Click to see the modal popup.


1, 2 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-41, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 11-4658. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

3, 13 Moreno, M.A., Briner, L.R., Williams, A., Walker, L., and Christakis, D.A. (2009). Real use or "real cool": Adolescents speak out about displayed alcohol references on social networking websites. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(4), 420–422.

4 Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., Bachman, J. G., and Schulenberg, J. E. (2012). Monitoring the Future: National results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2011. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.

5 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: A Guide to Action for Educators. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General, 2007.

6 Fergusson, D.M., and Lynskey, M.T. (1996). Alcohol misuse and adolescent sexual behaviors and risk taking. Pediatrics, 98(1), 91–96.

7 Tapert, S.F., Aarons, G.A., Sedlar, G.R., and Brown, S.A. (2001). Adolescent substance use and sexual risk-taking behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28(3), 181–189.

8 Bonnie, R.J., and O’Connell, M.E. (Ed.). (2004). Reducing underage drinking: A collective responsibility. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. From (accessed May 3, 2012).

9 Grunbaum, J.A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., Lowry, R., et al. (2004, May 21). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. From (accessed May 3, 2012).

10 Nash, S.G., McQueen, A., and Bray, J.H. (2005). Pathways to adolescent alcohol use: Family environment, peer influence, and parental expectations. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37(1), 19–28.

11 Barnes, G.M., Reifman, A.S., Farrell, M.P., and Dintcheff, B.A. (2000). The effects of parenting on the development of adolescent alcohol misuse: A six-wave latent growth model. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(1), 175–186.

12 Sieving, R.E., Maruyama, G., Williams, C.L., and Perry, C.L. (2000). Pathways to adolescent alcohol use: Potential mechanisms of parent influence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10(4), 489–514.