) 0.3* (0.04) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.05) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03)
Heroin 0.1* (0.02) 0.0* (0.01) 0.1* (0.02) 0.0* (0.01) 0.1   (0.04) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2   (0.03)
Hallucinogens 0.2   (0.04) 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1* (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1* (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2* (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2   (0.04) 0.3   (0.06) 0.3   (0.04)
LSD 0.0* (0.01) 0.0* (0.00) 0.0* (0.01) 0.0* (0.00) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02) **   (**) 0.0* (0.01) **   (**) 0.0* (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02)
PCP 0.0   (0.01) **   (**) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) **   (**) 0.0   (0.01) **   (**) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) **   (**) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) **   (**)
Ecstasy 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03)
Inhalants 0.1   (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03)
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics1 2.0   (0.12) 2.0   (0.13) 1.8* (0.10) 1.9   (0.12) 2.2   (0.12) 2.2   (0.12) 1.9   (0.11) 2.1   (0.12) 2.2   (0.13) 1.9   (0.11) 2.1   (0.12) 2.1   (0.12) 2.1   (0.10)
Pain Relievers 1.3   (0.10) 1.3   (0.11) 1.2* (0.08) 1.3   (0.10) 1.5   (0.11) 1.6   (0.11) 1.4   (0.09) 1.6   (0.10) 1.5   (0.10) 1.4   (0.09) 1.5   (0.10) 1.5   (0.10) 1.4   (0.08)
Tranquilizers 0.6   (0.07) 0.6   (0.06) 0.5* (0.05) 0.6   (0.06) 0.5   (0.06) 0.6   (0.07) 0.6   (0.06) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.6   (0.06) 0.7   (0.08) 0.6   (0.06) 0.7   (0.05)
Stimulants1 0.4   (0.05) 0.4   (0.05) 0.4* (0.05) 0.3* (0.04) 0.4   (0.05) 0.3* (0.05) 0.2* (0.03) 0.4   (0.05) 0.3* (0.04) 0.3* (0.04) 0.3* (0.05) 0.4   (0.05) 0.5   (0.05)
Methamphetamine1 0.2   (0.04) 0.3   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.03) 0.3   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1* (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1* (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04)
Sedatives 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02)
Table A.5B – Heroin Use in the Past Year among Individuals Aged 12 or Older
Age 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
TOTAL 0.2* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2* (0.02) 0.2* (0.02) 0.2* (0.03) 0.2* (0.02) 0.2* (0.02) 0.2* (0.03) 0.2* (0.03) 0.2* (0.03) 0.3* (0.03) 0.3* (0.03) 0.3   (0.03)
12-17 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.05) 0.1   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03)
18-25 0.4* (0.05) 0.3* (0.04) 0.4* (0.05) 0.5* (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.5* (0.06) 0.5* (0.06) 0.6   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.8   (0.08) 0.7   (0.08) 0.8   (0.09)
26 or Older 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.03) 0.2* (0.04) 0.2* (0.04) 0.2* (0.03) 0.2* (0.04) 0.2* (0.03) 0.3   (0.03)
Table A.6B – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Individuals Aged 12 or Older
Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Respondents with missing data for number of cigarettes smoked per day were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS 30.4* (0.35) 29.8* (0.34) 29.2* (0.33) 29.4* (0.35) 29.6* (0.35) 28.7* (0.34) 28.4* (0.35) 27.7* (0.33) 27.5* (0.34) 26.5* (0.33) 26.7* (0.34) 25.5   (0.32) 25.2   (0.28)
Cigarettes 26.0* (0.34) 25.4* (0.33) 24.9* (0.32) 24.9* (0.32) 25.0* (0.33) 24.3* (0.33) 24.0* (0.32) 23.3* (0.32) 23.0* (0.31) 22.1* (0.32) 22.1* (0.32) 21.3   (0.30) 20.8   (0.26)
Daily Cigarette Use among Past Month Users 63.4* (0.66) 62.9* (0.67) 62.3* (0.63) 63.0* (0.62) 62.3* (0.59) 61.3* (0.65) 61.5* (0.70) 61.0* (0.68) 59.5   (0.71) 60.7* (0.71) 60.7* (0.71) 59.6   (0.73) 58.8   (0.59)
Smoked 1+ Packs of Cigarettes per
   Day among Daily Cigarette Users1
53.1* (0.91) 53.5* (0.82) 54.0* (0.87) 51.4* (0.86) 50.6* (0.85) 50.9* (0.88) 49.2* (0.94) 45.9* (0.98) 45.1* (0.94) 43.8* (0.90) 42.0   (0.94) 41.3   (1.00) 40.3   (0.83)
Smokeless Tobacco 3.3   (0.12) 3.3   (0.12) 3.0* (0.10) 3.2   (0.11) 3.3   (0.12) 3.3   (0.11) 3.5   (0.12) 3.4   (0.12) 3.5   (0.12) 3.2   (0.11) 3.5   (0.11) 3.4   (0.11) 3.3   (0.09)
Cigars 5.4* (0.15) 5.4* (0.14) 5.7* (0.13) 5.6* (0.15) 5.6* (0.14) 5.4* (0.14) 5.3* (0.15) 5.3* (0.14) 5.2* (0.14) 5.0* (0.14) 5.2* (0.15) 4.7   (0.14) 4.5   (0.11)
Pipe Tobacco 0.8   (0.07) 0.7* (0.06) 0.8   (0.06) 0.9   (0.06) 0.9   (0.07) 0.8   (0.07) 0.8   (0.06) 0.8   (0.06) 0.8   (0.06) 0.8   (0.06) 1.0   (0.07) 0.9   (0.06) 0.8   (0.05)
ALCOHOL 51.0* (0.42) 50.1* (0.39) 50.3* (0.40) 51.8   (0.40) 51.0* (0.39) 51.2* (0.41) 51.6* (0.39) 51.9   (0.38) 51.8   (0.39) 51.8   (0.39) 52.1   (0.39) 52.2   (0.41) 52.7   (0.33)
Binge Alcohol Use 22.9   (0.31) 22.6   (0.29) 22.8   (0.29) 22.7   (0.29) 23.0   (0.30) 23.3   (0.31) 23.4   (0.29) 23.7   (0.31) 23.1   (0.30) 22.6   (0.29) 23.0   (0.31) 22.9   (0.31) 23.0   (0.26)
Heavy Alcohol Use 6.7* (0.17) 6.8* (0.16) 6.9* (0.16) 6.6* (0.16) 6.9* (0.17) 6.9* (0.17) 7.0* (0.17) 6.8* (0.16) 6.7* (0.17) 6.2   (0.16) 6.5   (0.17) 6.3   (0.17) 6.2   (0.14)
Table A.7B – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17
Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Respondents with missing data for number of cigarettes smoked per day were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS 15.2* (0.33) 14.4* (0.32) 14.4* (0.32) 13.1* (0.31) 12.9* (0.29) 12.4* (0.30) 11.5* (0.28) 11.8* (0.29) 10.7* (0.28) 10.0* (0.27) 8.6* (0.25) 7.8* (0.24) 7.0   (0.25)
Cigarettes 13.0* (0.30) 12.2* (0.29) 11.9* (0.30) 10.8* (0.28) 10.4* (0.26) 9.9* (0.27) 9.2* (0.25) 9.0* (0.26) 8.4* (0.26) 7.8* (0.24) 6.6* (0.22) 5.6* (0.20) 4.9   (0.21)
Daily Cigarette Use among Past Month Users 31.8* (1.03) 29.7* (1.06) 27.6   (1.13) 25.8   (1.12) 26.5   (1.19) 26.4   (1.16) 22.3   (1.11) 23.0   (1.17) 22.5   (1.29) 22.7   (1.28) 22.0   (1.33) 19.4* (1.35) 24.1   (1.89)
Smoked 1+ Packs of Cigarettes per
   Day among Daily Cigarette Users1
21.8* (1.61) 22.0* (1.68) 19.4* (1.80) 20.1* (1.87) 17.9   (1.94) 18.7* (2.14) 18.4* (2.08) 17.9   (2.12) 16.7   (2.24) 14.8   (1.97) 10.8   (1.88) 11.9   (2.47) 11.9   (2.52)
Smokeless Tobacco 2.0   (0.11) 2.0   (0.12) 2.3   (0.13) 2.1   (0.12) 2.4* (0.12) 2.5* (0.14) 2.2   (0.12) 2.4* (0.13) 2.3* (0.12) 2.1   (0.12) 2.1   (0.12) 2.0   (0.12) 2.0   (0.14)
Cigars 4.5* (0.19) 4.5* (0.17) 4.8* (0.18) 4.2* (0.18) 4.1* (0.16) 4.3* (0.18) 3.8* (0.16) 4.0* (0.16) 3.2* (0.15) 3.4* (0.16) 2.6* (0.13) 2.3   (0.13) 2.1   (0.13)
Pipe Tobacco 0.6   (0.06) 0.6   (0.07) 0.7   (0.08) 0.6   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.08) 0.7   (0.07) 0.9   (0.09) 0.6   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.6   (0.07) 0.7   (0.08)
ALCOHOL 17.6* (0.32) 17.7* (0.33) 17.6* (0.32) 16.5* (0.32) 16.7* (0.32) 16.0* (0.34) 14.7* (0.32) 14.8* (0.32) 13.6* (0.33) 13.3* (0.31) 12.9* (0.31) 11.6   (0.29) 11.5   (0.33)
Binge Alcohol Use 10.7* (0.27) 10.6* (0.27) 11.1* (0.29) 9.9* (0.26) 10.3* (0.27) 9.7* (0.27) 8.9* (0.23) 8.9* (0.25) 7.9* (0.25) 7.4* (0.22) 7.2* (0.22) 6.2   (0.22) 6.1   (0.24)
Heavy Alcohol Use 2.5* (0.12) 2.6* (0.13) 2.7* (0.14) 2.4* (0.13) 2.4* (0.13) 2.3* (0.15) 2.0* (0.12) 2.1* (0.12) 1.7* (0.11) 1.5* (0.10) 1.3   (0.10) 1.2   (0.09) 1.0   (0.10)
Table A.8B – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Young Adults Aged 18 to 25
Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Respondents with missing data for number of cigarettes smoked per day were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS 45.3* (0.48) 44.8* (0.48) 44.6* (0.50) 44.3* (0.48) 44.0* (0.49) 41.9* (0.50) 41.4* (0.47) 41.6* (0.50) 40.9* (0.49) 39.5* (0.49) 38.1* (0.47) 37.0* (0.49) 35.0   (0.54)
Cigarettes 40.8* (0.48) 40.2* (0.47) 39.5* (0.49) 39.0* (0.47) 38.5* (0.48) 36.2* (0.49) 35.7* (0.45) 35.8* (0.48) 34.3* (0.47) 33.5* (0.47) 31.8* (0.47) 30.6* (0.46) 28.4   (0.53)
Daily Cigarette Use among Past Month Users 51.8* (0.72) 52.7* (0.69) 51.6* (0.72) 50.1* (0.73) 48.8* (0.77) 49.2* (0.76) 47.8* (0.81) 45.3   (0.80) 45.8* (0.80) 45.3   (0.86) 45.1   (0.88) 43.1   (0.83) 43.0   (0.91)
Smoked 1+ Packs of Cigarettes per
   Day among Daily Cigarette Users1
39.1* (0.93) 37.1* (0.88) 34.9* (0.86) 36.9* (0.93) 34.4* (0.93) 32.9* (0.92) 31.6* (0.91) 29.5* (0.92) 27.3* (0.94) 26.1* (0.97) 25.1   (0.90) 22.3   (0.90) 22.5   (1.16)
Smokeless Tobacco 4.8* (0.19) 4.7* (0.18) 4.9* (0.19) 5.1   (0.20) 5.2   (0.20) 5.2   (0.19) 5.3   (0.20) 6.1   (0.23) 6.4* (0.24) 5.4   (0.20) 5.5   (0.20) 5.8   (0.20) 5.6   (0.23)
Cigars 11.0* (0.27) 11.4* (0.26) 12.7* (0.30) 12.0* (0.28) 12.1* (0.29) 11.9* (0.28) 11.4* (0.29) 11.5* (0.29) 11.3* (0.30) 10.9* (0.29) 10.7* (0.27) 10.0   (0.29) 9.7   (0.30)
Pipe Tobacco 1.1* (0.08) 0.9* (0.08) 1.2* (0.09) 1.5* (0.11) 1.3* (0.10) 1.2* (0.10) 1.4* (0.10) 1.8   (0.12) 1.8   (0.12) 1.9   (0.14) 1.8   (0.11) 2.2   (0.14) 1.9   (0.13)
ALCOHOL 60.5   (0.53) 61.4* (0.50) 60.5   (0.51) 60.9   (0.51) 62.0* (0.51) 61.3* (0.52) 61.1* (0.49) 61.8* (0.52) 61.4* (0.50) 60.7   (0.54) 60.2   (0.49) 59.6   (0.53) 59.6   (0.56)
Binge Alcohol Use 40.9* (0.52) 41.6* (0.49) 41.2* (0.52) 41.9* (0.53) 42.3* (0.52) 41.9* (0.52) 41.2* (0.51) 41.8* (0.54) 40.5* (0.49) 39.8* (0.55) 39.5* (0.51) 37.9   (0.52) 37.7   (0.57)
Heavy Alcohol Use 14.9* (0.36) 15.1* (0.36) 15.1* (0.37) 15.3* (0.37) 15.6* (0.38) 14.8* (0.35) 14.6* (0.38) 13.8* (0.38) 13.5* (0.37) 12.1* (0.36) 12.7* (0.35) 11.3   (0.31) 10.8   (0.36)
Table A.9B – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Adults Aged 26 or Older
Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Respondents with missing data for number of cigarettes smoked per day were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
TOBACCO PRODUCT 29.9* (0.44) 29.3* (0.41) 28.5* (0.41) 29.0* (0.43) 29.4* (0.43) 28.6* (0.42) 28.4* (0.44) 27.3* (0.40) 27.2* (0.42) 26.3   (0.41) 27.0* (0.42) 25.7   (0.40) 25.8   (0.33)
Cigarettes 25.2* (0.42) 24.7* (0.41) 24.1* (0.39) 24.3* (0.39) 24.7* (0.40) 24.1* (0.40) 23.8* (0.41) 23.0* (0.39) 22.8* (0.38) 21.9   (0.39) 22.4   (0.40) 21.6   (0.38) 21.5   (0.32)
Daily Cigarette Use among Past Month Users 68.8* (0.87) 68.0* (0.86) 67.8* (0.80) 68.9* (0.79) 67.9* (0.74) 66.3* (0.83) 67.0* (0.86) 67.2* (0.84) 64.8   (0.86) 66.5* (0.88) 66.0* (0.85) 64.9   (0.88) 63.3   (0.72)
Smoked 1+ Packs of Cigarettes per
   Day among Daily Cigarette Users1
57.1* (1.12) 58.0* (0.99) 59.2* (1.05) 55.1* (1.02) 54.5* (1.00) 55.1* (1.06) 53.0* (1.10) 49.4* (1.16) 48.8* (1.09) 47.4* (1.05) 45.2   (1.09) 44.7   (1.15) 43.3   (0.93)
Smokeless Tobacco 3.2   (0.15) 3.2   (0.15) 2.7   (0.13) 3.0   (0.14) 3.1   (0.14) 3.0   (0.14) 3.3   (0.16) 3.1   (0.14) 3.1   (0.15) 3.0   (0.13) 3.3   (0.14) 3.1   (0.14) 3.0   (0.11)
Cigars 4.6* (0.18) 4.5* (0.18) 4.6* (0.17) 4.7* (0.18) 4.6* (0.18) 4.4* (0.16) 4.4* (0.18) 4.4* (0.18) 4.4* (0.17) 4.2   (0.18) 4.5* (0.19) 4.1   (0.17) 3.9   (0.12)
Pipe Tobacco 0.8   (0.09) 0.6   (0.07) 0.7   (0.08) 0.8   (0.08) 0.9* (0.09) 0.8   (0.09) 0.6   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.9   (0.09) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.06)
ALCOHOL 53.9* (0.53) 52.5* (0.49) 53.0* (0.51) 55.1* (0.51) 53.7* (0.49) 54.1* (0.52) 54.7* (0.50) 54.9* (0.48) 54.9* (0.48) 55.1* (0.49) 55.6   (0.48) 55.9   (0.50) 56.5   (0.39)
Binge Alcohol Use 21.4* (0.39) 21.0* (0.35) 21.1* (0.36) 21.0* (0.35) 21.4* (0.37) 22.0   (0.38) 22.2   (0.37) 22.4   (0.39) 21.9   (0.37) 21.6* (0.35) 22.1   (0.37) 22.4   (0.38) 22.5   (0.30)
Heavy Alcohol Use 5.9   (0.20) 5.9   (0.19) 6.1   (0.19) 5.6   (0.19) 6.0   (0.21) 6.1   (0.21) 6.3   (0.20) 6.2   (0.19) 6.1   (0.20) 5.7   (0.20) 6.1   (0.21) 6.1   (0.21) 6.0   (0.16)
Table A.10B – Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Individuals Aged 12 to 20
Alcohol Use 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
PAST MONTH 28.8* (0.39) 29.0* (0.41) 28.7* (0.39) 28.2* (0.41) 28.4* (0.42) 28.0* (0.46) 26.5* (0.40) 27.2* (0.43) 26.2* (0.41) 25.1* (0.47) 24.3* (0.48) 22.7   (0.40) 22.8   (0.46)
Binge Alcohol Use 19.3* (0.34) 19.2* (0.36) 19.6* (0.36) 18.8* (0.37) 19.0* (0.36) 18.7* (0.39) 17.5* (0.34) 18.2* (0.38) 16.9* (0.35) 15.8* (0.39) 15.3* (0.40) 14.2   (0.34) 13.8   (0.37)
Heavy Alcohol Use 6.2* (0.19) 6.1* (0.20) 6.3* (0.24) 6.0* (0.21) 6.2* (0.23) 6.0* (0.22) 5.6* (0.21) 5.4* (0.22) 5.1* (0.21) 4.4* (0.23) 4.3* (0.21) 3.7   (0.17) 3.4   (0.19)
Table A.11B – Substance Dependence or Abuse for Specific Substances in the Past Year among Individuals Aged 12 or Older
Past Year Dependence
or Abuse
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
ILLICIT DRUGS 3.0* (0.10) 2.9   (0.09) 3.0* (0.09) 2.8   (0.08) 2.9   (0.09) 2.8   (0.09) 2.8   (0.08) 2.8   (0.09) 2.8   (0.10) 2.5   (0.08) 2.8   (0.10) 2.6   (0.09) 2.7   (0.08)
Marijuana and Hashish 1.8* (0.07) 1.8* (0.06) 1.9* (0.07) 1.7   (0.06) 1.7   (0.06) 1.6   (0.06) 1.7   (0.06) 1.7   (0.06) 1.8* (0.07) 1.6   (0.06) 1.7   (0.07) 1.6   (0.07) 1.6   (0.06)
Cocaine 0.6* (0.05) 0.6* (0.05) 0.7* (0.05) 0.6* (0.04) 0.7* (0.05) 0.6* (0.05) 0.6* (0.04) 0.4   (0.04) 0.4   (0.04) 0.3   (0.03) 0.4   (0.05) 0.3   (0.03) 0.3   (0.03)
Heroin 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02)
Hallucinogens 0.2* (0.02) 0.1* (0.01) 0.2* (0.02) 0.2* (0.01) 0.2* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2* (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.01)
Inhalants 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1* (0.01) 0.1   (0.01) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01)
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics1 0.9   (0.06) 0.8   (0.05) 0.9   (0.05) 0.8   (0.04) 0.8   (0.05) 0.9   (0.05) 0.9   (0.04) 0.9   (0.05) 0.9   (0.06) 0.8   (0.05) 1.0   (0.06) 0.9   (0.05) 0.9   (0.05)
Pain Relievers 0.6   (0.05) 0.6* (0.04) 0.6* (0.04) 0.6   (0.04) 0.7   (0.04) 0.7   (0.05) 0.7   (0.04) 0.7   (0.05) 0.8   (0.05) 0.7   (0.04) 0.8   (0.06) 0.7   (0.05) 0.7   (0.04)
Tranquilizers 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02)
Stimulants1 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.02)
Sedatives 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.01) 0.1   (0.01) 0.1   (0.01) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.1   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.1   (0.01)
ALCOHOL 7.7* (0.18) 7.5* (0.16) 7.8* (0.17) 7.7* (0.16) 7.7* (0.17) 7.5* (0.17) 7.4* (0.16) 7.5* (0.17) 7.1* (0.16) 6.5   (0.15) 6.8   (0.16) 6.6   (0.16) 6.4   (0.14)
BOTH ILLICIT DRUGS AND ALCOHOL 1.4* (0.06) 1.3* (0.06) 1.4* (0.06) 1.3* (0.06) 1.3* (0.06) 1.3* (0.06) 1.2* (0.05) 1.3* (0.06) 1.1* (0.05) 1.0   (0.05) 1.1   (0.06) 1.0   (0.05) 1.0   (0.05)
ILLICIT DRUGS OR ALCOHOL 9.4* (0.19) 9.1* (0.17) 9.4* (0.18) 9.1* (0.18) 9.2* (0.18) 9.0* (0.18) 9.0* (0.17) 9.0* (0.18) 8.8* (0.18) 8.0   (0.16) 8.5   (0.18) 8.2   (0.18) 8.1   (0.15)
Table A.12B – Substance Dependence or Abuse for Specific Substances in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17
Past Year Dependence
or Abuse
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
ILLICIT DRUGS 5.6* (0.20) 5.1* (0.18) 5.3* (0.18) 4.7* (0.19) 4.6* (0.18) 4.3* (0.16) 4.6* (0.18) 4.3* (0.18) 4.7* (0.19) 4.6* (0.19) 4.0* (0.18) 3.5   (0.17) 3.5   (0.18)
Marijuana and Hashish 4.3* (0.18) 3.8* (0.15) 3.9* (0.16) 3.6* (0.16) 3.4* (0.16) 3.1* (0.14) 3.4* (0.16) 3.4* (0.16) 3.6* (0.16) 3.5* (0.16) 3.2* (0.16) 2.9   (0.15) 2.7   (0.16)
Cocaine 0.4* (0.07) 0.3* (0.05) 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.05) 0.3* (0.05) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03)
Heroin 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.1   (0.03) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.1   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03)
Hallucinogens 0.6* (0.08) 0.4* (0.05) 0.5* (0.06) 0.5* (0.07) 0.5* (0.06) 0.5* (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.6* (0.07) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04)
Inhalants 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.05) 0.5* (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.4* (0.06) 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.06) 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.05) 0.3* (0.05) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04)
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics1 1.3* (0.10) 1.4* (0.10) 1.5* (0.10) 1.3* (0.11) 1.4* (0.10) 1.3* (0.09) 1.4* (0.10) 1.1   (0.08) 1.2   (0.09) 1.2   (0.10) 0.8   (0.08) 0.7* (0.07) 1.0   (0.09)
Pain Relievers 1.0* (0.09) 1.1* (0.09) 1.2* (0.10) 1.1* (0.11) 1.0* (0.09) 0.9* (0.08) 1.0* (0.08) 0.9* (0.08) 1.0* (0.08) 1.0* (0.09) 0.6   (0.07) 0.5   (0.06) 0.7   (0.08)
Tranquilizers 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.06) 0.3   (0.04) 0.3   (0.05) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.3   (0.05) 0.2   (0.03) 0.3   (0.05) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.05)
Stimulants1 0.4* (0.05) 0.4* (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.4   (0.06) 0.3   (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.04) 0.3   (0.05) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.05)
Sedatives 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.1   (0.04)
ALCOHOL 5.9* (0.20) 5.9* (0.20) 6.0* (0.20) 5.5* (0.20) 5.4* (0.19) 5.4* (0.19) 4.9* (0.20) 4.6* (0.20) 4.6* (0.20) 3.8* (0.18) 3.4* (0.16) 2.8   (0.14) 2.7   (0.17)
BOTH ILLICIT DRUGS AND ALCOHOL 2.5* (0.14) 2.2* (0.12) 2.5* (0.13) 2.2* (0.13) 1.9* (0.13) 2.1* (0.12) 1.9* (0.12) 1.9* (0.12) 2.0* (0.13) 1.5* (0.12) 1.3   (0.10) 1.1   (0.09) 1.2   (0.12)
ILLICIT DRUGS OR ALCOHOL 8.9* (0.24) 8.9* (0.25) 8.8* (0.24) 8.0* (0.24) 8.1* (0.23) 7.7* (0.23) 7.7* (0.24) 7.1* (0.23) 7.3* (0.25) 6.9* (0.23) 6.1* (0.22) 5.2   (0.20) 5.0   (0.22)
Table A.13B – Substance Dependence or Abuse for Specific Substances in the Past Year among Young Adults Aged 18 to 25
Past Year Dependence
or Abuse
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
ILLICIT DRUGS 8.2* (0.24) 7.8* (0.23) 8.3* (0.26) 8.4* (0.26) 7.9* (0.25) 7.9* (0.24) 7.9* (0.25) 7.7* (0.25) 7.9* (0.25) 7.5* (0.24) 7.8* (0.27) 7.4   (0.25) 6.6   (0.26)
Marijuana and Hashish 6.0* (0.20) 5.9* (0.20) 6.0* (0.23) 5.9* (0.22) 5.7* (0.21) 5.6* (0.21) 5.6* (0.22) 5.6* (0.22) 5.7* (0.22) 5.7* (0.21) 5.5   (0.23) 5.4   (0.22) 4.9   (0.22)
Cocaine 1.2* (0.09) 1.2* (0.09) 1.4* (0.10) 1.5* (0.10) 1.3* (0.10) 1.4* (0.10) 1.2* (0.10) 0.9* (0.08) 0.7   (0.08) 0.6   (0.07) 0.6   (0.08) 0.7   (0.08) 0.5   (0.07)
Heroin 0.2* (0.04) 0.1* (0.03) 0.2* (0.04) 0.3* (0.04) 0.2* (0.04) 0.2* (0.04) 0.3* (0.05) 0.3* (0.05) 0.3   (0.05) 0.4   (0.06) 0.5   (0.06) 0.5   (0.07) 0.5   (0.07)
Hallucinogens 0.8* (0.08) 0.5   (0.05) 0.7* (0.07) 0.6* (0.07) 0.6* (0.07) 0.5* (0.06) 0.6* (0.08) 0.6* (0.07) 0.6* (0.07) 0.5   (0.06) 0.4   (0.05) 0.4   (0.07) 0.3   (0.06)
Inhalants 0.1   (0.02) 0.1* (0.03) 0.2* (0.03) 0.2* (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2* (0.04) 0.1* (0.04) 0.1* (0.03) 0.0   (0.01) 0.1* (0.04) 0.0   (0.02)
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics1 1.9   (0.11) 1.6   (0.11) 2.0* (0.12) 2.2* (0.13) 2.0* (0.12) 2.1* (0.13) 2.2* (0.13) 2.2* (0.13) 2.2* (0.13) 2.0* (0.13) 2.4* (0.16) 1.9   (0.13) 1.6   (0.13)
Pain Relievers 1.4   (0.10) 1.1   (0.09) 1.4   (0.09) 1.7* (0.11) 1.5   (0.10) 1.7* (0.12) 1.8* (0.12) 1.7* (0.11) 1.8* (0.12) 1.7* (0.11) 1.9* (0.14) 1.4   (0.11) 1.2   (0.12)
Tranquilizers 0.5* (0.05) 0.5* (0.06) 0.5* (0.05) 0.5* (0.07) 0.5* (0.06) 0.4   (0.06) 0.4   (0.05) 0.5* (0.06) 0.4   (0.06) 0.4   (0.06) 0.5* (0.08) 0.4   (0.06) 0.3   (0.05)
Stimulants1 0.4   (0.05) 0.4   (0.06) 0.5   (0.06) 0.5   (0.06) 0.4   (0.06) 0.4   (0.05) 0.4   (0.05) 0.4   (0.06) 0.4   (0.06) 0.3   (0.04) 0.5   (0.07) 0.5   (0.07) 0.4   (0.05)
Sedatives 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02)
ALCOHOL 17.7* (0.36) 17.2* (0.34) 17.4* (0.37) 17.5* (0.37) 17.6* (0.37) 16.9* (0.35) 17.4* (0.35) 16.1* (0.35) 15.7* (0.37) 14.4* (0.34) 14.3* (0.33) 13.0   (0.35) 12.3   (0.34)
BOTH ILLICIT DRUGS AND ALCOHOL 4.2* (0.17) 4.0* (0.17) 4.5* (0.19) 4.2* (0.19) 4.2* (0.17) 4.1* (0.18) 4.3* (0.19) 3.8* (0.18) 3.6* (0.17) 3.3* (0.16) 3.3* (0.17) 3.1* (0.17) 2.6   (0.16)
ILLICIT DRUGS OR ALCOHOL 21.7* (0.39) 21.0* (0.37) 21.2* (0.40) 21.8* (0.41) 21.4* (0.40) 20.7* (0.39) 21.0* (0.38) 20.1* (0.38) 20.0* (0.41) 18.6* (0.37) 18.9* (0.39) 17.3   (0.40) 16.3   (0.38)
Table A.14B – Substance Dependence or Abuse for Specific Substances in the Past Year among Adults Aged 26 or Older
Past Year Dependence
or Abuse
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014.
ILLICIT DRUGS 1.8   (0.11) 1.7   (0.10) 1.8   (0.10) 1.6* (0.09) 1.7   (0.11) 1.7   (0.11) 1.7   (0.09) 1.8   (0.10) 1.7   (0.11) 1.4* (0.09) 1.8   (0.12) 1.7   (0.11) 1.9   (0.09)
Marijuana and Hashish 0.8   (0.07) 0.7   (0.06) 0.8   (0.07) 0.7* (0.06) 0.8   (0.07) 0.7* (0.07) 0.8   (0.06) 0.8   (0.07) 0.9   (0.08) 0.7* (0.06) 0.8   (0.07) 0.8   (0.08) 0.9   (0.06)
Cocaine 0.6* (0.06) 0.6* (0.06) 0.6* (0.06) 0.5* (0.05) 0.6* (0.07) 0.6* (0.06) 0.5* (0.05) 0.4   (0.05) 0.4   (0.05) 0.3   (0.04) 0.4   (0.06) 0.3   (0.04) 0.3   (0.04)
Heroin 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03) 0.2   (0.03)
Hallucinogens 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01)
Inhalants 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.00) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.03) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01)
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics1 0.6   (0.07) 0.6* (0.06) 0.6* (0.06) 0.5* (0.05) 0.5* (0.06) 0.6* (0.06) 0.6* (0.05) 0.7   (0.06) 0.7   (0.07) 0.6* (0.06) 0.8   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.8   (0.05)
Pain Relievers 0.5* (0.07) 0.4* (0.05) 0.3* (0.04) 0.4* (0.05) 0.5* (0.05) 0.5* (0.06) 0.5* (0.05) 0.6   (0.06) 0.6   (0.07) 0.5* (0.05) 0.6   (0.07) 0.6   (0.06) 0.6   (0.05)
Tranquilizers 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.02)
Stimulants1 0.1   (0.04) 0.1* (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.2   (0.04) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02)
Sedatives 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.1   (0.02) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.02)
ALCOHOL 6.2   (0.22) 6.0   (0.20) 6.3   (0.21) 6.2   (0.19) 6.2   (0.20) 6.2   (0.20) 6.0   (0.19) 6.3   (0.20) 5.9   (0.20) 5.4   (0.18) 5.9   (0.19) 6.0   (0.19) 5.9   (0.16)
BOTH ILLICIT DRUGS AND ALCOHOL 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.06) 0.7   (0.06) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.7   (0.07) 0.6   (0.05) 0.8   (0.07) 0.6   (0.06) 0.5   (0.05) 0.7   (0.07) 0.6   (0.06) 0.7   (0.06)
ILLICIT DRUGS OR ALCOHOL 7.3   (0.23) 7.0   (0.21) 7.3   (0.22) 7.1   (0.20) 7.2   (0.22) 7.2   (0.22) 7.1   (0.20) 7.3   (0.22) 7.0   (0.22) 6.3* (0.19) 7.0   (0.21) 7.0   (0.21) 7.1   (0.17)
Table A.15B – Level of Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group
Mental Illness/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
AMI = any mental illness; SMI = serious mental illness.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2014.
AMI 17.7   (0.30) 18.1   (0.31) 18.1   (0.30) 17.8   (0.30) 18.6   (0.31) 18.5   (0.31) 18.1   (0.23)
18-25 18.5* (0.34) 18.0* (0.32) 18.1* (0.35) 18.5* (0.37) 19.6   (0.35) 19.4   (0.36) 20.1   (0.39)
26-49 20.7   (0.42) 21.6* (0.43) 20.9   (0.42) 20.3   (0.43) 21.2   (0.44) 21.5* (0.45) 20.4   (0.34)
50 or Older 14.1   (0.59) 14.5   (0.54) 15.1   (0.55) 15.0   (0.53) 15.8   (0.55) 15.3   (0.52) 15.4   (0.40)
SMI 3.7* (0.14) 3.7* (0.14) 4.1   (0.16) 3.9   (0.14) 4.1   (0.14) 4.2   (0.16) 4.1   (0.12)
18-25 3.8* (0.16) 3.3* (0.15) 3.9* (0.17) 3.8* (0.17) 4.1* (0.17) 4.2* (0.18) 4.8   (0.21)
26-49 4.8   (0.21) 4.9   (0.22) 5.2   (0.23) 5.0   (0.22) 5.2   (0.23) 5.3   (0.25) 4.9   (0.18)
50 or Older 2.5   (0.24) 2.5   (0.23) 3.0   (0.27) 2.8   (0.22) 3.0   (0.25) 3.2   (0.26) 3.1   (0.19)
AMI EXCLUDING SMI 14.0   (0.27) 14.4   (0.27) 14.0   (0.27) 13.9   (0.26) 14.5   (0.28) 14.2   (0.27) 14.0   (0.21)
18-25 14.8   (0.31) 14.6   (0.29) 14.1* (0.31) 14.8   (0.33) 15.5   (0.33) 15.2   (0.33) 15.3   (0.35)
26-49 16.0   (0.38) 16.7* (0.38) 15.7   (0.37) 15.3   (0.37) 16.0   (0.38) 16.2   (0.40) 15.5   (0.29)
50 or Older 11.6   (0.54) 12.0   (0.50) 12.2   (0.49) 12.3   (0.48) 12.8   (0.50) 12.1   (0.48) 12.3   (0.37)
Table A.16B – Major Depressive Episode and Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group
MDE/Age Group 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
MDE = major depressive episode.
-- Not available.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Impairment is based on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) role domains, which measure the impact of a disorder on an adult's life. Impairment is defined as the highest severity level of role impairment across four domains: (1) home management, (2) work, (3) close relationships with others, and (4) social life. Ratings greater than or equal to 7 on a 0 to 10 scale were considered Severe Impairment. Respondents with unknown impairment data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005-2014.
MDE 6.6   (0.19) 6.5   (0.18) 6.7   (0.18) 6.5   (0.18) 6.6   (0.18) 6.8   (0.19) 6.6   (0.18) 6.9   (0.19) 6.7   (0.19) 6.6   (0.15)
18-25 8.8   (0.26) 8.1* (0.23) 8.0* (0.24) 8.4* (0.25) 8.0* (0.24) 8.3* (0.25) 8.3* (0.25) 8.9   (0.27) 8.7   (0.26) 9.3   (0.29)
26-49 7.6   (0.27) 7.7   (0.29) 7.6   (0.26) 7.4   (0.27) 7.6   (0.26) 7.5   (0.27) 7.7   (0.28) 7.6   (0.27) 7.6   (0.29) 7.2   (0.21)
50 or Older 4.5   (0.32) 4.5   (0.29) 5.2   (0.34) 4.8   (0.35) 4.9   (0.32) 5.6   (0.35) 4.8   (0.30) 5.5   (0.34) 5.1   (0.31) 5.2   (0.24)
MDE WITH SEVERE IMPAIRMENT1 --   (--) --   (--) --   (--) --   (--) 4.0   (0.14) 4.2   (0.15) 4.2   (0.15) 4.5   (0.15) 4.3   (0.15) 4.3   (0.12)
18-25 --   (--) --   (--) --   (--) --   (--) 5.2* (0.20) 5.2* (0.21) 5.2* (0.20) 5.8   (0.21) 5.7   (0.22) 6.0   (0.24)
26-49 --   (--) --   (--) --   (--) --   (--) 4.8   (0.21) 4.7   (0.21) 5.2   (0.23) 5.1   (0.23) 4.9   (0.24) 4.6   (0.17)
50 or Older --   (--) --   (--) --   (--) --   (--) 2.6* (0.23) 3.5   (0.28) 2.9   (0.24) 3.4   (0.28) 3.2   (0.25) 3.5   (0.21)
Table A.17B – Major Depressive Episode and Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Age Group
MDE/Age Group 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
MDE = major depressive episode.
-- Not available.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Impairment is based on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) role domains, which measure the impact of a disorder on a youth's life. Impairment is defined as the highest severity level of role impairment across four domains: (1) chores at home, (2) school or work, (3) close relationships with family, and (4) social life. Ratings greater than or equal to 7 on a 0 to 10 scale were considered Severe Impairment. Respondents with unknown impairment data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004-2014.
MDE 9.0* (0.25) 8.8* (0.25) 7.9* (0.24) 8.2* (0.25) 8.3* (0.25) 8.1* (0.24) 8.0* (0.24) 8.2* (0.24) 9.1* (0.26) 10.7   (0.30) 11.4   (0.32)
12-13 5.4* (0.33) 5.2* (0.33) 4.9* (0.34) 4.3* (0.32) 4.9* (0.35) 4.6* (0.34) 4.3* (0.32) 4.1* (0.30) 5.4* (0.36) 6.1   (0.40) 7.2   (0.46)
14-15 9.2* (0.42) 9.5* (0.44) 7.9* (0.38) 8.4* (0.41) 8.5* (0.42) 8.8* (0.44) 9.0* (0.42) 8.6* (0.44) 10.2* (0.45) 12.4   (0.52) 11.9   (0.55)
16-17 12.3* (0.54) 11.5* (0.47) 10.7* (0.48) 11.5* (0.49) 11.2* (0.48) 10.4* (0.45) 10.6* (0.46) 11.7* (0.48) 11.4* (0.48) 13.2   (0.54) 14.6   (0.56)
MDE WITH SEVERE IMPAIRMENT1 --   (--) --   (--) 5.5* (0.20) 5.5* (0.20) 6.0* (0.22) 5.8* (0.20) 5.7* (0.20) 5.7* (0.19) 6.3* (0.22) 7.7   (0.26) 8.2   (0.27)
12-13 --   (--) --   (--) 2.7* (0.22) 2.5* (0.23) 3.2* (0.28) 3.2* (0.28) 3.0* (0.27) 2.8* (0.24) 3.7* (0.31) 4.1   (0.33) 4.9   (0.38)
14-15 --   (--) --   (--) 6.0* (0.35) 6.0* (0.35) 6.1* (0.35) 6.2* (0.36) 6.1* (0.34) 5.9* (0.36) 7.1* (0.38) 9.1   (0.47) 8.5   (0.48)
16-17 --   (--) --   (--) 7.5* (0.42) 7.9* (0.39) 8.4* (0.43) 7.7* (0.40) 7.7* (0.38) 8.1* (0.39) 8.0* (0.40) 9.7   (0.46) 10.9   (0.49)
Table A.18B – Level of Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Past Year Substance Use Disorder Status and Age Group
Level of Mental Illness/
SUD Status/Age Group
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
AMI = any mental illness; SMI = serious mental illness; SUD = substance use disorder.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2014.
AMI              
SUD 35.7* (1.05) 37.4   (1.05) 38.5   (1.09) 36.1* (1.09) 40.7   (1.12) 37.8   (1.11) 39.1   (1.00)
18-25 32.6* (0.98) 31.4* (0.96) 32.1* (0.90) 32.4* (1.02) 35.8   (1.01) 34.9   (1.02) 36.0   (1.20)
26-49 40.3   (1.58) 43.1   (1.55) 44.8   (1.59) 39.4   (1.68) 45.7   (1.63) 43.8   (1.57) 42.7   (1.29)
50 or Older 27.2   (3.54) 32.6   (3.44) 33.2   (3.66) 34.0   (3.52) 35.6   (3.52) 27.5   (3.10) 35.6   (2.72)
No SUD 15.9   (0.32) 16.2   (0.31) 16.1   (0.31) 16.2   (0.31) 16.5   (0.31) 16.7   (0.32) 16.2   (0.23)
18-25 14.8* (0.34) 14.6* (0.34) 14.6* (0.35) 15.4* (0.37) 15.8* (0.36) 16.2   (0.37) 17.0   (0.39)
26-49 18.4   (0.42) 19.1* (0.44) 18.3   (0.41) 18.4   (0.43) 18.3   (0.43) 19.0   (0.46) 17.9   (0.34)
50 or Older 13.7   (0.59) 13.8   (0.54) 14.4   (0.55) 14.4   (0.54) 15.0   (0.55) 14.8   (0.53) 14.5   (0.39)
SMI              
SUD 9.5* (0.56) 9.9   (0.62) 11.7   (0.72) 11.2   (0.71) 12.6   (0.76) 11.4   (0.69) 11.3   (0.59)
18-25 8.4* (0.53) 6.6* (0.47) 8.4* (0.59) 8.3* (0.56) 8.7   (0.54) 9.7   (0.67) 10.4   (0.73)
26-49 11.4   (0.90) 11.9   (0.97) 15.1   (1.17) 12.5   (1.12) 14.5   (1.15) 13.2   (1.05) 12.3   (0.84)
50 or Older 5.7* (1.54) 10.1   (1.99) 8.5   (2.00) 13.4   (2.42) 14.2   (2.53) 9.6   (1.97) 10.5   (1.59)
No SUD 3.1   (0.14) 3.1   (0.14) 3.3   (0.15) 3.2   (0.13) 3.2   (0.14) 3.5   (0.16) 3.4   (0.12)
18-25 2.5* (0.15) 2.5* (0.15) 2.8* (0.16) 2.7* (0.16) 3.1* (0.17) 3.1* (0.15) 3.7   (0.20)
26-49 4.0   (0.21) 4.1   (0.22) 4.1   (0.21) 4.3   (0.20) 4.1   (0.22) 4.4   (0.24) 4.1   (0.17)
50 or Older 2.4   (0.25) 2.2   (0.23) 2.8   (0.27) 2.4   (0.22) 2.6   (0.23) 2.9   (0.27) 2.8   (0.19)
AMI EXCLUDING SMI              
SUD 26.2   (0.98) 27.6   (0.99) 26.8   (0.95) 24.8* (0.95) 28.1   (0.96) 26.4   (0.99) 27.8   (0.93)
18-25 24.2   (0.89) 24.8   (0.88) 23.7   (0.78) 24.0   (0.94) 27.1   (0.96) 25.3   (0.96) 25.6   (1.10)
26-49 28.9   (1.47) 31.3   (1.46) 29.7   (1.47) 26.9   (1.50) 31.2   (1.48) 30.7   (1.51) 30.4   (1.25)
50 or Older 21.5   (3.33) 22.5   (3.13) 24.7   (3.38) 20.7   (2.82) 21.4   (2.76) 17.9* (2.55) 25.1   (2.56)
No SUD 12.8   (0.29) 13.1   (0.28) 12.7   (0.28) 13.0   (0.27) 13.2   (0.29) 13.1   (0.29) 12.8   (0.21)
18-25 12.3* (0.32) 12.1* (0.31) 11.8* (0.33) 12.6   (0.34) 12.8   (0.34) 13.1   (0.34) 13.3   (0.34)
26-49 14.4   (0.38) 15.0* (0.39) 14.2   (0.37) 14.1   (0.38) 14.3   (0.38) 14.6   (0.41) 13.8   (0.29)
50 or Older 11.3   (0.55) 11.5   (0.50) 11.7   (0.49) 12.0   (0.49) 12.4   (0.51) 11.8   (0.48) 11.7   (0.37)
Table A.19B – Substance Use Disorder in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Past Year Level of Mental Illness and Age Group
Level of Mental Illness/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
AMI = any mental illness; SMI = serious mental illness.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2014.
AMI 18.4   (0.64) 19.0   (0.62) 19.0   (0.64) 16.5* (0.57) 19.2   (0.65) 17.5   (0.61) 18.2   (0.51)
18-25 36.9* (1.04) 35.1* (1.03) 35.5* (0.97) 32.4* (1.00) 34.5* (1.00) 31.1   (0.99) 29.3   (0.99)
26-49 20.5   (0.91) 20.8   (0.84) 21.7   (0.93) 18.2* (0.88) 22.6   (0.98) 21.0   (0.95) 20.8   (0.75)
50 or Older 6.3* (0.91) 9.1   (1.10) 8.2   (1.04) 7.4* (0.90) 8.6   (0.95) 7.2* (0.88) 10.3   (0.89)
SMI 23.4   (1.42) 24.6   (1.48) 25.6   (1.47) 23.6   (1.40) 27.3* (1.54) 23.1   (1.40) 23.3   (1.16)
18-25 46.8* (2.27) 39.7   (2.27) 42.7* (2.29) 40.8   (2.20) 39.9   (2.10) 39.6   (2.12) 35.3   (2.03)
26-49 25.2   (1.88) 25.3   (1.88) 29.4   (2.03) 23.3   (1.89) 29.4   (2.08) 25.6   (1.92) 24.9   (1.58)
50 or Older 7.3* (1.97) 16.1   (3.16) 10.8   (2.55) 16.0   (2.91) 18.0   (3.09) 12.0   (2.46) 15.1   (2.21)
AMI EXCLUDING SMI 17.0   (0.71) 17.6   (0.68) 17.1   (0.69) 14.5* (0.60) 17.0   (0.67) 15.8   (0.66) 16.7   (0.57)
18-25 34.4* (1.15) 34.1* (1.13) 33.5* (1.06) 30.3   (1.12) 33.1* (1.13) 28.7   (1.12) 27.3   (1.10)
26-49 19.1   (1.04) 19.5   (0.98) 19.1   (1.02) 16.5* (0.97) 20.4   (1.09) 19.4   (1.07) 19.5   (0.84)
50 or Older 6.1* (1.02) 7.6   (1.13) 7.6   (1.14) 5.5* (0.83) 6.4* (0.84) 5.9* (0.89) 9.1   (0.99)
NO MENTAL ILLNESS 7.1* (0.19) 7.0* (0.20) 6.7   (0.19) 6.3   (0.17) 6.4   (0.18) 6.5   (0.19) 6.3   (0.16)
18-25 17.4* (0.40) 16.8* (0.41) 16.6* (0.42) 15.4* (0.38) 15.1* (0.39) 14.0   (0.38) 13.1   (0.39)
26-49 8.0* (0.31) 7.5   (0.33) 7.1   (0.29) 7.2   (0.29) 7.2   (0.30) 7.4   (0.30) 7.1   (0.24)
50 or Older 2.8   (0.27) 3.2   (0.28) 3.0   (0.29) 2.6* (0.25) 2.9   (0.27) 3.4   (0.30) 3.4   (0.24)
Table A.20B – Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Past Year Substance Use Disorder Status
SUD Status 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
SUD = substance use disorder.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004-2014.
SUD 20.3* (1.21) 21.7* (1.20) 18.5* (1.14) 20.0* (1.22) 23.2* (1.40) 21.7* (1.37) 22.1* (1.30) 21.9* (1.44) 23.8   (1.47) 28.8   (1.69) 28.4   (1.88)
No SUD 7.9* (0.24) 7.7* (0.25) 7.0* (0.24) 7.2* (0.25) 7.1* (0.24) 7.1* (0.24) 6.9* (0.24) 7.2* (0.24) 8.1* (0.25) 9.7   (0.30) 10.5   (0.31)
Table A.21B – Substance Use Disorder in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Past Year Major Depressive Episode Status
MDE Status 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
MDE = major depressive episode.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004-2014.
MDE 20.0* (1.20) 19.8* (1.11) 18.8* (1.18) 18.9* (1.14) 21.3* (1.32) 18.8* (1.23) 19.9* (1.18) 18.2* (1.21) 16.0* (1.01) 13.9   (0.95) 12.4   (0.91)
No MDE 7.7* (0.24) 6.9* (0.24) 7.1* (0.23) 6.7* (0.23) 6.4* (0.22) 6.0* (0.22) 6.1* (0.24) 5.8* (0.23) 5.1* (0.22) 4.1   (0.19) 4.0   (0.21)
Table A.22B – Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder and Mental Illness Status in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group
SUD and Mental Illness/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
AMI = any mental illness; SMI = serious mental illness; SUD = substance use disorder.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2014.
SUD AND AMI 3.3   (0.12) 3.4   (0.12) 3.4   (0.12) 2.9* (0.11) 3.6   (0.13) 3.2   (0.12) 3.3   (0.10)
18-25 6.8* (0.24) 6.3   (0.22) 6.4   (0.22) 6.0   (0.22) 6.8* (0.23) 6.0   (0.22) 5.9   (0.24)
26-49 4.3   (0.21) 4.5   (0.20) 4.5   (0.22) 3.7* (0.19) 4.8   (0.24) 4.5   (0.22) 4.2   (0.17)
50 or Older 0.9* (0.13) 1.3   (0.17) 1.2   (0.16) 1.1* (0.14) 1.3   (0.15) 1.1* (0.14) 1.6   (0.15)
SUD AND SMI 0.9   (0.05) 0.9   (0.06) 1.0   (0.07) 0.9   (0.06) 1.1   (0.07) 1.0   (0.06) 1.0   (0.05)
18-25 1.8   (0.12) 1.3* (0.10) 1.7   (0.12) 1.5   (0.11) 1.6   (0.11) 1.7   (0.12) 1.7   (0.12)
26-49 1.2   (0.10) 1.2   (0.10) 1.5* (0.13) 1.2   (0.11) 1.5   (0.13) 1.4   (0.12) 1.2   (0.09)
50 or Older 0.2* (0.05) 0.4   (0.09) 0.3   (0.08) 0.4   (0.09) 0.5   (0.10) 0.4   (0.08) 0.5   (0.07)
SUD AND AMI EXCLUDING SMI 2.4   (0.10) 2.5   (0.10) 2.4   (0.10) 2.0* (0.08) 2.5   (0.10) 2.3   (0.10) 2.3   (0.09)
18-25 5.1* (0.21) 5.0* (0.20) 4.7* (0.18) 4.5   (0.20) 5.1* (0.21) 4.4   (0.19) 4.2   (0.20)
26-49 3.1   (0.18) 3.2   (0.18) 3.0   (0.18) 2.5* (0.16) 3.3   (0.19) 3.2   (0.19) 3.0   (0.14)
50 or Older 0.7* (0.12) 0.9   (0.14) 0.9   (0.14) 0.7* (0.10) 0.8   (0.11) 0.7* (0.11) 1.1   (0.13)
Table A.23B – Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder and Past Year Major Depressive Episode and Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder and Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17
Outcome 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
MDE = major depressive episode; SUD = substance use disorder.
-- Not available.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Impairment is based on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) role domains, which measure the impact of a disorder on an adult's life. Impairment is defined as the highest severity level of role impairment across four domains: (1) home management, (2) work, (3) close relationships with others, and (4) social life. Ratings greater than or equal to 7 on a 0 to 10 scale were considered Severe Impairment. Respondents with unknown impairment data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004-2014.
SUD and MDE 1.8* (0.12) 1.7* (0.11) 1.5   (0.10) 1.5   (0.10) 1.8* (0.12) 1.5   (0.11) 1.6   (0.10) 1.5   (0.11) 1.4   (0.10) 1.5   (0.11) 1.4   (0.11)
SUD and MDE with Severe Impairment1 --   (--) --   (--) 1.2   (0.09) 1.2   (0.09) 1.4   (0.11) 1.3   (0.10) 1.2   (0.09) 1.1   (0.09) 1.1   (0.09) 1.2   (0.10) 1.1   (0.10)
Table A.24B – Substance Use in the Past Year and Past Month among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Past Year Major Depressive Episode
Substance Total1
(2013)
Total1
(2014)
MDE
(2013)
MDE
(2014)
No MDE
(2013)
No MDE
(2014)
LSD = lysergic acid diethylamide; MDE = major depressive episode; PCP = phencyclidine.
NOTE: Estimates shown are percentages with standard errors included in parentheses.
* Difference between estimate and 2014 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column represent all youths aged 12 to 17, including those with unknown past year MDE information.
2 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2013 and 2014.
PAST YEAR USE            
Illicit Drugs 17.2   (0.35) 17.4   (0.38) 33.2   (1.32) 33.0   (1.41) 15.1   (0.34) 15.2   (0.39)
Marijuana and Hashish 13.4   (0.31) 13.1   (0.33) 25.7   (1.22) 24.1   (1.24) 11.8   (0.31) 11.6   (0.33)
Cocaine 0.5   (0.06) 0.7   (0.09) 1.1   (0.26) 1.5   (0.40) 0.4   (0.05) 0.5   (0.09)
Crack 0.0   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.08) 0.4   (0.18) 0.0   (0.01) 0.0   (0.01)
Heroin 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.3   (0.14) 0.4   (0.21) 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03)
Hallucinogens 1.9   (0.12) 1.7   (0.13) 4.2   (0.47) 3.8   (0.55) 1.6   (0.12) 1.4   (0.12)
LSD 0.6* (0.06) 0.9   (0.10) 1.1   (0.26) 1.8   (0.43) 0.5* (0.06) 0.8   (0.10)
PCP 0.1   (0.03) 0.1   (0.03) 0.2   (0.13) 0.4   (0.19) 0.1   (0.02) 0.1   (0.03)
Ecstasy 0.9   (0.08) 0.7   (0.09) 2.0   (0.29) 2.0   (0.44) 0.8   (0.08) 0.6   (0.08)
Inhalants 1.9   (0.12) 2.1   (0.14) 4.8   (0.55) 5.5   (0.70) 1.5   (0.11) 1.6   (0.14)
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2 5.8   (0.20) 6.2   (0.24) 12.8   (0.87) 14.8   (1.06) 4.8   (0.20) 5.0   (0.23)
Pain Relievers 4.6   (0.18) 4.7   (0.21) 10.3   (0.80) 10.2   (0.93) 3.9   (0.18) 3.8   (0.20)
Tranquilizers 1.4   (0.09) 1.7   (0.14) 4.2   (0.49) 4.9   (0.65) 1.0   (0.09) 1.3   (0.13)
Stimulants2 1.1* (0.09) 1.5   (0.13) 3.1   (0.45) 4.5   (0.69) 0.8   (0.08) 1.0   (0.11)
Methamphetamine2 0.3   (0.04) 0.4   (0.07) 0.7   (0.20) 0.7   (0.27) 0.2   (0.04) 0.4   (0.07)
Sedatives 0.3* (0.04) 0.5   (0.07) 0.7* (0.19) 2.0   (0.51) 0.2   (0.04) 0.2   (0.05)
PAST MONTH USE            
Daily Cigarette Use 1.1   (0.08) 1.2   (0.11) 1.8   (0.27) 1.6   (0.40) 1.0   (0.09) 1.1   (0.11)
Heavy Alcohol Use 1.2   (0.09) 1.0   (0.10) 1.2   (0.26) 1.8   (0.39) 1.2   (0.10) 0.9   (0.10)

Appendix B: List of Contributors

This National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) report was prepared by the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and by RTI International (a registered trademark and a trade name of Research Triangle Institute), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Work by RTI was performed under Contract No. HHSS283201300001C.

This report was drafted by SAMHSA and reviewed at RTI. Production of the report at SAMHSA was managed by Rachel Lipari. SAMHSA contributors, listed alphabetically (section authorship noted in parentheses), include Rebecca Ahrnsbrak, Herman Alvarado, Jonaki Bose, Beth Han (Substance Use Disorders), Sarra L. Hedden (Mental Health Issues), Elizabeth Hoeffel, Art Hughes, Joel Kennet (Alcohol Use), Rachel Lipari, Grace Medley (Tobacco Use), Pradip Muhuri, Dicy Painter, Kathryn Piscopo, Neil Russell, Peter Tice (Project Officer) (Illicit Drug Use), and Matthew Williams.

Contributors and reviewers at RTI, listed alphabetically, include Stephanie N. Barnett, Elizabeth A. P. Copello, Misty S. Foster, Rebecca A. Granger, David Cunningham Hunter (Project Director), Larry A. Kroutil, Philip Lee, Lisa E. Packer, Michael R. Pemberton, Jeremy D. Porter, Jessica Roycroft, Ana Saravia, Kathryn Spagnola, Lauren Klein Warren, and Cherie J. Winder.

Also at RTI, report and web production staff, listed alphabetically, include Teresa F. Bass, Debbie F. Bond, Wallace Campbell, Kimberly H. Cone, Valerie Garner, Anne E. Gering, Terry Hall, E. Andrew Jessup, Farrah Bullock Mann, Daniel Occoquan, Brenda K. Porter, Pamela Couch Prevatt, Crystal Smith, Margaret A. Smith, Roxanne Snaauw, Richard S. Straw, and Pamela Tuck.

HHS Publication No. SMA 15-4927
2015
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality
www.samhsa.gov



Long Descriptions – Figures

Long description, Figure 1: Figure 1 is titled "Numbers of Past Month Illicit Drug Users among People Aged 12 or Older: 2014." It is a pie chart with an accompanying bar graph, where the pie chart shows the percentage and number of people with no past month illicit drug use and the percentage and number of people with past month illicit drug use. The bar graph breaks down the people with past month illicit drug use by showing the number of people in millions on the horizontal axis and nine types of illicit drugs on the vertical axis. Two notes are below the figure, the first of which says, "Estimated numbers of people refer to people aged 12 or older in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population in the United States. The numbers do not sum to the total population of the United States because the population for NSDUH does not include people aged 11 years old or younger, people with no fixed household address (e.g., homeless or transient people not in shelters), active-duty military personnel, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as correctional facilities, nursing homes, mental institutions, and long-term hospitals." The second note says, "The estimated numbers of current users of different illicit drugs are not mutually exclusive because people could have used more than one type of illicit drug in the past month."

For the pie chart, the number and percentage of people aged 12 or older with no past month illicit drug use in 2014 were 238.1 million people and 89.8 percent, respectively. The number and percentage of people with past month illicit drug use were 27.0 million people and 10.2 percent, respectively.

For the bar graph in descending order, of the 27 million people with past month illicit drug use in 2014:

The number of past month users for marijuana and hashish was 22.2 million people.

The number of past month nonmedical users for pain relievers was 4.3 million people.

The number of past month nonmedical users for tranquilizers was 1.9 million people.

The number of past month nonmedical users for stimulants was 1.6 million people.

The number of past month users for cocaine was 1.5 million people.

The number of past month users for hallucinogens was 1.2 million people.

The number of past month users for inhalants was 0.5 million people.

The number of past month users for heroin was 0.4 million people.

The number of past month nonmedical users for sedatives was 0.3 million people.

Long description end. Return to Figure 1.

Long description, Figure 2: Figure 2 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month illicit drug use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 2.

Long description, Figure 3: Figure 3 is titled "Past Month Marijuana Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month marijuana use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 3.

Long description, Figure 4: Figure 4 is titled "Past Month Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutic Drugs among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 4.

Long description, Figure 5: Figure 5 is titled "Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers and Other Psychotherapeutic Drugs among Current Nonmedical Users of Any Psychotherapeutic Drug Aged 12 or Older: 2014." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "6.5 Million Current Nonmedical Users of Psychotherapeutic Drugs." The pie chart shows the number in millions and the percentage who were current nonmedical users of pain relievers, as well as the number in millions and the percentage who were current nonmedical users of psychotherapeutics other than pain relievers.

Of the 6.5 million current nonmedical users of psychotherapeutic drugs in 2014, 4.3 million people (66.2 percent) were current nonmedical users of pain relievers, and 2.2 million (33.8 percent) were current nonmedical users of psychotherapeutics other than pain relievers.

Long description end. Return to Figure 5.

Long description, Figure 6: Figure 6 is titled "Past Month Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month nonmedical use of pain relievers is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 6.

Long description, Figure 7: Figure 7 is titled "Past Month Nonmedical Use of Tranquilizers among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month nonmedical use of tranquilizers is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 7.

Long description, Figure 8: Figure 8 is titled "Nonmedical Use of Methamphetamine and Other Stimulants among Current Nonmedical Users of Any Stimulant Aged 12 or Older: 2014." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "1.6 Million Current Nonmedical Users of Stimulants." The pie chart shows the number in thousands and the percentage who were current nonmedical users of methamphetamine, as well as the number in millions and the percentage who were current nonmedical users of stimulants other than methamphetamine.

Of the 1.6 million current nonmedical users of stimulants in 2014, 569,000 people (35.7 percent) were current nonmedical users of methamphetamine, and 1.0 million (64.3 percent) were current nonmedical users of stimulants other than methamphetamine.

Long description end. Return to Figure 8.

Long description, Figure 9: Figure 9 is titled "Past Month Nonmedical Use of Stimulants among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month nonmedical use of stimulants is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 9.

Long description, Figure 10: Figure 10 is titled "Past Month Nonmedical Use of Methamphetamine among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month nonmedical use of methamphetamine is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 10.

Long description, Figure 11: Figure 11 is titled "Past Month Cocaine Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month cocaine use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 11.

Long description, Figure 12: Figure 12 is titled "Past Month Heroin Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month heroin use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 12.

Long description, Figure 13: Figure 13 is titled "Past Year Heroin Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past year heroin use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 13.

Long description, Figure 14: Figure 14 is titled "Past Month Hallucinogen Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month hallucinogen use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 14.

Long description, Figure 15: Figure 15 is titled "Past Month Ecstasy Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month ecstasy use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 15.

Long description, Figure 16: Figure 16 is titled "Past Month Inhalant Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month inhalant use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 16.

Long description, Figure 17: Figure 17 is titled "Past Month Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month tobacco use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 17.

Long description, Figure 18: Figure 18 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month cigarette use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 18.

Long description, Figure 19: Figure 19 is titled "Daily Cigarette Use among Past Month Cigarette Smokers Aged 12 or Older and Smoking of One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day among Current Daily Smokers: Percentages, 2014." It shows two connected pie charts. The pie chart on the left is the larger of the two. The larger pie chart shows the number in millions and the percentage who were less than daily smokers, as well as the number in millions and the percentage who were daily smokers. For daily smokers, the smaller pie chart shows the number in millions and the percentage who smoked less than a pack a day, as well as the number in millions and the percentage who smoked one or more packs per day. A note below the figure says, "Current daily smokers with unknown data about the number of cigarettes smoked per day were excluded."

The larger pie chart shows the following: In 2014, 22.8 million people and 41.2 percent of past month smokers were less than daily smokers, and 32.5 million people and 58.8 percent of past month smokers were daily smokers.

The smaller pie chart shows the following: Of the daily smokers in 2014, 19.3 million people and 59.7 percent smoked less than a pack per day, and 13.1 million people and 40.3 percent smoked one or more packs per day.

Long description end. Return to Figure 19.

Long description, Figure 20: Figure 20 is titled "Smokers of One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day among Past Month Daily Cigarette Smokers Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage who smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 20.

Long description, Figure 21: Figure 21 is titled "Past Month Cigar Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month cigar use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 21.

Long description, Figure 22: Figure 22 is titled "Past Month Pipe Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month pipe tobacco use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 22.

Long description, Figure 23: Figure 23 is titled "Past Month Smokeless Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month smokeless tobacco use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 23.

Long description, Figure 24: Figure 24 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older: 2014." It is a three-circle diagram, where the smallest inner circle represents the number in millions of people who were heavy alcohol users. The smallest inner circle for heavy alcohol users is entirely inside of the second smallest inner circle, which represents the number in millions of people who were binge alcohol users. The second smallest inner circle for binge alcohol users is entirely inside of the largest circle, which represents the number in millions of people who were current alcohol users. Thus, all heavy alcohol users are both binge alcohol users and current alcohol users, and all binge alcohol users are current alcohol users. In addition, the area within the second smallest inner circle but outside of the smallest inner circle represents people who were binge alcohol users but not heavy alcohol users. Also, the area within the largest circle but outside the second smallest inner circle represents people who were current alcohol users but not binge alcohol users.

Of the 139.7 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current alcohol users, 60.9 million were binge alcohol users, who make up 43.6 percent of all current alcohol users. There were 16.3 million people aged 12 or older who were heavy alcohol users, who make up 26.8 percent of all binge alcohol users and 11.7 percent of all current alcohol users.

Long description end. Return to Figure 24.

Long description, Figure 25: Figure 25 is titled "Past Month Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month alcohol use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 25.

Long description, Figure 26: Figure 26 is titled "Past Month Binge Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month binge alcohol use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 26.

Long description, Figure 27: Figure 27 is titled "Past Month Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for past month heavy alcohol use is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing use over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 27.

Long description, Figure 28: Figure 28 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 to 20: 2014." It is a three-circle diagram, where the smallest inner circle represents the number in millions of people who were heavy alcohol users. The smallest inner circle for heavy alcohol users is entirely inside of the second smallest inner circle, which represents the number in millions of people who were binge alcohol users. The second smallest inner circle for binge alcohol users is entirely inside of the largest circle, which represents the number in millions of people who were current alcohol users. Thus, all heavy alcohol users are both binge alcohol users and current alcohol users, and all binge alcohol users are current alcohol users. In addition, the area within the second smallest inner circle but outside of the smallest inner circle represents people who were binge alcohol users but not heavy alcohol users. Also, the area within the largest circle but outside the second smallest inner circle represents people who were current alcohol users but not binge alcohol users.

Of the 8.7 million people aged 12 to 20 in 2014 who were current alcohol users, 5.3 million were binge alcohol users, who make up 60.6 percent of all current alcohol users in this age group. There were 1.3 million people aged 12 to 20 who were heavy alcohol users, who make up 24.8 percent of all binge alcohol users and 15.0 percent of all current alcohol users in this age group.

Long description end. Return to Figure 28.

Long description, Figure 29: Figure 29 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 to 20: 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage for current, binge, or heavy alcohol use in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the three categories (current, binge, or heavy alcohol use), there is a line showing percentages over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 29.

Long description, Figure 30: Figure 30 is titled "Alcohol Use Disorder or Illicit Drug Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older with Past Year Substance Use Disorders: 2014." It is a Venn diagram with the following written below the diagram: "21.5 Million People Aged 12 or Older with Past Year SUDs." A note below the figure says, "SUD = substance use disorder." The Venn diagram shows overlapping larger and smaller circles. The larger circle on the left represents the people who had a past year alcohol use disorder. The smaller circle on the right represents people who had a past year illicit drug use disorder. The intersection of the two circles represents people who had both a past year alcohol use disorder and a past year illicit drug use disorder. In addition, the area of the larger circle that does not intersect with the smaller circle represents people who had an alcohol use disorder only. Also, the area of the smaller circle that does not intersect with the larger circle represents people who had an illicit drug use disorder only.

Of the 21.5 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 with past year SUDs, 17.0 million had an alcohol use disorder, which is 79.1 percent of people with an SUD. There were 7.1 million people who had an illicit drug use disorder, which is 32.9 percent of people with an SUD. There also were 2.6 million people who had both alcohol and illicit drug use disorders, which is 12.1 percent of people with SUDs. In addition, 14.4 million people had an alcohol use disorder only, and 4.5 million people had an illicit drug use disorder only.

Long description end. Return to Figure 30.

Long description, Figure 31: Figure 31 is titled "Numbers of People Aged 12 or Older with a Past Year Substance Use Disorder: 2014." It is a pie chart with an accompanying bar graph, where the pie chart shows the percentage and the number of people with no substance use disorder (SUD) in the past year and the percentage and the number of people with an SUD in the past year. The bar graph breaks down the people with a past year SUD by showing the number of people in millions on the horizontal axis and six types of SUDs on the vertical axis. Two notes are below the figure: The first note says, "SUD = substance use disorder." The second note says, "SUD refers to dependence or abuse in the past year related to the use of alcohol or illicit drugs in that same period. Estimated numbers of people having disorders for specific substances do not sum to the 21.5 million people with any SUD because people could have disorders associated with their use of more than one substance."

For the pie chart, the number and the percentage of people aged 12 or older with no past year SUD in 2014 were 243.6 million people and 91.9 percent, respectively. The number and the percentage of people with a past year SUD were 21.5 million people and 8.1 percent, respectively.

For the bar graph in descending order, of the 21.5 million people with a past year SUD:

The number of people with alcohol use disorder in the past year was 17.0 million.

The number of people with an illicit drug use disorder in the past year was 7.1 million.

The number of people with marijuana use disorder in the past year was 4.2 million.

The number of people with pain reliever use disorder in the past year was 1.9 million.

The number of people with cocaine use disorder in the past year was 0.9 million.

The number of people with heroin use disorder in the past year was 0.6 million.

Long description end. Return to Figure 31.

Long description, Figure 32: Figure 32 is titled "Substance Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with a past year substance use disorder is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with a substance use disorder over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 32.

Long description, Figure 33: Figure 33 is titled "Alcohol Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with a past year alcohol use disorder is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with an alcohol use disorder over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 33.

Long description, Figure 34: Figure 34 is titled "Illicit Drug Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with a past year illicit drug use disorder is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with an illicit drug use disorder over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 34.

Long description, Figure 35: Figure 35 is titled "Marijuana Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with a past year marijuana use disorder is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with a marijuana use disorder over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 35.

Long description, Figure 36: Figure 36 is titled "Pain Reliever Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with a past year pain reliever use disorder is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with a pain reliever disorder over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 36.

Long description, Figure 37: Figure 37 is titled "Cocaine Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with a past year cocaine use disorder is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with a cocaine use disorder over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 37.

Long description, Figure 38: Figure 38 is titled "Heroin Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with a past year heroin use disorder is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with a heroin use disorder over the years 2002 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 38.

Long description, Figure 39: Figure 39 is titled "Any Mental Illness, Serious Mental Illness, and Any Mental Illness Excluding Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older: 2014." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "43.6 Million Adults with AMI in the Past Year (18.1% of All Adults)." Also, a note below the chart says, "AMI = any mental illness; SMI = serious mental illness." The pie chart shows the number in millions and the percentage of all adults who had AMI excluding SMI in the past year, as well as the number in millions and the percentage of all adults who had SMI in the past year. The pie chart also shows the percentages of adults with AMI within each of these two categories.

Of the 43.6 million adults in 2014 with AMI in the past year, 33.7 million adults had AMI excluding SMI. This represents 14.0 percent of all adults and 77.4 percent of adults with AMI. Also, 9.8 million adults had SMI, which represents 4.1 percent of all adults and 22.6 percent of adults with AMI.

Long description end. Return to Figure 39.

Long description, Figure 40: Figure 40 is titled "Any Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with any mental illness in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (18 or older, 18 to 25, 26 to 49, and 50 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with any mental illness over the years 2008 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 40.

Long description, Figure 41: Figure 41 is titled "Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with serious mental illness in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (18 or older, 18 to 25, 26 to 49, and 50 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with serious mental illness over the years 2008 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 41.

Long description, Figure 42: Figure 42 is titled "Any Mental Illness Excluding Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with any mental illness excluding serious mental illness in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (18 or older, 18 to 25, 26 to 49, and 50 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with any mental illness excluding serious mental illness over the years 2008 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 42.

Long description, Figure 43: Figure 43 is titled "Major Depressive Episode and Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older: 2014." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "15.7 Million Adults with a Past Year MDE (6.6% of All Adults)." Also, two notes are below the figure, the first of which says, "MDE = major depressive episode." The second note says, "Adult respondents with unknown past year MDE data or unknown impairment data were excluded." The pie chart shows the number in millions and the percentage of adults who had an MDE with severe impairment in the past year, as well as the number in millions and the percentage of adults who had an MDE without severe impairment in the past year. The pie chart also shows the percentages of adults who had an MDE within each of these two categories.

Of the 15.7 million adults with an MDE in the past year, 10.2 million adults had an MDE with severe impairment. This represents 4.3 percent of all adults and 65.5 percent of adults with an MDE. Also, 5.4 million adults had an MDE without severe impairment, which represents 2.3 percent of all adults and 34.5 percent of adults with an MDE.

Long description end. Return to Figure 43.

Long description, Figure 44: Figure 44 is titled "Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2005-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage of adults with a major depressive episode in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (18 or older, 18 to 25, 26 to 49, and 50 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with a major depressive episode over the years 2005 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 44.

Long description, Figure 45: Figure 45 is titled "Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2009-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage of adults with a major depressive episode with severe impairment in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (18 or older, 18 to 25, 26 to 49, and 50 or older), there is a line showing the percentage with a major depressive episode with severe impairment over the years 2009 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 45.

Long description, Figure 46: Figure 46 is titled "Major Depressive Episode and Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2014." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "2.8 Million Youths with a Past Year MDE (11.4% of All Youths)." Also, two notes are below the figure, the first of which says, "MDE = major depressive episode." The second note says, "Youth respondents with unknown past year MDE data or unknown impairment data were excluded." The pie chart shows the number in millions and the percentage of youths who had an MDE with severe impairment in the past year, as well as the number in millions and the percentage of youths who had an MDE without severe impairment in the past year. The pie chart also shows the percentages of youths who had an MDE within each of these two categories.

Of the 2.8 million youths aged 12 to 17 in 2014 with an MDE in the past year, 2.0 million youths had an MDE with severe impairment. This represents 8.2 percent of all youths and 72.6 percent of youths with an MDE. Also, 0.8 million youths had an MDE without severe impairment, which represents 3.1 percent of all youths and 27.4 percent of youths with an MDE.

Long description end. Return to Figure 46.

Long description, Figure 47: Figure 47 is titled "Major Depressive Episode and Major Depressive Episode with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2004-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage of youths with major depressive episode and major depressive episode with severe impairment in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. A line shows the percentage with a major depressive episode, and another line shows the percentage with a major depressive episode with severe impairment over the years 2004 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 47.

Long description, Figure 48: Figure 48 is titled "Past Year Substance Use Disorders and Mental Illness among Adults Aged 18 or Older: 2014." It is a Venn diagram with the following note written below the diagram: "SUD = substance use disorder." The Venn diagram shows overlapping larger and smaller circles. The smaller circle on the left represents adults who had an SUD in the past year. The larger circle on the right represents adults who had mental illness in the past year. The intersection of the two circles represents adults who had both an SUD and mental illness. In addition, the area of the smaller circle that does not intersect with the larger circle represents adults who had an SUD but no mental illness. Also, the area of the larger circle that does not intersect with the smaller circle represents adults who had mental illness but no SUD.

The number of adults aged 18 or older in 2014 with a past year SUD was 20.2 million, including 12.3 million with an SUD and no mental illness. The number of adults who had mental illness was 43.6 million, including 35.6 million with a mental illness and no SUD. There were 7.9 million adults who had both an SUD and mental illness.

Long description end. Return to Figure 48.

Long description, Figure 49: Figure 49 is titled "Past Year Substance Use Disorder among Adults Aged 18 or Older with Any Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with substance use disorder in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (18 or older, 18 to 25, 26 to 49, and 50 or older), there is a line showing the percentage over the years 2008 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 49.

Long description, Figure 50: Figure 50 is titled "Past Year Substance Use Disorders and Serious Mental Illness among Adults Aged 18 or Older: 2014." It is a Venn diagram with the following note written below the diagram: "SMI = serious mental illness; SUD = substance use disorder." The Venn diagram shows overlapping larger and smaller circles. The larger circle on the left represents adults who had an SUD in the past year. The smaller circle on the right represents adults who had SMI in the past year. The intersection of the two circles represents adults who had both an SUD and SMI. In addition, the area of the larger circle that does not intersect with the smaller circle represents adults who had an SUD but no SMI. Also, the area of the smaller circle that does not intersect with the larger circle represents adults who had SMI but no SUD.

The number of adults aged 18 or older in 2014 with a past year SUD was 20.2 million, including 17.9 million who had an SUD and no SMI. The number of adults who had SMI was 9.8 million, including 7.5 million who had SMI and no SUD. There were 2.3 million adults who had both an SUD and SMI.

Long description end. Return to Figure 50.

Long description, Figure 51: Figure 51 is titled "Past Year Substance Use Disorder among Adults Aged 18 or Older with Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with a substance use disorder in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four age groups (18 or older, 18 to 25, 26 to 49, and 50 or older), there is a line showing the percentage over the years 2008 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 51.

Long description, Figure 52: Figure 52 is titled "Past Year Illicit Drug Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Past Year Major Depressive Episode: Percentages, 2014." It is a bar graph, where five categories of illicit drug use in the past year are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 using these drugs in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. The five categories of illicit drugs are (1) any illicit drug; (2) marijuana; (3) psychotherapeutics (nonmedical use); (4) inhalants; and (5) hallucinogens. For each type of illicit drug, the figure shows three bars. The first shows the percentage among all youths aged 12 to 17. The second shows the percentage among youths who had a major depressive episode in the past year. The third shows the percentage among youths who did not have a major depressive episode in the past year.

Among all youths aged 12 to 17 in 2014, 17.4 percent used illicit drugs in the past year. Corresponding percentages for illicit drug use in the past year were 33.0 percent among youths who had a past year major depressive episode and 15.2 percent among youths who did not have a past year major depressive episode.

Among all youths aged 12 to 17 in 2014, 13.1 percent used marijuana in the past year. Corresponding percentages for marijuana use in the past year were 24.1 percent among youths who had a past year major depressive episode and 11.6 percent among youths who did not have a past year major depressive episode.

Among all youths aged 12 to 17 in 2014, 6.2 percent reported nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics in the past year. Corresponding percentages for nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics in the past year were 14.8 percent among youths who had a past year major depressive episode and 5.0 percent among youths who did not have a past year major depressive episode.

Among all youths aged 12 to 17 in 2014, 2.1 percent used inhalants in the past year. Corresponding percentages for use of inhalants in the past year were 5.5 percent among youths who had a past year major depressive episode and 1.6 percent among youths who did not have a past year major depressive episode.

Among all youths aged 12 to 17 in 2014, 1.7 percent used hallucinogens in the past year. Corresponding percentages for use of hallucinogens in the past year were 3.8 percent among youths who had a past year major depressive episode and 1.4 percent among youths who did not have a past year major depressive episode.

Long description end. Return to Figure 52.

Long description, Figure 53: Figure 53 is titled "Past Year Substance Use Disorders and Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2014." It is a Venn diagram with two notes below the figure. The first note says, "MDE = major depressive episode; SUD = substance use disorder." The second note says, "Youth respondents with unknown MDE data were excluded." The Venn diagram shows overlapping larger and smaller circles. The smaller circle on the left represents youths who had an SUD in the past year. The larger circle on the right represents youths who had an MDE in the past year. The intersection of the two circles represents youths who had an MDE and an SUD. In addition, the area of the smaller circle that does not intersect with the larger circle represents youths who had an SUD but no MDE. Also, the area of the larger circle that does not intersect with the smaller circle represents youths who had an MDE but no SUD.

The number of youths aged 12 to 17 in 2014 with a past year SUD was 1.3 million, including 0.9 million who had an SUD and no MDE. The number of youths with a past year MDE was 2.8 million, including 2.4 million who had an MDE and no SUD. There were 340,000 youths who had both an MDE and an SUD.

Long description end. Return to Figure 53.

Long description, Figure 54: Figure 54 is titled "Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and Past Year Major Depressive Episode (MDE) or MDE with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2004-2014." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentages are shown on the vertical axis. There is a line showing the percentage with co-occurring SUD and MDE and a line showing the percentage with co-occurring SUD and MDE with severe impairment over the years 2004 through 2014. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2014 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. An accessible table of the estimates in the line graph is located below this figure.

Long description end. Return to Figure 54.

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