This installment of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Disaster Behavioral Health Information Series (DBHIS) focuses on disaster behavioral health preparedness and response materials for those providing interventions during the acute phase—up to 14 days following a disaster. The Featured Resources page includes direct links and short descriptions of resources and literature about treatment models used in the acute phase and in additional phases of a disaster. The Links to Organizations and Agencies page lists organizations and agencies that can offer additional resources for disaster behavioral health interventions.
Resources are organized as follows:
- Acute Intervention Models: This section presents resources for treatment models and interventions that are often used in the acute phase of a disaster.
- Psychological First Aid: (PFA)—PFA is an evidence-informed approach for assisting children, adolescents, adults, and families in the immediate aftermath of disaster. PFA resources include the following:
- PFA for Schools
- PFA for Community Religious Professionals
- PFA for Medical Reserve Corps
- PFA for Families and Youth Experiencing Homelessness
- Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM): CISM is a comprehensive, integrative crisis intervention system consisting of multiple components that span the entire spectrum of a crisis. It is designed to assist a homogeneous group of people after an exposure to the same significant traumatic event.
- Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT): CERT is an all-hazard training program designed to prepare citizens to respond to emergencies in their communities.
- International Models: This section includes models from outside the United States.
- Other Acute Intervention Models: This section includes additional treatment models and interventions that are appropriate for the acute phase of a disaster.
- Acute Stress Disorder: This section includes resources on acute stress disorder, which is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event.
- Suicide Prevention and Intervention: Although research indicates that rates of suicide do not increase after a disaster, people who were at risk for suicide before an event may be even more vulnerable afterward. This section includes suicide assessment and monitoring tools, hotlines, intervention tips, models, and other resources.
- Acute Grief: This section includes resources on acute grief, which is an expected reaction in disaster survivors after a significant loss of loved ones, a home, or a community.
- Interventions for Additional Phases of a Disaster: As noted previously, this DBHIS collection focuses on the acute disaster phase, generally defined as the first 14 days after an event. Some survivors continue to exhibit distress reactions beyond the acute phase, and they often do not have the benefit of psychosocial services during the acute phase or are not receptive to them at that time. The interventions in this section may be helpful during the immediate (14 or more days post event), intermediate (several months post event), or longer term (months to years post event) disaster recovery process.
- Crisis Counseling: Crisis counseling is a model of immediate intervention that is most often used within the Federal Emergency Management Agency Crisis Counseling Assistance and Training Program in a federally declared disaster. Crisis counseling is appropriate for individuals and communities.
- Skills for Psychological Recovery (SPR): SPR is an evidence-informed modular approach to helping children, adolescents, adults, and families in the weeks and months following disaster and trauma.
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT is a model that examines the relationships between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. CBT and many subset models and interventions are included in this section.
- Age-Specific Interventions: These interventions are targeted toward specific age groups, such as children, adolescents, and older adults.
- Mental Health First Aid (MHFA): While MHFA is not a disaster-specific intervention, it can teach a layperson to assist someone who has a history of mental illness and is experiencing a mental health crisis until appropriate professional help arrives.
Links to Organizations and Agencies
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