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Analyses of Substance Abuse and Treatment Need Issues 

Methamphetamine Abuse in the United States

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Methamphetamine-Related Deaths

Methamphetamine-Related Hospital ED Episodes

Admissions to Specialty Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

Levels of Use in the U.S. Population

References

Table 1:    Number of Methamphetamine-Related Deaths in Selected Metropolitan Areas:     1992-1995

Table 2:    Distribution of Methamphetamine/Speed-Related Deaths by Selected Demographic Characteristics:     1992-1995

Table 2 continued:     

Table 2 continued:     

Table 3:    Estimated Number of Emergency Department Methamphetamine Mentions in the U.S. and In Selected Metropolitan Areas:     1991-1995

Table 4:    Distribution of Methamphetamine/Speed-Related Emergency Department Episodes by Selected Demographic Characteristics:     1991-1995

Table 5:    Number of Primary Methamphetamine Admissions to Publicly-funded Treatment Units in Reporting States:     1993-1995

Table 5 continued:     

Table 6:    Number of Admissions to Publicly-funded Treatment Units for Primary Methamphetamine Use and Percent Distribution by Route of Administration:     1993-95

Table 7:    Number of Admissions to Treatment Facilities that Receive Public Funding for Primary Amphetamine Use (including Methamphetamine):     1993-1995

Table 8:    Percentage and 95 Percent Confidence Intervals of Total Population Ages 12 and Older Reporting Lifetime Methamphetamine Use, by Demographic Characteristics:     1994-96

Table 9:    Percentage and 95% Confidence Intervals of Total Population Ages 12 and Older Reporting Past Year Nonmedical Stimulant Use and Lifetime Use of Methamphetamine, by Demographic Characteristics:     1994-96


3. Methamphetamine Abuse in the United States

By Janet C. Greenblatt and Joseph C. Gfroerer

Data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) strongly suggest that there has been a large increase in the abuse of methamphetamine. These increases in methamphetamine-related deaths and methamphetamine-related emergency episodes at hospitals have occurred primarily since 1992. Large increases in methamphetamine admissions to publicly funded treatment facilities occurred between 1992 and 1995. Most activity occurred in the western region of the U.S., but methamphetamine abuse also appears to be increasing in the mid-West and in some southern States.

Methamphetamine, a powerful stimulant drug, is commonly referred to as "speed," "crystal," "crank," "go," and, most recently, "ice," a smokable form of methamphetamine. It is currently the most widespread amphetamine that is illegally manufactured, distributed, and abused. The manufacture of methamphetamine is a relatively simple process and can be carried out by individuals without special knowledge or expertise in chemistry. Methamphetamine is often taken in combination with other drugs such as cocaine and marijuana and, like heroin and cocaine, can be inhaled, injected, ingested, or smoked. A single mode of administration may dominate in a particular area.

Methamphetamine users in treatment have reported physical symptoms associated with the use of methamphetamine including weight loss, tachycardia (abnormal rapidity of heart action), tachypnea (abnormal rapidity of respiration), hyperthermia (unusually high fever), insomnia, and muscular tremors. The behavioral and psychiatric symptoms reported most often include violent behavior, repetitive activity, memory loss, paranoia, delusions of reference, auditory hallucinations, and confusion or fright. (2)

Data presented come from several SAMHSA sources. The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) consists of two data collection efforts:     data on drug abuse deaths that were reported by medical examiners in participating metropolitan areas (3) and data collected on drug-related episodes to a national probability sample of hospital emergency departments (4). Data on client admissions to specialty substance abuse treatment are obtained from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) (5). TEDS, which is compiled by SAMHSA from reports from states, covers primarily publicly-funded treatment facilities and accounts for about half of all public and private admissions to treatment in the U.S. All states do not participate, and a few participating states do not identify methamphetamine abusers separately. For a discussion of the limitations of the TEDS data, see SAMHSA Advance Report No. 12 (6). The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) is an ongoing national probability survey that provides information on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco in the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the U.S., 12 years old and older (7).

Methamphetamine-Related Deaths

Data reported to DAWN by participating medical examiners show that between 1992 and 1994, methamphetamine-related deaths more than doubled, going from 224 to 508 (Table 1). Between 1994 and 1995, overall the number of deaths reported fell by 4 percent (to 487 in 1995). However, the number of deaths has continued to increase in two western cities each year between 1992 and 1995 (Las Vegas and Los Angeles). In 1995, a majority of the deaths (84%) involved more than one drug, most often alcohol, heroin, or cocaine. In 1995, the majority of the decedents were age 26 to 44 (68%). 81% were male, and 77% were white (Table 2).

Methamphetamine-Related Hospital ED Episodes

Methamphetamine-related ED episodes more than tripled between 1991 and 1994, rising from 4,900 to 17,700 (see Table 3). Between 1994 and 1995, there was no statistically significant change in methamphetamine-related episodes overall (16,200 in 1995). Between the first half of 1994 and the first half of 1995, the number of episodes increased by 35 percent, followed by a decrease in the last six months of 1995 (7,800 in the first half of 1994, 9,800 in first half of 1995, 6,400 in the second half of 1995). The decline in methamphetamine-related mentions continued through the first six months of 1996, with mentions decreasing to 4,000. Reports by local area epidemiologists indicate there was a shortage of methamphetamine beginning in the last half of 1995 in some western cities such as San Diego, Los Angeles, Phoenix, and San Francisco.

Between 1993 and 1995, episodes increased in nine of the 21 metropolitan areas oversampled by DAWN. The number of methamphetamine-related episodes more than doubled in Denver, St. Louis, Atlanta, and Dallas. During this time period, the number of episodes nearly doubled in Minneapolis and New Orleans. Methamphetamine-related ED episodes, like deaths, predominantly occur among whites and males (65% each). The numbers of episodes increased between 1991 and 1995 among blacks (by 145%) and Hispanics (by 356%) compared with an increase of 202 percent among whites. Between 1991 and 1995, the number of methamphetamine-related ED episodes increased 244 percent among males (from 3,057 to 10,516) and 206 percent among females (from 1,810 to 5,540) (Table 4).

Admissions to Specialty Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

The numbers of admissions for primary methamphetamine use at treatment facilities that received public funding for reporting States for 1993 through 1995 are shown in Table 5. Among the 35 States with 10 or more methamphetamine admissions in all three years, 31 States showed increases between 1993 and 1995. The States with the largest numbers of methamphetamine admissions in 1995 were California (26,591), Iowa (3,774), Washington (3,072), Utah (1,372), and Nevada (1,349). (Note that Arizona does not report to TEDS, and Texas does not provide methamphetamine admissions separately from amphetamines). Large increases were also seen in Hawaii (from 482 in 1993 to 1,029 in 1995), Missouri (from 9 in 1993 to 962 in 1995), Idaho (from 166 in 1993 to 877 in 1995), Minnesota (from 232 in 1993 to 857 in 1995), Kansas (from 238 in 1993 to 819 in 1995), Oklahoma (from 92 in 1993 to 635 in 1995), and Montana (from 159 in 1992 to 609 in 1995).

Metropolitan area data (see Table 6) show that, between 1993 and 1995, the number of primary methamphetamine admissions to treatment more than doubled in Denver (from 197 in 1993 to 500 in 1995), Minneapolis (from 152 in 1993 to 586 in 1995), and Seattle (from 121 in 1993 to 520 in 1995). Large increases were also seen in San Francisco (from 439 in 1993 to 1055 in 1995), Los Angeles (from 1,307 in 1993 to 2,514 in 1995), and San Diego (from 2,252 in 1993 to 3,513 in 1995). The primary reported routes of administration were inhalation in Los Angeles, Minneapolis, San Diego, and San Francisco and injection in Denver and Seattle.

Some states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Oregon and Texas) do not report methamphetamine and amphetamine admissions separately. Data for these states and selected cities in these states are included in Table 7. The number of amphetamine/methamphetamine-related admissions more than doubled in Arkansas (from 269 in 1993 to 1,043 in 1995) and nearly doubled in Oregon (from 2,435 in 1993 to 7,178 in 1995). Between 1993 and 1995, a large increase was seen in Portland, OR (from 948 in 1993 to 2,528 in 1995).

Levels of Use in the U.S. Population

The 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) estimates that about 4.8 million people have used methamphetamine in their lifetime (Table 8). Between 1994 and 1996, there were no statistically significant changes in lifetime methamphetamine use in any of the demographic catagories shown. In 1996, rates of lifetime use were lowest in the South (1.5%) and highest in the West (4.1%). Because the NHSDA does not ask about current methamphetamine use, past year nonmedical stimulant users who also used methamphetamine in their lifetime were analyzed as a proxy for current methamphetamine use (Table 9). In 1996, rates of use were highest among the unemployed (2.4%), those between the ages of 18 and 25 (1.0%), and those living in the West (1.4%).

References

1)Community Epidemiology Work Group. (1995). Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse:     Volume I:     Highlights and Executive Summary, Bethesda, Maryland:     US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, June 1995. NIH publication no. 95-3990.

2)Miller, MA. (1995). Trends and patterns of methamphetamine smoking in Hawaii. In:     Methamphetamine abuse:     epidemiologic issues and implications. Miller MA, Kozel NJ, eds. Rockville, Maryland:     US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, June 1995. NIH publication no. 95-3990. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1991. Research monograph 115, DHHS publication no. (AM) 91-1836.

3)Office of Applied Studies. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1997). Drug Abuse Warning Network Annual Medical Examiner Data 1995; Rockville, Maryland; Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1995. Drug Abuse Warning Network Series:     D-1 (DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 97-3126).

4)Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1996). Preliminary Estimates from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. 1995 Preliminary Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Episodes. Rockville, Maryland:     US Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1996. Advance Report Number 17.

5)Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Client Admissions to Specialty Substance Abuse Treatment in the United States:     Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), Fiscal Year 1993-1995. Rockville, Maryland:     US Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, (unpublished data).

6)Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1997). National admissions to substance abuse treatment services:     The treatment episode data set (TEDS) 1992-1995. Advance Report Number 12. Rockville, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 97-3128.

7)Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1997). National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Main Findings 1995, Series H-1. Rockville, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 97-3127.

Table 1:    Number of Methamphetamine-Related Deaths in Selected Metropolitan Areas:     1992-1995

Metropolitan Area

1992

1993

1994

1995

Total (for reporting areas)

Atlanta, GA

Baltimore, MD

Casper, WY

Chicago, IL

Dallas, TX

Denver, CO

Kansas City, KS/MO

Las Vegas, NV

Los Angeles, CA

Louisville, KY

Minneapolis, MN

New York, NY

Oklahoma City, OK

Omaha, NB

Philadelphia, PA

Phoenix, AZ

Portland, OR

St. Louis, MO/IL

Salt Lake City, UT

San Antonio, TX

San Diego, CA

San Francisco, CA

Seattle, WA

Sioux Falls, SD

Washington, D.C.

224

0

0

0

0

8

1

0

6

55

1

0

1

7

1

18

16

3

1

0

3

71

31

0

0

1

380

1

0

0

0

6

2

0

22

126

1

1

1

7

1

25

37

12

5

1

0

77

54

1

0

0

508

2

1

1

2

9

0

0

33

134

2

3

0

17

1

18

76

17

7

2

0

115

66

0

1

1

487

0

0

0

1

11

3

1

47

141

0

3

2

32

7

13

30

13

7

11

4

99

53

7

0

1

Note:    Excludes deaths in which AIDS was reported, deaths in which "drug unknown" was the only substance mentioned, and homicides.

The following metropolitan areas reported no methamphetamine-related deaths during 1992-1995:     Anchorage, Birmingham, Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Fargo, Indianapolis, Miami, Nashua, New Orleans, Newark, and Norfolk.

Source:    Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network.

Table 2:    Distribution of Methamphetamine/Speed-Related Deaths by Selected Demographic Characteristics:     1992-1995

  1992 1993

1994

1995 Percent Change in Numbers
Demographic Characteristics Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 1994-1995

Total

224

100

380

100

508

100

487

100

-4.1










Male

172

77

305

80

405

80

393

81

-3.0

Female

50

22

71

19

102

20

94

19

-7.8

Unknown/No response

2

*

4

1

1

*

0

0

0.0











RACE/ETHNICITY










White

185

83

302

79

408

80

374

77

-8.3

Black

12

5

21

6

26

6

24

5

-7.7

Hispanic

18

8

43

11

58

11

73

15

25.9

Other

8

4

5

1

8

2

8

2

0.0

Unknown/No response

1

*

9

2

8

2

8

1

0.0











AGE










12 to 17 Years

2

1

4

1

9

2

9

2

0.0










18 to 25 Years

26

12

54

14

85

17

67

14

-21.2

18 to 19 Years

2

1

7

2

9

2

13

3

0.0

20 to 25 Years

24

11

47

12

76

15

54

11

-28.9











26 to 34 Years

74

33

133

35

164

32

149

31

-9.1

26 to 29 Years

29

13

56

15

54

11

50

10

-7.4

30 to 34 Years

45

20

77

20

110

22

99

20

-10.0

* Less than 1%.

Table 2 continued:   

  1992 1993

1994

1995 Percent Change in Numbers
Demographic Characteristics Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 1994-1995

35 Years and Older

121

54

188

49

246

48

257

53

4.5

35 to 44 Years

91

41

131

34

167

33

181

37

8.4

45 to 54 Years

23

10

42

11

66

13

64

13

3.0

55 Years and Older

7

3

15

4

13

3

12

2

-7.7

Unknown/No Response

1

0

1

0

4

1

5

1

0.0











DRUG CONCOMITANCE









Single-drug Episode

23

10

36

9

57

11

78

16

36.8

Multi-drug Episode

201

90

344

91

451

89

409

84

-9.3




















CAUSE OF DEATH










Drug-induced (overdose)

131

58

184

48

203

40

246

51

-21.2

Direct - single drug cause

3

0

6

2

16

3

22

5

37.5

Direct - multiple drug cause

129

57

178

47

187

37

224

46

19.8











Drug related (contributory factor)

91

41

184

48

292

57

236

48

-19.2

Drug and physiological condition

28

13

56

15

81

16

73

15

-9.9

Drug and external physical event

58

26

119

31

196

39

152

31

-22.4

Drug and medical disorder

5

2

9

2

15

3

11

2

-26.7

Unknown

2

1

12

3

13

3

5

1

-61.5

* Less than 1%.

Table 2 continued:   

  1992 1993

1994

1995 Percent Change in Numbers
MANNER OF DEATH Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 1994-1995

Accidental/unexpected

156

70

253

67

324

64

315

65

-2.8

Suicide

38

17

72

19

89

18

95

20

6.7

Other/unknown

30

13

55

14

95

19

77

16

-18.9








Total

224

100

380

100

508

100

487

100

-4.1

* Less than 1%.

Note:    Excludes deaths in which AIDS was reported, deaths in which "drug unknown" was the only substance mentioned, and homicides.

Source:     Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network.

Table 3:    Estimated Number of Emergency Department Methamphetamine Mentions in the U.S. and In Selected Metropolitan Areas:     1991-1995

Metropolitan Area

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995*

% Change


Number

Rate

Number

Rate

Number

Rate

Number

Rate

Number

Rate

1994-95

Total U.S.1

Atlanta, GA

Baltimore, MD

Boston, MA

Buffalo, NY

Chicago, IL

Dallas, TX

Denver, CO

Detroit, MI

Los Angeles/L.Beach,CA

Miami/Hialeah, FL

Minneapolis/ St.Paul,MN

New Orleans, NO

New York, NY

Newark, NJ

Philadelphia, PA

Phoenix, AZ

San Diego, CA

San Francisco, CA

Seattle, WA

St. Louis, MO/IL

Washington, D.C.

4,887

38

..

13

...

18

99

38

29

506

...

22

40

12

...

92

164

515

839

90

27

22

0.2

1.5

0.4

0.3

4.3

2.6

0.7

6.4

1.0

3.6

0.2

2.1

8.6

22.9

56.5

5.0

1.2

0.6

6,563

21

...

12

...

12

68

31

10

828

...

42

18

20

11

142

279

931

688

99

15

24

2.9

0.8

0.3

0.2

2.9

2.1

0.2

10.3

1.9

1.6

0.3

0.7

3.2

14.5

41.1

45.8

5.5

0.7

0.2

9,926

55

...

15

...

20

79

55

24

1,226

...

42

10

16

...

110

481

929

992

177

29

20

4.3

2.1

0.4

0.4

3.4

3.7

0.6

15.2

1.9

0.9

0.2

2.4

24.7

40.6

65.3

9.6

1.3

0.5

17,665

101

...

...

...

20

154

145

17

1,400

...

64

12

21

...

92

813

913

1,258

299

52

33

7.7

3.8

0.3

6.6

9.5

0.4

17.4

3.0

1.0

0.3

1.9

39.3

42.1

75.4

14.0

2.4

0.9

16,184

144

...

...

...

35

197

193

...

1,288

...

80

19

23

...

87

760

679

1,225

265

79

25

7.0

5.4

...

...

...

0.6

8.3

10.8

...

15.7

...

3.5

1.6

0.3

...

1.9

38.4

29.3

79.4

14.2

3.4

0.7

-8%

43

...

...

...

75

28

33

-

-8

...

25

58

10

...

- 5

- 7

-26

-3

-11

52

-24

* Estimates for this time period are preliminary. Final estimates may be higher or lower due to nonresponse adjustment and other factors.

1 - Part of the increase between 1993 and 1994 in the national estimate was due to a change in reporting practice in two hospitals in the National Panel component of the DAWN sample (i.e., the areas outside the 21 listed metropolitan areas). Excluding these two hospitals, the increase was still 45% between 1993 and 1994.

... Estimated quantity less than 10 or fewer than 10 cases in the denominator.

Source:    Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network.

Table 4:    Distribution of Methamphetamine/Speed-Related Emergency Department Episodes by Selected Demographic Characteristics:     1991-1995


1991

1992

1993

1994

1995*

Total

Age

6-17

18-25

26-34

35+

Sex

Male

Female

Race/Ethnicity

White

Black

Hispanic

Other/Unknown

Motive for Taking Drug

Dependence

Suicide

Recreational Use

Other Psychic Effect

Unknown

Reason for Visit

Unexpected Reaction

Overdose

Withdrawal

Chronic Effects

Seeking Detoxification

Other/Unknown

4,887

442

1,302

1,972

1,168

3,057

1,810

3,485

370

622

410

2,131

400

1,428

209

720

1,481

1,017

229

1,087

371

702

6,563

676

1,719

2,790

1,378

4,459

2,022

4,607

263

925

768

2,216

583

2,103

285

1,376

2,345

1,916

315

949

537

501

9,926

677

3,425

3,642

2,182

6,747

3,073

7,070

347

1,343

1,165

3,498

865

2,691

219

2,652

3,689

2,844

130

1,310

839

1,114

17,665

1,983

5,494

5,870

4,318

11,394

6,210

12,374

982

2,606

1,704

7,123

922

4,243

511

4,866

6,359

4,454

633

2,551

1,375

2,292

16,184

1,424

4,828

5,551

4,351

10,516

5,540

10,524

905

2,834

1,921

7,245

1,094

3,406

445

4,389

5,154

4,138

1,008

2,961

1,086

1,878

*Estimates for this time period are preliminary. Final estimates may be higher or lower due to nonresponse adjustment and other factors.

Note:    Part of the increase between 1993 and 1994 in the national estimate was due to a change in reporting practice in two hospitals in the National Panel component of the DAWN sample (i.e., the areas outside the 21 listed metropolitan areas). Excluding these two hospitals, the increase was still 45% between 1993 and 1994.

Source:    Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Drug Abuse Warning Network.

Table 5:    Number of Primary Methamphetamine Admissions to Publicly-funded Treatment Units in Reporting States:     1993-1995

State

1993

1994

1995

%

Change

1994-95

Total

20,426

32,470

45,588

40

*Alabama

33

36

108

200

*Alaska

3

13

27

108

*California

15,792

23,024

26,591

15

*Colorado

446

839

1,318

57

*Delaware

4

5

6

20

Dst. of Columbia

5

n/a

n/a

n/a

*Florida

107

125

201

61

*Georgia

82

129

242

88

*Hawaii

482

630

1,029

63

Idaho

166

383

877

129

*Illinois

30

46

122

165

*Indiana

92

190

198

4

*Iowa

252

973

3,774

288

Kansas

238

391

819

109

Kentucky

n/a

n/a

15

n/a

*Louisiana

77

27

50

85

*Maine

18

18

23

28

*Maryland

23

35

44

26

*Massachusetts

18

37

42

14

*Michigan

73

116

117

1

*Minnesota

232

413

857

108

*Missouri

9

364

962

164

*Montana

159

360

609

69

N/A = Not Available.

NOTE:    States not yet contributing data to TEDS include:     Arizona and Mississippi. Arkansas, Connecticut, Oregon and Texas do not provide methamphetamine admissions separately.

* = States for which consistent data are available for 1993 through 1995.

Source:    Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Treatment Episode Data Set.

Table 5 continued:   

State

1993

1994

1995

%

Change

1994-95

Nebraska

79

165

194

18

*Nevada

635

953

1,349

42

*New Hampshire

4

4

5

25

New Jersey

82

78

11

-86

*New Mexico

60

103

154

50

*New York

110

95

101

6

*North Carolina

16

26

43

65

*North Dakota

10

18

41

128

*Ohio

141

144

138

-4

*Oklahoma

92

329

635

93

Pennsylvania

85

167

102

-39

Puerto Rico

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

*Rhode Island

1

4

2

-50

*South Carolina

20

24

58

142

*South Dakota

21

29

148

410

Tennessee

2

5

n/a

n/a

*Utah

154

615

1,372

123

Vermont

3

7

6

-14

*Virginia

35

39

67

72

*Washington

504

1,473

3,072

109

West Virginia

4

n/a

n/a

n/a

*Wisconsin

16

16

19

19

Wyoming

11

22

24

9

N/A = Not Available.

NOTE:    States not yet contributing data to TEDS include:     Arizona and Mississippi. Arkansas, Connecticut, Oregon and Texas do not provide methamphetamine admissions separately.

* = States for which consistent data are available for 1993 through 1995.

Source:    Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Treatment Episode Data Set.

Table 6:    Number of Admissions to Publicly-funded Treatment Units for Primary Methamphetamine Use and Percent Distribution by Route of Administration:     1993-95

Metropolitan

Area

 

Number of Methamphetamine Admissions

%

Change

 

Percent by Route of Administration

for 1995 Admissions

  1993 1994 1995 1994-95 Inhale Smoke Inject Oral Other Total

Atlanta, GA

50

40

70

75

48.6

10.0

24.3

15.7

1.4

100.0

Baltimore, MD

9

15

19

27

55.6

11.1

11.1

16.7

5.6

100.0

Boston, MA

16

29

34

17

29.4

11.8

23.5

35.3

0

100.0

Buffalo, NY

20

20

16

-20

12.5

18.8

18.8

50.0

0

100.0

Chicago, IL

8

9

20

122

30.0

50.0

10.0

10.0

0

100.0

Denver, CO

197

337

500

48

32.8

17.3

42.7

6.8

0.4

100.0

Detroit, MI

7

11

24

118

29.2

25.0

12.5

33.3

0

100.0

Los Angeles, CA

1,307

1,926

2,514

31

51.1

29.6

14.4

4.2

0.7

100.0

Miami, FL

0

3

3

0

33.3

33.3

0

33.3

0

100.0

Minneapolis, MN

152

300

586

95

54.6

8.2

26.1

11.2

0

100.0

New Orleans, LA

19

5

17

240

6.7

0

13.3

6.7

73.3

100.0

New York, NY

30

26

33

27

30.3

27.3

12.1

30.3

0

100.0

Newark, NJ

8

7

3

-57

66.7

0

0

33.3

0

100.0

Philadelphia

79

86

37

-57

27.0

5.4

45.9

21.6

0

100.0

St. Louis, MO

4

34

130

282

37.0

12.6

38.6

11.8

0

100.0

San Diego, CA

2,252

3,303

3,513

6

45.6

31.5

19.9

2.8

0.2

100.0

San Francisco, CA

439

803

1,055

31

43.0

13.4

37.3

5.7

0.6

100.0

Seattle, WA

121

323

520

61

10.1

24.9

54.6

10.1

0.3

100.0

Washington, D.C.

24

27

32

19

31.3

28.1

28.1

9.4

3.1

100.0

Source:    Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Treatment Episode Data Set.

Table 7:    Number of Admissions to Treatment Facilities that Receive Public Funding for Primary Amphetamine Use (including Methamphetamine):     1993-1995

State

1993

1994

1995

% Change

1994-95

*Arkansas

269

600

1,043

74

Connecticut

29

32

32

0

*Oregon

2,435

4,810

7,178

49

*Texas

1,001

1,394

1,483

6

Selected Cities

1993

1994

1995

% Change

1994-95

Dallas, TX

149

246

217

-12

Houston, TX

88

94

102

9

Portland, OR

948

1,638

2,528

54

San Antonio, TX

50

50

64

28

* = States for which consistent data are available for 1993 through 1995.

Source:    Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, Treatment Episode Data Set.

Table 8:    Percentage and 95 Percent Confidence Intervals of Total Population Ages 12 and Older Reporting Lifetime Methamphetamine Use, by Demographic Characteristics:     1994-96

Demographics

1994

1995

1996

Percentage

(95% C.I.)

Estimated Number

(In 1000s)

Percentage

(95% C.I.)

Estimated Number

(In 1000s)

Percentage

(95% C.I.)

Estimated Number

(In 1000s)

Total

Education1

<HS Grad.

HS Grad.

Some College

College Grad.

Employment1

Full-time

Part-time

Unemployed

Other

Age

12-17

18-25

26-34

35+

Sex

Male

Female

Region

Northeast

North Central

South

West

1.8 (1.6-2.1)

1.7 (1.3-2.3)

2.0 (1.6-2.6)

2.3 (1.7-3.2)

1.7 (1.2-2.5)

2.9 (2.4-3.4)

1.1 (0.7-1.8)

3.0 (1.8-5.0)

0.7 (0.5-1.2)

0.6 (0.3-1.0)

1.7 (1.1-2.7)

3.6 (3.0-4.3)

1.6 (1.2-2.0)

2.6 (2.2-3.2)

1.1 (0.8-1.4)

1.0 (0.6-1.8)

1.9 (1.5-2.4)

1.4 (1.1-1.9)

3.2 (2.4-4.1)

3,825

652

1,252

1,044

756

2,739

276

249

440

121

480

1,306

1,918

2,659

1,166

423

939

1,043

1,419

2.2 (1.8-2.6)

1.4 (1.0-2.1)

2.6 (1.9-3.4)

2.8 (2.0-3.9)

2.4 (1.6-3.6)

2.7 (2.1-3.4)

3.4 (2.3-5.1)

4.9 (2.8-8.5)

1.1 (0.8-1.6)

0.8 (0.5-1.1)

1.9 (1.3-2.6)

3.8 (3.2-4.6)

2.1 (1.6-2.7)

2.9 (2.3-3.6)

1.6 (1.2-2.0)

1.3 (0.8-2.1)

1.7 (1.0-2.8)

1.8 (1.2-2.5)

4.4 (3.4-5.6)

4,676

519

1,682

1,173

1,132

2,689

738

403

676

169

515

1,385

2,607

2,940

1,736

551

817

1,292

2,016

2.3 (1.9-2.7)

2.4 (1.7-3.3)

2.5 (1.8-3.4)

2.9 (2.2-3.9)

2.1 (1.3-2.1)

3.2 (2.6-4.0)

2.1 (1.4-3.3)

6.0(3.3-10.8)

0.9 (0.6-1.3)

0.6 (0.4-1.1)

2.5 (2.0-3.2)

4.1 (3.4-5.0)

2.0 (1.5-2.6)

3.2 (2.6-3.9)

1.4 (1.1 -1.8)

1.9 (1.4-2.5)

2.1 (1.3-3.4)

1.5 (1.1-2.0)

4.1 (2.9-5.6)

4,841

880

1,640

1,258

945

3,187

473

497

539

145

702

1,461

2,532

3,266

1,575

787

1,086

1,123

1,844

NOTE:     These estimates are not comparable to data from 1993 and earlier NHSDA’s because of the change in the questionnaire beginning in 1994.

1 Data on current education and employment for those age 18 and older only.

Source:    Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-6.

Table 9:    Percentage and 95% Confidence Intervals of Total Population Ages 12 and Older Reporting Past Year Nonmedical Stimulant Use and Lifetime Use of Methamphetamine, by Demographic Characteristics:     1994-96

Demographics

1994

1995

1996

Percentage

(95% C.I. )

Estimated Number

(In 1000s)

Percentage

(95% C.I. )

Estimated Number

(In1000s)

Percentage

(95% C.I. )

Estimated Number

(In1000s)

Total

Education1

<HS Grad.

HS Grad.

Some College

College Grad.

Employment1

Full-time

Part-time

Unemployed

Other

Age

12-17

18-25

26-34

35+

Sex

Male

Female

Region

Northeast

North Central

South

West

0.4 (0.3-0.5)

0.6 (0.4-0.9)

0.3 (0.2-0.5)

0.3 (0.2-0.7)

0.3 (0.1-0.7)

0.5 (0.3-0.7)

0.4 (0.2-0.8)

0.7 (0.3-1.7)

0.2 (0.1-0.4)

0.3 (0.2-0.7)

0.7 (0.4-1.2)

0.7 (0.5-1.0)

0.2 (0.1-0.4)

0.5 (0.3-0.8)

0.2 (0.1-0.3)

0.2 (0.1-0.6)

0.3 (0.1-0.6)

0.2 (0.1-0.5)

0.9 (0.5-1.5)

760

230

187

155

114

433

91

55

106

74

211

257

217

511

249

76

129

174

381

0.4 (0.3-0.6)

0.4 (0.2-0.8)

0.5 (0.3-0.8)

0.5 (0.2-1.0)

0.1 (0.0-0.4)

0.4 (0.3-0.7)

0.4 (0.2-0.8)

1.3 (0.6-2.9)

0.2 (0.1-0.4)

0.7 (0.4-1.1)

1.0 (0.6-1.6)

0.9 (0.6-1.4)

0.1 (0.0-0.4)

0.5 (0.3-0.8)

0.4 (0.2-0.5)

0.1 (0.0-0.3)

0.4 (0.1-1.2)

0.2 (0.1-0.4)

1.1 (0.8-1.6)

892

154

334

205

46

429

88

111

111

153

269

331

140

492

400

33

181

157

522

0.5(0.4-0.7)

0.7 (0.4-1.0)

0.7 (0.4-1.2)

0.8 (0.5-1.2)

0.0 (0.0-0.3)

0.5 (0.3-0.8)

0.5 (0.2-1.0)

2.4 (1.4-4.2)

0.3 (0.2-0.6)

0.5 (0.4-0.7)

1.2 (0.9-1.7)

0.9 (0.6-1.3)

0.3 (0.2-0.6)

0.8 (0.5-1.1)

0.3 (0.2-0.6)

0.0 (0.0-0.2)

0.4 (0.2-0.8)

0.4 (0.2-0.7)

1.4 (0.9-2.1)

1,152

251

438

330

16

532

108

201

193

117

343

311

381

810

342

21

216

269

645

1 Data on current education and employment for those age 18 and older only.

Note:    Past year nonmedical stimulant users who used methamphetamine in their lifetimes are used as a proxy for past year methamphetamine use. Among past year stimulant users who report lifetime methamphetamine use, 55% report no other stimulant ever used nonmedically.

Source:    Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1994-6.

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