Prevalence of Past Year Substance Use and Mental Illness by Veteran Status
in a Nationally Representative Sample

Authors

Michael R. Pemberton, Valerie L. Forman-Hoffman, Rachel N. Lipari, Olivia Silber Ashley, David C. Heller, and Matthew R. Williams

Abstract

Objective. The objectives of this study were to examine differences between veterans of the U.S. military and nonveterans for the prevalence of past year substance use and mental health issues and to determine whether trends in use and disorders have differed by veteran status over time.

Methods. Data were analyzed from approximately 29,200 veterans and 470,900 nonveteran adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the 2002 to 2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs). Combined 2002 to 2012 data were used to estimate past year use of any illicit drug, marijuana, hallucinogens, or methamphetamine; nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics and pain relievers; and past year dependence or abuse of either illicit drugs or alcohol. Combined 2005 to 2012 data were used to estimate past year major depressive episode (MDE), and combined 2008 to 2012 data were used to estimate past year receipt of treatment for depression among those with MDE, past year any mental illness (AMI), and past year serious mental illness (SMI). The average annual past year prevalence of these measures was calculated for veterans and compared with estimates for nonveterans that had been standardized to match the age group, gender, and race/ethnicity distributions of veterans. Associations were also examined separately in gender and age group strata. To test whether trends over time differed for veterans and nonveterans, multiple logistic regression models that included an interaction term for year by veteran status were run for each substance use and mental health measure.

Results. Among all adults, past year prevalence was lower for veterans than for nonveterans for illicit drug use (8.4 vs. 10.5 percent), marijuana use (6.3 vs. 7.8 percent), nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics (3.1 vs. 4.0 percent), nonmedical use of pain relievers (2.4 vs. 3.0 percent), and hallucinogen use (0.5 vs. 0.6 percent) after adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The lower prevalence for veterans as compared with nonveterans for these substance use measures was found only among males; female veterans and nonveterans had similar substance use estimates. In addition, veterans aged 18 to 25 were more likely to report nonmedical use of pain relievers and use of methamphetamine and to have alcohol abuse or dependence than nonveterans aged 18 to 25, though there were no differences for the total adult population or for other age groups. With respect to mental health issues, veterans had a higher prevalence of SMI than nonveterans in the overall adult population and among males. Female veterans had a higher prevalence of past year MDE than female nonveterans (10.9 vs. 8.5 percent). Among the younger two age groups (18 to 25 and 26 to 54), veterans had higher prevalence estimates of SMI, AMI, and MDE than nonveterans. In the multiple logistic regression models, no trends over time in substance use or mental health prevalence differed by veteran status.

Conclusions. The overall prevalence of many types of substance use was lower for veterans than for nonveterans, though some specific subgroups of veterans did have a higher prevalence of some types of substance use compared with their nonveteran counterparts. Furthermore, some subgroups of veterans had a higher prevalence of some mental health issues compared with their nonveteran counterparts. Additional findings indicate that trends of substance use and mental health issues among veterans have not differed from trends among nonveterans in recent years. This suggests that along the dimensions researched in this study, changes over time in the behavioral health of veterans were consistent with changes over time for the nation as a whole. Additional research using NSDUH data is needed to further assess parallels in behavioral health and treatment utilization among veterans and nonveterans.

Introduction

There has been a growing concern about behavioral health issues (e.g., substance use and mental health issues) among veterans of the United States military returning from overseas conflicts. Consequently, there has been significant research conducted to address these issues, with many studies finding elevated rates of behavioral health issues among veterans.1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 For example, Seal and colleagues9 studied medical records from veterans entering the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system between October 2001 and January 2008 and found that 21.8 percent had a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and 17.4 percent had a depression diagnosis between entry and March 2008. Also, in the older but well-known Veterans Health Study, 2,160 male veterans seen at a VA outpatient facility for the first time or for repeat visits were sampled between 1993 and 1995. Hankin and colleagues11 determined that approximately 40 percent screened positive for a depressive disorder, PTSD, or an alcohol-related disorder, and 68 percent of those who met criteria for one of the investigated mental or substance use disorders reported receiving mental health treatment.

Some studies have shown that certain veteran groups have higher rates of mental disorders than similar groups of nonveterans. In a study that focused only on female veterans using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Lehavot and colleagues12 reported that veteran women were more likely to report a history of a depressive disorder than civilian women. Risk factors found in other studies for screening positive for a mental disorder among veterans include prior deployment,13,14 having had combat exposure,15 and being younger (aged 18 to 24).16 The difference in screening between younger and older veterans may reflect new veterans who have recently deployed and then separated from the military. A study by Milliken and colleagues8 found that rates of mental health problems were higher immediately postdeployment versus predeployment, with 20.3 percent of active duty and 42.4 percent of Reserve component soldiers identified as needing mental health treatment in the first 6 months after returning from deployment. Another study found high rates of PTSD and depression among Army soldiers recently returning from combat deployment, with persistent or increased levels at 12 months versus 3 months postdeployment.17 It is important to note that some of these postdeployment service members continue to serve on active duty status, whereas others separate and gain veteran status. A study by Toomey18 showed that veterans who had been deployed continued to have a higher prevalence of mental health problems compared with nondeployed veterans up to 10 years after return from deployment.

There have been several studies conducted within the VA health care setting related to substance use by veterans. One study focused on VA clinic users who had recently separated from the military and found that 22 percent screened positive for possible alcohol use disorder, and 40 percent screened positive for potentially hazardous alcohol use, of whom less than a third reported being counseled to cut back or not drink alcohol.19 In another cross-sectional sample of VA outpatients aged 55 or younger screened for alcohol misuse in 2007, 26.3 percent of males and 10.5 percent of females had a past year diagnosis of an alcohol or other drug use disorder in their medical record.5 A third study consisting of first-time VA users between 2001 and 2009 showed that 11 percent had a substance use disorder: 10 percent abused or were dependent on alcohol, 5 percent abused or were dependent on an illicit drug, and 3 percent had both an alcohol and illicit drug use disorder.20

In studies from VA settings, rates of alcohol and other drug use disorders were found to be higher among male veterans than among female veterans20,21 and higher among younger veterans than among older veterans.20 Prior research also has identified high rates of positive screens for alcohol misuse postdeployment,2 particularly with high levels of combat exposure (e.g., exposure to death).20,22 Finally, these studies have shown that those with substance use disorders are more likely to also have a mental disorder, particularly PTSD or a depressive disorder,20 and veterans with a mental disorder, particularly PTSD, are more likely to use prescription opioids nonmedically and to have resulting adverse clinical outcomes such as overdose and other accidents and injuries.23

Findings from studies focusing on substance use and mental health problems that use data from the VA may not be generalizable to all veterans because only about 1 in 3 veterans receive care at a VA facility. In addition, there are significant sociodemographic differences24 and observed differences in behaviors such as alcohol use between veterans who use the VA and those who do not.25

There have been several studies on substance use by veterans using nationally representative surveys. Data from the 2000 to 2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs) indicate that after adjusting for demographic differences between veterans and nonveterans, the prevalence of past month alcohol use and past month heavy alcohol use was higher among veterans than among nonveterans,26 although rates of past year dependence or abuse of either illicit drugs or alcohol were similar for veterans and nonveterans.27 Hoerster and colleagues,6 using 2010 BRFSS data, reported that veterans were more likely to report heavy alcohol consumption than nonveterans. Using 2004 BRFSS data, Bohnert and colleagues25 reported that male veterans overall had similar patterns of alcohol use as male nonveterans but that the association varied across age groups. Male veterans aged 41 to 60 were less likely to binge drink than male nonveterans of that age, and male veterans aged 61 to 70 were more likely to drink heavily than male nonveterans of that age.

Little is known about the prevalence of mental health problems of veterans based on nationally representative data, including whether the prevalence of these problems is higher or lower for veterans versus nonveterans after controlling for demographics such as gender and age. In addition, little is known about whether trends over recent years in substance use and mental health problems are similar for veterans and nonveterans. Recent reports indicate that veterans have an increasing need for mental health and substance use services; however, additional information on trends is needed to determine whether this increasing need is due to actual increases in the prevalence of problems or to increases in the numbers of veterans who have recently served on active duty.

This study aims to add to the existing literature by using a nationally representative dataset to produce estimates of substance use and mental health issues among veterans and nonveterans and to provide comparisons that adjust for the significant demographic differences between these populations. Combining multiple years of NSDUH data provides a sample size of veterans large enough to produce estimates for both male and female veterans and veterans of different age groups that typically have not been included in other studies. Another aim of this study is to determine whether trends over recent years in substance use and mental health issues have been similar for veterans and nonveterans.

Methods

Data Source and Study Sample

Data were analyzed from the 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs,28 which provide annual estimates of substance use, substance abuse and dependence, and mental health issues among the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population aged 12 years or older. The survey uses audio computer-assisted self-interviewing technology, which provides respondents with a confidential way to record their answers. Other details of the survey design and data collection procedures have been reported elsewhere.28 Respondents were classified as veterans if they responded "yes" to the question "Have you ever been in the United States' armed forces?" and also indicated that they were "now separated/retired from reserves/active duty." The questions used for classifying veterans are the only questions in NSDUH that are related to veteran status; thus, it is not possible using NSDUH data to differentiate within the veteran population by other characteristics that may be related to substance use and mental health, such as years of service, deployment history, paygrade, branch of service, and era of service. Data for this study were drawn from approximately 29,200 veteran and 470,900 nonveteran adults aged 18 or older who participated in the 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs.

Measures

Past Year Substance Use. Past year substance use was assessed by a series of self-reported responses regarding the respondent's past year use of illicit drugs. Illicit drugs included marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. This study examined use of specific drugs including marijuana; nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics (i.e., use of prescription pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives not prescribed for the respondent by a physician or use that occurred simply for the experience or feeling they caused); nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers; hallucinogens; and methamphetamine. Past year dependence or abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol was assessed using a series of questions based on the criteria specified in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).29

Major Depressive Episode. The measure of major depressive episode (MDE) in the past 12 months was based on criteria in the DSM-IV,29 which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms. Respondents were also asked whether they received treatment for depression in the past year, allowing estimates of the percentage of people with MDE who received treatment for depression.

Any Mental Illness and Serious Mental Illness. Measures of any mental illness (AMI) and serious mental illness (SMI) were based on respondents' answers to the Kessler-6 (K6) scale of general psychological distress30 and an abridged version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) impairment scale.31 National estimates of mental illness are based on a statistical model developed from clinical interviews with a subset of respondents. In the clinical interviews, adults were defined as having AMI if they had a diagnosable mental disorder (excluding substance use disorders) in the past 12 months based on criteria in the DSM-IV, regardless of the level of functional impairment.28,29 Adults with diagnosable mental disorders in the past 12 months that resulted in severe functional impairment were defined as having SMI. Based on the results of these clinical interviews, prediction models were fit to determine AMI and SMI from responses to the K6 and WHODAS questions for the full sample in the 2008 to 2012 NSDUHs.32,33

Sociodemographic Characteristics. Sociodemographic characteristics in this study included age group (18 to 25, 26 to 54, or 55 or older); gender (male or female); race/ethnicity (white, black, other, or Hispanic); marital status (living with spouse, living with partner [as if married], or other); employment status (full time or part time, unemployed, or other); and level of education (some college or higher or other). For race/ethnicity, Hispanic is defined as anyone of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin, and black is defined as black or African American only and not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin.

Data Analysis

Descriptive analyses were conducted using pooled years of data to examine (1) differences in the demographic distributions of veterans and nonveterans, and (2) differences in the prevalence of past year substance use and mental health issues of veterans and nonveterans. Because of variations in the availability of data, substance use estimates were based on pooled 2002 to 2012 data, MDE estimates were based on pooled 2005 to 2012 data, and estimates of AMI and SMI as well as estimates of treatment for depression among those with MDE were based on pooled 2008 to 2012 data. Because of marked differences in gender and age distributions for veterans and nonveterans (see Table 1), standardizing weights representing the frequency distribution of the cross-classification of age group (18 to 25, 26 to 54, and 55 or older), gender, and race/ethnicity (white, black, other, and Hispanic) among the veteran population were created for each year.34 Using these weights, the nonveteran estimates were standardized directly to the distribution of the veteran population as defined by those cross-classifications in order to provide meaningful comparisons of prevalence estimates between veterans and nonveterans. Unadjusted estimates for nonveterans are also presented as a reference, but all tests of differences for prevalence estimates between veterans and nonveterans were conducted using the adjusted prevalence estimates.35

Table 1. Demographic Distributions of Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status: Percentages, 2002-2012
Demographic Group Veteran Status
Veterans Nonveterans
* Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 The not Hispanic or Latino other category includes American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, Asian, or two or more races.
2 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2005, 2006-2007 (revised March 2012), and 2008-2012 (revised October 2013).
Total 100.0 100.0
Gender
Male   93.6   42.4
Female     6.4   57.6
Age Group
18-25     1.6   16.5
26-54   34.4   56.8
55 or Older   64.0   26.8
Race/Ethnicity
Not Hispanic or Latino
White   81.6   67.4
Black or African American   10.2   11.6
Other1     3.1     6.7
Hispanic or Latino     5.0   14.4
Employment Status
Employed (full time or part time)   55.0   68.1
Unemployed     2.5     4.8
Other2   42.4   27.1
Marital Status
Living with Spouse   68.0   52.1
Living with Partner (as if married)     5.3     7.9
Other   26.7   39.9
Educational Attainment
Some College or Higher   56.3   52.6
Other   43.7   47.4

To determine whether time trends in behavioral health measures differed for veterans versus nonveterans, multiple logistic regression models were run that included year by veteran status interaction terms and controlled for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and employment status. A statistically significant year by veteran status interaction term would indicate that the trends over time for a substance use or mental illness measure did differ between veterans and nonveterans, and stratified multiple logistic regression models were run separately for veterans and nonveterans to determine the specific pattern of the interaction.

Data were analyzed using SUDAAN® software,36 which applies a Taylor series linearization method to account for NSDUH's complex design features. In addition, SUDAAN has the capability of producing standardized estimates for comparing the characteristics of veterans and nonveterans using the aforementioned standardizing weights to account for the different attributes of the two populations. All results are weighted national estimates, and the corresponding hypothesis tests were two-sided and tested at an alpha level of 0.05. The logistic regression modeling was also run in SUDAAN. Because the models themselves controlled for the differences in the veteran and nonveteran populations, the final analysis weights rather than the standardizing weights were used in the logistic regression analyses.

Results

Demographics of Veterans and Nonveterans

As Table 1 shows, the demographic distributions of veterans and nonveterans differ significantly, especially in gender and age groups. Veterans were more likely than nonveterans to be male (93.6 vs. 42.4 percent) and to be in older age groups (e.g., 1.6 percent of veterans were aged 18 to 25 vs. 16.5 percent of nonveterans; 64.0 percent of veterans were aged 55 or older vs. 26.8 percent of nonveterans). Compared with nonveterans, veterans also were more likely to be white, less likely to be Hispanic, and less likely to be employed full time or part time. Note that the lower employment rate among veterans may reflect the older age of veterans overall.

Comparisons between Veterans and Nonveterans Using Pooled Data

Comparisons between veterans and nonveterans for the past year substance use measures using combined 2002 to 2012 NSDUH data are presented in Table 2. When compared with prevalence rates of nonveterans that have been standardized to the veteran population by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity, veterans had significantly lower past year prevalence rates of any illicit drug use, marijuana use, nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics, nonmedical use of pain relievers, and hallucinogen use. There were no significant overall differences between veterans and nonveterans in methamphetamine use or past year dependence or abuse of either illicit drugs or alcohol. The data in Table 2 also indicate that the lower prevalence of any illicit drug use, marijuana use, nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics, nonmedical use of pain relievers, and hallucinogen use for veterans relative to nonveterans were found only for males, with no significant differences found for females. The patterns for those aged 26 to 54 and 55 or older were similar to the overall findings, with veterans in both age groups having a lower prevalence of illicit drug use, marijuana use, and nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics than nonveterans. In addition, the rate of hallucinogen use was lower for veterans than for nonveterans among those aged 26 to 54, and the rate of nonmedical use of pain relievers was lower for veterans than for nonveterans among those aged 55 or older. Veterans aged 18 to 25 had lower rates of marijuana use than nonveterans, but this pattern was the opposite for multiple other measures. Veterans aged 18 to 25 had higher rates of nonmedical use of pain relievers, methamphetamine use, and alcohol abuse or dependence than nonveterans in this age group.

Table 2. Past Year Substance Use Measures among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group Illicit Drugs1 Marijuana Nonmedical Use
of Psychothera-
peutics2
Nonmedical Use
of Pain Relievers
Hallucinogens Methamphet-
amine3
Illicit Drug
Dependence or
Abuse4
Alcohol
Dependence or
Abuse4
Percent SE Percent SE Percent SE Percent SE Percent SE Percent SE Percent SE Percent SE
SE = standard error.
* Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
1 Illicit drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs. Estimates of nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2008; see endnote 40). For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the 2008 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2009; see endnote 41).
3 Estimates of methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2008; see endnote 40). For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the 2008 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2009; see endnote 41).
4 Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29).
a Difference between adjusted nonveteran estimate and veteran estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
b Difference between adjusted nonveteran estimate and veteran estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2005, 2006-2007 (revised March 2012), and 2008-2012 (revised October 2013).
Total
Veteran 8.4 0.19 6.3 0.16 3.1 0.12 2.4 0.10 0.5 0.04 0.4 0.04 1.5 0.08 6.3 0.18
Nonveteran, Adjusted 10.5b 0.18   7.8b 0.16   4.0b 0.11 3.0b 0.09 0.6b 0.03 0.4 0.03 1.7 0.06 6.8 0.16
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 15.0   0.09 11.1   0.07 6.5 0.05 4.9 0.05 1.7 0.02 0.6 0.01 2.8 0.03 7.8 0.06
Gender
Male
Veteran 8.3 0.20 6.2 0.17 3.0 0.13 2.3 0.11 0.4 0.04 0.4 0.05 1.5 0.08 6.5 0.19
Nonveteran, Adjusted 10.5b 0.19   7.8b 0.17   3.9b 0.12   3.0b 0.10   0.6b 0.03 0.4 0.03 1.7 0.06 6.9 0.17
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 19.7   0.14 15.6   0.12 7.7 0.09 6.2 0.08 2.5 0.04 0.8 0.03 4.1 0.06 11.8   0.11
Female
Veteran 10.6   0.68 7.1 0.54 5.1 0.49 4.0 0.44 0.8 0.18 0.3 0.11 1.7 0.26 4.7 0.48
Nonveteran, Adjusted 10.5   0.10 6.9 0.08 5.1 0.07 3.5 0.06 0.7 0.02 0.4 0.02 1.5 0.04 4.4 0.06
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 11.5   0.09 7.9 0.07 5.6 0.06 3.9 0.05 1.0 0.02 0.4 0.02 1.7 0.03 4.8 0.06
Age Group
18-25
Veteran 36.3   1.06 29.9   1.01 17.7   0.89 14.8   0.82 7.5 0.57 2.3 0.34 9.1 0.66 21.2   0.95
Nonveteran, Adjusted 38.0   0.18 32.6a 0.17 16.0   0.12 12.9a 0.11 8.2 0.10   1.4a 0.04 9.3 0.10 19.1a 0.13
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 34.8   0.16 29.2   0.15 14.5   0.10 11.5   0.09 6.7 0.08 1.3 0.03 7.9 0.08 16.5   0.11
26-54
Veteran 16.6   0.43 12.6   0.38 6.2 0.28 4.9 0.25 0.8 0.09 0.9 0.11 3.2 0.19 10.3   0.33
Nonveteran, Adjusted 18.2b 0.18 13.7b 0.15   7.0b 0.11 5.4 0.10   1.3b 0.05 0.8 0.04 3.3 0.08 10.7   0.14
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 14.7   0.12 10.2   0.10 6.4 0.08 4.7 0.07 1.0 0.03 0.6 0.02 2.4 0.05 7.9 0.08
55 or Older
Veteran 3.4 0.20 2.3 0.16 1.1 0.12 0.8 0.10 0.1 0.02 0.1 0.03 0.4 0.06 3.9 0.22
Nonveteran, Adjusted   5.6b 0.26   3.9b 0.23   2.1b 0.16   1.5b 0.14 0.1 0.04 0.1 0.03 0.6 0.08 4.3 0.23
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 3.6 0.12 2.1 0.09 1.7 0.08 1.1 0.07 0.0 0.01 0.1 0.01 0.3 0.03 2.1 0.09

Table 3 presents comparisons between veterans and nonveterans for the past year mental health measures using combined NSDUH data from 2005 to 2012 (MDE) and 2008 to 2012 (other mental illness measures). There were no overall differences between the two groups in past year MDE, receipt of treatment for depression among those with MDE, or past year AMI, but the prevalence of SMI was higher for veterans than for nonveterans (3.2 vs. 2.5 percent). When looking at males and females separately, the prevalence of past year SMI was higher among male veterans than among male nonveterans, and the prevalence of past year MDE was higher among female veterans than among female nonveterans. Among those aged 18 to 25 and 26 to 54, veterans had a higher prevalence of past year MDE, higher rates of receipt of treatment for depression among those with MDE, and higher rates of AMI and SMI than nonveterans. However, veterans aged 55 or older had lower rates of past year MDE than nonveterans in this age group, with no significant difference for any of the other mental health measures.

Table 3. Past Year Mental Illness and Treatment Measures among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2005-2012
Gender/Age Group Major Depressive Episode (MDE)1 Receipt of Treatment for Depression
among Those with MDE1
Any Mental Illness (AMI)2 Serious Mental Illness (SMI)3
Percent SE Percent SE Percent SE Percent SE
SE = standard error.
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: MDE estimates are from combined 2005 to 2012 data; AMI and SMI estimates are from combined 2008 to 2012 data.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded from MDE estimates.
1 MDE is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
2 AMI is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in DSM-IV. AMI estimates from 2008 to 2011 may differ from previously published estimates due to revised estimation procedures. For details on the methodology, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2012 mental health findings (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013; see endnote 28).
3 SMI is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in DSM-IV and resulted in serious functional impairment. SMI estimates from 2008 to 2011 may differ from previously published estimates due to revised estimation procedures. For details on the methodology, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2012 mental health findings (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013; see endnote 28).
a Difference between adjusted nonveteran estimate and veteran estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
b Difference between adjusted nonveteran estimate and veteran estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2005, 2006-2007 (revised March 2012), and 2008-2012 (revised October 2013).
Total
Veteran 4.7 0.20 52.7 2.17 14.0 0.41 3.2 0.19
Nonveteran, Adjusted 4.6 0.16 50.7 1.73 13.9 0.35   2.5b 0.15
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 6.9 0.07 52.2 0.50 18.5 0.14 4.0 0.07
Gender
Male
Veteran 4.3 0.20 52.1 2.32 13.3 0.43 2.9 0.20
Nonveteran, Adjusted 4.3 0.17 50.2 1.85 13.3 0.38   2.3a 0.16
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 5.0 0.09 42.8 0.86 14.6 0.20 2.9 0.09
Female
Veteran 10.9   0.98 60.6 3.81 23.8 1.61 6.6 0.86
Nonveteran, Adjusted   8.5a 0.11 57.9 0.68 22.3 0.22 5.2 0.11
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 8.3 0.10 56.7 0.56 21.5 0.20 4.8 0.10
Age Group
18-25
Veteran 9.6 0.76 45.5 4.08 22.7 1.43 5.3 0.70
Nonveteran, Adjusted   6.9b 0.09   33.7b 0.63   16.4b 0.17   3.2b 0.08
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 8.3 0.09 39.0 0.52 18.5 0.16 3.8 0.08
26-54
Veteran 7.7 0.36 53.6 2.36 19.7 0.73 5.5 0.37
Nonveteran, Adjusted   6.1b 0.12   45.9b 0.91   17.5b 0.23   4.0b 0.12
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 7.5 0.09 53.5 0.59 20.4 0.19 4.9 0.10
55 or Older
Veteran 3.1 0.23 52.4 3.09 11.0 0.52 2.0 0.23
Nonveteran, Adjusted   3.8a 0.25 53.5 2.57 12.1 0.52 1.8 0.21
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 4.7 0.15 58.9 1.33 15.0 0.31 2.3 0.13

Trends in Substance Use and Mental Illness for Veterans and Nonveterans

Multiple logistic regression models that included an interaction term for year by veteran status tested whether trends over time for each substance use and mental health measure differed for veterans and nonveterans. In these logistic regression models, there were no statistically significant year by veteran status interaction terms for any of the substance use or mental health measures (see Tables A.1 through A.12 in Appendix A). This indicates that there were no detectable differences in the changes over time for these measures between veterans and nonveterans. Note that the lack of a significant year by veteran status interaction term does not necessarily indicate that there were no significant trends over time in these measures when looking at veterans only, nonveterans only, or the U.S. population as a whole. Supplemental tables that present the trend data for each individual survey year for all reported substance use and mental illness measures, separately for veterans and nonveterans, are included in Appendix B.

Tables A.1 through A.12 also include the adjusted odds ratios for the covariates used in the multiple logistic regression models for each of the 12 substance use and mental health measures. Females had lower odds than males for each of the eight substance use measures and had higher odds than males for each of the four mental health measures. Those aged 18 to 25 and 26 to 54 had higher odds than those aged 55 or older for each measure with the exception that those aged 18 to 25 with MDE had lower odds of receiving treatment for their depression than those aged 55 or older. White respondents had higher odds compared with blacks, Hispanics, or Asians for all measures with the exception that there was no significant difference between whites and blacks for illicit drug dependence or abuse. Respondents who were unemployed had higher odds than those who were employed full time or part time for all measures, and those who were not married and living with their partner had higher odds than those who were married and living with their spouse for all measures except receipt of treatment for depression among those with MDE. Education was significant for 7 of the 12 measures. Respondents who had not attended college had higher odds than those who had attended college for four measures and had lower odds than those who had attended college for three measures. Unadjusted odds ratios for these covariates are available by request.

Discussion

This report presents estimates of the prevalence of substance use and mental health issues for veterans and nonveterans as well as analyses of trends over time for these measures by veteran status using a large, nationally representative dataset. These data are important because most studies that have presented data on the behavioral health of veterans tend to focus only on those who have sought services through the VA or only on returning combat veterans. Analysis of behavioral health using nationally representative surveys, such as NSDUH, can be generalized to the entire population of veterans living in U.S. households.

These results indicate that rates of many types of past year substance use were lower overall for veterans than for nonveterans, even after standardizing the nonveteran population to match the demographics of the veteran population. Looking at the differences between the standardized and nonstandardized estimates for nonveterans in Table 2, it is clear that standardizing the nonveteran population to the demographics of the veteran population accounted for much (but not all) of the difference between veterans and nonveterans in estimates of any illicit drug use and marijuana use. These data also indicate that among those aged 18 to 25, veterans had higher past year rates of nonmedical use of pain relievers, methamphetamine use, and alcohol abuse or dependence than nonveterans. The findings regarding the nonmedical use of pain relievers is consistent with several other studies that have demonstrated that veteran younger adults have increased risk of nonmedical use and abuse of pain relievers than their older counterparts.37,38 In addition, these data indicate that the lower prevalence of substance use between veterans and nonveterans was found only for males. Note that the sample size of female veterans is relatively small (approximately 3,100) compared with the sample size of male veterans (approximately 26,100), resulting in standard errors for estimates of female veterans that are notably larger than the standard errors for estimates of male veterans. As a result, the lack of differences in substance use rates by veteran status for females may partially reflect a relative lack of statistical power relative to comparisons of males.

Regarding mental health, there were no differences between veterans and nonveterans in past year MDE among all adults, but female veterans were more likely to have past year MDE than female nonveterans. These findings are consistent with the findings of Lehavot and colleagues,12 who reported that veteran women have higher rates of depressive disorders than civilian women. The NSDUH data suggest that there may be a need to focus on screening and treatment for depression specifically among female veterans. Although, as noted previously, the sample size of female veterans was small relative to that of male veterans, the strength of this study is that the combined years of NSDUH data do allow for the analyses of data from female veterans, who are a rapidly growing population in the United States.39

These data show a consistent pattern of veterans aged 18 to 25 or 26 to 54 having a higher prevalence of mental health issues (MDE, AMI, and SMI) than nonveterans in these age groups. Also, compared with nonveterans in these age groups with MDE, a higher percentage of veterans in these age groups with MDE received treatment for depression in the past year. In contrast, the prevalence of MDE was lower for veterans than for nonveterans among those aged 55 or older.

It is also worthwhile to note that although the standardization of the nonveteran population to the veteran population does adjust for three major demographic differences between veterans and nonveterans (the cross-classification of age, race/ethnicity, and gender), adjusting for other demographic factors that differ between these groups may provide additional benefits in this regard. However, the standardization approach used in this study is limited by the sample size of the population being standardized to, in this case, the veteran population. All subgroups within each cross-classification (e.g., Hispanic males aged 18 to 25) must have an adequate number of veterans in the NSDUH respondent pool in order to create proper standardizing weights for the analysis. Although attempts were made to include other population characteristics in the cross-classification, the annual sample sizes of the veteran population within the NSDUH data led to the chosen cross-classification of age group, race/ethnicity, and gender.

Although NSDUH is a nationally representative survey, the survey's population control totals (obtained through the U.S. Census Bureau) and resulting poststratification weights do not explicitly take respondents' veteran status into account. Therefore, the annual estimated veteran population counts stemming from NSDUH are not an exact match to census counts of veterans and nonveterans from the American Community Survey (ACS), and, in this case, the counts are higher. For example, the reported number of veterans aged 18 or older from the 2012 ACS is 21,853,912, whereas the corresponding NSDUH estimate in 2012 is 24,467,751, an 11.3 percent difference. Although the population totals may differ, the percentage distributions of key demographic measures such as age and gender of both the NSDUH veteran and nonveteran populations are similar to the percentage distributions among the veteran and nonveteran populations in the ACS.

Findings from trend tests using multiple logistic regression models indicated that the trends for substance use and mental health issues examined in this study did not differ between veterans and nonveterans. This indicates that any observed changes over recent years in rates of substance use and mental health measures among veterans were not detectably different from the changes over time among nonveterans. However, these analyses do not rule out the possibility that there are no subgroups of veterans for whom substance use and mental illness have been increasing more than nonveterans. Some subgroups of veterans and nonveterans could exhibit different trend patterns from the overall groups; however, the relatively small sample sizes in some subgroups do not allow for such analyses.

Conclusions

Trends in substance use and mental health issues among veterans have not differed from trends among nonveterans in recent years, suggesting that changes over time in the behavioral health of veterans were consistent with changes over time for the nation as a whole; however, this study did demonstrate that the prevalence of substance use and mental health issues differs between veterans and nonveterans. The findings indicate veterans tend to have a lower prevalence of substance use compared with nonveterans, though for some specific subgroups the prevalence of some types of substance use was higher for veterans than for their nonveteran counterparts. Furthermore, for some subgroups of veterans, the prevalence of many mental health issues was higher than for their nonveteran counterparts. Taken as a whole, the NSDUH data show that there may be a need for additional mental health and substance use prevention and intervention services among younger veterans in particular and among female veterans specifically for MDE. Although the NSDUH data showed that veterans aged 18 to 54 with MDE were more likely to have received treatment for depression than nonveterans in this age group with MDE, the data indicate that nearly half of veterans with MDE did not receive treatment for their depression, showing a clear need for additional mental health services. Future research using NSDUH and other data sources should further examine the behavioral treatment options available to veterans and nonveterans as well as possible barriers to receiving treatment by those who need it. The estimates presented in this report document but do not attempt to explain the differences in the behavioral health of veterans and nonveterans. Future research should explore the reason for these differences by including additional covariates (e.g., socioeconomic indicators) and investigate how the covariates might attenuate, moderate, or mediate the associations between veteran status and outcomes of interest. The NSDUH data are well suited for these types of analyses comparing veterans with nonveterans; however, the NSDUH data are not well suited for investigating differences in behavioral health within the veteran populations. Alternate data sources should be used to understand the role of veteran-specific characteristics, such as years of service, deployment history, paygrade, branch of service, and era of service, on variations in behavioral health outcomes within the veteran population.

Author Affiliations

Rachel N. Lipari and Matthew R. Williams are with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD. Michael R. Pemberton, Valerie L. Forman-Hoffman, Olivia Silber Ashley, and David C. Heller are with RTI International (a registered trademark and a trade name of Research Triangle Institute), Research Triangle Park, NC.

Suggested Citation

Pemberton, M. R., Forman-Hoffman, V. L., Lipari, R. N., Ashley, O. S., Heller, D. C., & Williams, M. R. (2016). Prevalence of past year substance use and mental illness by veteran status in a nationally representative sample. CBHSQ Data Review. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/

Endnotes

1 Adler, D. A., Possemato, K., Mavandadi, S., Lerner, D., Chang, H., Klaus, J., Tew, J. D., Barrett, D., Ingram, E., & Oslin, D. W. (2011). Psychiatric status and work performance of veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Psychiatr Serv, 62(1), 39-46. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.62.1.39

2 Santiago, P. N., Wilk, J. E., Milliken, C. S., Castro, C. A., Engel, C. C., & Hoge, C. W. (2010). Screening for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related behaviors among combat veterans. Psychiatr Serv, 61(6):575-581. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.61.6.575

3 Forman-Hoffman, V. L., Carney, C. P., Sampson, T. R., Peloso, P. M., Woolson, R. F., Black, D. W., & Doebbeling, B. N. (2005). Mental health comorbidity patterns and impact on quality of life among veterans serving during the first Gulf War. Qual Life Res, 14(10), 2303-2314. doi:10.1007/s11136-005-6540-2

4 Friedman, M. J. (2010). Prevention of psychiatric problems among military personnel and their spouses. N Engl J Med, 362(2), 168-170. doi:10.1056/NEJMe0911108

5 Hawkins, E. J., Lapham, G. T., Kivlahan, D. R., & Bradley, K. A. (2010). Recognition and management of alcohol misuse in OEF/OIF and other veterans in the VA: A cross-sectional study. Drug Alcohol Depend, 109(1-3), 147-153. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.12.025

6 Hoerster, K. D., Lehavot, K., Simpson, T., McFall, M., Reiber, G., & Nelson, K. M. (2012). Health and health behavior differences: U.S. Military, veteran, and civilian men. Am J Prev Med, 43(5), 483-489. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.07.029

7 Helmer, D. A., Chandler, H. K., Quigley, K. S., Blatt, M., Teichman, R., & Lange, G. (2009). Chronic widespread pain, mental health, and physical role function in OEF/OIF veterans. Pain Med, 10(7), 1174-1182. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00723.x

8 Milliken, C. S., Auchterlonie, J. L., & Hoge, C. W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq war. JAMA, 298(18), 2141-2148. doi:10.1001/jama.298.18.2141

9 Seal, K. H., Metzler, T. J., Gima, K. S., Bertenthal, D., Maguen, S., & Marmar, C. R. (2009). Trends and risk factors for mental health diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs health care, 2002-2008. Am J Public Health, 99(9), 1651-1658. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.150284

10 Tanelian, T. L., & Jaycox, L. H. (Eds.) (2008). Invisible wounds of war: Psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

11 Hankin, C. S., Spiro, A., 3rd, Miller, D. R., & Kazis, L. (1999). Mental disorders and mental health treatment among U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs outpatients: The Veterans Health Study. Am J Psychiatry, 156(12), 1924-1930.

12 Lehavot, K., Hoerster, K. D., Nelson, K. M., Jakupcak, M., & Simpson, T. L. (2012). Health indicators for military, veteran, and civilian women. Am J Prev Med, 42(5), 473-480. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.01.006

13 Stimpson, N. J., Thomas, H. V., Weightman, A. L., Dunstan, F., & Lewis, G. (2003). Psychiatric disorder in veterans of the Persian Gulf War of 1991. Systematic review. Br J Psychiatry, 182, 391-403.

14 Hoge, C. W., Castro, C. A., Messer, S. C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D. I., & Koffman, R. L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. N Engl J Med, 351(1), 13-22. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa040603

15 Hoge, C. W., Auchterlonie, J. L., & Milliken, C. S. (2006). Mental health problems, use of mental health services, and attrition from military service after returning from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA, 295(9), 1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023

16 Seal, K. H., Bertenthal, D., Miner, C. R., Sen, S., & Marmar, C. (2007). Bringing the war back home: Mental health disorders among 103,788 US veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan seen at Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. Arch Intern Med, 167(5), 476-482. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.5.476

17 Thomas, J. L., Wilk, J. E., Riviere, L. A., McGurk, D., Castro, C. A., & Hoge, C. W. (2010). Prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component and National Guard soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 67(6), 614-623. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.54

18 Toomey, R., Kang, H. K., Karlinsky, J., Baker, D. G., Vasterling, J. J., Alpern, R., Reda, D. J., Henderson, W. G., Murphy, F. M., & Eisen, S. A. (2007). Mental health of US Gulf War veterans 10 years after the war. Br J Psychiatry, 190, 385-393. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.105.019539

19 Calhoun, P. S., Elter, J. R., Jones, E. R., Jr., Kudler, H., & Straits-Troster, K. (2008). Hazardous alcohol use and receipt of risk-reduction counseling among U.S. veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. J Clin Psychiatry, 69(11), 1686-1693.

20 Seal, K. H., Cohen, G., Waldrop, A., Cohen, B. E., Maguen, S., & Ren, L. (2011). Substance use disorders in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans in VA healthcare, 2001-2010: Implications for screening, diagnosis and treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend, 116(1-3), 93-101. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.11.027

21 Ilgen, M. A., Bohnert, A. S., Ignacio, R. V., McCarthy, J. F., Valenstein, M. M., Kim, H. M., & Blow, F. C. (2010). Psychiatric diagnoses and risk of suicide in veterans. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 67(11), 1152-1158. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.129

22 Wilk, J. E., Bliese, P. D., Kim, P. Y., Thomas, J. L., McGurk, D., & Hoge, C. W. (2010). Relationship of combat experiences to alcohol misuse among U.S. soldiers returning from the Iraq war. Drug Alcohol Depend, 108(1-2), 115-121. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.12.003

23 Seal, K. H., Shi, Y., Cohen, G., Cohen, B. E., Maguen, S., Krebs, E. E., & Neylan, T. C. (2012). Association of mental health disorders with prescription opioids and high-risk opioid use in US veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan. JAMA, 307(9), 940-947. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.234

24 Nelson, K. M., Starkebaum, G. A., & Reiber, G. E. (2007). Veterans using and uninsured veterans not using Veterans Affairs (VA) health care. Public Health Rep, 122(1), 93-100.

25 Bohnert, A. S., Ilgen, M. A., Bossarte, R. M., Britton, P. C., Chermack, S. T., & Blow, F. C. (2012). Veteran status and alcohol use in men in the United States. Mil Med, 177(2), 198-203.

26 Office of Applied Studies. (2005). The NSDUH Report: Alcohol use and alcohol-related risk behaviors among veterans. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/

27 Office of Applied Studies. (2005). The NSDUH Report: Substance use, dependence, and treatment among veterans. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/

28 Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2013). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Mental health findings (HHS Publication No. SMA 13-4085, NSDUH Series H-47). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/

29 American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

30 Kessler, R. C., Barker, P. R., Colpe, L. J., Epstein, J. F., Gfroerer, J. C., Hiripi, E., Howes, M. J., Normand, S. L., Manderscheid, R. W., Walters, E. E., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2003). Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 60(2), 184-189.

31 Novak, S. P., Colpe, L. J., Barker, P. R., & Gfroerer, J. C. (2010). Development of a brief mental health impairment scale using a nationally representative sample in the USA. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res, 19, Suppl 1, 49-60. doi:10.1002/mpr.313

32 Aldworth, J., Colpe, L. J., Gfroerer, J. C., Novak, S. P., Chromy, J. R., Barker, P. R., Barnett-Walker, K., Karg, R. S., Morton, K. B., & Spagnola, K. (2010). The National Survey on Drug Use and Health Mental Health Surveillance Study: Calibration analysis. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res, 19, Suppl 1, 61-87. doi:10.1002/mpr.312

33 Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2013). The NSDUH Report: Revised estimates of mental illness from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/

34 Witt, M. B., & Spagnola, K. E. (2009). Using predictive marginals to produce standardized estimates. In Proceedings of the 2009 Joint Statistical Meetings, American Statistical Association, Survey Research Methods Section, Washington, DC (pp. 4718-4732). Washington, DC: American Statistical Association. [Available as a PDF at http://www.amstat.org/sections/srms/proceedings/]

35 Fleiss, J. L., Levin, B., & Cho Paik, M. (2003). Statistical methods for rates and proportions (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.

36 RTI International. (2013). SUDAAN®, Release 11.0.1 [computer software]. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International.

37 Becker, W. C., Fiellin, D. A., Gallagher, R. M., Barth, K. S., Ross, J. T., & Oslin, D. W. (2009). The association between chronic pain and prescription drug abuse in veterans. Pain Med, 10(3), 531-536.

38 Edlund, M. J., Steffick, D., Hudson, T., Harris, K. M., & Sullivan, M. (2007). Risk factors for clinically recognized opioid abuse and dependence among veterans using opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Pain, 129(3), 355-362. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2007.02.014

39 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Women Veterans Task Force. (2012). Strategies for serving our women veterans. Retrieved from http://www.va.gov/opa/publications/draft_2012_women-veterans_strategicplan.pdf

40 Office of Applied Studies. (2008). Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings (HHS Publication No. SMA 08-4343, NSDUH Series H-34). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/

41 Office of Applied Studies. (2009). Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings (HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434, NSDUH Series H-36). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is the agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that leads public health efforts to advance the behavioral health of the nation. SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities.

The CBHSQ Data Review is published periodically by the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, SAMHSA. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be copied without permission from SAMHSA. This report is available online: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/. Citation of the source is appreciated. For questions about this report, please e-mail cbhsqhelp@samhsa.hhs.gov or call 240-276-1250.

Appendix A

Table A.1 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
NOTE: Illicit drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 0.62 0.61 0.64
AGE GROUP      
18-25 9.97 9.31 10.66  
26-54 4.68 4.37 5.01
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.78 0.75 0.81
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.19 1.06 1.34
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.82 0.65 1.04
Asian 0.36 0.33 0.39
Two or More Races 1.28 1.16 1.40
Hispanic or Latino 0.61 0.58 0.63
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 1.50 1.43 1.56
Other1 0.96 0.93 0.99
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 2.86 2.74 2.98
Other 2.34 2.26 2.41
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 1.01 0.99 1.04
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 0.9215 0.5124
Table A.2 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Marijuana Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 0.54 0.53 0.55
AGE GROUP      
18-25 12.62   11.59   13.75  
26-54 5.22 4.79 5.68
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.83 0.80 0.87
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.03 0.91 1.15
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.74 0.57 0.95
Asian 0.29 0.27 0.32
Two or More Races 1.44 1.30 1.59
Hispanic or Latino 0.52 0.50 0.54
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 1.47 1.40 1.54
Other1 0.95 0.91 0.99
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 3.30 3.14 3.46
Other 2.66 2.56 2.76
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 0.99 0.96 1.02
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 0.8495 0.5808
Table A.3 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Nonmedical Use of Prescription Psychotherapeutics in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
NOTE: Nonmedical use of prescription psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs. Estimates of nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2008; see endnote 40). For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the 2008 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2009; see endnote 41).
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 0.85 0.83 0.88
AGE GROUP      
18-25 8.10 7.36 8.92
26-54 4.45 4.02 4.91
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.43 0.40 0.46
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.07 0.90 1.27
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.79 0.58 1.08
Asian 0.37 0.32 0.43
Two or More Races 0.89 0.79 1.00
Hispanic or Latino 0.63 0.59 0.66
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 1.48 1.40 1.57
Other1 1.00 0.95 1.05
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 2.28 2.16 2.42
Other 1.96 1.87 2.05
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 1.08 1.05 1.12
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 0.6692 0.7537
Table A.4 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 0.77 0.74 0.80
AGE GROUP      
18-25 9.07 8.07 10.19  
26-54 4.70 4.16 5.31
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.50 0.47 0.54
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.07 0.89 1.28
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.78 0.54 1.12
Asian 0.41 0.35 0.49
Two or More Races 0.89 0.78 1.01
Hispanic or Latino 0.64 0.61 0.68
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 1.45 1.37 1.55
Other1 0.99 0.94 1.05
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 2.29 2.15 2.44
Other 1.90 1.80 1.99
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 1.18 1.13 1.22
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 0.6707 0.7523
Table A.5 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Hallucinogen Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 0.53 0.51 0.56
AGE GROUP      
18-25 73.17   45.33   118.10    
26-54 17.45   10.77   28.27  
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.46 0.42 0.51
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.85 1.41 2.42
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.64 0.39 1.04
Asian 0.44 0.36 0.53
Two or More Races 1.24 1.04 1.49
Hispanic or Latino 0.54 0.50 0.59
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 1.53 1.41 1.65
Other1 0.98 0.92 1.05
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 4.95 4.36 5.61
Other 5.14 4.60 5.74
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 0.87 0.82 0.92
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 1.5802 0.1075
Table A.6 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Methamphetamine Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 0.67 0.60 0.74
AGE GROUP      
18-25 16.52   10.37   26.32  
26-54 14.60   9.09 23.45  
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.19 0.14 0.26
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.81 1.17 2.80
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 1.80 1.01 3.22
Asian 0.31 0.20 0.47
Two or More Races 1.46 1.06 1.99
Hispanic or Latino 0.59 0.50 0.69
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 2.69 2.30 3.15
Other1 1.65 1.44 1.90
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 4.80 4.01 5.75
Other 3.86 3.27 4.56
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 1.78 1.59 1.99
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 0.4592 0.9162
Table A.7 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Abuse or Dependence of Illicit Drugs in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29).
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 0.50 0.48 0.52
AGE GROUP      
18-25 17.25   14.40   20.66  
26-54 8.60 7.16 10.33  
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.97 0.91 1.04
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.50 1.21 1.85
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.74 0.52 1.06
Asian 0.38 0.32 0.45
Two or More Races 1.29 1.09 1.53
Hispanic or Latino 0.73 0.68 0.78
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 1.88 1.75 2.01
Other1 1.40 1.32 1.48
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 3.41 3.13 3.72
Other 3.14 2.91 3.38
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 1.40 1.33 1.46
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 0.8221 0.6073
Table A.8 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Abuse or Dependence of Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29).
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 0.45 0.43 0.46
AGE GROUP      
18-25 5.06 4.68 5.47
26-54 3.07 2.84 3.32
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.67 0.64 0.71
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.75 1.51 2.02
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.80 0.61 1.05
Asian 0.38 0.35 0.42
Two or More Races 0.96 0.85 1.09
Hispanic or Latino 0.82 0.78 0.86
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 1.26 1.19 1.33
Other1 0.81 0.77 0.85
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 2.23 2.11 2.37
Other 2.18 2.10 2.27
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 0.92 0.89 0.95
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 0.8355 0.5943
Table A.9 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
NOTE: MDE is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 1.78 1.70 1.86
AGE GROUP      
18-25 2.09 1.94 2.25
26-54 2.57 2.39 2.77
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.59 0.54 0.63
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.88 0.70 1.11
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.96 0.63 1.44
Asian 0.40 0.34 0.46
Two or More Races 1.25 1.08 1.45
Hispanic or Latino 0.66 0.62 0.71
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 1.79 1.65 1.93
Other1 1.73 1.63 1.82
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 1.63 1.52 1.75
Other 1.94 1.84 2.04
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 0.93 0.89 0.98
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 0.8131 0.5764
Table A.10 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Receipt of Treatment for Depression in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older with Major Depressive Episode (MDE): Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
NOTE: MDE is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 1.65 1.52 1.78
AGE GROUP      
18-25 0.60 0.53 0.68
26-54 1.14 1.02 1.28
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.66 0.58 0.75
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.83 0.52 1.33
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.69 0.28 1.72
Asian 0.41 0.30 0.55
Two or More Races 1.10 0.85 1.42
Hispanic or Latino 0.65 0.57 0.74
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 1.28 1.12 1.46
Other1 2.22 2.03 2.43
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 0.97 0.85 1.10
Other 1.16 1.06 1.26
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 1.02 0.94 1.10
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 1.1264 0.3426
Table A.11 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Any Mental Illness (AMI) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
NOTE: AMI is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29). AMI estimates from 2008 to 2011 may differ from previously published estimates due to revised estimation procedures. For details on the methodology, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2012 mental health findings (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013; see endnote 28).
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 1.58 1.52 1.65
AGE GROUP      
18-25 1.37 1.29 1.45
26-54 2.08 1.96 2.20
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.68 0.64 0.72
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.99 0.82 1.20
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 1.29 0.90 1.86
Asian 0.62 0.56 0.69
Two or More Races 1.26 1.10 1.44
Hispanic or Latino 0.68 0.64 0.72
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 1.56 1.46 1.67
Other1 1.64 1.56 1.72
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 1.54 1.45 1.64
Other 1.77 1.70 1.85
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 1.01 0.97 1.04
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 1.5456 0.1869
Table A.12 Results of Logistic Regression Model of Serious Mental Illness (SMI) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older: Adjusted Odds Ratios of Demographic Covariates and Significance Results of Veteran Status and Survey Year Interaction, 2002-2012
  Odds Ratio (OR) Lower 95%
Limit OR
Upper 95%
Limit OR
NOTE: The full list of covariates in the model are veteran status, year, gender, age group, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, educational attainment, and the interaction of veteran status and year.
NOTE: SMI is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29) and resulted in serious functional impairment. SMI estimates from 2008 to 2011 may differ from previously published estimates due to revised estimation procedures. For details on the methodology, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2012 mental health findings (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013; see endnote 28).
1 The other employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
GENDER      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 1.69 1.56 1.82
AGE GROUP      
18-25 1.96 1.73 2.21
26-54 3.79 3.36 4.27
55 or Older 1.00 1.00 1.00
RACE/ETHNICITY      
Not Hispanic or Latino      
White 1.00 1.00 1.00
Black or African American 0.51 0.46 0.56
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.18 0.84 1.66
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.49 0.26 0.92
Asian 0.43 0.33 0.56
Two or More Races 1.09 0.84 1.42
Hispanic or Latino 0.60 0.53 0.67
EMPLOYMENT STATUS      
Employed (full time or part time) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unemployed 2.04 1.82 2.28
Other1 2.40 2.21 2.61
MARITAL STATUS      
Living with Spouse 1.00 1.00 1.00
Living with Partner (as if married) 1.69 1.51 1.89
Other 2.13 1.96 2.31
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT      
Some College or Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Other 1.01 0.95 1.09
  Wald F P-value of Wald F  
VETERAN STATUS BY YEAR (df = 10) 0.1653 0.9560

Appendix B

Table B.1B Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Illicit drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran   8.2     8.4     8.3     7.5     8.6     8.5     8.7     9.6     8.5     7.7     8.7  
Nonveteran, Adjusted   9.4b   8.2b   8.9b 10.4b   9.1b 11.1b   9.3b 10.6b 10.7b 11.4a 13.5  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 14.9b 14.7b 14.4b 14.6b 14.7b 14.6b 14.4b 15.2b 15.6a 15.2b 16.6  
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran   8.3     8.2     8.1     7.4     8.7     8.3     8.3     9.4     8.3     7.7     8.6  
Nonveteran, Adjusted   9.4b   8.1b   8.8b 10.4b   9.0b 11.1a   9.1b 10.6b 10.7b 11.5a 13.7  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 19.9b 19.5b 19.0b 19.3b 19.6b 19.6b 18.2b 19.8b 20.5   19.9b 21.7  
Female                      
Veteran   8.1   10.8   12.8     9.2     7.4   10.8   14.0   12.2   11.8     8.2   10.4  
Nonveteran, Adjusted   9.2b 10.1a 10.6   10.5   10.7     9.9b 11.2   10.5   11.1   10.7   11.3  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 11.5b 11.3b 11.2b 11.3b 11.1b 10.9b 11.5b 11.8a 11.9   11.6b 12.7  
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 41.9   34.8   37.4   34.7   37.3   31.7   28.4   41.2   35.7   38.0   37.4  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 38.3   37.3a 37.3a 36.9b 37.9   36.8b 36.5b 39.6   38.8   39.4   39.2  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 35.4   34.6a 33.9b 34.2b 34.4b 33.3b 33.7b 36.2   35.2   35.1   36.3  
26-54                      
Veteran 16.5   17.0   17.1   16.0   16.8   17.5   15.3   17.5   17.2   15.5   15.7
Nonveteran, Adjusted 18.3b 17.4b 17.4b 17.1b 18.6b 18.1b 16.8b 17.4b 19.4   18.4b 20.8  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 14.3b 14.2b 14.2b 13.9b 14.6b 14.3b 14.0b 14.8b 15.6a 14.8b 16.8  
55 or Older                      
Veteran   2.2b   2.6a   2.5a   2.1b   3.7     3.0     4.8     4.7     3.6     3.3     4.6  
Nonveteran, Adjusted   3.0b   2.0b   3.3b   6.1a   3.5b   6.5a   4.7b   6.4a   5.8b   7.4     9.3  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   2.4b   1.8b   2.1b   3.3b   2.2b   3.8b   3.5b   3.8b   4.5     4.9     5.4  
Table B.1D Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Illicit drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.59 0.60 0.63 0.55 0.61 0.63 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.66 0.66
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.49 0.38 0.50 0.71 0.50 0.72 0.54 0.63 0.56 0.59 0.61
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.28 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.28 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.28
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.62 0.62 0.65 0.56 0.65 0.66 0.75 0.77 0.78 0.68 0.69
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.52 0.41 0.52 0.75 0.53 0.77 0.59 0.68 0.60 0.63 0.65
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.48 0.44 0.44 0.46 0.45 0.47 0.44 0.45 0.48 0.43 0.45
Female                      
Veteran 1.74 2.16 2.55 1.84 1.73 1.90 2.95 2.55 2.12 1.93 1.98
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.36 0.33 0.37 0.35 0.33
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.28 0.31 0.30 0.32
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 3.46 3.39 3.74 3.41 3.47 3.46 3.32 3.59 3.71 3.94 3.58
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.53 0.53 0.57 0.54 0.55 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.56 0.59 0.58
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.48 0.47 0.49 0.47 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.51 0.51
26-54                      
Veteran 1.32 1.26 1.46 1.33 1.45 1.45 1.27 1.57 1.57 1.53 1.39
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.63 0.57 0.57 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.54 0.52 0.60 0.57 0.61
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.39 0.38 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.39 0.40
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.53 0.58 0.56 0.45 0.63 0.61 0.88 0.81 0.71 0.63 0.73
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.70 0.53 0.72 1.07 0.71 1.09 0.81 0.92 0.79 0.83 0.87
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.38 0.30 0.29 0.45 0.31 0.42 0.38 0.38 0.43 0.37 0.42
Table B.1P Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Illicit drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.5739 0.6836 0.6233 0.1457 0.9099 0.7776 0.9535 0.4031 0.8063 0.2755  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0013 <0.0001   0.0095 <0.0001   0.0013 0.0007 0.0142  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0009 0.0166 0.0002  
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.6862 0.6597 0.5406 0.1643 0.9190 0.7370 0.7056 0.4909 0.7197 0.3400  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0015 <0.0001   0.0127 <0.0001   0.0017 0.0008 0.0156  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0081 0.0006 <0.0001   0.0004 0.0011 0.0015 <0.0001   0.0042 0.0752 0.0032  
Female                      
Veteran 0.3747 0.9005 0.4649 0.6392 0.2738 0.8856 0.3126 0.5811 0.6248 0.4187  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   0.0130 0.1690 0.1156 0.2361 0.0037 0.9399 0.0963 0.7780 0.2093  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0040 0.0012 0.0003 0.0008 <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0068 0.0324 0.0517 0.0082  
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 0.3693 0.5994 1.0000 0.6027 0.9922 0.2595 0.0658 0.4522 0.7536 0.9153  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.2921 0.0187 0.0183 0.0043 0.1085 0.0032 0.0006 0.5577 0.6616 0.7337  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1941 0.0152 0.0006 0.0028 0.0071 <0.0001   0.0002 0.9631 0.1076 0.0932  
26-54                      
Veteran 0.7021 0.5169 0.5031 0.8769 0.6013 0.3791 0.8037 0.4041 0.4783 0.9209  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0041 <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0093 0.0019 <0.0001   <0.0001   0.1002 0.0024  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0003 0.0369 0.0001  
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.0070 0.0351 0.0214 0.0043 0.3330 0.0883 0.8833 0.8998 0.3562 0.1739  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0216 <0.0001   0.0477 0.0002 0.0273 0.0034 0.1223  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0006 <0.0001   0.0045 0.0006 0.0047 0.1281 0.3374  
Table B.2B Marijuana Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran   5.9     6.0     5.9     5.5a   6.4     6.2     6.4     7.2     6.5     6.2     6.9  
Nonveteran, Adjusted   7.1b   6.2b   6.5b   7.8b   6.4b   7.3b   6.6b   8.0b   8.1b   8.9   10.2  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 11.0b 10.7b 10.7b 10.7b 10.5b 10.3b 10.5b 11.6b 11.8a 11.8a 12.6  
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran   5.9     6.0     5.8     5.4     6.6     6.1     6.1     7.2     6.5     6.1     6.9  
Nonveteran, Adjusted   7.2b   6.2b   6.5b   7.8b   6.4b   7.4b   6.6b   8.1b   8.2b   9.0   10.4  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 15.8b 15.2b 15.0b 15.4b 14.9b 14.8b 14.1b 15.9b 16.3a 16.3a 17.5  
Female                      
Veteran   5.3     6.1     6.5     6.0     4.2     7.2   10.8     8.1     7.9     7.0     7.8  
Nonveteran, Adjusted   5.8b   6.5b   7.0     6.7a   6.6b   6.0b   7.4     7.1     7.6     7.5     7.5  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   7.7b   7.5b   7.6b   7.4b   7.2b   7.0b   7.9b   8.3     8.4     8.5     8.8  
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 35.7   30.2   28.5   29.2   30.0   27.3   22.2   30.2   32.2   33.0   30.0  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 33.1a 31.5b 31.4b 31.2b 31.5b 31.1b 30.9b 34.1   33.6   35.0   34.7  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 29.7b 28.5b 27.8b 28.0b 28.0b 27.5b 27.9b 30.8   30.0a 30.7   31.5  
26-54                      
Veteran 11.8   12.2   12.4   12.2   13.1   13.2   11.8   14.1   13.5   12.1   12.6  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 14.2a 13.1b 13.3b 13.1b 13.6b 12.9b 12.4b 13.3b 14.8   14.1b 16.1  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   9.9b   9.7b 10.0b   9.6b   9.6b   9.4b   9.7b 10.6b 11.0   10.7b 11.9  
55 or Older                      
Veteran   1.3b   1.7a   1.5b   1.2b   2.4     1.8a   3.2     3.2     2.6     2.7     3.6  
Nonveteran, Adjusted   1.9b   1.4b   1.9b   4.3a   2.1b   3.6a   3.1b   4.7     4.3a   5.7     6.7  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   1.0b   0.6b   0.9b   2.0b   1.1b   1.7b   1.9b   2.4a   3.0     3.4     3.4  
Table B.2D Marijuana Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.50 0.48 0.51 0.46 0.54 0.56 0.64 0.63 0.67 0.58 0.59
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.42 0.35 0.41 0.63 0.39 0.56 0.47 0.55 0.50 0.51 0.56
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.24 0.25 0.23 0.24
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.52 0.50 0.53 0.48 0.57 0.58 0.66 0.66 0.71 0.60 0.62
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.45 0.37 0.43 0.66 0.42 0.60 0.50 0.60 0.54 0.54 0.59
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.42 0.39 0.39 0.41 0.40 0.41 0.37 0.42 0.42 0.39 0.42
Female                      
Veteran 1.34 1.47 1.66 1.43 1.25 1.58 2.54 2.07 1.66 1.90 1.72
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.23 0.25 0.28 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.31 0.28 0.31 0.30 0.25
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.22 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.22 0.21 0.25 0.24 0.26 0.25 0.25
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 3.36 3.21 3.34 3.26 3.28 3.36 3.07 3.44 3.64 3.71 3.44
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.52 0.52 0.56 0.53 0.53 0.56 0.55 0.53 0.56 0.60 0.57
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.45 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.49 0.49 0.50
26-54                      
Veteran 1.10 1.07 1.25 1.18 1.31 1.32 1.23 1.45 1.42 1.33 1.27
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.56 0.53 0.50 0.55 0.54 0.51 0.47 0.48 0.52 0.51 0.54
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.31 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.46 0.42 0.39 0.31 0.52 0.48 0.74 0.64 0.63 0.57 0.63
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.59 0.47 0.58 0.93 0.54 0.84 0.69 0.80 0.69 0.71 0.79
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.27 0.14 0.20 0.37 0.22 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.30 0.34
Table B.2P Marijuana Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.1757 0.2179 0.1712 0.0426 0.5180 0.3726 0.5427 0.7286 0.6744 0.3518  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0042 <0.0001   0.0005 <0.0001   0.0069 0.0065 0.0979  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0058 0.0282 0.0235  
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.2397 0.2668 0.1997 0.0580 0.7113 0.3759 0.3541 0.7544 0.6603 0.3759  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0047 <0.0001   0.0007 <0.0001   0.0087 0.0065 0.0969  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0033 <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0002 <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0076 0.0393 0.0267  
Female                      
Veteran 0.2553 0.4656 0.6036 0.4203 0.1057 0.8189 0.3175 0.9051 0.9654 0.7666  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   0.0035 0.1579 0.0289 0.0080 <0.0001   0.8671 0.2498 0.8822 0.8743  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0009 <0.0001   0.0004 <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0096 0.1382 0.1735 0.2795  
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 0.2371 0.9656 0.7541 0.8811 0.9972 0.5910 0.1028 0.9580 0.6593 0.5587  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0338 <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.4569 0.1768 0.7420  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0080 <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.3164 0.0227 0.2640  
26-54                      
Veteran 0.6495 0.8104 0.9015 0.8214 0.7841 0.7280 0.6569 0.4477 0.6497 0.7891  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0146 <0.0001   0.0001 0.0001 0.0013 <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0702 0.0072  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0048 0.0593 0.0085  
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.0042 0.0131 0.0057 0.0006 0.1334 0.0283 0.6964 0.6475 0.2745 0.2944  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0473 <0.0001   0.0104 0.0009 0.0855 0.0268 0.4031  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0026 <0.0001   0.0001 0.0009 0.0203 0.3653 0.9879  
Table B.3B Nonmedical Use of Prescription-Type Psychotherapeutics in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Nonmedical use of prescription psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs. Estimates of nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2008; see endnote 40). For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the 2008 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2009; see endnote 41).
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran   3.0     3.0     3.2     3.4     3.5a   3.4     2.8     3.6     3.2     2.6     2.4
Nonveteran, Adjusted   3.4b   3.0b   3.4b   4.0     4.1     5.0     3.6b   4.0a   4.0a   3.6b   5.1
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   6.4     6.5     6.2a   6.4     6.9     6.8     6.3a   6.5     6.5     5.9b   6.9
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran   3.0     2.8     3.0     3.4     3.5a   3.2     2.6     3.4     3.0     2.5     2.4
Nonveteran, Adjusted   3.4b   2.9b   3.3b   3.9     4.0     5.0     3.4b   3.9a   3.9a   3.5b   5.1
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   7.5     7.7     7.4     7.6     8.5     8.3     7.3a   7.8     8.0     7.0b   8.1
Female                      
Veteran   3.9     6.6     7.4     3.9     3.5     6.0     5.4     5.7     6.2     3.8     3.0
Nonveteran, Adjusted   4.5a   5.1     5.1     5.2     5.6     5.1     5.3     5.0     5.0     4.8     5.3
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   5.6     5.7     5.3     5.6     5.7     5.7     5.6     5.6     5.4     5.0b   5.9
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 14.7   17.0   19.7   19.0   18.7   18.0   13.1   22.2   19.0   16.7   16.3
Nonveteran, Adjusted 15.2   15.6   16.3a 15.9   17.5b 16.5b 16.0   16.8b 15.9   14.8   14.9
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 14.3   14.6a 14.9b 15.1b 15.6b 15.0b 14.9b 15.0b 14.3   12.7a 13.6
26-54                      
Veteran   6.2     6.1     6.4     7.1     6.8     6.5     5.4     5.8     6.4     5.9     5.1
Nonveteran, Adjusted   6.5b   6.7b   6.5b   6.2b   7.5     7.4     6.3b   6.9a   7.8     6.9a   8.1
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   6.1b   6.3b   5.9b   6.1b   6.8     6.5a   6.0b   6.5a   6.7     6.2b   7.3
55 or Older                      
Veteran   0.7     0.8     1.0     0.9     1.5     1.3     1.2     2.0     1.3     0.7     0.8
Nonveteran, Adjusted   1.2b   0.5b   1.3b   2.4     1.9     3.4     1.8a   2.2     1.9a   1.7a   3.4
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   1.4a   1.3b   1.1b   1.6     1.3b   2.3     1.6     1.7     1.8     1.6     2.3
Table B.3D Nonmedical Use of Prescription-Type Psychotherapeutics in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Nonmedical use of prescription psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs. Estimates of nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2008; see endnote 40). For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the 2008 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2009; see endnote 41).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.35 0.36 0.42 0.37 0.40 0.40 0.38 0.48 0.50 0.39 0.37
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.28 0.20 0.29 0.47 0.35 0.53 0.34 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.41
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.18 0.16 0.18
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.36 0.37 0.43 0.39 0.43 0.41 0.38 0.51 0.53 0.41 0.38
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.30 0.21 0.31 0.50 0.38 0.56 0.37 0.39 0.34 0.34 0.43
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.28 0.28 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.31 0.26 0.30
Female                      
Veteran 1.25 1.83 2.13 1.28 1.21 1.51 1.91 1.84 1.51 1.23 1.12
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.22 0.25 0.24 0.22 0.24 0.25 0.25 0.21 0.24 0.23 0.24
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.21 0.22 0.20 0.21 0.20 0.21 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.23
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 2.28 2.54 3.24 2.85 2.85 2.95 2.29 3.16 2.79 3.25 2.85
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.36 0.38 0.41 0.40 0.45 0.43 0.41 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.40
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.31 0.32 0.34 0.33 0.36 0.34 0.34 0.36 0.34 0.32 0.32
26-54                      
Veteran 0.84 0.83 0.91 0.91 0.94 0.86 0.76 0.90 1.10 1.04 0.88
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.38 0.34 0.35 0.34 0.39 0.37 0.32 0.31 0.41 0.35 0.41
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.27 0.25 0.28
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.22 0.31 0.41 0.31 0.40 0.44 0.42 0.56 0.41 0.30 0.36
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.41 0.25 0.42 0.72 0.52 0.81 0.51 0.52 0.44 0.45 0.59
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.29 0.26 0.20 0.27 0.24 0.32 0.24 0.24 0.28 0.23 0.29
Table B.3P Nonmedical Use of Prescription-Type Psychotherapeutics in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Nonmedical use of prescription psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs. Estimates of nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2008; see endnote 40). For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the 2008 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2009; see endnote 41).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.2289 0.2598 0.1415 0.0702 0.0380 0.0800 0.4433 0.0537 0.1931 0.7180  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0009 <0.0001   0.0006 0.0937 0.0549 0.8693 0.0039 0.0470 0.0291 0.0030  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0602 0.1605 0.0104 0.1076 0.9681 0.8352 0.0221 0.2180 0.2051 <0.0001    
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.2547 0.4735 0.2650 0.0754 0.0411 0.1592 0.6700 0.1051 0.3301 0.7789  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0013 <0.0001   0.0007 0.0975 0.0511 0.8807 0.0035 0.0486 0.0313 0.0036  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1491 0.2452 0.0811 0.1819 0.4112 0.7324 0.0249 0.4227 0.7462 0.0032  
Female                      
Veteran 0.6093 0.0971 0.0721 0.6016 0.7628 0.0883 0.2814 0.2249 0.0933 0.6362  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0156 0.5023 0.5250 0.7492 0.3736 0.6361 0.9805 0.3821 0.4634 0.1221  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.2909 0.5018 0.0729 0.4075 0.4507 0.5236 0.2614 0.3264 0.1222 0.0026  
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 0.6615 0.8692 0.4345 0.5216 0.5572 0.6838 0.3811 0.1686 0.5107 0.9405  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.5861 0.2342 0.0175 0.0890 <0.0001   0.0060 0.0693 0.0015 0.0926 0.8281  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1141 0.0391 0.0085 0.0022 <0.0001   0.0039 0.0100 0.0064 0.1667 0.0298  
26-54                      
Veteran 0.3446 0.3905 0.3129 0.1060 0.1867 0.2689 0.8180 0.5857 0.3648 0.5583  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0048 0.0077 0.0031 0.0007 0.3444 0.2069 0.0005 0.0279 0.5750 0.0275  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0014 0.0058 0.0001 0.0014 0.1921 0.0310 0.0005 0.0232 0.1275 0.0011  
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.8591 0.9711 0.6347 0.7089 0.1958 0.3360 0.3881 0.0579 0.2905 0.8870  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0023 <0.0001   0.0033 0.3443 0.0595 1.0000 0.0454 0.1371 0.0386 0.0199  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0382 0.0080 0.0010 0.0880 0.0084 0.9078 0.0732 0.1048 0.2191 0.0680  
Table B.4B Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran   2.2     2.4     2.4     2.6     3.0     2.3     2.4     3.0     2.3     1.9     2.2
Nonveteran, Adjusted   2.7b   2.2b   2.3b   2.9     3.1     3.5     2.7b   3.2     3.1a   2.8a   4.0
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   4.6     4.9     4.6a   4.9     5.2     5.2     4.9     5.0     4.9     4.4b   5.0
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran   2.2     2.2     2.2     2.6     2.9     2.1     2.3     2.9     2.2     1.8     2.2
Nonveteran, Adjusted   2.7b   2.1b   2.3b   2.9     3.0     3.5     2.6b   3.2     3.0a   2.8a   4.0
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   5.9     6.0     5.7     6.0     6.8     6.6     6.0     6.3     6.5     5.5a   6.3
Female                      
Veteran   2.5     4.9     6.3a   3.1     3.5     4.5     3.8     5.1     4.7a   3.3     1.8
Nonveteran, Adjusted   2.9b   3.6     3.6     3.6     3.8     3.7     3.8     3.4     3.4     3.3     3.7
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   3.8     4.1     3.8     4.1     3.9     4.1     4.0     4.0     3.8     3.6a   4.1
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 10.6   14.9   15.8   16.3   15.9   15.6   11.3   19.4   16.0   13.9   13.4
Nonveteran, Adjusted 12.4a 13.1b 13.3b 13.2b 14.3b 13.8b 13.3b 13.6b 12.6b 11.3   11.3
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 11.4b 11.9b 11.9b 12.3b 12.4b 12.1b 12.0b 11.9b 11.0a 9.7   10.1
26-54                      
Veteran   4.6     5.0     5.0     5.6     5.6     4.9     4.4     5.4     5.0     4.2     4.5
Nonveteran, Adjusted   4.9b   4.8b   4.8b   4.7b   5.9     5.8     5.2a   5.4     6.1     5.4     6.3
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   4.3b   4.5b   4.2b   4.4b   5.0     4.9     4.6a   4.9     5.1     4.5b   5.4
55 or Older                      
Veteran   0.5     0.5     0.6     0.6     1.3     0.5     1.1     1.4     0.8     0.5     0.7
Nonveteran, Adjusted   1.1a   0.3b   0.7b   1.7     1.4a   2.0     1.2a   1.8     1.4a   1.4     2.7
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   0.8b   0.8a   0.7b   1.2     0.9a   1.5     1.1     1.1     1.2     1.2     1.7
Table B.4D Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.33 0.38 0.29 0.36 0.44 0.34 0.29 0.36
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.27 0.15 0.23 0.41 0.29 0.39 0.26 0.32 0.27 0.30 0.37
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.14 0.16
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.31 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.40 0.30 0.37 0.46 0.35 0.30 0.38
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.29 0.16 0.24 0.44 0.31 0.41 0.28 0.35 0.29 0.32 0.40
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.24 0.27 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.28 0.23 0.28
Female                      
Veteran 0.88 1.41 2.06 1.20 1.21 1.35 1.68 1.77 1.20 1.20 0.77
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.16 0.22 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.22 0.21 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.20
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.17 0.19 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.18 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.19
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 1.89 2.49 3.11 2.59 2.65 2.80 2.10 3.12 2.52 3.05 2.56
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.34 0.35 0.37 0.37 0.41 0.40 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.35 0.35
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.32 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.29 0.28 0.28
26-54                      
Veteran 0.70 0.78 0.84 0.84 0.88 0.73 0.71 0.88 0.88 0.74 0.86
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.33 0.29 0.30 0.29 0.34 0.33 0.30 0.28 0.38 0.31 0.37
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.21 0.22 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.20 0.21 0.24 0.21 0.24
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.21 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.38 0.21 0.41 0.47 0.26 0.25 0.36
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.40 0.16 0.33 0.63 0.41 0.58 0.37 0.47 0.37 0.42 0.54
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.18 0.22 0.16 0.24 0.19 0.25 0.19 0.19 0.24 0.21 0.26
Table B.4P Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.9625 0.6416 0.6005 0.3879 0.1360 0.8597 0.6956 0.1340 0.7366 0.5628  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0050 <0.0001   0.0002 0.0770 0.0567 0.3463 0.0050 0.1001 0.0434 0.0146  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0660 0.5278 0.0470 0.5153 0.5800 0.5136 0.3823 0.7245 0.6186 0.0017  
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.9648 0.9422 0.9520 0.4775 0.1926 0.8182 0.9136 0.2767 0.9552 0.4295  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0068 <0.0001   0.0002 0.0779 0.0545 0.3470 0.0045 0.1061 0.0473 0.0165  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.2579 0.4345 0.1005 0.4494 0.1884 0.3851 0.4398 0.9348 0.6660 0.0221  
Female                      
Veteran 0.5425 0.0550 0.0430 0.3567 0.2631 0.0513 0.2827 0.0951 0.0460 0.2983  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0048 0.9762 0.7769 0.9900 0.5373 1.0000 0.7131 0.4479 0.3965 0.2113  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.2109 0.9299 0.3140 1.0000 0.5091 0.9815 0.6572 0.6142 0.1727 0.0288  
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 0.3732 0.6661 0.5512 0.4320 0.4935 0.5683 0.5301 0.1379 0.4803 0.8968  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0190 0.0003 <0.0001   0.0001 <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0076 0.9026  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0008 <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0169 0.3350  
26-54                      
Veteran 0.9494 0.6849 0.6870 0.3808 0.4042 0.7338 0.9102 0.5153 0.7302 0.7567  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0049 0.0029 0.0018 0.0011 0.4641 0.3652 0.0234 0.0977 0.7945 0.0735  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0008 0.0096 0.0002 0.0026 0.2257 0.1681 0.0113 0.1088 0.4123 0.0075  
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.4943 0.6525 0.7845 0.7565 0.3115 0.5174 0.5162 0.2378 0.9799 0.6102  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0162 <0.0001   0.0012 0.2698 0.0481 0.3467 0.0205 0.1945 0.0408 0.0534  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0050 0.0139 0.0018 0.1939 0.0126 0.5146 0.0904 0.0856 0.1417 0.1737  
Table B.5B Hallucinogen Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.5   0.4   0.6   0.4   0.2   0.4   0.4   0.5   0.8a 0.5   0.3
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.7   0.6a 0.6   0.8   0.6a 0.6   0.5   0.6   0.6   0.5a 0.9
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 2.0a 1.6   1.6   1.6   1.7   1.5a 1.4b 1.8   1.7   1.6   1.7
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.5   0.4   0.6   0.4   0.2   0.3   0.3   0.5   0.7   0.5   0.3
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.7   0.6a 0.6   0.8   0.6a 0.6   0.5   0.6   0.6   0.5a 0.9
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 2.9   2.5   2.6   2.5   2.4   2.4   2.1b 2.6   2.7   2.3a 2.7
Female                      
Veteran 0.8   0.5     * 0.8   0.1   0.9     * 0.7   2.4b 0.0   0.2
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.7   0.7   0.6   0.6   0.9   0.5   0.5   0.9   0.7   0.6   0.7
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 1.4b 1.0   0.9a 0.9   1.1   0.9   0.9   1.2   1.0   1.0   1.0
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 8.9   7.1   5.9   6.6   7.2   7.6   5.4   9.0   10.1     8.5   6.5
Nonveteran, Adjusted 9.7b 7.7   7.6   7.6   8.1   7.9   7.6   8.9a 8.7   8.3   7.9
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 8.4b 6.6   6.0   6.3   6.6   6.2   6.4   7.2a 7.1   6.8   6.5
26-54                      
Veteran 0.9a 0.8b 0.9a 0.8a 0.3   0.7a 0.9a 1.0a 1.8a 1.0b 0.1
Nonveteran, Adjusted 1.4   1.2b 1.4   1.2b 1.4a 1.3a 0.9b 1.3a 1.5   1.2b 1.9
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 1.0   0.9a 1.0   0.9a 1.0   0.9a 0.7b 1.1   1.1   0.9a 1.2
55 or Older                      
Veteran   *   * 0.3   0.1     *   * 0.0     * 0.1   0.0   0.3
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0     *   * 0.3     * 0.1   0.2   0.0     * 0.0   0.3
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0     *   * 0.1   0.0   0.0   0.1   0.1   0.0   0.0   0.2
Table B.5D Hallucinogen Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.13 0.09 0.16 0.10 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.13 0.22 0.11 0.10
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.22 0.05 0.06 0.13 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.16
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.08
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.13 0.10 0.16 0.10 0.07 0.09 0.10 0.13 0.23 0.12 0.11
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.23 0.06 0.07 0.14 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.17
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.15 0.13 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.12 0.15
Female                      
Veteran 0.35 0.30 * 0.46 0.05 0.51 * 0.52 0.64 0.01 0.12
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.06 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.10 0.10 0.06 0.07
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.07
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 1.92 1.63 1.62 1.44 1.73 2.43 1.53 1.94 2.13 1.82 1.80
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.33 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.32 0.33
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.24 0.26
26-54                      
Veteran 0.32 0.24 0.30 0.23 0.16 0.23 0.33 0.38 0.66 0.31 0.08
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.13 0.15 0.14 0.12 0.14 0.18 0.15 0.18
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.10 0.09 0.11 0.09 0.10 0.09 0.07 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.11
55 or Older                      
Veteran * * 0.18 0.07 * * 0.05 * 0.08 0.04 0.15
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.03 * * 0.33 * 0.07 0.19 0.05 * 0.01 0.22
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.03 * * 0.07 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.09
Table B.5P Hallucinogen Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.2712 0.4974 0.1599 0.4689 0.4301 0.7337 0.5574 0.3066 0.0407 0.2685  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.2036 0.0354 0.0927 0.5538 0.0446 0.0703 0.0542 0.0726 0.0737 0.0223  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0249 0.3326 0.1129 0.1311 0.4867 0.0411 0.0025 0.5458 0.9685 0.1115  
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.3810 0.5998 0.2276 0.6504 0.4613 0.9583 0.9007 0.4274 0.1503 0.2433  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.1966 0.0354 0.1000 0.5579 0.0375 0.0798 0.0616 0.0595 0.0705 0.0242  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.3109 0.3985 0.5607 0.2879 0.1370 0.1808 0.0026 0.7937 0.9221 0.0383  
Female                      
Veteran 0.0757 0.2665 * 0.1533 0.3962 0.1354 * 0.2927 0.0005 0.1938  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.5950 0.9170 0.1337 0.6335 0.1430 0.0987 0.0558 0.1426 0.7489 0.3170  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0018 0.8767 0.0498 0.3531 0.3986 0.0553 0.2334 0.1570 0.9559 0.9783  
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 0.3597 0.8007 0.7982 0.9564 0.7764 0.7094 0.6317 0.3586 0.2025 0.4347  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0001 0.7132 0.5231 0.4874 0.5981 0.9881 0.5156 0.0262 0.0698 0.3207  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   0.6017 0.2090 0.6414 0.7737 0.4921 0.8286 0.0409 0.0685 0.3802  
26-54                      
Veteran 0.0178 0.0085 0.0114 0.0126 0.3879 0.0258 0.0279 0.0208 0.0109 0.0097  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0640 0.0075 0.0940 0.0039 0.0318 0.0109 <0.0001   0.0174 0.1725 0.0092  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1572 0.0229 0.1106 0.0284 0.1709 0.0315 <0.0001   0.4876 0.3286 0.0331  
55 or Older                      
Veteran * * 0.9778 0.2546 * * 0.1907 * 0.3788 0.1759  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.2504 * * 0.9023 * 0.3431 0.7417 0.2919 * 0.2199  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.2199 * * 0.4484 0.1493 0.1327 0.3159 0.3873 0.1356 0.1169  
Table B.6B Methamphetamine Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Estimates of methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2008; see endnote 40). For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the 2008 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2009; see endnote 41).
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.5   0.4   0.6   0.5   0.5   0.3   0.1   0.2 0.3 0.4   0.2
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.4   0.3   0.5   0.5   0.5   0.3   0.3   0.4 0.2 0.3   0.3
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.8b 0.7b 0.8b 0.7b 0.8b 0.6   0.4   0.5 0.4 0.4   0.5
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.4   0.5   0.6   0.4   0.6   0.3   0.2   0.2 0.3 0.4   0.2
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.4   0.3   0.5   0.5   0.5   0.3   0.3   0.4 0.2 0.3   0.3
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 1.0a 1.0a 1.2b 0.9   1.0a 0.7   0.4a 0.7 0.6 0.6   0.7
Female                      
Veteran 0.9   * 0.4   * 0.1   0.4   * 0.1 0.2 0.1   *
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.4   0.4   0.4a 0.4a 0.6b 0.4   0.3   0.4 0.2 0.3   0.3
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.6b 0.5a 0.5a 0.5a 0.6b 0.5   0.3   0.4 0.3 0.2   0.3
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 3.7b 2.3b 1.9a 4.2a 3.7b 2.7a 0.8   2.3 0.5 2.0   0.1
Nonveteran, Adjusted 2.1b 2.1b 2.2b 1.9b 1.8b 1.2   0.8a 1.0 0.8 0.8   1.1
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 2.0b 1.9b 1.9b 1.7b 1.7b 1.2   0.8   0.9 0.8 0.6a 1.0
26-54                      
Veteran 1.1   1.1   1.0   1.2   1.4   0.9   0.4   0.5 0.4 1.2   0.6
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.9   0.9   1.1   0.8   0.9   0.7   0.4a 0.7 0.7 0.8   0.8
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.7   0.6   0.8   0.6   0.9a 0.6   0.4a 0.6 0.4 0.5   0.6
55 or Older                      
Veteran * 0.0   0.3   0.0   * * * 0.0 0.2 * *
Nonveteran, Adjusted * * 0.1   0.2   0.3   0.1   0.2   0.2 * * 0.0
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0   * 0.0   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.1   0.1 0.0 0.0   0.0
Table B.6D Methamphetamine Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Estimates of methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2008; see endnote 40). For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the 2008 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2009; see endnote 41).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.13 0.11 0.18 0.13 0.15 0.12 0.07 0.08 0.18 0.24 0.10
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.16 0.15 0.05 0.11 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.06
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.05
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.14 0.11 0.19 0.12 0.16 0.13 0.07 0.08 0.19 0.26 0.11
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.17 0.16 0.06 0.12 0.11 0.05 0.05 0.06
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.10 0.09 0.11 0.08 0.11 0.09 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.10
Female                      
Veteran 0.48 * 0.31 * 0.06 0.24 * 0.06 0.25 0.13 *
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.04 0.06 0.04
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.05
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 1.28 0.61 0.76 1.74 1.34 1.16 0.54 1.29 0.34 1.02 0.07
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.12 0.09 0.11 0.09 0.11 0.13
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.08 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.12
26-54                      
Veteran 0.34 0.29 0.31 0.37 0.45 0.34 0.19 0.20 0.25 0.77 0.32
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.13 0.13 0.16 0.10 0.15 0.12 0.08 0.10 0.14 0.15 0.17
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.07 0.10 0.08 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.08
55 or Older                      
Veteran * 0.02 0.22 0.01 * * * 0.05 0.24 * *
Nonveteran, Adjusted * * 0.11 0.25 0.22 0.06 0.16 0.14 * * 0.05
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.01 * 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.03
Table B.6P Methamphetamine Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Estimates of methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2008; see endnote 40). For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the 2008 national findings report (Office of Applied Studies, 2009; see endnote 41).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.1048 0.1023 0.0598 0.0707 0.0827 0.3708 0.6398 0.8798 0.6202 0.3935  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.3421 0.6270 0.0782 0.3837 0.2365 0.9532 0.7771 0.6327 0.3031 0.4768  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0004 0.0034 0.0002 0.0072 0.0002 0.2100 0.0536 0.7798 0.1436 0.2163  
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.1795 0.1027 0.0758 0.1561 0.0864 0.4598 0.6519 0.8847 0.6739 0.4115  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.3906 0.6904 0.0945 0.4148 0.2983 0.8630 0.7771 0.6772 0.3193 0.4763  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0180 0.0385 0.0020 0.0798 0.0469 0.8900 0.0348 0.7445 0.2793 0.4829  
Female                      
Veteran 0.0769 * 0.2206 * 0.3179 0.0991 * 0.3120 0.3178 0.3112  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0732 0.1044 0.0349 0.0300 0.0004 0.0774 0.9257 0.2158 0.5026 0.9508  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0020 0.0140 0.0127 0.0223 0.0003 0.0568 0.6600 0.4124 0.2194 0.1703  
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 0.0044 0.0002 0.0145 0.0172 0.0076 0.0227 0.2018 0.0900 0.2328 0.0539  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0003 0.4594 0.0470 0.8316 0.0850 0.1220  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.1849 0.2286 0.4696 0.1667 0.0145  
26-54                      
Veteran 0.3151 0.2762 0.3502 0.2157 0.1705 0.5993 0.5429 0.6932 0.6391 0.4543  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.5740 0.7930 0.2476 0.9067 0.6493 0.6523 0.0289 0.4483 0.5560 0.8276  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.2420 0.5393 0.1210 0.5646 0.0390 0.8716 0.0303 0.8017 0.2529 0.7248  
55 or Older                      
Veteran * 0.3342 0.1761 0.3172 * * * 0.3277 0.3175 *  
Nonveteran, Adjusted * * 0.5043 0.4267 0.3450 0.8708 0.3828 0.3155 * *  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1941 * 0.9782 0.8824 0.2961 0.3083 0.3527 0.5090 0.7588 0.2042  
Table B.7B Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29).
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran   6.7     7.2     6.5     6.7     5.8     6.8     5.4     6.8     6.0     6.0     5.9
Nonveteran, Adjusted   7.2     5.7b   6.8     6.6     6.7     7.4     6.8     6.5     7.0     5.5b   7.4
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   8.1b   7.7     8.2b   8.1b   8.2b   7.9a   8.0a   7.9a   7.5     6.8a   7.3
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran   7.0     7.5     6.6     6.7     5.9     6.9     5.4     6.6     6.1     6.1     6.0
Nonveteran, Adjusted   7.5     5.8b   6.9     6.8     6.8     7.7     6.9     6.7     7.1     5.5b   7.6
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 13.0b 12.0a 12.8b 12.3b 12.5b 12.4b 11.7   11.7   11.1     9.7b 10.9
Female                      
Veteran   2.3     2.6     4.3     6.3     4.1     6.1     4.9     9.0a   4.3     3.1     3.5
Nonveteran, Adjusted   3.7     4.1     4.6     4.9a   4.9b   4.0     4.9a   4.6     4.4     4.6     4.1
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   4.7     4.8     4.8     5.1     5.1     4.5     5.2a   5.0     4.7     4.7     4.7
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 19.6   21.1   21.1   19.9   23.0   17.3   20.7   26.0   21.7   23.1   20.2
Nonveteran, Adjusted 20.8b 19.7b 20.8b 20.2b 20.4b 20.0b 19.4b 18.5b 18.2b 16.9   16.0
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 17.6b 17.2b 17.4b 17.5b 17.6b 16.9b 17.3b 16.0b 15.6b 14.3   14.3
26-54                      
Veteran 11.1   12.1   10.3     9.7     8.4   12.5     9.9   10.9     9.1     8.9     9.3
Nonveteran, Adjusted 11.7   10.3   11.6   10.6   11.1   11.2   10.3   10.6   10.3     9.2a 10.7
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   8.1     7.7     8.3     8.0     8.4     7.9     8.1     8.0     7.7     7.3     7.8
55 or Older                      
Veteran   3.6     3.9     3.8     4.7     3.9     3.5     2.7     4.2     4.1     4.1     3.8
Nonveteran, Adjusted   4.0     2.6b   3.7     4.1     4.1     5.1     4.6     4.1     5.1     3.4a   5.5
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   1.5b   1.3b   1.8a   2.1     1.7a   2.4     2.1     2.8     2.4     1.9a   2.7
Table B.7D Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.62 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.57 0.66 0.50 0.62 0.60 0.65 0.55
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.57 0.42 0.49 0.59 0.53 0.63 0.53 0.44 0.57 0.37 0.50
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.16 0.19
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.65 0.63 0.59 0.59 0.60 0.69 0.53 0.66 0.64 0.68 0.58
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.60 0.45 0.52 0.62 0.57 0.68 0.57 0.48 0.61 0.39 0.54
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.34 0.29 0.36
Female                      
Veteran 1.03 0.90 1.51 2.02 1.40 1.69 1.37 2.25 1.24 1.65 1.09
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.19 0.19 0.22 0.22 0.23 0.18 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.19
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.19 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.18 0.18
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 2.54 2.79 3.28 2.73 3.05 3.01 2.80 3.43 3.15 3.87 2.95
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.43 0.43 0.47 0.43 0.42
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.37 0.37 0.35 0.37 0.38 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.36 0.34 0.33
26-54                      
Veteran 1.11 1.08 1.06 1.05 1.03 1.23 1.09 1.26 1.08 1.18 1.06
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.47 0.43 0.45 0.45 0.43 0.47 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.37 0.46
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.28 0.26 0.29 0.26 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.28
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.71 0.72 0.69 0.71 0.70 0.76 0.57 0.71 0.72 0.79 0.65
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.90 0.63 0.75 0.89 0.77 0.96 0.79 0.65 0.85 0.52 0.72
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.27 0.21 0.30 0.30 0.28 0.35 0.29 0.34 0.32 0.22 0.29
Table B.7P Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.3236 0.1136 0.4635 0.2968 0.8792 0.2664 0.5256 0.2475 0.8697 0.9173  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.8563 0.0097 0.4154 0.3302 0.3772 0.9664 0.3876 0.1708 0.5759 0.0024  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0043 0.1042 0.0020 0.0034 0.0014 0.0322 0.0152 0.0412 0.4901 0.0483  
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.2946 0.0986 0.5222 0.4063 0.8350 0.3449 0.4473 0.5025 0.9134 0.9051  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.8546 0.0096 0.3675 0.2918 0.3423 0.9334 0.3746 0.1795 0.5732 0.0020  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   0.0300 <0.0001   0.0042 0.0028 0.0032 0.1059 0.1159 0.6473 0.0074  
Female                      
Veteran 0.4320 0.5633 0.6437 0.2246 0.7221 0.1952 0.4018 0.0264 0.6125 0.8736  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0798 0.9283 0.1079 0.0113 0.0094 0.5229 0.0103 0.1563 0.3286 0.1345  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.9794 0.6650 0.5138 0.1139 0.0939 0.6195 0.0439 0.2078 0.7402 0.7836  
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 0.8749 0.8310 0.8401 0.9271 0.4995 0.4727 0.9028 0.2132 0.7358 0.5496  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0005 0.1504  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0003 0.0065 0.9406  
26-54                      
Veteran 0.2380 0.0682 0.4902 0.7706 0.5679 0.0516 0.7178 0.3393 0.8946 0.8280  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.1124 0.4993 0.1684 0.9132 0.4708 0.4537 0.5349 0.8883 0.5446 0.0107  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.5215 0.7100 0.2631 0.6232 0.1289 0.8890 0.5352 0.6827 0.8551 0.1637  
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.7759 0.9515 1.0000 0.3633 0.9296 0.7129 0.1739 0.6752 0.7641 0.7967  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.1937 0.0023 0.0754 0.2143 0.1721 0.6865 0.3764 0.1193 0.6636 0.0177  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0038 <0.0001   0.0284 0.1601 0.0321 0.5827 0.1557 0.6737 0.6135 0.0399  
Table B.8B Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29).
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran   1.4     1.8     1.6     1.4     1.6   1.8   1.3     1.8   1.1   1.2     1.5
Nonveteran, Adjusted   1.7     1.2b   1.5     1.4a   1.8   1.8   1.4a   1.8   1.6   1.5a   2.1
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   2.9     2.7     2.9     2.8     2.8   2.7   2.8     2.8   2.8   2.4b   2.8
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran   1.4     1.8     1.5     1.4     1.6   1.8   1.3     1.7   1.1   1.2     1.5
Nonveteran, Adjusted   1.8     1.2b   1.5     1.4a   1.8   1.8   1.4a   1.8   1.6   1.5a   2.1
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   4.5     4.0     4.5     4.0     4.2   4.2   3.8     4.3   4.1   3.7a   4.4
Female                      
Veteran   0.5     2.8     3.4     1.4     0.6   1.9   1.4     2.8   1.5   0.2     1.7
Nonveteran, Adjusted   1.4     1.6     1.5     1.7     1.5   1.4   1.8a   1.3   1.6   1.3     1.4
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   1.8     1.8     1.8     1.9     1.7   1.6   2.0a   1.6   1.8   1.5     1.7
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran   8.7     7.6     8.9     7.6     8.4 14.4   7.3   10.7 10.9   8.8     7.7
Nonveteran, Adjusted   9.8     9.0   10.2a   9.7     9.2   9.5   8.7     8.9   8.8   9.4     9.1
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   8.2     7.8     8.3     8.4     7.9   7.9   7.9     7.7   7.8   7.5     7.8
26-54                      
Veteran   2.6     4.3     3.5     3.2     2.7   3.5   3.2     3.2   2.6   2.6     3.4
Nonveteran, Adjusted   3.8     2.9a   3.4     3.1     3.3   3.3   3.2     3.5   3.5   2.9a   3.9
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   2.5     2.3     2.5     2.2     2.4   2.3   2.5     2.4   2.6   2.1a   2.6
55 or Older                      
Veteran   0.4   0.2   0.3   0.3   0.8   0.5   0.2   0.9   0.2   0.3   0.4
Nonveteran, Adjusted   0.2a   *   0.2a   0.3   0.8   0.8   0.3   0.8   0.5   0.6   1.0
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   0.3   0.0b   0.2   0.2   0.3   0.4   0.2a   0.5   0.2   0.3   0.5
Table B.8D Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2002-2012
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.24 0.28 0.25 0.23 0.29 0.29 0.22 0.31 0.22 0.25 0.26
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.16 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.23 0.24 0.13 0.20 0.18 0.15 0.26
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.09 0.12
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.25 0.28 0.25 0.24 0.31 0.30 0.23 0.31 0.23 0.27 0.27
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.17 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.24 0.25 0.14 0.21 0.19 0.16 0.28
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.22 0.19 0.20 0.18 0.19 0.21 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.17 0.22
Female                      
Veteran 0.33 1.17 1.61 0.68 0.47 0.81 0.74 1.45 0.44 0.15 0.82
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.14 0.12 0.12 0.14 0.11 0.16 0.11 0.10
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.11 0.09 0.10
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 1.86 1.71 2.52 1.44 1.90 2.96 1.69 2.29 2.15 1.96 1.91
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.33 0.31 0.34 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.33 0.36
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.27
26-54                      
Veteran 0.54 0.71 0.65 0.62 0.67 0.71 0.60 0.69 0.64 0.71 0.68
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.35 0.23 0.25 0.29 0.26 0.26 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.23 0.32
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.17 0.15 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.17 0.14 0.18
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.19 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.26 0.24 0.12 0.30 0.11 0.16 0.21
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.15 * 0.14 0.20 0.33 0.34 0.15 0.27 0.24 0.19 0.36
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.12 0.02 0.10 0.09 0.11 0.14 0.06 0.14 0.08 0.08 0.15
Table B.8P Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2012.
TOTAL                      
Veteran 0.6439 0.3926 0.8545 0.7427 0.9175 0.5091 0.5831 0.4603 0.2494 0.3176  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.2421 0.0013 0.0588 0.0335 0.3665 0.3615 0.0173 0.3685 0.1481 0.0431  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.5105 0.5059 0.5089 0.6575 0.8468 0.4110 0.7000 0.7049 0.7837 0.0083  
GENDER                      
Male                      
Veteran 0.7774 0.4864 0.9475 0.7755 0.7723 0.5263 0.6147 0.5948 0.2567 0.4583  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.2375 0.0011 0.0538 0.0284 0.3557 0.3698 0.0129 0.3944 0.1373 0.0456  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.5801 0.2233 0.5985 0.2211 0.6534 0.6222 0.0617 0.8099 0.3684 0.0213  
Female                      
Veteran 0.1997 0.4246 0.3280 0.7851 0.2441 0.8334 0.7824 0.5009 0.8093 0.0837  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.9264 0.3181 0.3703 0.0713 0.4738 0.8328 0.0157 0.5880 0.2972 0.3397  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.3536 0.3158 0.4090 0.2282 0.6148 0.4267 0.0292 0.6509 0.5083 0.1197  
AGE GROUP                      
18-25                      
Veteran 0.7272 0.9742 0.7050 0.9623 0.8105 0.0559 0.8535 0.3175 0.2568 0.6873  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.1367 0.7843 0.0298 0.2001 0.7636 0.3598 0.4298 0.5953 0.5990 0.5183  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.2866 0.9731 0.1762 0.1189 0.8180 0.9188 0.9007 0.7246 0.9961 0.3707  
26-54                      
Veteran 0.3863 0.3444 0.8958 0.8202 0.4492 0.9108 0.8594 0.8872 0.4024 0.4522  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.8700 0.0116 0.2647 0.0722 0.1867 0.1266 0.0832 0.3029 0.4117 0.0128  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.7924 0.2980 0.7937 0.1426 0.5077 0.1848 0.7993 0.5380 0.8812 0.0273  
55 or Older                      
Veteran 0.7433 0.4362 0.5506 0.5030 0.2771 0.8260 0.3214 0.2651 0.2524 0.5688  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0338 * 0.0376 0.0809 0.5970 0.5984 0.0512 0.5425 0.2509 0.3064  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1795 0.0013 0.1049 0.0507 0.2542 0.6061 0.0308 0.9054 0.0588 0.2109  
Table B.9B Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2005-2012
Gender/Age Group 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: MDE is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005-2012.
TOTAL                
Veteran   4.1   5.3   4.5   4.5     4.5     5.1   4.3   5.6
Nonveteran, Adjusted   4.2   4.4   5.4   4.2     4.4     5.2   4.5   4.4
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   6.9   6.7   7.0   6.7     6.8     7.0   6.8   7.0
GENDER                
Male                
Veteran   3.8   4.7   3.7   4.2     4.1     4.5   3.9   5.4
Nonveteran, Adjusted   4.0   4.2   5.1   3.9     4.0     4.9   4.2   4.2
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   4.9   4.8   5.0   4.7     5.0     5.2   4.9   5.1
Female                
Veteran 10.4 13.6 14.3   8.4     9.5   13.1   9.6   9.0
Nonveteran, Adjusted   8.4   8.6   8.5   8.6     8.3     8.6   8.9   8.2
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   8.3   8.1   8.5   8.3     8.2     8.4   8.3   8.4
AGE GROUP                
18-25                
Veteran 11.3 12.0 10.1   7.6     6.8     9.7   9.5   9.1
Nonveteran, Adjusted   6.9   6.9   6.6   6.7a   7.0b   6.7   6.7   7.9
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   8.7   8.0   8.0   8.4     8.0b   8.3   8.3   8.9
26-54                
Veteran   6.8   9.4   7.7   6.8     7.3     7.3   7.3   9.4
Nonveteran, Adjusted   5.8   5.7   6.0   6.0     6.2     6.4   6.4   6.1
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   7.4   7.3   7.6   7.4     7.5     7.6   7.8   7.5
55 or Older                
Veteran   2.5   2.9   2.6   3.2     3.0     3.9   2.7   3.7
Nonveteran, Adjusted   3.3   3.7   5.0   3.2     3.3     4.5   3.5   3.6
Nonveteran, Unadjusted   4.5   4.3   5.0   4.2     4.7     5.3   4.2   5.0
Table B.9D Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2005-2012
Gender/Age Group 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: MDE is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005-2012.
TOTAL                
Veteran 0.47 0.56 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.65 0.45 0.59
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.51 0.47 0.62 0.44 0.42 0.45 0.45 0.41
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19
GENDER                
Male                
Veteran 0.47 0.57 0.50 0.55 0.53 0.66 0.46 0.60
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.54 0.50 0.66 0.48 0.45 0.48 0.48 0.44
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.24 0.24 0.27 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.25 0.25
Female                
Veteran 2.80 2.89 3.12 2.01 2.08 2.62 1.86 2.69
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.33 0.32 0.30 0.35 0.33 0.33 0.35 0.29
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.28 0.26 0.27 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28
AGE GROUP                
18-25                
Veteran 2.12 2.14 2.66 1.64 1.88 2.45 1.99 1.91
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.24 0.27 0.28
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.26 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.27
26-54                
Veteran 0.96 1.24 0.97 0.87 1.02 0.90 0.99 1.30
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.31 0.32 0.35 0.32 0.34
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.27 0.28 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.26
55 or Older                
Veteran 0.53 0.57 0.64 0.66 0.59 0.87 0.49 0.64
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.78 0.72 0.95 0.67 0.61 0.66 0.66 0.61
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.45 0.38 0.42 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.37 0.43
Table B.9P Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: MDE is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005-2012.
TOTAL                
Veteran <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.9704 0.4712 0.3633 0.6755  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.7398 0.5027 0.3395 0.6081  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.4823 0.3735 0.5777 0.2492  
GENDER                
Male                
Veteran <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.9154 0.7113 0.4780 0.6383  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.6903 0.4900 0.3492 0.5955  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.6265 0.6189 0.8331 0.1876  
Female                
Veteran <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.6745 0.0882 0.2353 0.6601  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.4204 0.4983 0.7935 0.5671  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.5956 0.4228 0.3437 0.6749  
AGE GROUP                
18-25                
Veteran <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.4468 0.6431 0.5137 0.2542  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0163 <0.0001   0.0525 0.1581  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.1962 <0.0001   0.0599 0.2649  
26-54                
Veteran <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.3220 0.4840 0.4825 0.2784  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.6191 0.3854 0.5473 0.5113  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.8445 0.4027 0.7465 0.8809  
55 or Older                
Veteran <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.4890 0.7847 0.1348 0.1871  
Nonveteran, Adjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.6296 0.3313 0.3850 0.7561  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.1932 0.1548 0.4561 0.2185  
Table B.10B Receipt of Treatment for Depression in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older with Major Depressive Episode (MDE), by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2012
Gender/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: MDE is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2012.
TOTAL          
Veteran 46.9   59.7   51.1   55.2   54.6
Nonveteran, Adjusted 46.1   56.1   50.9   51.1   49.1
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 52.6   50.0   52.3   53.1   53.0
GENDER          
Male          
Veteran 45.4   59.6   49.5   54.8   54.2
Nonveteran, Adjusted 45.2   56.2   50.4   50.7   48.4
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 40.7   42.2   43.4   44.8   42.8
Female          
Veteran * * * * *
Nonveteran, Adjusted 57.9   54.8   58.0a 57.3   59.9
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 58.1   53.8   56.9   57.2   57.7
AGE GROUP          
18-25          
Veteran * * * * *
Nonveteran, Adjusted 32.6b 32.5b 33.9   34.0a 35.4
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 38.1   37.7b 39.8   39.5   40.0
26-54          
Veteran 47.9   57.2   47.2   64.0   57.1
Nonveteran, Adjusted 46.5   43.4   45.5   47.4   46.5
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 54.7   51.1   53.0   55.4   53.3
55 or Older          
Veteran * * * * *
Nonveteran, Adjusted * 63.1   54.0   53.3   50.8
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 57.9   57.0   59.8   57.3a 62.0
Table B.10D Receipt of Treatment for Depression in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older with Major Depressive Episode (MDE), by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2008-2012
Gender/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: MDE is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2012.
TOTAL          
Veteran 4.42 4.74 5.05 4.38 4.15
Nonveteran, Adjusted 4.24 3.52 3.48 3.49 3.63
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 1.13 1.02 1.05 1.03 1.07
GENDER          
Male          
Veteran 4.75 5.09 5.41 4.62 4.40
Nonveteran, Adjusted 4.58 3.83 3.74 3.71 3.87
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 1.94 1.77 1.90 1.91 1.78
Female          
Veteran * * * * *
Nonveteran, Adjusted 1.63 1.57 1.51 1.55 1.56
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 1.30 1.23 1.25 1.22 1.28
AGE GROUP          
18-25          
Veteran * * * * *
Nonveteran, Adjusted 1.41 1.45 1.53 1.60 1.34
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 1.12 1.12 1.18 1.24 1.11
26-54          
Veteran 4.41 4.73 4.99 4.59 4.82
Nonveteran, Adjusted 2.08 1.94 2.07 2.11 2.21
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 1.34 1.30 1.28 1.29 1.27
55 or Older          
Veteran * * * * *
Nonveteran, Adjusted * 5.30 5.12 5.06 5.44
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 3.43 2.80 2.78 2.73 2.86
Table B.10P Receipt of Treatment for Depression in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older with Major Depressive Episode (MDE), by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: MDE is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2012.
TOTAL          
Veteran 0.2455 0.2688 0.5795 0.3425  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.6683 0.1812 0.5148 0.7363  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1201 0.1151 0.8574 0.4554  
GENDER          
Male          
Veteran 0.2366 0.1536 0.3656 0.3083  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.5757 0.1322 0.6049 0.6860  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0586 0.0543 0.8178 0.3764  
Female          
Veteran * * * *  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.2207 0.4990 0.0307 0.0890  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.5523 0.5257 0.6480 0.7676  
AGE GROUP          
18-25          
Veteran * * * *  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0004 <0.0001   0.0560 0.0191  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1416 0.0018 0.5004 0.1950  
26-54          
Veteran 0.0940 0.2714 0.6240 0.6487  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.4720 0.5225 0.5123 0.4816  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.3607 0.5799 0.5232 0.3674  
55 or Older          
Veteran * * * *  
Nonveteran, Adjusted * 0.2242 0.5947 0.6289  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1444 0.1515 0.6016 0.0240  
Table B.11B Serious Mental Illness (SMI) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2012
Gender/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: SMI is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29) and resulted in serious functional impairment. SMI estimates from 2008 to 2011 may differ from previously published estimates due to revised estimation procedures. For details on the methodology, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2012 mental health findings (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013; see endnote 28).
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2012.
TOTAL          
Veteran 2.9   3.0   3.3   3.1   3.7
Nonveteran, Adjusted 2.4   2.1   3.0   2.5   2.7
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 3.8   3.8   4.2   4.0a 4.1
GENDER          
Male          
Veteran 2.8   2.6   2.9   2.9   3.5
Nonveteran, Adjusted 2.2   1.9   2.8   2.3   2.5
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 2.6   2.6   3.0   2.9   3.1
Female          
Veteran 5.2   7.2   8.6   6.5   5.7
Nonveteran, Adjusted 5.2   5.0   5.5   5.3   4.7
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 4.7   4.7   5.0   4.8   4.9
AGE GROUP          
18-25          
Veteran 6.0   3.5   4.5   5.2   7.1
Nonveteran, Adjusted 2.9b 2.7b 3.3b 3.1b 3.8
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 3.7a 3.3b 3.9b 3.8a 4.1
26-54          
Veteran 4.4   5.1   5.9   5.9   6.5
Nonveteran, Adjusted 3.7   3.7   4.2   4.2   4.0
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 4.6   4.7   5.1   5.1   4.9
55 or Older          
Veteran 2.1   1.9   2.0   1.7   2.2
Nonveteran, Adjusted 1.8   1.3   2.3   1.7   2.0
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 2.2a 2.2   2.6   1.9   2.8
Table B.11D Serious Mental Illness (SMI) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2008-2012
Gender/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: SMI is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29) and resulted in serious functional impairment. SMI estimates from 2008 to 2011 may differ from previously published estimates due to revised estimation procedures. For details on the methodology, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2012 mental health findings (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013; see endnote 28).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2012.
TOTAL          
Veteran 0.42 0.41 0.46 0.38 0.47
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.36 0.25 0.35 0.32 0.32
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.15 0.15
GENDER          
Male          
Veteran 0.43 0.42 0.47 0.40 0.50
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.38 0.27 0.38 0.34 0.34
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.19 0.18 0.21 0.19 0.20
Female          
Veteran 1.46 1.87 2.11 1.09 1.44
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.26 0.22
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.21 0.21
AGE GROUP          
18-25          
Veteran 1.66 1.40 1.40 1.13 1.82
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.18 0.19
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.16 0.15 0.18 0.17 0.17
26-54          
Veteran 0.66 0.73 0.83 0.90 1.04
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.24 0.24 0.28 0.26 0.27
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.21
55 or Older          
Veteran 0.54 0.50 0.56 0.40 0.50
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.54 0.37 0.51 0.46 0.46
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.25 0.30
Table B.11P Serious Mental Illness (SMI) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: SMI is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29) and resulted in serious functional impairment. SMI estimates from 2008 to 2011 may differ from previously published estimates due to revised estimation procedures. For details on the methodology, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2012 mental health findings (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013; see endnote 28).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2012.
TOTAL          
Veteran 0.1081 0.2931 0.4472 0.8261  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.2954 0.5781 0.8589 0.5943  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1222 0.4474 0.1172 0.0476  
GENDER          
Male          
Veteran 0.1046 0.3515 0.3974 0.8756  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.2291 0.4586 0.8294 0.6043  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0773 0.3781 0.5261 0.1720  
Female          
Veteran 0.5002 0.2771 0.6675 0.8728  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.2930 0.4807 0.9138 0.8994  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.4641 0.7738 0.1481 0.1338  
AGE GROUP          
18-25          
Veteran 0.1940 0.9009 0.5852 0.7434  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0027 0.0025 0.0001 0.0009  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0437 0.0010 0.0024 0.0319  
26-54          
Veteran 0.2218 0.9791 0.5453 0.4387  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.1370 0.8811 0.9443 0.3075  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.7730 0.5044 0.7444 0.5394  
55 or Older          
Veteran 0.2323 0.1287 0.1750 0.7397  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.4389 0.5781 0.9050 0.8049  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.0461 0.1504 0.1461 0.0636  
Table B.12B Any Mental Illness (AMI) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Percentages, 2008-2012
Gender/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: AMI is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29). AMI estimates from 2008 to 2011 may differ from previously published estimates due to revised estimation procedures. For details on the methodology, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2012 mental health findings (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013; see endnote 28).
a Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2012.
TOTAL          
Veteran 12.6   13.3   15.6   14.3   14.6
Nonveteran, Adjusted 13.3   13.8   14.2   13.8   14.4
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 18.4   18.7   18.3   18.2   19.1
GENDER          
Male          
Veteran 11.8   12.6   15.0   13.6   13.8
Nonveteran, Adjusted 12.5   13.0   13.7   13.3   13.9
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 14.1   14.6   14.8   14.4   15.2
Female          
Veteran 22.9   21.1   24.1   25.4   26.2
Nonveteran, Adjusted 22.8   22.5   22.0   22.1   22.0
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 21.5   21.8   21.1   21.1   22.0
AGE GROUP          
18-25          
Veteran 18.9   23.4   21.6   25.4   23.9
Nonveteran, Adjusted 16.2b 16.2a 15.9b 16.0b 17.8
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 18.5   17.9a 18.0   18.5   19.5
26-54          
Veteran 18.2   20.9   19.4   19.1   20.9
Nonveteran, Adjusted 16.8   17.8   17.9   17.2   17.9
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 20.3   20.8   20.2   20.1   20.4
55 or Older          
Veteran   9.5     9.1   13.7   11.7   11.2
Nonveteran, Adjusted 11.3   11.7   12.4   12.2   12.6
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 14.3   14.9   14.9   14.5   16.3
Table B.12D Any Mental Illness (AMI) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2008-2012
Gender/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: AMI is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29). AMI estimates from 2008 to 2011 may differ from previously published estimates due to revised estimation procedures. For details on the methodology, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2012 mental health findings (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013; see endnote 28).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2012.
TOTAL          
Veteran 0.86 0.87 1.04 0.90 0.89
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.82 0.82 0.73 0.75 0.71
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.32 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.33
GENDER          
Male          
Veteran 0.87 0.92 1.10 0.95 0.92
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.88 0.89 0.79 0.80 0.76
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.43 0.43 0.44 0.44 0.42
Female          
Veteran 3.27 2.96 3.14 3.40 3.73
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.50 0.48
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.45 0.45 0.43 0.43 0.44
AGE GROUP          
18-25          
Veteran 2.56 3.24 3.15 3.65 2.81
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.38 0.36 0.35 0.41 0.38
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.34 0.32 0.35 0.37 0.35
26-54          
Veteran 1.46 1.66 1.55 1.67 1.70
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.50 0.51 0.54 0.51 0.56
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.42 0.43 0.41 0.42 0.43
55 or Older          
Veteran 1.04 1.02 1.42 1.06 1.04
Nonveteran, Adjusted 1.23 1.25 1.07 1.10 1.05
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.75 0.74 0.70 0.66 0.71
Table B.12P Any Mental Illness (AMI) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Veteran Status, Gender, and Age Group: Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2012 versus Prior Years
Gender/Age Group 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Adjusted nonveteran estimates (in italics) were standardized to the veteran population distributions stratified by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity.
NOTE: AMI is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994; see endnote 29). AMI estimates from 2008 to 2011 may differ from previously published estimates due to revised estimation procedures. For details on the methodology, see Section B.4.3 in Appendix B of the 2012 mental health findings (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013; see endnote 28).
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2012.
TOTAL          
Veteran 0.1586 0.1512 0.5321 0.0631  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.7053 0.8887 0.2457 0.9590  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.3015 0.4973 0.9403 0.4942  
GENDER          
Male          
Veteran 0.1390 0.0933 0.3082 0.0510  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.6088 0.7713 0.2773 0.9967  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.2148 0.7051 0.8022 0.6013  
Female          
Veteran 0.8638 0.8868 0.2694 0.8460  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.3505 0.6772 0.3483 0.1124  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.6779 0.6020 0.9959 0.6559  
AGE GROUP          
18-25          
Veteran 0.5763 0.4031 0.8268 0.8754  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.0023 0.0140 0.0015 0.0019  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1848 0.0202 0.0931 0.0947  
26-54          
Veteran 0.0936 0.2183 0.1900 0.2138  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.8159 0.7497 0.4853 0.5249  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.8112 0.9684 0.9561 0.4746  
55 or Older          
Veteran 0.6079 0.4378 0.8657 0.1993  
Nonveteran, Adjusted 0.7205 0.8026 0.2890 0.9626  
Nonveteran, Unadjusted 0.1740 0.5566 0.6268 0.1444  

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