National Survey on Drug Use and Health:
Comparison of 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 Population Percentages
(50 States and the District of Columbia)

151111
Table 1 – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 8.25a 9.77 0.000 11.44a 9.11 0.000 20.24a 21.75 0.000 5.72a 7.81 0.000
Northeast 8.45a 10.31 0.000 11.87a 9.24 0.000 23.71 23.65 0.939 5.58a 8.23 0.000
Midwest 7.96a 9.14 0.000 11.11a 8.40 0.000 19.93a 21.47 0.012 5.38a 7.13 0.000
South 7.64a 8.58 0.000 11.03a 8.53 0.000 18.82 19.62 0.146 5.23a 6.71 0.000
West 9.32a 11.84 0.000 12.04a 10.59 0.018 20.06a 23.90 0.000 6.96a 9.86 0.000
Alabama 6.62b 8.05 0.057 9.65 7.75 0.134 15.94 18.39 0.171 4.57b 6.33 0.056
Alaska 12.01 13.23 0.303 13.34a 9.77 0.025 27.29 24.44 0.254 9.17 11.58 0.119
Arizona 8.87a 11.17 0.016 12.61 10.41 0.150 18.88a 23.48 0.038 6.53a 9.13 0.025
Arkansas 7.78 8.81 0.190 11.72b 9.31 0.089 21.05 18.70 0.253 4.89a 7.07 0.024
California 9.01a 11.48 0.000 11.44 10.39 0.250 18.83a 23.70 0.000 6.86a 9.39 0.001
Colorado 11.12a 16.82 0.000 13.83 14.58 0.693 25.52a 33.84 0.002 8.24a 14.21 0.000
Connecticut 8.75 9.91 0.194 12.43b 9.53 0.055 25.58 24.25 0.589 5.82b 7.65 0.082
Delaware 8.74a 10.59 0.029 13.54a 10.24 0.028 25.77 25.63 0.953 5.19a 8.13 0.003
District of Columbia 11.59a 15.19 0.005 11.54 13.69 0.222 26.23 25.22 0.696 8.71a 13.13 0.004
Florida 8.72 9.26 0.313 11.42a 9.14 0.007 21.32 23.23 0.123 6.58 7.20 0.330
Georgia 7.54a 9.70 0.007 10.43 8.37 0.127 17.51 19.70 0.255 5.31a 8.10 0.005
Hawaii 8.90 9.67 0.447 13.97a 9.51 0.009 19.31 18.44 0.705 6.56 8.31 0.153
Idaho 7.24 7.77 0.466 11.02a 8.36 0.048 15.80 16.20 0.820 4.86 6.23 0.127
Illinois 7.50a 9.55 0.000 10.83a 8.54 0.007 20.22b 22.50 0.087 4.80a 7.49 0.000
Indiana 8.07 9.12 0.184 10.15 8.48 0.199 20.67 22.37 0.431 5.45 6.85 0.130
Iowa 6.47 6.27 0.783 9.22a 6.31 0.023 15.80 15.84 0.985 4.33 4.57 0.768
Kansas 6.74b 8.00 0.081 9.33 7.61 0.185 16.67 17.54 0.637 4.43a 6.31 0.034
Kentucky 8.33 8.39 0.943 11.70a 7.16 0.001 18.43 19.12 0.730 6.15 6.75 0.561
Louisiana 8.07 8.55 0.535 10.76b 8.48 0.096 20.54 17.97 0.180 5.17b 6.88 0.067
Maine 9.31a 13.50 0.000 12.58 10.82 0.262 25.20b 29.11 0.093 6.52a 11.60 0.000
Maryland 7.57a 10.76 0.000 10.76 10.79 0.983 22.02 25.52 0.132 4.85a 8.37 0.001
Massachusetts 9.28a 13.23 0.000 13.94a 9.69 0.006 27.46 31.09 0.148 5.81a 10.49 0.000
Michigan 9.06a 11.67 0.000 12.80a 9.83 0.002 21.22a 24.90 0.004 6.42a 9.60 0.000
Minnesota 7.59 8.91 0.106 11.59a 7.72 0.004 19.28 22.14 0.174 4.91a 6.91 0.043
Mississippi 6.56a 8.52 0.008 10.59 9.38 0.404 16.33 18.76 0.220 3.98a 6.53 0.004
Missouri 9.17 9.27 0.912 10.05b 7.93 0.093 21.37 23.35 0.369 6.90 7.06 0.880
Montana 10.58 11.09 0.623 15.57a 10.00 0.000 22.34 22.34 1.000 7.77 9.35 0.209
Nebraska 7.67 6.87 0.267 12.71a 7.14 0.000 18.91 17.72 0.551 4.78 4.91 0.876
Nevada 10.30 9.55 0.438 12.46b 9.63 0.063 22.02 20.00 0.345 8.17 7.90 0.819
New Hampshire 11.15 12.60 0.200 14.46a 11.10 0.040 29.61 32.01 0.349 7.82 9.74 0.159
New Jersey 6.97 7.96 0.178 10.42b 7.95 0.067 21.36 19.19 0.278 4.48a 6.27 0.041
New Mexico 10.00 11.02 0.337 14.16a 10.12 0.020 22.17 21.60 0.813 7.08b 9.30 0.094
New York 8.90a 10.42 0.007 11.68a 9.41 0.010 23.89 22.04 0.188 6.07a 8.53 0.000
North Carolina 7.92 8.62 0.369 13.62a 8.67 0.001 20.35 19.15 0.548 5.09b 6.86 0.058
North Dakota 7.22 7.26 0.963 11.64a 6.64 0.000 18.02 16.18 0.331 4.35 5.34 0.272
Ohio 8.04 8.74 0.172 11.39a 8.25 0.000 20.64 20.49 0.907 5.42a 6.87 0.018
Oklahoma 8.58 8.47 0.904 12.23a 8.12 0.005 18.97 19.77 0.706 6.06 6.50 0.684
Oregon 10.84a 13.81 0.009 12.30 12.61 0.849 24.72 26.04 0.569 8.30a 12.04 0.009
Pennsylvania 7.50a 9.20 0.001 11.28a 8.88 0.008 20.54 22.24 0.178 4.91a 7.11 0.000
Rhode Island 10.95a 14.53 0.001 13.25 12.14 0.529 32.44 31.02 0.597 6.75a 11.67 0.001
South Carolina 7.23 8.04 0.285 11.05 9.04 0.165 19.54 18.25 0.507 4.54b 6.21 0.068
South Dakota 7.15b 5.82 0.056 13.26a 6.37 0.000 17.92a 14.14 0.045 4.13 4.28 0.852
Tennessee 6.70 7.23 0.469 9.23 7.45 0.173 16.16 16.89 0.709 4.78 5.60 0.349
Texas 6.97 7.59 0.156 10.18a 8.37 0.027 16.54 17.36 0.455 4.59a 5.65 0.045
Utah 6.32 7.31 0.172 8.76 7.12 0.202 12.69 14.43 0.324 4.00b 5.71 0.064
Vermont 10.96a 14.46 0.003 16.67a 12.73 0.039 29.58 32.30 0.304 6.99a 11.55 0.002
Virginia 7.68 8.23 0.460 11.88a 7.37 0.001 20.53 19.84 0.722 5.03 6.37 0.140
Washington 9.96a 14.17 0.000 13.49 11.39 0.212 24.65 27.20 0.276 6.96a 12.39 0.000
West Virginia 6.61b 7.82 0.084 11.70a 7.26 0.001 17.37 18.91 0.447 4.29a 6.20 0.021
Wisconsin 7.48 8.31 0.274 10.73 9.34 0.353 18.85 19.73 0.662 4.98 6.30 0.158
Wyoming 7.51 7.02 0.520 10.05a 7.51 0.049 18.36 17.23 0.577 5.07 5.21 0.882
151111
Table 2 – Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 10.78a 12.90 0.000 15.38a 13.28 0.000 29.13a 31.78 0.000 6.95a 9.63 0.000
Northeast 11.69a 13.88 0.000 16.39a 13.98 0.000 33.77 34.66 0.345 7.58a 10.43 0.000
Midwest 10.80a 12.40 0.000 15.46a 12.45 0.000 29.83a 32.13 0.004 6.75a 9.03 0.000
South 9.62a 11.24 0.000 14.64a 12.02 0.000 25.90a 28.93 0.000 6.09a 8.14 0.000
West 11.84a 15.27 0.000 15.63 15.53 0.879 29.86a 33.72 0.000 7.99a 11.97 0.000
Alabama 8.35b 9.98 0.053 12.75a 9.90 0.049 23.79 26.99 0.157 5.03a 7.10 0.030
Alaska 16.65a 19.60 0.044 18.87 17.30 0.406 38.90 36.47 0.348 12.46a 16.70 0.021
Arizona 10.48a 13.69 0.003 16.96 15.12 0.318 27.54 31.53 0.105 6.46a 10.40 0.002
Arkansas 10.22 11.37 0.240 15.76b 12.79 0.069 28.89 26.53 0.343 6.15a 8.62 0.026
California 11.33a 14.49 0.000 14.11 15.03 0.363 28.29a 33.69 0.000 7.81a 10.91 0.000
Colorado 15.08a 20.74 0.000 19.55 20.81 0.546 36.57a 43.95 0.005 10.73a 16.80 0.000
Connecticut 11.78a 14.00 0.043 17.58 15.65 0.301 38.82 38.82 1.000 7.09a 9.83 0.031
Delaware 11.65a 13.98 0.021 18.20b 15.14 0.094 33.24a 38.56 0.043 7.09a 9.77 0.019
District of Columbia 15.09a 21.70 0.000 14.83a 19.41 0.019 37.61 41.07 0.233 10.68a 17.69 0.000
Florida 11.36 11.87 0.406 16.13b 14.09 0.054 29.83a 33.64 0.009 8.13 8.42 0.691
Georgia 9.61a 11.75 0.018 14.20a 11.19 0.037 23.85b 27.78 0.087 6.36a 8.99 0.013
Hawaii 11.56 12.58 0.384 18.09a 13.90 0.030 30.20 27.32 0.273 7.70b 10.13 0.075
Idaho 9.26a 11.58 0.010 14.63 14.14 0.782 24.37 26.98 0.254 5.27a 8.55 0.001
Illinois 9.99a 12.16 0.000 14.46a 12.07 0.020 29.61 31.12 0.330 5.90a 8.99 0.000
Indiana 10.33a 12.86 0.008 13.95 12.56 0.390 28.44a 35.62 0.006 6.48a 8.85 0.032
Iowa 9.32 9.74 0.626 13.39a 10.06 0.030 25.88 29.18 0.177 5.63 6.25 0.517
Kansas 9.08a 11.01 0.028 13.24 11.71 0.309 25.44 28.46 0.193 5.29a 7.74 0.015
Kentucky 10.30 10.93 0.492 16.32a 10.34 0.000 26.21 28.05 0.430 6.78 8.15 0.187
Louisiana 9.82 11.23 0.122 13.02 11.64 0.350 27.52 27.64 0.957 5.78a 8.24 0.021
Maine 12.34a 19.55 0.000 18.76 17.11 0.380 37.34b 42.03 0.071 7.80a 16.68 0.000
Maryland 10.54a 13.48 0.005 14.75 14.96 0.907 30.31a 36.43 0.018 6.84a 9.58 0.023
Massachusetts 15.45 17.23 0.183 20.15a 15.56 0.021 38.19 42.72 0.105 11.24 12.95 0.281
Michigan 12.61a 15.60 0.000 17.03b 15.10 0.077 32.38b 35.05 0.085 8.55a 12.29 0.000
Minnesota 11.40 12.22 0.412 17.30a 11.64 0.001 30.34 32.91 0.308 7.13 8.93 0.113
Mississippi 7.98b 9.40 0.074 11.01 10.56 0.766 22.06 25.30 0.136 4.68b 6.33 0.062
Missouri 11.91 12.73 0.419 16.15a 12.48 0.020 31.48 33.32 0.469 7.87 9.28 0.230
Montana 13.83 14.07 0.842 21.07a 13.38 0.000 35.15a 30.03 0.031 9.00b 11.51 0.069
Nebraska 10.39 10.35 0.957 16.42a 11.40 0.002 27.17 29.18 0.417 6.29 6.86 0.576
Nevada 12.01 13.01 0.382 19.67a 14.42 0.005 29.02 31.16 0.388 8.31 9.98 0.211
New Hampshire 16.30 16.95 0.650 20.52 17.99 0.222 44.61 44.38 0.934 11.31 12.55 0.465
New Jersey 8.64a 11.25 0.002 14.03 12.86 0.457 29.40 30.10 0.778 5.00a 8.22 0.001
New Mexico 12.30a 15.61 0.007 19.03 15.92 0.117 33.80 31.64 0.422 7.24a 12.78 0.000
New York 12.22a 14.24 0.003 15.98b 13.94 0.054 33.60 32.52 0.491 8.20a 11.11 0.000
North Carolina 9.83a 12.07 0.018 16.97a 12.72 0.011 26.70 29.14 0.288 6.05a 9.15 0.006
North Dakota 9.81 10.25 0.604 16.18a 10.25 0.000 28.80 26.76 0.399 4.95b 6.55 0.083
Ohio 10.91 11.57 0.259 15.33a 11.39 0.000 30.34 30.86 0.729 6.96a 8.43 0.031
Oklahoma 9.50 10.75 0.170 15.34a 11.55 0.026 25.47 28.17 0.242 5.60b 7.54 0.062
Oregon 13.78a 19.39 0.000 17.38 18.32 0.616 36.44 38.05 0.553 9.47a 16.60 0.000
Pennsylvania 9.88a 11.70 0.002 15.24a 12.37 0.005 29.95 32.18 0.139 5.95a 8.28 0.001
Rhode Island 15.22a 18.95 0.005 18.29 16.93 0.503 45.71 44.13 0.594 9.29a 14.40 0.002
South Carolina 9.67a 11.55 0.037 13.44 12.50 0.549 27.75 28.56 0.731 5.96a 8.57 0.015
South Dakota 9.83 8.97 0.315 17.65a 9.95 0.000 28.35b 24.21 0.089 5.02 6.17 0.224
Tennessee 7.36a 10.29 0.001 12.15 11.57 0.710 21.07b 25.54 0.060 4.44a 7.62 0.001
Texas 8.56a 9.52 0.047 13.91a 10.79 0.001 22.28a 25.25 0.028 5.01a 6.40 0.014
Utah 8.17b 9.84 0.058 11.08 10.12 0.514 20.77 22.65 0.408 3.93a 6.85 0.003
Vermont 15.93a 19.97 0.002 22.69a 18.27 0.035 44.56 46.28 0.541 10.10a 15.57 0.001
Virginia 9.69a 13.04 0.000 15.47b 12.64 0.080 29.57 32.31 0.247 5.68a 9.83 0.000
Washington 13.50a 18.92 0.000 17.64 17.53 0.955 36.16 36.50 0.899 9.05a 16.23 0.000
West Virginia 9.16b 10.93 0.051 16.92a 10.87 0.000 27.87 28.49 0.806 5.24a 8.27 0.003
Wisconsin 10.01a 11.86 0.040 15.84 14.00 0.298 30.00 32.27 0.352 5.61a 8.22 0.012
Wyoming 10.45 10.72 0.789 14.46 12.03 0.146 28.79 27.50 0.615 6.38 7.67 0.251
151111
Table 3 – Marijuana Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 6.18a 7.96 0.000 8.03a 7.22 0.001 17.17a 19.32 0.000 4.01a 6.11 0.000
Northeast 6.78a 8.58 0.000 8.84a 7.68 0.009 21.00 21.19 0.796 4.26a 6.60 0.000
Midwest 6.14a 7.50 0.000 8.17a 6.64 0.000 17.21a 19.23 0.000 3.88a 5.61 0.000
South 5.49a 6.74 0.000 7.40a 6.31 0.001 15.32a 17.20 0.000 3.51a 5.02 0.000
West 6.81a 9.84 0.000 8.22 8.85 0.232 17.05a 21.30 0.000 4.73a 7.93 0.000
Alabama 4.32a 5.57 0.030 6.37 4.98 0.156 12.47 15.04 0.122 2.60a 4.03 0.038
Alaska 9.78b 11.85 0.074 11.08 9.19 0.191 23.99 21.30 0.233 7.14a 10.42 0.028
Arizona 5.68a 8.80 0.000 7.74 8.30 0.656 15.18a 20.04 0.015 3.67a 6.90 0.001
Arkansas 5.63 6.70 0.112 7.97 6.22 0.116 16.48 16.21 0.889 3.39a 5.15 0.024
California 6.50a 9.20 0.000 7.66 8.74 0.171 16.09a 21.05 0.000 4.57a 7.09 0.000
Colorado 8.49a 14.93 0.000 9.82b 12.56 0.095 21.67a 31.24 0.000 6.01a 12.45 0.000
Connecticut 6.94b 8.50 0.056 9.22 7.91 0.311 23.62 22.41 0.606 4.22a 6.34 0.024
Delaware 6.89b 8.23 0.068 9.41 8.22 0.349 22.06 21.11 0.667 3.96a 6.09 0.010
District of Columbia 9.60a 12.60 0.008 7.43a 10.56 0.026 24.14 24.72 0.823 6.93a 10.14 0.017
Florida 6.58a 7.58 0.043 8.52 7.51 0.193 17.68a 20.32 0.028 4.75 5.70 0.109
Georgia 4.93a 7.76 0.000 6.87 6.06 0.428 13.01a 17.64 0.012 3.18a 6.24 0.000
Hawaii 6.95 7.90 0.320 10.23b 7.65 0.070 17.00 15.87 0.603 4.90 6.68 0.121
Idaho 5.09a 6.34 0.049 7.92 6.39 0.173 12.47 14.28 0.261 3.10a 4.96 0.015
Illinois 5.60a 7.64 0.000 7.61 6.75 0.245 17.43b 19.62 0.072 3.23a 5.74 0.000
Indiana 6.12b 7.53 0.056 7.37 6.52 0.440 17.19 20.31 0.142 3.91b 5.38 0.086
Iowa 4.90 5.02 0.846 7.10b 5.17 0.065 13.14 14.01 0.627 3.04 3.40 0.587
Kansas 4.91a 6.34 0.024 7.39 5.85 0.160 13.92 15.11 0.498 2.79a 4.81 0.006
Kentucky 5.62 6.75 0.107 8.16a 5.63 0.019 14.15b 17.49 0.072 3.82 5.09 0.131
Louisiana 5.77 6.11 0.592 6.92 5.55 0.187 17.04 15.99 0.564 3.33 4.42 0.149
Maine 7.95a 12.67 0.000 10.56 9.90 0.661 23.22a 28.38 0.035 5.33a 10.77 0.000
Maryland 5.73a 8.55 0.000 7.87 8.05 0.882 19.43b 23.42 0.070 3.27a 6.20 0.000
Massachusetts 7.80a 11.75 0.000 10.53 8.88 0.236 24.54b 28.74 0.097 4.79a 9.08 0.000
Michigan 7.20a 10.18 0.000 9.23 8.09 0.159 18.49a 23.17 0.000 4.95a 8.20 0.000
Minnesota 6.37 7.28 0.210 8.92b 6.75 0.076 17.49 19.74 0.257 4.00 5.32 0.110
Mississippi 4.64a 5.85 0.049 6.04 5.60 0.660 12.99b 16.39 0.070 2.74b 3.95 0.081
Missouri 6.76 7.98 0.138 7.43 6.45 0.371 18.55 21.68 0.126 4.59 5.85 0.189
Montana 9.17 10.04 0.409 12.07a 8.30 0.008 20.66 20.57 0.965 6.71 8.49 0.164
Nebraska 5.97 5.79 0.775 9.13a 5.54 0.003 15.61 16.19 0.753 3.66 3.97 0.678
Nevada 7.62 7.76 0.871 9.58 7.97 0.220 18.29 18.01 0.888 5.68 6.13 0.682
New Hampshire 10.23 11.51 0.279 11.79 9.83 0.205 27.31 30.09 0.261 7.36 8.78 0.315
New Jersey 5.05a 6.30 0.043 7.33 6.36 0.368 17.89 16.60 0.495 2.93a 4.74 0.011
New Mexico 7.37a 9.56 0.020 10.35b 7.98 0.099 18.98 19.32 0.873 4.74a 8.06 0.004
New York 7.34a 8.52 0.018 8.76 7.75 0.191 21.44 19.57 0.137 4.82a 6.70 0.002
North Carolina 5.89 6.70 0.248 8.44b 6.51 0.091 17.22 16.19 0.580 3.66b 5.15 0.071
North Dakota 5.35 5.77 0.504 7.58b 5.60 0.083 15.35 14.05 0.488 2.94 3.95 0.185
Ohio 6.49 6.93 0.361 8.74a 6.04 0.000 18.22 17.89 0.779 4.17b 5.24 0.051
Oklahoma 5.58 6.22 0.341 8.13a 5.52 0.018 15.51 15.76 0.892 3.31 4.61 0.102
Oregon 8.88a 12.38 0.002 9.31 10.19 0.540 22.17 24.85 0.210 6.57a 10.68 0.003
Pennsylvania 5.64a 7.28 0.000 8.18 7.00 0.107 17.66 19.36 0.148 3.37a 5.34 0.000
Rhode Island 9.56a 12.75 0.004 10.86 10.69 0.915 29.93 28.90 0.706 5.70a 9.92 0.002
South Carolina 5.65 6.57 0.165 7.25 6.16 0.315 16.46 16.89 0.813 3.52b 4.88 0.082
South Dakota 5.24 4.81 0.483 9.57a 5.32 0.001 14.66 13.02 0.360 2.74 3.30 0.409
Tennessee 4.59b 5.54 0.098 6.37 5.70 0.495 13.40 14.72 0.491 2.88b 4.01 0.082
Texas 4.79a 5.94 0.002 6.38 6.12 0.693 12.86a 15.06 0.033 2.95a 4.21 0.005
Utah 4.00a 5.58 0.008 5.30 5.42 0.908 9.53 11.55 0.188 2.15a 4.25 0.003
Vermont 9.77a 13.24 0.003 13.32 11.40 0.257 26.95 30.60 0.163 6.34a 10.42 0.005
Virginia 5.96 6.86 0.182 8.43a 5.89 0.026 17.70 17.85 0.939 3.73b 5.12 0.072
Washington 7.41a 12.79 0.000 9.11 10.06 0.504 21.22 24.47 0.149 4.82a 11.21 0.000
West Virginia 5.12b 6.30 0.081 8.62a 5.60 0.008 14.67 16.99 0.241 3.17a 4.75 0.043
Wisconsin 5.40 6.46 0.105 7.71 7.18 0.653 15.98 17.50 0.423 3.18b 4.55 0.061
Wyoming 5.45 6.32 0.204 7.14 6.19 0.402 15.59 16.00 0.831 3.27b 4.67 0.087
151111
Table 4 – Perceptions of Great Risk from Smoking Marijuana Once a Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 39.05a 27.35 0.000 33.66a 23.54 0.000 24.19a 14.22 0.000 42.38a 30.09 0.000
Northeast 36.36a 25.53 0.000 30.73a 22.31 0.000 20.56a 11.92 0.000 39.58a 28.18 0.000
Midwest 38.02a 25.00 0.000 33.94a 23.61 0.000 22.41a 12.29 0.000 41.39a 27.37 0.000
South 43.56a 31.08 0.000 35.89a 26.11 0.000 27.51a 17.11 0.000 47.40a 34.09 0.000
West 35.24a 24.97 0.000 32.25a 20.28 0.000 23.64a 13.18 0.000 37.80a 27.68 0.000
Alabama 48.47a 36.08 0.000 39.58a 31.14 0.001 30.97a 20.57 0.000 52.76a 39.34 0.000
Alaska 27.54a 18.40 0.000 25.38a 17.14 0.000 17.53a 10.63 0.000 29.65a 20.09 0.000
Arizona 40.53a 25.90 0.000 34.76a 20.32 0.000 26.48a 13.45 0.000 43.90a 28.81 0.000
Arkansas 46.86a 32.53 0.000 39.51a 28.08 0.000 27.94a 17.54 0.000 51.23a 35.67 0.000
California 36.63a 27.09 0.000 32.86a 20.06 0.000 25.51a 14.37 0.000 39.22a 30.34 0.000
Colorado 28.74a 17.99 0.000 28.97a 17.04 0.000 17.51a 8.39 0.000 30.67a 19.76 0.000
Connecticut 34.36a 25.40 0.000 27.71a 21.80 0.014 17.99a 11.72 0.000 37.62a 28.06 0.000
Delaware 37.95a 26.47 0.000 30.07a 23.02 0.003 22.13a 11.96 0.000 41.69a 29.29 0.000
District of Columbia 33.64a 17.84 0.000 28.14a 15.72 0.000 19.51a 8.89 0.000 36.90a 19.94 0.000
Florida 42.60a 31.23 0.000 34.48a 25.43 0.000 26.92a 15.62 0.000 45.82a 34.17 0.000
Georgia 44.17a 31.58 0.000 35.25a 26.54 0.000 30.63a 17.44 0.000 47.92a 34.79 0.000
Hawaii 34.25a 26.52 0.000 29.60a 21.38 0.001 24.59a 13.21 0.000 36.43a 29.19 0.004
Idaho 38.60a 26.96 0.000 36.63a 26.17 0.000 26.41a 14.31 0.000 41.44a 29.30 0.000
Illinois 38.54a 27.02 0.000 33.22a 23.16 0.000 22.90a 13.62 0.000 42.05a 29.78 0.000
Indiana 41.91a 26.01 0.000 36.55a 25.18 0.000 24.32a 12.13 0.000 45.90a 28.62 0.000
Iowa 44.24a 28.01 0.000 40.63a 26.20 0.000 26.80a 14.48 0.000 48.03a 30.66 0.000
Kansas 42.85a 23.98 0.000 38.79a 22.47 0.000 24.23a 12.02 0.000 47.07a 26.39 0.000
Kentucky 41.86a 29.95 0.000 38.83a 28.20 0.000 26.11a 15.60 0.000 44.97a 32.58 0.000
Louisiana 45.73a 32.24 0.000 37.94a 28.40 0.000 25.31a 18.09 0.000 51.01a 35.29 0.000
Maine 31.33a 19.01 0.000 26.71a 19.76 0.002 14.91a 7.84 0.000 34.37a 20.50 0.000
Maryland 35.62a 26.78 0.000 30.86a 23.63 0.002 22.51a 13.50 0.000 38.35a 29.33 0.000
Massachusetts 26.82a 19.71 0.000 26.76a 20.10 0.002 15.07a 8.48 0.000 28.70a 21.66 0.002
Michigan 35.94a 23.02 0.000 32.43a 21.37 0.000 20.12a 10.64 0.000 39.19a 25.39 0.000
Minnesota 31.11a 22.25 0.000 29.53a 22.51 0.001 18.15a 11.09 0.000 33.69a 24.06 0.000
Mississippi 49.33a 37.70 0.000 38.60a 28.47 0.000 31.44a 22.76 0.000 54.57a 41.70 0.000
Missouri 36.69a 25.71 0.000 33.96a 23.86 0.000 22.99a 11.90 0.000 39.49a 28.30 0.000
Montana 33.27a 23.43 0.000 28.46a 22.63 0.008 18.13a 9.53 0.000 36.66a 25.85 0.000
Nebraska 41.65a 26.94 0.000 33.50a 24.60 0.000 27.59a 13.67 0.000 45.53a 29.63 0.000
Nevada 34.02a 26.60 0.000 33.52a 19.34 0.000 22.76a 13.99 0.000 35.86a 29.49 0.007
New Hampshire 28.34a 15.43 0.000 22.61 19.48 0.137 12.94a 5.97 0.000 31.53a 16.48 0.000
New Jersey 41.79a 28.55 0.000 35.58a 22.93 0.000 23.13a 13.44 0.000 45.25a 31.52 0.000
New Mexico 39.36a 26.97 0.000 30.44a 21.83 0.001 23.00a 14.92 0.000 43.80a 29.75 0.000
New York 36.10a 27.20 0.000 30.29a 21.31 0.000 22.59a 12.84 0.000 39.08a 30.36 0.000
North Carolina 44.10a 28.94 0.000 36.16a 23.19 0.000 25.34a 14.78 0.000 48.29a 32.03 0.000
North Dakota 38.86a 24.80 0.000 34.58a 27.53 0.006 24.34a 13.36 0.000 42.50a 27.08 0.000
Ohio 39.30a 24.34 0.000 35.11a 24.68 0.000 23.10a 11.81 0.000 42.66a 26.39 0.000
Oklahoma 42.65a 28.45 0.000 35.17a 25.47 0.000 27.13a 15.64 0.000 46.70a 31.15 0.000
Oregon 30.98a 17.75 0.000 28.97a 17.97 0.000 16.99a 8.66 0.000 33.61a 19.17 0.000
Pennsylvania 40.78a 26.49 0.000 32.97a 25.68 0.000 21.48a 12.96 0.000 44.91a 28.81 0.000
Rhode Island 31.91a 21.12 0.000 25.90a 18.94 0.002 16.38a 9.06 0.000 35.48a 23.67 0.000
South Carolina 43.44a 30.19 0.000 36.41a 27.52 0.000 24.77a 17.18 0.000 47.68a 32.73 0.000
South Dakota 37.53a 26.78 0.000 35.30a 25.39 0.000 21.83a 14.46 0.000 40.94a 29.15 0.000
Tennessee 42.06a 29.16 0.000 35.74a 25.46 0.000 26.26a 15.49 0.000 45.53a 31.88 0.000
Texas 45.42a 34.08 0.000 36.30a 26.53 0.000 30.65a 20.72 0.000 49.77a 37.70 0.000
Utah 42.42a 30.97 0.000 42.42a 32.75 0.001 29.72a 18.74 0.000 46.15a 33.51 0.000
Vermont 27.52a 18.58 0.000 23.08a 18.89 0.045 12.08a 7.14 0.000 30.78a 20.56 0.000
Virginia 40.45a 25.11 0.000 36.17a 24.52 0.000 23.35a 12.60 0.000 43.80a 27.32 0.000
Washington 26.80a 18.33 0.000 26.99a 16.22 0.000 16.30a 8.92 0.000 28.57a 20.12 0.000
West Virginia 46.64a 31.95 0.000 33.04a 26.52 0.006 25.76a 15.89 0.000 51.58a 34.98 0.000
Wisconsin 34.52a 24.00 0.000 31.12a 23.48 0.001 19.86a 12.93 0.000 37.63a 25.92 0.000
Wyoming 38.88a 26.29 0.000 34.88a 25.84 0.000 21.04a 13.16 0.000 42.85a 28.63 0.000
151111
Table 5 – First Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and State: Average Annual Incidence Estimates (Expressed as Percentages of the At-Risk Population) and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Average annual initiation of marijuana (%) = 100 × {[X1 ÷ (0.5 × X1 + X2)] ÷ 2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of individuals who never used marijuana (with the at-risk population defined as 0.5 × X1 + X2). Both of the computation components, X1 and X2, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach. The age group shown is based on a respondent's age at the time of the interview, not his or her age at first use. For details, see Section B of the "2011-2012 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 1.81a 1.91 0.040 6.57a 5.60 0.000 6.82a 7.68 0.001 0.13a 0.24 0.000
Northeast 1.85b 2.01 0.056 7.10a 5.85 0.000 7.75 8.40 0.185 0.12a 0.26 0.001
Midwest 1.88 1.95 0.352 6.47a 5.31 0.000 7.35a 8.17 0.049 0.13a 0.23 0.007
South 1.70 1.69 0.842 6.50a 5.18 0.000 6.25 6.77 0.160 0.12a 0.20 0.027
West 1.89a 2.20 0.001 6.38 6.37 0.987 6.58a 8.27 0.001 0.15a 0.29 0.007
Alabama 1.55 1.42 0.390 5.97a 4.46 0.037 6.23 6.04 0.844 0.09 0.15 0.157
Alaska 2.68 3.01 0.319 7.77 6.99 0.435 8.43 9.04 0.685 0.16a 0.52 0.001
Arizona 1.73a 2.16 0.041 6.42 6.58 0.847 6.01b 8.00 0.093 0.14a 0.26 0.041
Arkansas 1.72 1.82 0.578 6.67 5.78 0.271 7.11 6.63 0.667 0.10a 0.20 0.023
California 1.79a 2.16 0.005 5.88 6.16 0.562 6.27a 8.56 0.001 0.14a 0.29 0.030
Colorado 2.31a 3.04 0.009 7.59 9.13 0.150 8.10 10.19 0.181 0.20a 0.39 0.044
Connecticut 2.03 2.29 0.254 8.31 7.10 0.210 8.22 9.01 0.577 0.13a 0.25 0.039
Delaware 1.89 2.13 0.239 7.94 6.44 0.101 7.21 9.00 0.187 0.12a 0.25 0.008
District of Columbia 1.96a 3.16 0.000 6.89a 9.11 0.028 8.17 10.62 0.125 0.17a 0.55 0.002
Florida 1.58 1.66 0.435 6.75b 5.95 0.090 6.44 7.48 0.138 0.12b 0.20 0.058
Georgia 1.61 1.74 0.459 5.93 4.95 0.167 4.76b 6.52 0.059 0.13 0.20 0.147
Hawaii 1.98 1.93 0.847 7.02 6.51 0.615 8.90b 6.43 0.093 0.07a 0.43 0.001
Idaho 1.93 1.92 0.990 6.36 6.15 0.790 5.43 6.57 0.271 0.13 0.20 0.188
Illinois 1.76 1.83 0.568 6.24a 4.88 0.004 6.87 7.86 0.170 0.13a 0.23 0.023
Indiana 1.71a 2.18 0.028 5.48 5.53 0.948 7.54 9.27 0.190 0.13a 0.23 0.046
Iowa 1.62 1.63 0.961 5.37 4.24 0.114 7.15 8.03 0.466 0.11 0.18 0.120
Kansas 1.70 1.85 0.449 5.13 5.00 0.861 7.68 7.54 0.907 0.11a 0.21 0.046
Kentucky 1.67 1.47 0.254 6.95a 4.18 0.000 6.29 6.21 0.938 0.12 0.18 0.176
Louisiana 1.76 1.66 0.587 5.64 4.99 0.391 7.91 6.90 0.381 0.09b 0.18 0.063
Maine 2.20 2.45 0.317 8.31 6.94 0.162 10.35 12.53 0.218 0.13a 0.28 0.014
Maryland 1.86b 2.24 0.071 6.67 6.57 0.906 7.16 8.78 0.200 0.13a 0.26 0.020
Massachusetts 2.06a 2.52 0.047 7.74 6.52 0.170 8.17b 11.16 0.059 0.16a 0.32 0.028
Michigan 2.06a 2.39 0.020 6.78 6.55 0.647 7.66 8.91 0.110 0.14a 0.27 0.014
Minnesota 2.06 1.78 0.175 6.86a 4.68 0.005 7.15 7.47 0.793 0.15b 0.25 0.067
Mississippi 1.43 1.45 0.907 4.55 4.61 0.926 5.33 5.40 0.946 0.09 0.15 0.142
Missouri 2.02 1.99 0.885 7.10b 5.55 0.062 7.26 8.88 0.224 0.14 0.22 0.101
Montana 2.55a 1.75 0.000 9.08a 5.24 0.000 10.20a 6.69 0.011 0.12a 0.25 0.028
Nebraska 1.76 1.53 0.197 6.63a 4.24 0.001 5.99 6.41 0.696 0.11b 0.20 0.086
Nevada 2.02 2.16 0.505 8.42a 6.14 0.014 6.08a 8.84 0.031 0.15a 0.29 0.031
New Hampshire 2.58 2.89 0.263 8.82 7.69 0.269 11.14 11.93 0.664 0.16a 0.34 0.045
New Jersey 1.57 1.79 0.184 6.62 5.48 0.138 5.97 7.48 0.166 0.12a 0.23 0.027
New Mexico 2.35 2.00 0.157 8.26 6.94 0.201 10.49a 6.57 0.012 0.14b 0.28 0.093
New York 1.88 1.95 0.605 6.85a 5.66 0.019 8.02 7.63 0.625 0.12a 0.28 0.002
North Carolina 1.81 1.78 0.847 7.81a 5.47 0.005 6.81 6.86 0.960 0.11a 0.20 0.030
North Dakota 1.97b 1.61 0.079 6.96a 4.24 0.001 8.45 6.43 0.109 0.09a 0.21 0.026
Ohio 1.86 1.90 0.737 6.62a 5.10 0.001 7.30 8.04 0.340 0.12a 0.22 0.019
Oklahoma 1.79 1.73 0.734 6.33 5.37 0.235 6.67 6.57 0.934 0.10a 0.21 0.031
Oregon 1.95a 2.56 0.008 6.94 7.34 0.664 7.53 9.27 0.179 0.14a 0.36 0.003
Pennsylvania 1.72 1.77 0.668 6.65a 5.32 0.005 7.51 7.91 0.599 0.10a 0.21 0.008
Rhode Island 2.14 2.34 0.423 7.89a 6.02 0.041 10.02 10.25 0.893 0.15b 0.28 0.056
South Carolina 1.85 1.83 0.935 6.56 6.17 0.637 8.05 6.90 0.335 0.10a 0.20 0.045
South Dakota 2.23a 1.48 0.000 8.39a 4.22 0.000 8.58b 6.41 0.072 0.10b 0.18 0.079
Tennessee 1.38 1.42 0.825 5.09 4.35 0.270 5.50 6.02 0.618 0.10 0.17 0.121
Texas 1.78 1.62 0.193 6.52a 4.79 0.000 5.55 6.06 0.408 0.14 0.19 0.370
Utah 1.77b 1.43 0.092 4.50 3.45 0.120 5.26 4.69 0.536 0.13 0.18 0.456
Vermont 2.70 2.73 0.924 10.35a 7.20 0.004 10.44 12.91 0.205 0.15a 0.31 0.046
Virginia 1.93 1.86 0.697 7.34a 4.89 0.002 7.50 8.29 0.497 0.12a 0.22 0.034
Washington 2.07 2.37 0.198 7.14 6.70 0.635 7.11 8.75 0.217 0.16a 0.33 0.016
West Virginia 1.53 1.42 0.474 7.29a 4.75 0.001 6.27 6.53 0.810 0.09b 0.18 0.065
Wisconsin 2.06 1.99 0.755 7.17 6.06 0.204 8.25 8.18 0.957 0.12a 0.23 0.032
Wyoming 1.92 1.74 0.363 6.44 5.28 0.138 7.06 6.97 0.933 0.12a 0.22 0.049
151111
Table 6 – Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 3.73a 3.30 0.000 5.70a 3.30 0.000 8.17a 6.58 0.000 2.68 2.73 0.702
Northeast 3.38 3.16 0.210 5.35a 2.88 0.000 8.51a 6.50 0.000 2.31 2.63 0.127
Midwest 3.48a 3.03 0.002 5.48a 2.99 0.000 7.81a 6.72 0.002 2.43 2.41 0.927
South 3.83a 3.17 0.000 5.85a 3.47 0.000 8.38a 6.38 0.000 2.76 2.58 0.323
West 4.11 3.84 0.236 5.97a 3.60 0.000 7.93a 6.81 0.016 3.14 3.35 0.436
Alabama 3.72 3.62 0.823 5.36a 3.59 0.028 8.06 7.94 0.914 2.73 2.89 0.755
Alaska 4.00 3.50 0.240 5.39a 2.95 0.001 8.51 7.40 0.366 2.97 2.83 0.779
Arizona 4.66 4.03 0.275 7.22a 3.71 0.000 8.98 6.94 0.102 3.51 3.57 0.929
Arkansas 3.92 3.72 0.664 6.54a 4.16 0.017 9.24a 6.38 0.018 2.62 3.21 0.289
California 3.94 4.07 0.714 5.79a 3.79 0.001 7.02 6.87 0.831 3.11 3.59 0.251
Colorado 4.67 4.21 0.398 6.47a 3.44 0.001 9.80 7.84 0.147 3.53 3.68 0.823
Connecticut 3.25 3.13 0.755 5.35a 2.89 0.002 7.57 6.36 0.253 2.35 2.64 0.557
Delaware 3.91 3.75 0.734 6.02a 3.16 0.001 10.12 9.02 0.430 2.58 2.94 0.515
District of Columbia 4.06 4.92 0.182 4.22 4.78 0.540 6.65 5.84 0.467 3.54 4.73 0.138
Florida 3.70b 3.10 0.062 5.17a 2.97 0.000 8.41 7.64 0.312 2.85 2.45 0.279
Georgia 3.97 3.47 0.279 5.54a 3.67 0.029 8.05a 5.37 0.012 3.01 3.10 0.864
Hawaii 3.46 2.99 0.365 6.53a 3.47 0.002 6.93 5.23 0.120 2.49 2.59 0.865
Idaho 3.73a 2.66 0.007 5.66a 2.79 0.000 7.42a 5.29 0.032 2.65 2.19 0.325
Illinois 3.30 3.01 0.296 5.22a 2.75 0.000 7.50 6.80 0.348 2.29 2.40 0.733
Indiana 3.56 3.13 0.297 5.69a 2.98 0.001 8.30 6.77 0.183 2.39 2.51 0.799
Iowa 3.17 2.69 0.189 4.37a 2.81 0.038 7.35 5.95 0.198 2.21 2.10 0.789
Kansas 3.11 3.29 0.627 4.49b 3.20 0.087 6.66 6.77 0.919 2.21 2.67 0.327
Kentucky 4.38a 3.16 0.008 6.67a 2.61 0.000 9.83a 7.02 0.026 3.14 2.58 0.295
Louisiana 4.24 3.65 0.232 6.14a 3.88 0.014 8.78a 6.48 0.041 3.04 3.11 0.899
Maine 3.82a 2.86 0.026 5.36a 2.70 0.000 10.00a 6.96 0.018 2.70 2.30 0.420
Maryland 3.44 3.52 0.854 4.87 3.78 0.164 7.66 6.22 0.197 2.58 3.05 0.359
Massachusetts 3.63a 2.79 0.040 6.40a 2.55 0.000 10.20a 6.16 0.001 2.25 2.22 0.955
Michigan 3.62 3.15 0.101 6.44a 2.97 0.000 7.76 6.81 0.209 2.50 2.53 0.925
Minnesota 3.21 2.82 0.253 5.27a 2.78 0.001 7.23 6.54 0.512 2.19 2.22 0.938
Mississippi 3.60 3.90 0.530 6.26 4.85 0.169 7.39 6.35 0.364 2.43 3.33 0.121
Missouri 4.16a 2.91 0.002 5.40a 2.83 0.001 8.91 7.12 0.138 3.15b 2.21 0.063
Montana 3.78a 2.29 0.000 7.03a 2.58 0.000 7.23 5.58 0.107 2.70a 1.72 0.027
Nebraska 3.44a 2.30 0.003 5.94a 2.53 0.000 8.20a 4.96 0.003 2.17 1.80 0.377
Nevada 4.47a 3.16 0.009 5.12b 3.66 0.095 9.35a 5.97 0.005 3.62 2.65 0.110
New Hampshire 4.05 3.69 0.447 6.20a 2.90 0.000 11.72 11.43 0.855 2.57 2.57 0.991
New Jersey 3.40b 2.73 0.082 5.15a 2.61 0.000 9.12a 6.27 0.012 2.36 2.22 0.756
New Mexico 4.57a 3.46 0.050 6.26a 3.31 0.001 9.94a 6.22 0.004 3.30 3.00 0.651
New York 3.10 3.40 0.317 4.87a 2.99 0.000 7.53b 6.18 0.069 2.14a 2.96 0.025
North Carolina 3.96 3.38 0.163 6.90a 3.51 0.000 8.28 7.29 0.394 2.85 2.72 0.789
North Dakota 3.30 2.90 0.296 5.76a 2.79 0.000 6.93 5.56 0.149 2.19 2.32 0.780
Ohio 3.44 3.09 0.232 5.27a 3.16 0.000 7.87 6.81 0.152 2.42 2.47 0.884
Oklahoma 4.41 3.77 0.209 6.33a 3.85 0.014 10.88a 7.87 0.036 2.89 3.02 0.823
Oregon 4.29 3.58 0.156 5.55a 3.69 0.028 9.38a 6.84 0.035 3.26 3.06 0.738
Pennsylvania 3.44 3.19 0.357 5.51a 3.02 0.000 8.04b 6.69 0.067 2.43 2.63 0.546
Rhode Island 4.64b 3.68 0.065 5.50a 3.31 0.011 13.37a 7.17 0.000 2.94 3.05 0.850
South Carolina 3.58b 2.83 0.068 5.30b 3.81 0.087 8.73a 5.24 0.002 2.44 2.30 0.773
South Dakota 3.29a 2.18 0.002 6.38a 2.51 0.000 7.81a 4.95 0.010 1.95 1.65 0.457
Tennessee 3.64a 2.79 0.035 5.46a 2.94 0.001 7.40 6.37 0.345 2.78 2.18 0.222
Texas 3.89a 2.75 0.000 6.19a 3.59 0.000 8.33a 5.41 0.000 2.66 2.13 0.113
Utah 3.74b 2.97 0.086 5.35a 2.99 0.004 7.30b 5.34 0.061 2.39 2.43 0.943
Vermont 3.87 3.70 0.704 6.78a 3.30 0.000 9.22 8.60 0.632 2.56 2.90 0.509
Virginia 3.54b 2.84 0.069 5.83a 3.02 0.000 7.95a 5.46 0.011 2.51 2.38 0.763
Washington 4.22 3.87 0.475 6.12a 3.35 0.001 9.77b 7.68 0.100 3.01 3.32 0.600
West Virginia 3.51 2.96 0.171 6.07a 2.88 0.000 8.09 6.86 0.279 2.48 2.38 0.837
Wisconsin 3.63 3.45 0.689 5.59b 3.87 0.057 8.23 7.40 0.490 2.54 2.75 0.678
Wyoming 3.67a 2.11 0.000 5.12a 2.44 0.000 8.14a 4.64 0.001 2.61a 1.64 0.040
151111
Table 7 – Cocaine Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 2.50a 1.66 0.000 1.90a 0.60 0.000 6.67a 4.51 0.000 1.85a 1.30 0.000
Northeast 2.52a 1.94 0.000 1.67a 0.60 0.000 7.17a 5.19 0.000 1.89b 1.55 0.068
Midwest 2.50a 1.37 0.000 1.93a 0.48 0.000 6.71a 3.81 0.000 1.83a 1.06 0.000
South 2.41a 1.45 0.000 1.96a 0.53 0.000 6.11a 3.77 0.000 1.83a 1.17 0.000
West 2.62a 2.03 0.000 1.96a 0.82 0.000 7.10a 5.78 0.004 1.89a 1.52 0.048
Alabama 2.25a 1.23 0.002 1.66a 0.42 0.000 5.49a 3.09 0.004 1.75a 1.01 0.030
Alaska 2.40a 1.54 0.036 2.44a 0.51 0.000 8.37a 3.84 0.000 1.38 1.24 0.750
Arizona 3.45a 2.25 0.021 3.24a 1.01 0.000 8.53b 6.23 0.097 2.57 1.72 0.120
Arkansas 2.17a 0.93 0.000 1.86a 0.41 0.000 6.05a 2.54 0.000 1.52a 0.72 0.006
California 2.54b 2.14 0.100 1.70a 0.89 0.002 6.61 6.11 0.465 1.92 1.57 0.216
Colorado 3.90a 2.57 0.012 2.64a 0.89 0.000 10.29a 7.25 0.033 2.96b 1.97 0.090
Connecticut 2.13 2.17 0.904 1.82a 0.61 0.000 7.02 6.66 0.767 1.46 1.64 0.628
Delaware 2.76a 1.85 0.020 1.61a 0.49 0.000 7.38a 5.21 0.049 2.12 1.44 0.109
District of Columbia 3.58 3.47 0.876 0.65 0.39 0.157 4.55 5.44 0.356 3.65 3.26 0.652
Florida 2.53a 1.98 0.029 1.94a 0.73 0.000 6.83b 5.53 0.064 1.99 1.58 0.149
Georgia 2.47a 1.44 0.005 1.68a 0.47 0.000 5.26a 2.96 0.002 2.08b 1.30 0.059
Hawaii 1.76 1.55 0.508 1.70a 0.49 0.000 5.52 4.24 0.197 1.17 1.24 0.815
Idaho 1.64a 0.96 0.003 1.80a 0.44 0.000 5.03a 3.11 0.019 0.92 0.66 0.241
Illinois 2.44a 1.72 0.003 1.67a 0.54 0.000 6.53a 4.51 0.002 1.82 1.40 0.112
Indiana 2.57a 1.21 0.000 2.00a 0.46 0.000 7.20a 3.81 0.001 1.80a 0.84 0.003
Iowa 2.23a 1.28 0.001 2.18a 0.50 0.000 6.43a 3.86 0.011 1.44b 0.91 0.065
Kansas 2.21a 1.38 0.010 1.80a 0.64 0.001 6.31a 3.80 0.007 1.48 1.04 0.168
Kentucky 2.56a 1.57 0.004 2.05a 0.56 0.000 6.59a 4.23 0.015 1.93b 1.25 0.058
Louisiana 2.78a 1.62 0.007 1.65a 0.48 0.000 5.38a 3.03 0.005 2.42b 1.52 0.056
Maine 2.30a 1.41 0.006 2.18a 0.51 0.000 8.05a 4.79 0.004 1.46 1.03 0.179
Maryland 2.05a 1.35 0.038 1.38a 0.40 0.000 4.80 3.60 0.165 1.70 1.09 0.102
Massachusetts 2.85 2.34 0.223 2.05a 0.65 0.000 7.88 6.27 0.179 2.14 1.84 0.498
Michigan 2.59a 1.04 0.000 2.08a 0.33 0.000 6.26a 3.16 0.000 2.03a 0.77 0.000
Minnesota 2.51a 1.23 0.000 2.35a 0.46 0.000 7.47a 3.60 0.000 1.64a 0.94 0.032
Mississippi 2.05a 0.98 0.001 1.18a 0.33 0.001 4.18a 1.90 0.001 1.75a 0.89 0.021
Missouri 2.90a 1.14 0.000 2.03a 0.40 0.000 7.19a 3.35 0.000 2.27a 0.85 0.000
Montana 2.48a 1.22 0.000 2.51a 0.49 0.000 7.30a 3.53 0.000 1.62a 0.92 0.020
Nebraska 2.12a 1.16 0.002 2.16a 0.45 0.000 5.72a 3.45 0.012 1.42b 0.84 0.054
Nevada 2.38a 1.60 0.024 1.97a 0.69 0.000 7.35a 4.18 0.003 1.66 1.31 0.326
New Hampshire 2.97 2.48 0.264 2.66a 0.84 0.000 10.17 8.49 0.252 1.89 1.72 0.702
New Jersey 2.25a 1.32 0.002 1.78a 0.47 0.000 6.49a 4.03 0.009 1.71a 1.02 0.023
New Mexico 3.07a 2.16 0.043 2.81a 0.84 0.000 10.03a 5.97 0.005 1.81 1.67 0.734
New York 2.59 2.28 0.303 1.41a 0.71 0.002 6.93a 5.35 0.026 2.02 1.93 0.794
North Carolina 2.43a 1.44 0.003 1.92a 0.51 0.000 6.42a 4.03 0.011 1.83a 1.12 0.042
North Dakota 1.94a 1.28 0.023 1.95a 0.47 0.000 5.94a 3.18 0.002 1.10 0.95 0.588
Ohio 2.53a 1.39 0.000 1.69a 0.45 0.000 6.99a 3.79 0.000 1.88a 1.11 0.002
Oklahoma 2.02a 0.96 0.000 1.86a 0.37 0.000 5.99a 3.00 0.001 1.27a 0.67 0.019
Oregon 2.45 2.01 0.233 1.91a 0.85 0.007 7.25 6.13 0.344 1.71 1.49 0.570
Pennsylvania 2.37a 1.52 0.001 1.49a 0.48 0.000 6.62a 4.16 0.000 1.79a 1.21 0.034
Rhode Island 3.79a 2.00 0.000 2.10a 0.57 0.000 12.05a 5.85 0.000 2.50a 1.42 0.031
South Carolina 2.64a 1.13 0.000 1.71a 0.38 0.000 6.36a 2.82 0.000 2.11a 0.93 0.002
South Dakota 1.89a 0.90 0.000 2.41a 0.39 0.000 5.49a 2.44 0.000 1.10b 0.70 0.096
Tennessee 2.36a 1.10 0.000 1.85a 0.42 0.000 6.08a 3.25 0.002 1.80a 0.82 0.003
Texas 2.44a 1.32 0.000 2.58a 0.58 0.000 6.66a 3.67 0.000 1.58a 0.99 0.010
Utah 1.95a 1.08 0.004 1.52a 0.36 0.000 4.78b 3.24 0.094 1.21b 0.72 0.089
Vermont 2.98b 2.25 0.067 2.81a 0.78 0.000 9.73 7.37 0.101 1.85 1.51 0.399
Virginia 2.24a 1.57 0.040 1.72a 0.51 0.000 5.52a 3.74 0.033 1.78 1.33 0.213
Washington 2.11 1.92 0.595 1.77a 0.73 0.004 7.15 5.54 0.156 1.29 1.47 0.611
West Virginia 2.30a 1.18 0.001 2.61a 0.45 0.000 7.42a 3.62 0.000 1.44b 0.88 0.071
Wisconsin 2.45b 1.83 0.099 1.98a 0.75 0.002 6.62a 4.60 0.047 1.77 1.49 0.473
Wyoming 2.21a 1.21 0.001 1.80a 0.58 0.001 7.60a 3.88 0.000 1.25 0.82 0.114
151111
Table 8 – Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 4.79a 4.06 0.000 7.61a 4.67 0.000 11.70a 8.32 0.000 3.20 3.26 0.683
Northeast 4.05a 3.65 0.026 6.37a 4.03 0.000 11.22a 7.84 0.000 2.62 2.91 0.177
Midwest 4.58a 3.99 0.000 7.53a 4.48 0.000 11.68a 8.64 0.000 2.90 3.14 0.200
South 4.92a 4.09 0.000 7.88a 4.86 0.000 12.08a 8.44 0.000 3.27 3.26 0.961
West 5.42a 4.38 0.000 8.23a 4.97 0.000 11.51a 8.20 0.000 3.90 3.63 0.392
Alabama 4.89 4.88 0.986 8.01a 5.37 0.013 12.98 10.98 0.183 3.03 3.78 0.196
Alaska 5.34b 4.43 0.086 8.09a 4.49 0.000 12.72a 9.00 0.012 3.58 3.55 0.966
Arizona 6.07a 4.73 0.029 9.35a 5.22 0.000 13.91a 8.44 0.000 4.18 4.02 0.819
Arkansas 5.03 4.56 0.355 7.95b 6.15 0.094 13.38a 9.67 0.018 3.15 3.49 0.552
California 5.20a 4.31 0.014 7.53a 4.87 0.000 9.79a 8.03 0.034 4.02 3.55 0.297
Colorado 6.08b 4.93 0.065 8.98a 5.54 0.003 13.94a 9.34 0.003 4.31 4.11 0.779
Connecticut 4.03 3.75 0.548 5.70a 4.08 0.049 11.54a 8.55 0.037 2.72 2.94 0.679
Delaware 5.12 4.34 0.139 7.30a 4.66 0.005 13.90a 9.52 0.004 3.33 3.44 0.854
District of Columbia 3.52 4.19 0.198 5.26 4.59 0.480 6.73 7.22 0.677 2.73 3.51 0.209
Florida 4.85a 3.39 0.000 7.03a 4.40 0.000 12.83a 7.28 0.000 3.45a 2.71 0.048
Georgia 5.12 4.31 0.121 8.41a 5.24 0.003 10.66a 7.94 0.034 3.64 3.55 0.875
Hawaii 3.90 4.24 0.553 6.52 5.06 0.156 9.41 7.49 0.166 2.67 3.64 0.154
Idaho 5.63a 3.87 0.000 8.72a 4.72 0.000 13.57a 8.23 0.000 3.48 2.99 0.349
Illinois 4.02 3.56 0.134 6.76a 3.85 0.000 10.92a 7.58 0.000 2.42 2.84 0.227
Indiana 5.88a 4.40 0.005 8.37a 4.97 0.001 15.82a 9.53 0.000 3.70 3.42 0.635
Iowa 3.42 3.65 0.609 6.28a 4.31 0.028 8.78 7.37 0.263 2.02b 2.91 0.087
Kansas 4.36 4.28 0.854 6.14b 4.45 0.062 10.84b 8.51 0.080 2.84 3.49 0.244
Kentucky 6.50a 4.16 0.000 9.96a 4.32 0.000 17.48a 9.05 0.000 4.16 3.32 0.176
Louisiana 5.16 4.69 0.381 7.46a 5.29 0.030 13.19a 8.79 0.002 3.20 3.88 0.288
Maine 4.61a 3.16 0.001 7.16a 4.12 0.002 14.07a 7.13 0.000 2.87 2.52 0.476
Maryland 4.03 4.50 0.367 5.95 4.57 0.120 10.52 9.13 0.335 2.75 3.74 0.101
Massachusetts 5.28a 3.50 0.000 7.78a 3.77 0.000 14.68a 7.60 0.000 3.47 2.76 0.184
Michigan 5.18a 3.98 0.001 9.70a 4.63 0.000 11.90a 9.24 0.004 3.37 2.99 0.375
Minnesota 3.93 3.56 0.386 6.37a 3.96 0.004 8.79 8.38 0.751 2.70 2.73 0.952
Mississippi 4.40 4.28 0.797 8.48a 5.64 0.008 10.05 8.83 0.380 2.64 3.27 0.214
Missouri 5.17a 4.02 0.016 7.75a 4.38 0.001 12.93a 9.30 0.015 3.44 3.08 0.486
Montana 4.22a 3.24 0.023 8.06a 3.98 0.000 10.19a 7.02 0.013 2.61 2.53 0.872
Nebraska 3.82 3.63 0.649 7.31a 4.26 0.001 10.05 7.98 0.120 2.11 2.78 0.165
Nevada 5.66a 4.46 0.035 9.61a 5.39 0.000 13.30a 8.56 0.001 3.93 3.70 0.731
New Hampshire 5.33a 4.21 0.026 7.91a 4.71 0.002 16.19a 9.76 0.000 3.28 3.28 0.996
New Jersey 3.61 3.51 0.796 5.89a 3.80 0.012 9.95b 7.83 0.089 2.42 2.82 0.409
New Mexico 5.18 4.43 0.184 8.36a 5.14 0.003 10.80a 7.86 0.040 3.64 3.74 0.882
New York 3.72 3.54 0.542 6.02a 3.87 0.000 9.78a 7.17 0.001 2.43 2.88 0.204
North Carolina 5.07 4.27 0.133 8.81a 4.86 0.000 12.09a 8.87 0.021 3.40 3.44 0.946
North Dakota 3.54 3.80 0.562 6.34a 4.38 0.030 7.76 7.34 0.725 2.27 2.95 0.196
Ohio 4.53 4.61 0.835 7.09a 4.90 0.001 11.98a 9.25 0.004 2.90a 3.81 0.034
Oklahoma 5.81 4.95 0.158 9.24a 5.33 0.001 15.12a 10.14 0.003 3.53 3.98 0.515
Oregon 5.73b 4.74 0.093 9.20a 5.32 0.000 14.56a 9.13 0.000 3.78 3.99 0.761
Pennsylvania 3.81 3.93 0.704 6.24a 4.48 0.004 10.86a 8.73 0.016 2.36a 3.08 0.037
Rhode Island 5.91a 4.15 0.002 7.42a 4.25 0.001 16.95a 8.31 0.000 3.71 3.35 0.578
South Carolina 4.94a 3.79 0.017 7.50a 5.26 0.024 11.91a 8.09 0.004 3.36 2.90 0.413
South Dakota 3.68 3.52 0.705 7.63a 4.44 0.001 8.75 7.46 0.314 2.09 2.71 0.208
Tennessee 4.65 3.93 0.125 9.08a 4.56 0.000 11.41a 8.33 0.032 2.94 3.12 0.724
Texas 4.90a 3.88 0.002 7.60a 4.75 0.000 11.11a 7.91 0.000 3.24 3.00 0.529
Utah 5.57a 3.90 0.000 7.81a 4.18 0.000 11.95a 7.02 0.000 3.27 3.14 0.791
Vermont 5.37a 3.29 0.000 8.93a 3.97 0.000 14.60a 7.60 0.000 3.31b 2.48 0.094
Virginia 4.35 4.58 0.647 7.93a 4.84 0.001 10.75 9.25 0.279 2.84 3.76 0.109
Washington 5.86a 4.43 0.010 10.19a 5.19 0.000 15.25a 8.49 0.000 3.66 3.69 0.963
West Virginia 5.34a 3.88 0.006 8.87a 4.28 0.000 15.67a 8.34 0.000 3.27 3.16 0.852
Wisconsin 4.66 3.94 0.101 7.58a 5.01 0.007 12.67a 8.57 0.003 2.81 3.04 0.643
Wyoming 4.98a 3.30 0.000 8.00a 4.19 0.000 12.68a 7.19 0.000 3.08 2.53 0.277
151111
Table 9 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 50.50a 52.42 0.000 17.67a 11.55 0.000 60.91a 59.60 0.018 53.22a 56.18 0.000
Northeast 55.33a 57.80 0.001 19.24a 13.19 0.000 66.19a 63.79 0.007 58.21a 61.82 0.000
Midwest 52.96a 55.14 0.000 18.98a 11.31 0.000 66.22a 63.11 0.000 55.35a 59.21 0.000
South 45.89a 48.74 0.000 16.75a 10.87 0.000 57.13 56.75 0.601 47.95a 52.06 0.000
West 51.24 51.67 0.555 16.58a 11.71 0.000 57.43 57.82 0.698 55.15 55.59 0.635
Alabama 36.83a 44.72 0.000 15.00a 10.53 0.004 50.96 51.36 0.874 37.27a 47.74 0.000
Alaska 50.89 54.02 0.116 15.90a 9.22 0.001 59.83 59.65 0.947 55.92 59.05 0.224
Arizona 50.20 51.80 0.453 18.69a 11.90 0.000 58.45 58.02 0.870 53.29 55.87 0.340
Arkansas 38.93b 42.45 0.063 16.71a 9.90 0.000 53.79 55.03 0.639 39.34a 44.40 0.035
California 50.97 50.68 0.799 15.28a 12.01 0.001 55.53 57.67 0.164 55.38 54.28 0.441
Colorado 59.22 61.56 0.213 20.63a 14.25 0.001 68.89 67.46 0.561 62.79 66.24 0.139
Connecticut 57.93 59.92 0.345 18.88a 12.77 0.002 72.28a 65.58 0.007 61.02 64.68 0.164
Delaware 53.06b 56.59 0.078 18.35a 10.61 0.000 62.71 63.46 0.771 55.89b 60.58 0.061
District of Columbia 56.69a 68.03 0.000 13.02 12.63 0.830 67.17a 72.88 0.035 58.52a 70.87 0.000
Florida 52.44 53.21 0.508 17.35a 12.26 0.000 59.66 58.29 0.358 55.68 56.71 0.468
Georgia 46.07 48.62 0.187 15.09a 10.60 0.003 52.19 53.79 0.522 49.41 52.80 0.165
Hawaii 48.71 49.57 0.687 17.96a 11.20 0.000 58.57 59.13 0.848 51.28 52.20 0.730
Idaho 47.70 47.12 0.771 17.37a 10.79 0.000 53.62 50.04 0.170 51.34 51.80 0.859
Illinois 51.71a 55.55 0.001 18.65a 10.98 0.000 64.16b 61.47 0.071 54.10a 60.12 0.000
Indiana 46.60a 51.08 0.033 16.04a 11.44 0.004 61.78 61.73 0.982 48.16a 54.34 0.019
Iowa 55.37 56.15 0.696 20.18a 10.81 0.000 67.28 68.29 0.678 57.79 59.52 0.503
Kansas 48.92a 53.78 0.014 19.41a 11.18 0.000 65.89b 61.27 0.060 49.96a 58.07 0.001
Kentucky 40.57 42.49 0.339 18.75a 9.02 0.000 58.07 55.07 0.262 40.27b 44.42 0.099
Louisiana 46.27 49.13 0.149 19.35a 12.35 0.000 61.41a 55.97 0.040 47.30a 52.57 0.036
Maine 52.17a 59.07 0.001 16.55a 11.86 0.006 66.76 66.39 0.878 54.44a 62.82 0.001
Maryland 54.67 58.04 0.110 17.14a 12.54 0.006 64.21 63.41 0.756 58.34 62.51 0.112
Massachusetts 59.59 62.11 0.204 21.04a 13.30 0.000 68.94 70.15 0.622 62.75 66.05 0.181
Michigan 53.78 54.52 0.538 19.23a 11.56 0.000 66.30a 63.02 0.020 56.54 58.37 0.227
Minnesota 58.45 58.77 0.873 19.54a 10.67 0.000 70.68a 64.72 0.016 61.73 63.60 0.460
Mississippi 35.54a 42.10 0.001 14.72a 9.81 0.001 50.24 52.67 0.369 35.72a 44.46 0.001
Missouri 53.21 50.85 0.248 19.67a 10.91 0.000 64.52b 60.04 0.072 55.85 54.13 0.507
Montana 55.36 58.39 0.158 24.73a 11.19 0.000 69.29b 65.01 0.083 57.19a 62.51 0.050
Nebraska 53.98 57.23 0.119 22.24a 10.53 0.000 68.38 64.70 0.135 55.77a 61.82 0.022
Nevada 50.68b 54.64 0.065 18.40a 13.59 0.009 56.37 58.31 0.475 54.12b 59.05 0.062
New Hampshire 59.80a 64.36 0.027 21.44a 14.63 0.000 71.78 70.97 0.736 63.20a 68.82 0.028
New Jersey 57.73 56.95 0.699 18.77a 14.31 0.014 65.06b 60.74 0.090 61.72 61.45 0.916
New Mexico 47.83 48.54 0.743 20.67a 9.71 0.000 60.78b 55.85 0.057 49.67 52.18 0.360
New York 54.71 56.11 0.239 19.49a 12.86 0.000 64.34a 61.14 0.038 57.59b 60.04 0.100
North Carolina 40.59a 47.02 0.002 16.12a 10.17 0.000 56.43 55.22 0.631 41.18a 50.15 0.001
North Dakota 58.04 58.79 0.697 25.23a 10.92 0.000 73.06 70.00 0.218 59.42 61.67 0.360
Ohio 51.81 53.81 0.108 17.52a 11.01 0.000 65.40a 61.96 0.027 54.20a 57.71 0.025
Oklahoma 42.94a 48.90 0.006 16.04a 10.89 0.002 58.23 59.13 0.733 43.81a 51.96 0.003
Oregon 53.14b 57.16 0.061 17.07a 12.92 0.014 65.32 62.92 0.338 55.79a 61.12 0.046
Pennsylvania 51.10a 57.12 0.000 18.06a 12.87 0.000 64.85 64.42 0.780 53.14a 60.84 0.000
Rhode Island 58.96 57.82 0.589 22.12a 13.21 0.000 76.07a 65.30 0.000 60.38 61.28 0.736
South Carolina 45.07 48.05 0.149 14.36a 9.63 0.001 61.10 58.52 0.333 46.35b 50.77 0.088
South Dakota 55.18 55.21 0.986 22.07a 9.29 0.000 71.49a 64.39 0.004 56.98 59.30 0.346
Tennessee 36.27a 42.98 0.001 13.27a 9.35 0.005 46.50a 52.99 0.029 37.48a 45.34 0.002
Texas 47.27 47.27 0.997 17.56a 10.81 0.000 57.99 56.11 0.199 49.86 50.88 0.460
Utah 29.57 31.90 0.275 10.23a 6.76 0.024 35.74 36.61 0.775 31.40 35.21 0.186
Vermont 58.43 61.20 0.191 22.00a 13.76 0.000 73.45 71.50 0.404 60.69 64.35 0.166
Virginia 51.17 52.75 0.433 18.40a 11.20 0.000 61.25 62.04 0.753 53.91 56.05 0.395
Washington 56.31 53.71 0.199 18.15a 10.44 0.000 63.66b 59.03 0.064 60.33 57.87 0.334
West Virginia 37.20 38.57 0.491 18.28a 9.67 0.000 53.18 53.00 0.948 36.81 39.37 0.298
Wisconsin 57.92a 62.63 0.016 21.39a 14.02 0.000 72.05 68.82 0.180 60.48a 67.41 0.005
Wyoming 52.14 55.45 0.120 18.30a 10.60 0.000 66.48 63.55 0.260 54.35b 59.37 0.065
151111
Table 10 – Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 22.75 22.94 0.519 10.65a 6.16 0.000 41.25a 37.82 0.000 21.20a 22.44 0.001
Northeast 23.82 23.81 0.979 11.33a 6.99 0.000 44.69a 40.56 0.000 22.10 22.92 0.235
Midwest 25.18 25.26 0.864 12.11a 6.16 0.000 47.13a 42.38 0.000 23.09a 24.71 0.005
South 21.22 21.50 0.479 9.68a 5.70 0.000 38.12a 34.58 0.000 19.87a 21.23 0.005
West 21.81 22.44 0.242 10.19a 6.32 0.000 37.60 36.78 0.380 20.61b 21.93 0.058
Alabama 18.10a 21.61 0.020 8.23b 6.04 0.055 34.97 33.32 0.501 16.45a 21.51 0.007
Alaska 23.13 22.93 0.896 11.42a 5.00 0.000 41.22 38.71 0.348 22.26 22.38 0.950
Arizona 24.32 23.32 0.543 11.94a 6.39 0.000 41.43b 36.97 0.100 23.04 23.13 0.965
Arkansas 21.76 20.76 0.505 11.31a 5.95 0.000 39.76 36.63 0.235 19.99 19.93 0.973
California 21.25 22.44 0.166 9.16a 6.38 0.000 35.41 36.62 0.398 20.43 21.87 0.186
Colorado 25.75 25.57 0.908 11.04a 6.93 0.002 46.73a 41.46 0.045 24.10 25.12 0.606
Connecticut 23.09 23.54 0.777 11.18a 6.29 0.000 48.14a 42.22 0.040 21.04 22.63 0.415
Delaware 23.71 23.00 0.642 10.46a 5.55 0.000 42.89 40.64 0.392 22.12 22.02 0.955
District of Columbia 25.34a 33.98 0.000 5.62 5.91 0.799 39.25a 48.73 0.002 24.35a 32.78 0.000
Florida 21.74 20.92 0.368 9.50a 5.63 0.000 39.02a 33.58 0.000 20.76 20.64 0.911
Georgia 20.73 20.87 0.924 8.20a 5.40 0.010 33.73 32.39 0.580 20.17 20.90 0.686
Hawaii 23.68 24.43 0.668 11.93a 5.90 0.000 41.12 41.76 0.823 22.47 23.71 0.570
Idaho 21.05 20.03 0.494 11.57a 6.10 0.000 36.12 32.89 0.202 19.45 19.79 0.860
Illinois 25.17 26.39 0.222 11.70a 5.54 0.000 46.77a 40.96 0.000 23.22a 26.54 0.008
Indiana 22.27 21.75 0.714 9.82a 6.27 0.002 45.11a 39.46 0.026 19.83 20.61 0.665
Iowa 26.34 25.36 0.542 13.85a 6.40 0.000 48.87 47.04 0.506 23.72 23.83 0.958
Kansas 21.71 23.84 0.150 11.56a 6.55 0.000 45.26b 40.45 0.058 18.63a 23.11 0.017
Kentucky 19.24 19.62 0.791 11.08a 5.13 0.000 38.83b 34.42 0.087 16.86 18.90 0.245
Louisiana 23.77 23.83 0.971 10.87a 6.81 0.002 40.36a 33.87 0.008 22.39 24.19 0.361
Maine 21.74 22.74 0.503 11.12a 6.78 0.001 44.67 42.62 0.427 19.64 21.60 0.280
Maryland 21.65 22.59 0.549 9.43a 6.25 0.007 39.77b 35.16 0.072 20.48 22.47 0.301
Massachusetts 27.22b 24.21 0.079 14.19a 7.00 0.000 46.98 43.85 0.257 25.64 22.65 0.151
Michigan 24.46 24.58 0.896 12.06a 6.15 0.000 44.49b 41.58 0.061 22.75 23.92 0.308
Minnesota 28.07a 24.07 0.015 13.27a 5.14 0.000 49.84a 42.31 0.006 26.22 23.40 0.157
Mississippi 19.70 19.79 0.952 8.52a 4.90 0.002 32.24 31.48 0.759 18.86 19.62 0.674
Missouri 24.56 25.10 0.720 12.61a 6.70 0.000 43.89 41.27 0.322 22.80 24.60 0.334
Montana 27.41b 24.26 0.051 17.85a 6.53 0.000 50.83a 42.68 0.002 24.58 23.18 0.489
Nebraska 26.26 24.08 0.175 14.30a 6.32 0.000 49.83a 43.23 0.013 23.44 22.92 0.795
Nevada 20.87a 24.39 0.036 10.90a 6.62 0.001 33.81 37.17 0.196 20.17a 24.54 0.036
New Hampshire 24.02 24.72 0.660 13.29a 7.36 0.000 49.11 45.77 0.221 21.59 23.35 0.363
New Jersey 21.74 22.56 0.589 10.11 8.01 0.120 41.95 38.26 0.136 20.36 21.92 0.402
New Mexico 24.00 24.37 0.811 14.04a 6.12 0.000 41.39 37.38 0.152 22.31 24.42 0.287
New York 24.27 23.83 0.656 10.71a 6.75 0.000 42.55a 38.00 0.004 22.96 23.28 0.793
North Carolina 19.31 20.29 0.489 10.02a 5.56 0.000 38.03a 32.83 0.040 17.40 20.00 0.138
North Dakota 31.37a 28.06 0.043 16.58a 6.98 0.000 55.15a 48.99 0.023 28.43 25.76 0.199
Ohio 24.40 25.24 0.375 11.31a 6.27 0.000 45.99a 41.50 0.003 22.50a 24.89 0.044
Oklahoma 19.01a 23.90 0.001 10.70a 5.99 0.000 37.98 37.37 0.825 16.53a 23.80 0.000
Oregon 20.52 22.12 0.273 10.70a 7.42 0.019 40.58 39.69 0.739 18.40 21.00 0.146
Pennsylvania 22.83b 24.43 0.093 11.24a 6.85 0.000 45.96a 42.58 0.030 20.59a 23.43 0.017
Rhode Island 26.97 25.11 0.286 12.73a 5.82 0.000 55.31a 43.07 0.000 23.56 23.82 0.905
South Carolina 22.54 21.94 0.677 8.80a 5.48 0.004 42.03a 36.01 0.020 20.93 21.49 0.753
South Dakota 28.13 25.60 0.113 15.85a 6.42 0.000 54.15a 44.74 0.000 24.89 24.62 0.890
Tennessee 16.55 17.95 0.304 8.39a 5.15 0.004 29.89 31.18 0.622 15.34 17.29 0.239
Texas 23.90b 22.29 0.069 9.84a 5.79 0.000 40.02a 34.44 0.000 22.96 22.40 0.622
Utah 15.86 15.91 0.974 7.86a 5.16 0.038 24.95 26.08 0.661 14.70 15.45 0.678
Vermont 25.51 23.36 0.191 14.70a 7.45 0.000 49.19 46.76 0.382 22.87 20.95 0.336
Virginia 20.51b 23.09 0.078 10.70a 5.71 0.000 40.44 41.11 0.800 18.58b 22.08 0.054
Washington 20.94 20.33 0.665 11.06a 5.56 0.000 41.67a 35.67 0.021 18.76 19.56 0.638
West Virginia 19.33 19.49 0.909 13.11a 6.32 0.000 38.11 36.91 0.650 17.02 18.21 0.485
Wisconsin 28.98 29.85 0.623 13.48a 7.13 0.000 54.87b 50.12 0.089 26.50 29.21 0.218
Wyoming 24.93 25.09 0.920 12.94a 7.45 0.000 49.68a 43.30 0.026 21.98 24.05 0.284
151111
Table 11 – Perceptions of Great Risk from Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 42.04a 40.79 0.001 38.36b 39.09 0.093 32.56b 33.36 0.072 44.20a 42.27 0.000
Northeast 39.65 39.27 0.565 36.76b 38.23 0.092 28.81a 31.07 0.007 41.75 40.75 0.233
Midwest 38.83a 36.93 0.000 37.30 36.88 0.543 28.48 29.28 0.230 40.89a 38.25 0.000
South 44.60a 42.89 0.001 40.12 40.88 0.267 35.85 36.48 0.320 46.74a 44.23 0.000
West 43.24 42.12 0.108 37.93 38.84 0.295 34.44 33.87 0.537 45.63b 44.00 0.069
Alabama 46.19 43.60 0.175 42.74 42.58 0.949 37.64 36.04 0.489 48.17 45.01 0.193
Alaska 40.78 38.85 0.292 35.13 35.44 0.895 29.24 28.88 0.878 43.78 41.22 0.284
Arizona 39.54 40.57 0.612 36.77 38.50 0.492 33.66 31.84 0.453 41.00 42.36 0.602
Arkansas 43.34a 39.20 0.021 41.25 37.89 0.169 35.99 33.27 0.257 44.93a 40.38 0.045
California 45.47 44.40 0.327 38.79 39.88 0.436 37.05 36.42 0.674 48.00 46.43 0.266
Colorado 38.39 36.50 0.301 32.48 34.90 0.315 28.41 26.12 0.290 40.94 38.46 0.291
Connecticut 39.85 40.47 0.752 36.18 39.44 0.165 27.52 30.68 0.185 42.12 42.17 0.984
Delaware 39.62 39.14 0.798 39.63 39.87 0.923 29.37 32.40 0.211 41.39 40.19 0.609
District of Columbia 45.47a 40.59 0.010 43.87 46.68 0.273 37.24 33.47 0.188 47.24a 41.69 0.019
Florida 44.38 43.72 0.552 40.02 41.47 0.311 37.54 37.15 0.783 45.89 44.92 0.485
Georgia 47.12 45.39 0.356 42.61 44.19 0.522 38.37 38.55 0.937 49.36 46.76 0.272
Hawaii 39.86 40.39 0.794 38.93 39.08 0.950 32.94 33.14 0.938 41.09 41.66 0.821
Idaho 39.96 40.39 0.818 37.53 36.03 0.528 30.42 32.16 0.437 42.33 42.43 0.964
Illinois 40.66b 38.74 0.091 38.28 38.52 0.869 31.51 31.31 0.890 42.61b 40.02 0.072
Indiana 42.73a 38.28 0.016 40.32 37.91 0.320 30.82 29.17 0.457 45.27a 39.96 0.026
Iowa 34.19 35.65 0.410 31.78 35.83 0.103 25.92 27.60 0.453 36.09 37.06 0.669
Kansas 40.70a 36.64 0.032 38.43 34.80 0.128 28.12 26.72 0.533 43.47a 38.69 0.050
Kentucky 42.34 40.58 0.360 39.08 37.88 0.605 33.87 32.97 0.710 44.23 42.17 0.397
Louisiana 43.83 42.90 0.600 39.89 40.53 0.796 35.50 38.23 0.250 46.10 44.04 0.371
Maine 36.26 34.93 0.479 32.80 35.33 0.279 24.59 27.23 0.205 38.44 35.96 0.286
Maryland 41.88 41.80 0.964 38.85 42.90 0.109 35.09 37.82 0.282 43.37 42.32 0.657
Massachusetts 34.67b 38.33 0.056 34.03 36.26 0.342 24.06b 27.92 0.084 36.44b 40.38 0.100
Michigan 39.74 38.23 0.173 38.10b 35.44 0.069 29.27 31.45 0.115 41.79 39.76 0.145
Minnesota 36.35 34.96 0.452 36.49 36.70 0.930 24.65 25.04 0.851 38.45 36.36 0.376
Mississippi 49.91 46.90 0.139 44.09 42.31 0.490 41.78 41.96 0.945 52.44 48.42 0.124
Missouri 38.35b 35.19 0.087 36.71 37.05 0.886 28.92 30.25 0.546 40.25b 35.81 0.055
Montana 36.33 34.82 0.440 31.95a 37.10 0.032 24.62 25.20 0.777 39.04 36.16 0.250
Nebraska 37.99 38.42 0.817 35.97 37.70 0.481 25.27 28.90 0.112 40.73 40.20 0.823
Nevada 41.75 42.61 0.647 38.57 38.38 0.938 35.01 35.81 0.743 43.24 44.20 0.686
New Hampshire 33.32 34.26 0.628 27.98a 33.59 0.013 20.30 22.20 0.312 36.08 36.22 0.954
New Jersey 44.79b 41.31 0.070 38.38 37.93 0.851 34.09 34.14 0.982 47.14b 42.80 0.069
New Mexico 47.07 44.82 0.246 40.01 39.62 0.880 37.35 39.39 0.426 49.98 46.42 0.158
New York 41.50 40.94 0.626 39.15 39.97 0.591 31.25a 34.40 0.036 43.50 42.18 0.357
North Carolina 45.72b 41.99 0.054 39.55 40.36 0.737 33.43 36.32 0.201 48.60a 43.13 0.027
North Dakota 33.65 34.23 0.744 32.51 35.04 0.290 23.09 24.69 0.447 36.02 36.27 0.915
Ohio 37.72 36.66 0.331 37.89 36.95 0.518 28.46 28.71 0.862 39.29 37.94 0.327
Oklahoma 43.77b 40.15 0.064 37.84 36.35 0.540 31.48 31.47 0.996 46.98b 42.20 0.059
Oregon 39.88 36.90 0.114 36.22 33.32 0.239 29.13 27.98 0.604 42.18 38.69 0.139
Pennsylvania 37.29 36.67 0.592 35.40 37.59 0.138 26.27 27.41 0.400 39.32 38.08 0.396
Rhode Island 36.25 37.73 0.452 34.95 37.91 0.228 27.75 29.07 0.565 37.96 39.36 0.579
South Carolina 45.48 42.75 0.150 42.76 41.53 0.616 32.65 36.10 0.130 48.11b 44.01 0.093
South Dakota 35.95 34.85 0.555 33.49 36.71 0.171 23.15a 28.45 0.016 38.83 35.75 0.202
Tennessee 45.42 44.56 0.651 41.10 37.92 0.214 34.76 33.66 0.662 47.77 47.15 0.795
Texas 44.61 43.02 0.124 38.81 40.75 0.178 37.33 38.49 0.442 46.96a 44.20 0.040
Utah 50.94a 44.41 0.002 47.56 46.28 0.659 40.56 36.65 0.161 54.64a 45.87 0.003
Vermont 37.08 36.97 0.953 30.43 31.17 0.755 22.04 24.20 0.281 40.56 39.80 0.752
Virginia 42.20 41.07 0.561 40.32 40.83 0.827 31.25 31.57 0.886 44.23 42.71 0.536
Washington 39.20 38.89 0.866 35.22 36.86 0.501 27.05 28.79 0.412 41.83 40.77 0.650
West Virginia 42.90 41.08 0.346 34.10b 38.28 0.090 33.85 32.27 0.507 45.37 42.71 0.264
Wisconsin 36.57 34.37 0.221 34.07 35.89 0.445 25.07 28.25 0.136 38.99b 35.20 0.097
Wyoming 37.38 38.18 0.670 35.00 35.27 0.911 22.86a 28.14 0.025 40.48 40.26 0.926
151111
Table 12 – Alcohol Use and Binge Alcohol Use in Past Month among Individuals Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2002-2003)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2013-2014)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(P Value)
Binge Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2002-2003)
Binge Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2013-2014)
Binge Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 28.89a 22.76 0.000 19.22a 14.00 0.000
Northeast 31.50a 26.11 0.000 20.74a 15.74 0.000
Midwest 31.65a 23.73 0.000 21.99a 15.06 0.000
South 27.17a 20.68 0.000 17.54a 12.52 0.000
West 26.82a 22.73 0.000 17.91a 14.11 0.000
Alabama 24.88a 19.25 0.001 16.45a 12.81 0.015
Alaska 26.43a 21.47 0.009 19.42a 13.02 0.000
Arizona 28.64a 22.01 0.001 19.76a 13.20 0.000
Arkansas 25.16a 18.07 0.000 18.84a 12.18 0.000
California 24.67 23.07 0.151 16.09a 14.16 0.040
Colorado 33.02a 26.95 0.001 21.31a 15.85 0.001
Connecticut 32.63a 26.29 0.001 21.42a 16.24 0.002
Delaware 31.13a 23.14 0.000 20.37a 14.46 0.000
District of Columbia 31.16 28.32 0.240 16.58 16.19 0.853
Florida 27.50a 22.08 0.000 16.87a 11.81 0.000
Georgia 24.15a 20.25 0.018 15.31a 12.06 0.016
Hawaii 28.58a 21.07 0.000 20.77a 13.24 0.000
Idaho 26.66a 19.38 0.000 18.81a 12.24 0.000
Illinois 30.52a 22.65 0.000 21.63a 14.08 0.000
Indiana 27.53a 22.76 0.007 18.75a 14.07 0.003
Iowa 34.35a 26.90 0.000 24.68a 18.13 0.000
Kansas 31.31a 22.23 0.000 21.90a 14.55 0.000
Kentucky 28.99a 19.59 0.000 19.61a 12.80 0.000
Louisiana 31.05a 22.72 0.000 18.97a 14.51 0.005
Maine 30.23a 24.89 0.003 22.54a 15.37 0.000
Maryland 28.10a 22.60 0.001 17.52a 12.62 0.001
Massachusetts 32.50 30.44 0.282 22.40a 17.69 0.007
Michigan 31.83a 23.93 0.000 21.36a 14.47 0.000
Minnesota 33.36a 24.07 0.000 24.17a 14.53 0.000
Mississippi 24.01a 20.13 0.028 15.72a 12.02 0.013
Missouri 32.41a 21.84 0.000 21.16a 14.61 0.000
Montana 38.39a 24.43 0.000 28.80a 16.23 0.000
Nebraska 34.98a 22.42 0.000 23.77a 15.42 0.000
Nevada 26.87 23.94 0.104 16.81 14.49 0.156
New Hampshire 35.98a 30.94 0.005 25.02a 19.55 0.001
New Jersey 29.38a 24.91 0.012 17.59 15.35 0.164
New Mexico 32.37a 19.04 0.000 22.15a 13.08 0.000
New York 31.59a 24.36 0.000 20.34a 13.98 0.000
North Carolina 26.71a 17.90 0.000 17.99a 11.29 0.000
North Dakota 41.54a 28.44 0.000 31.04a 19.68 0.000
Ohio 30.13a 23.55 0.000 20.95a 15.25 0.000
Oklahoma 28.47a 21.50 0.000 19.07a 13.98 0.001
Oregon 28.22 25.84 0.177 18.61 16.50 0.210
Pennsylvania 30.86a 26.18 0.000 21.05a 16.52 0.000
Rhode Island 38.31a 31.07 0.000 26.58a 19.26 0.000
South Carolina 27.25a 19.80 0.000 18.05a 12.44 0.000
South Dakota 37.21a 24.59 0.000 28.52a 17.81 0.000
Tennessee 23.80a 18.39 0.003 15.95a 11.45 0.004
Texas 27.35a 20.99 0.000 17.14a 12.68 0.000
Utah 19.41a 13.38 0.002 15.43a 10.49 0.004
Vermont 35.56a 29.86 0.004 25.77a 20.28 0.003
Virginia 30.33a 21.71 0.000 20.47a 13.40 0.000
Washington 31.54a 23.07 0.000 21.02a 14.43 0.000
West Virginia 28.84a 20.31 0.000 21.48a 15.08 0.000
Wisconsin 34.72a 27.73 0.000 24.45a 17.54 0.000
Wyoming 33.64a 22.81 0.000 24.93a 16.01 0.000
151111
Table 13 – Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 30.09a 25.36 0.000 14.83a 7.42 0.000 45.02a 36.04 0.000 29.59a 25.72 0.000
Northeast 29.21a 23.76 0.000 14.42a 7.18 0.000 45.89a 34.61 0.000 28.45a 23.82 0.000
Midwest 32.85a 28.57 0.000 16.97a 8.58 0.000 49.35a 40.75 0.000 32.12a 28.97 0.000
South 31.66a 26.91 0.000 15.72a 7.57 0.000 45.84a 37.26 0.000 31.39a 27.54 0.000
West 25.56a 21.20 0.000 11.70a 6.31 0.000 38.83a 31.04 0.000 25.15a 21.33 0.000
Alabama 33.02 31.62 0.454 16.66a 8.43 0.000 45.20 43.37 0.481 33.07 32.43 0.787
Alaska 30.73 29.30 0.412 16.39a 10.73 0.001 48.43a 41.11 0.007 30.42 29.59 0.711
Arizona 30.45a 22.14 0.000 15.11a 6.81 0.000 39.80a 32.74 0.010 31.00a 22.28 0.000
Arkansas 39.35a 35.57 0.048 19.57a 10.89 0.000 55.88a 43.57 0.000 39.12 37.31 0.459
California 22.45a 18.40 0.000 9.22a 5.00 0.000 35.14a 27.64 0.000 22.07a 18.40 0.002
Colorado 31.24a 25.73 0.002 17.44a 8.94 0.000 49.95a 40.85 0.001 29.86a 25.19 0.030
Connecticut 27.06a 21.16 0.000 15.19a 6.83 0.000 46.14a 35.61 0.000 25.86a 20.56 0.009
Delaware 29.52 28.51 0.569 16.30a 8.15 0.000 46.47a 40.67 0.030 28.32 28.76 0.844
District of Columbia 29.21 27.11 0.229 9.53a 6.28 0.015 37.39 32.98 0.110 29.34 27.32 0.351
Florida 28.14a 24.25 0.000 14.34a 6.62 0.000 41.55a 32.96 0.000 27.91a 24.78 0.011
Georgia 30.88a 25.69 0.001 15.79a 6.94 0.000 41.74a 35.94 0.022 31.07a 26.39 0.021
Hawaii 24.62a 20.60 0.013 12.33a 6.65 0.000 36.59a 30.91 0.035 24.37b 20.48 0.053
Idaho 28.09a 24.73 0.037 14.70a 8.27 0.000 43.08a 35.33 0.004 27.13 25.25 0.359
Illinois 30.91a 25.34 0.000 14.97a 6.66 0.000 46.68a 36.80 0.000 30.33a 25.74 0.000
Indiana 33.09b 29.75 0.057 16.84a 9.00 0.000 49.30a 43.26 0.020 32.42 30.05 0.284
Iowa 30.88a 27.52 0.049 16.34a 9.41 0.000 48.67a 40.75 0.003 29.44 27.38 0.341
Kansas 31.24a 27.41 0.030 15.57a 8.85 0.000 45.68b 41.19 0.085 30.73 27.37 0.139
Kentucky 39.78a 34.08 0.003 23.18a 10.87 0.000 58.88a 45.48 0.000 38.54 34.97 0.134
Louisiana 32.70b 29.66 0.081 17.58a 9.71 0.000 48.21a 40.79 0.005 31.87 30.20 0.450
Maine 31.33a 26.19 0.005 13.55a 8.89 0.002 50.44a 40.67 0.000 30.69a 25.92 0.033
Maryland 27.13a 21.86 0.001 12.70a 5.97 0.000 42.05a 32.66 0.000 26.76a 21.97 0.015
Massachusetts 26.09a 21.47 0.004 14.37a 6.60 0.000 42.53a 34.43 0.003 24.88a 20.83 0.040
Michigan 32.56a 28.54 0.000 15.89a 8.17 0.000 47.64a 39.45 0.000 32.32a 29.18 0.022
Minnesota 31.44a 26.43 0.002 17.69a 7.53 0.000 51.31a 39.80 0.000 29.78 26.54 0.121
Mississippi 35.49 33.76 0.360 16.57a 10.34 0.000 47.77 44.10 0.177 35.87 34.98 0.716
Missouri 36.69b 33.16 0.053 21.01a 10.56 0.000 51.76a 46.33 0.042 36.19 33.67 0.275
Montana 34.18a 28.57 0.003 21.16a 9.44 0.000 53.76a 41.88 0.000 32.51b 28.48 0.083
Nebraska 30.59 28.00 0.130 18.86a 9.04 0.000 48.81a 41.84 0.011 28.76 27.94 0.709
Nevada 34.99a 26.50 0.000 15.31a 7.61 0.000 42.38a 34.78 0.005 36.47a 27.49 0.000
New Hampshire 31.71a 24.33 0.000 16.82a 8.99 0.000 50.33a 41.88 0.001 30.86a 23.28 0.001
New Jersey 26.84a 21.51 0.001 13.65a 7.17 0.000 44.45a 31.38 0.000 26.04a 21.72 0.029
New Mexico 29.03 26.31 0.112 15.37a 7.86 0.000 45.26b 39.77 0.055 28.14 26.31 0.399
New York 28.82a 23.40 0.000 12.78a 5.90 0.000 43.64a 31.18 0.000 28.40a 24.00 0.001
North Carolina 35.90a 25.56 0.000 17.97a 7.33 0.000 50.13a 35.73 0.000 35.88a 26.08 0.000
North Dakota 32.51 30.13 0.165 20.88a 10.38 0.000 49.74b 45.07 0.072 30.50 29.03 0.500
Ohio 36.03a 31.15 0.000 17.27a 9.37 0.000 51.79a 42.46 0.000 35.91a 31.96 0.004
Oklahoma 35.86 34.01 0.336 17.60a 11.00 0.000 52.96a 46.66 0.022 35.16 34.71 0.856
Oregon 30.19a 25.46 0.008 14.42a 8.66 0.000 46.63a 35.38 0.000 29.46b 25.76 0.093
Pennsylvania 32.94a 27.34 0.000 16.75a 9.14 0.000 50.17a 40.37 0.000 32.24a 27.23 0.000
Rhode Island 31.14a 24.19 0.000 16.13a 6.80 0.000 51.46a 35.37 0.000 29.29a 23.98 0.018
South Carolina 31.92b 28.81 0.079 15.52a 7.68 0.000 48.06a 39.19 0.001 31.27 29.53 0.436
South Dakota 35.10a 28.24 0.000 22.82a 10.02 0.000 57.69a 41.42 0.000 32.53b 28.19 0.060
Tennessee 33.84a 29.41 0.011 17.17a 9.86 0.000 46.30 41.93 0.112 33.86b 29.68 0.053
Texas 29.68a 23.72 0.000 13.45a 5.88 0.000 42.47a 34.02 0.000 29.73a 24.39 0.000
Utah 19.67 17.67 0.203 8.43a 5.25 0.017 25.46 23.60 0.466 20.09 18.52 0.454
Vermont 30.64a 25.89 0.008 18.33a 9.32 0.000 52.64a 41.14 0.000 28.49 24.97 0.113
Virginia 29.73 27.54 0.205 15.40a 7.74 0.000 47.83a 37.45 0.000 28.70 28.18 0.813
Washington 26.76b 24.15 0.094 13.22a 7.70 0.000 45.81a 34.55 0.000 25.37 24.37 0.608
West Virginia 37.22 37.20 0.995 21.34a 12.46 0.000 54.26 50.63 0.187 36.30 37.71 0.540
Wisconsin 30.55b 27.70 0.100 17.30a 9.30 0.000 50.41a 39.12 0.000 28.84 28.01 0.705
Wyoming 34.00 31.52 0.164 16.34a 10.87 0.001 55.18a 44.17 0.000 32.55 31.79 0.738
151111
Table 14 – Cigarette Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 25.71a 21.05 0.000 12.57a 5.24 0.000 40.50a 29.49 0.000 24.95a 21.53 0.000
Northeast 25.27a 19.69 0.000 12.72a 5.10 0.000 41.63a 28.36 0.000 24.27a 19.89 0.000
Midwest 28.10a 23.84 0.000 14.63a 6.16 0.000 44.57a 32.84 0.000 27.04a 24.50 0.000
South 26.76a 22.37 0.000 13.21a 5.22 0.000 40.76a 30.24 0.000 26.19a 23.15 0.000
West 22.03a 17.43 0.000 9.47a 4.56 0.000 35.22a 26.21 0.000 21.45a 17.50 0.000
Alabama 26.43 25.90 0.753 13.69a 5.66 0.000 39.24a 34.32 0.038 25.88 26.93 0.629
Alaska 25.71a 22.00 0.024 13.25a 6.15 0.000 43.97a 34.04 0.000 24.96 21.88 0.150
Arizona 27.51a 18.73 0.000 12.84a 4.95 0.000 38.85a 27.64 0.000 27.60a 18.96 0.000
Arkansas 32.84a 28.51 0.016 16.05a 7.13 0.000 50.97a 34.10 0.000 31.92 30.25 0.471
California 19.36a 15.27 0.000 7.48a 3.66 0.000 31.77a 24.01 0.000 18.83a 15.14 0.001
Colorado 26.76a 19.77 0.000 13.74a 6.04 0.000 44.56a 32.45 0.000 25.43a 19.27 0.002
Connecticut 23.78a 16.91 0.000 13.45a 4.44 0.000 41.56a 29.50 0.000 22.56a 16.40 0.001
Delaware 26.09 23.73 0.152 14.07a 5.80 0.000 42.69a 34.83 0.002 24.79 23.88 0.660
District of Columbia 26.12a 22.62 0.046 7.10a 4.15 0.003 33.26a 27.41 0.016 26.40 22.90 0.113
Florida 23.99a 20.68 0.000 12.26a 4.42 0.000 36.75a 26.97 0.000 23.59b 21.43 0.063
Georgia 25.80a 20.63 0.001 12.83a 4.27 0.000 35.48a 27.22 0.000 25.91a 21.66 0.034
Hawaii 21.97a 17.07 0.001 8.78a 4.51 0.000 34.32a 26.30 0.003 21.77a 16.97 0.012
Idaho 23.95a 20.52 0.023 12.48a 6.03 0.000 39.02a 28.44 0.000 22.68 21.21 0.457
Illinois 26.77a 21.99 0.000 13.00a 4.96 0.000 42.75a 31.63 0.000 25.85a 22.49 0.006
Indiana 28.33a 24.80 0.033 14.39a 6.59 0.000 44.94a 34.67 0.000 27.26 25.42 0.391
Iowa 26.45a 22.75 0.022 14.27a 6.48 0.000 41.91a 32.87 0.000 25.14 22.95 0.286
Kansas 25.95a 22.04 0.013 13.95a 5.60 0.000 39.62a 29.63 0.000 25.06 22.85 0.280
Kentucky 34.77a 28.80 0.001 17.62a 8.11 0.000 53.06a 37.17 0.000 33.74b 29.89 0.098
Louisiana 28.27a 24.79 0.039 15.01a 7.13 0.000 42.36a 34.23 0.001 27.45 25.34 0.339
Maine 26.82a 22.10 0.004 12.16a 6.26 0.000 43.89a 30.87 0.000 26.10b 22.47 0.072
Maryland 23.22a 18.27 0.002 11.08a 4.18 0.000 35.91a 26.08 0.000 22.88a 18.65 0.033
Massachusetts 22.42a 17.44 0.001 11.69a 4.62 0.000 38.40a 27.52 0.000 21.16a 17.08 0.028
Michigan 28.19a 24.24 0.000 13.59a 5.68 0.000 42.81a 31.84 0.000 27.74b 25.23 0.054
Minnesota 26.87a 20.72 0.000 15.67a 5.50 0.000 48.22a 31.14 0.000 24.59b 20.87 0.058
Mississippi 29.41 27.47 0.284 12.83a 6.79 0.000 41.57a 36.27 0.031 29.46 28.61 0.717
Missouri 31.51b 28.10 0.061 17.88a 8.08 0.000 47.59a 38.96 0.001 30.56 28.69 0.422
Montana 27.71a 21.68 0.000 16.10a 6.35 0.000 44.96a 30.79 0.000 26.26a 21.87 0.043
Nebraska 25.93b 22.84 0.060 16.36a 6.30 0.000 43.92a 30.79 0.000 23.84 23.53 0.880
Nevada 30.50a 23.04 0.000 12.73a 5.34 0.000 36.40a 30.40 0.016 31.95a 24.02 0.001
New Hampshire 26.17a 19.51 0.000 14.03a 6.59 0.000 44.80a 32.79 0.000 24.94a 18.86 0.002
New Jersey 23.42a 17.82 0.000 11.83a 4.80 0.000 40.67a 25.77 0.000 22.46a 18.16 0.026
New Mexico 24.05 22.01 0.236 12.34a 5.69 0.000 38.45b 34.11 0.097 23.19 21.98 0.586
New York 25.46a 19.75 0.000 11.81a 4.34 0.000 40.17a 26.25 0.000 24.76a 20.34 0.001
North Carolina 29.69a 21.49 0.000 14.78a 5.54 0.000 45.89a 28.83 0.000 28.95a 22.21 0.001
North Dakota 27.53b 24.50 0.058 17.53a 7.50 0.000 42.78a 34.35 0.001 25.71 24.23 0.471
Ohio 30.48a 25.93 0.000 14.52a 6.43 0.000 46.03a 33.42 0.000 30.00a 27.09 0.029
Oklahoma 30.28 27.60 0.126 14.96a 7.34 0.000 44.71a 36.94 0.004 29.67 28.54 0.613
Oregon 24.96a 19.72 0.001 11.29a 6.12 0.000 41.49a 28.29 0.000 23.94a 19.87 0.036
Pennsylvania 27.68a 22.53 0.000 14.73a 6.59 0.000 44.78a 32.72 0.000 26.59a 22.64 0.002
Rhode Island 27.35a 20.10 0.000 13.72a 4.72 0.000 47.60a 28.01 0.000 25.34a 20.29 0.015
South Carolina 26.85b 24.06 0.096 12.21a 5.28 0.000 42.88a 32.30 0.000 25.97 24.86 0.603
South Dakota 30.31a 22.92 0.000 19.79a 7.30 0.000 51.76a 32.45 0.000 27.70a 23.19 0.039
Tennessee 28.03a 22.82 0.001 14.33a 6.50 0.000 38.83a 32.73 0.024 27.95a 23.14 0.017
Texas 25.56a 20.24 0.000 11.65a 4.29 0.000 39.18a 28.63 0.000 25.09a 20.98 0.001
Utah 16.74 15.52 0.434 6.57 4.60 0.108 24.61 20.80 0.132 16.36 16.25 0.959
Vermont 25.43a 21.23 0.008 14.84a 7.03 0.000 47.57a 32.51 0.000 23.03 20.75 0.256
Virginia 25.18 22.57 0.103 14.17a 4.99 0.000 43.38a 30.41 0.000 23.69 23.31 0.850
Washington 23.41a 19.86 0.020 10.84a 5.57 0.000 42.23a 27.93 0.000 21.93 20.21 0.370
West Virginia 29.52 30.57 0.570 17.34a 8.10 0.000 47.96a 40.36 0.005 27.94 31.39 0.133
Wisconsin 25.75a 22.31 0.042 15.32a 7.09 0.000 45.48a 31.34 0.000 23.67 22.63 0.627
Wyoming 26.81 24.58 0.184 12.78a 8.64 0.005 44.46a 33.54 0.000 25.50 24.94 0.789
151111
Table 15 – Perceptions of Great Risk from Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 71.27 71.06 0.508 63.67a 65.28 0.000 65.46a 66.43 0.028 73.33b 72.55 0.051
Northeast 72.37 73.25 0.133 64.05a 66.02 0.017 66.33a 68.15 0.031 74.39 74.90 0.475
Midwest 69.07a 67.70 0.006 63.13 64.16 0.148 62.39 62.77 0.602 71.10a 68.97 0.001
South 70.12 70.30 0.711 62.02a 65.63 0.000 64.11a 66.22 0.002 72.28 71.57 0.239
West 74.38 73.65 0.234 66.41 65.22 0.188 69.92 68.74 0.167 76.35 75.58 0.313
Alabama 68.32 67.33 0.600 62.18 62.76 0.821 62.28 62.46 0.941 70.21 68.71 0.521
Alaska 70.30b 66.89 0.052 66.56a 57.60 0.001 65.46b 60.75 0.066 71.83 69.32 0.259
Arizona 72.74 70.22 0.164 64.39 60.65 0.162 70.87 67.30 0.141 74.29 71.96 0.310
Arkansas 67.91 65.32 0.138 61.55 60.06 0.581 60.58 63.04 0.324 70.08b 66.37 0.089
California 76.82 76.08 0.425 67.07 66.67 0.780 72.52 71.23 0.333 79.05 78.16 0.451
Colorado 70.29 72.75 0.155 63.77 63.62 0.954 61.30a 66.63 0.036 72.75 74.88 0.321
Connecticut 72.67 75.00 0.150 64.74 67.84 0.229 67.32 69.80 0.291 74.49 76.69 0.266
Delaware 71.47 72.34 0.605 63.20 64.81 0.520 64.70a 69.76 0.037 73.70 73.60 0.962
District of Columbia 74.89 75.39 0.768 61.87 58.12 0.171 74.31 72.60 0.478 76.17 77.20 0.621
Florida 72.89 74.51 0.116 63.06a 71.65 0.000 69.14 70.70 0.247 74.62 75.37 0.555
Georgia 71.86 72.61 0.635 64.49 66.67 0.367 67.39 68.34 0.675 73.73 74.16 0.832
Hawaii 71.12 72.29 0.532 65.39 63.10 0.398 68.38 69.02 0.803 72.33 73.79 0.528
Idaho 72.24b 69.10 0.062 65.57 63.86 0.494 68.57 64.93 0.121 74.08 70.56 0.104
Illinois 69.57 70.01 0.677 64.55 64.44 0.947 63.86 63.93 0.964 71.28 71.72 0.737
Indiana 69.12 68.83 0.865 64.18 64.06 0.960 63.69 64.51 0.735 70.82 70.21 0.778
Iowa 65.85 67.29 0.429 61.99 65.36 0.211 60.18 62.77 0.313 67.44 68.33 0.696
Kansas 70.61b 67.72 0.081 60.16 62.36 0.422 63.55 62.26 0.596 73.52a 69.42 0.049
Kentucky 62.46 62.49 0.984 58.90 60.99 0.428 53.67 57.05 0.208 64.43 63.58 0.726
Louisiana 67.74 69.46 0.305 59.33 63.36 0.138 63.25 65.08 0.423 69.92 71.02 0.606
Maine 69.25 68.19 0.563 64.49 64.39 0.970 61.95 64.27 0.342 70.94 69.12 0.412
Maryland 71.76 73.41 0.349 65.27 67.82 0.330 63.95 67.55 0.153 73.89 75.02 0.600
Massachusetts 75.55 72.98 0.125 67.22 66.45 0.756 70.84 68.34 0.298 77.31 74.51 0.177
Michigan 70.89a 67.20 0.000 64.02 63.52 0.737 64.00 61.79 0.144 73.07a 68.59 0.001
Minnesota 69.68 69.36 0.845 63.18 63.59 0.871 60.26 64.41 0.107 72.32 70.85 0.486
Mississippi 68.63 66.26 0.193 59.22 58.38 0.742 62.94 61.51 0.580 71.20 68.17 0.194
Missouri 68.02a 64.03 0.024 61.78 59.81 0.433 61.37 58.86 0.338 70.06a 65.41 0.034
Montana 71.38 70.11 0.468 64.76 64.91 0.952 66.77b 62.54 0.097 73.14 71.93 0.581
Nebraska 69.62a 65.42 0.020 63.18 65.04 0.475 63.58 61.21 0.345 71.72a 66.22 0.017
Nevada 69.57 70.07 0.783 64.24 61.85 0.382 62.56 65.86 0.201 71.38 71.73 0.874
New Hampshire 68.63a 72.66 0.028 59.52a 67.15 0.003 61.12a 66.25 0.031 71.05 74.27 0.157
New Jersey 75.17 75.37 0.901 64.03 66.60 0.283 66.84 70.47 0.112 77.79 77.15 0.745
New Mexico 73.04 70.24 0.121 61.12 59.12 0.476 67.82b 63.48 0.094 75.88 72.82 0.181
New York 72.81a 75.07 0.027 64.32b 67.15 0.055 67.84b 70.41 0.074 74.71 76.75 0.106
North Carolina 68.08 69.68 0.355 60.76b 65.18 0.090 59.40b 64.13 0.063 70.51 71.15 0.765
North Dakota 66.97 64.31 0.138 61.29 62.12 0.745 62.84 61.18 0.502 68.62 65.25 0.141
Ohio 67.60b 65.74 0.094 61.92b 64.68 0.084 59.92 61.88 0.178 69.71a 66.50 0.021
Oklahoma 66.52 66.23 0.877 60.58 62.35 0.505 58.78b 63.49 0.064 68.86 67.22 0.488
Oregon 72.21 70.41 0.299 68.14 64.16 0.117 69.69b 65.68 0.087 73.18 71.83 0.530
Pennsylvania 68.77 69.22 0.673 62.31 63.03 0.632 61.54 62.86 0.393 70.77 70.94 0.897
Rhode Island 73.34 74.02 0.691 65.01 66.58 0.549 72.97 70.85 0.375 74.43 75.43 0.643
South Carolina 69.38a 65.46 0.026 62.27 64.45 0.392 61.91 62.53 0.805 71.66a 66.06 0.011
South Dakota 65.09 66.24 0.527 60.68a 66.46 0.028 56.27a 62.89 0.014 67.49 66.80 0.761
Tennessee 66.84 67.05 0.900 62.38 63.30 0.724 60.70 63.20 0.358 68.44 68.13 0.884
Texas 71.88 71.02 0.369 61.14a 65.28 0.005 66.08 68.27 0.124 74.73b 72.36 0.054
Utah 75.00 73.70 0.421 71.49 71.18 0.898 72.28 70.58 0.472 76.47 74.85 0.456
Vermont 70.15 72.19 0.238 63.59 66.91 0.185 62.72 65.84 0.215 72.30 73.84 0.471
Virginia 70.95 71.19 0.893 64.05 67.12 0.208 66.03 65.18 0.729 72.67 72.67 0.999
Washington 70.63 71.57 0.573 66.48 65.38 0.673 64.26 63.62 0.794 72.29 73.58 0.531
West Virginia 67.26b 63.79 0.059 59.35 62.11 0.285 58.54 59.30 0.768 69.58a 64.65 0.030
Wisconsin 69.71 69.88 0.923 63.58a 68.75 0.037 63.81 65.20 0.579 71.63 70.79 0.706
Wyoming 68.09 67.01 0.546 64.05 61.32 0.278 61.46 61.30 0.952 69.95 68.66 0.572
151111
Table 16 – Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 7.59a 6.50 0.000 5.88a 2.76 0.000 17.43a 12.64 0.000 6.12 5.91 0.270
Northeast 7.24a 6.64 0.049 5.73a 2.88 0.000 17.46a 13.12 0.000 5.81 5.99 0.624
Midwest 8.48a 6.59 0.000 6.49a 2.70 0.000 19.88a 13.56 0.000 6.72a 5.88 0.008
South 7.11a 6.20 0.000 5.45a 2.65 0.000 16.39a 11.63 0.000 5.73 5.71 0.946
West 7.76a 6.80 0.002 6.04a 2.91 0.000 16.58a 13.03 0.000 6.40 6.18 0.564
Alabama 6.08 5.76 0.648 4.83a 2.84 0.007 13.65a 10.73 0.050 4.91 5.27 0.665
Alaska 8.63a 6.72 0.025 6.15a 2.12 0.000 18.79a 12.66 0.001 7.37 6.22 0.284
Arizona 9.29b 7.60 0.065 7.38a 3.37 0.000 19.36a 13.03 0.001 7.75 7.20 0.620
Arkansas 7.57a 5.23 0.001 6.15a 2.63 0.000 17.59a 10.23 0.000 5.98 4.71 0.146
California 7.22 6.65 0.233 5.51a 2.75 0.000 14.83b 13.01 0.087 6.07 5.98 0.876
Colorado 9.20a 7.50 0.049 6.71a 3.35 0.000 20.66a 14.13 0.001 7.54 6.88 0.527
Connecticut 6.90 6.76 0.862 5.39a 2.71 0.001 18.87a 14.15 0.015 5.36 6.06 0.466
Delaware 7.65b 6.18 0.051 5.76a 2.53 0.000 18.17a 14.10 0.024 6.08 5.27 0.368
District of Columbia 9.20 9.78 0.585 3.00 2.51 0.448 16.26 14.90 0.466 8.37 9.19 0.518
Florida 6.86b 6.01 0.086 5.40a 2.79 0.000 16.89a 10.80 0.000 5.60 5.64 0.951
Georgia 7.37 6.17 0.107 4.78a 2.33 0.000 14.90a 11.80 0.048 6.37 5.69 0.456
Hawaii 7.52 6.79 0.404 6.42a 2.49 0.000 18.14a 12.75 0.005 5.97 6.32 0.730
Idaho 8.45a 6.67 0.030 7.79a 3.45 0.000 18.37a 12.46 0.001 6.51 6.13 0.700
Illinois 8.74a 6.16 0.000 6.08a 2.25 0.000 19.49a 13.15 0.000 7.21a 5.47 0.010
Indiana 7.90 6.69 0.101 6.21a 3.04 0.000 19.19a 13.27 0.001 6.06 6.00 0.946
Iowa 8.25a 6.22 0.010 7.56a 2.62 0.000 19.67a 13.81 0.002 6.18 5.31 0.345
Kansas 7.14 7.41 0.740 5.12a 2.87 0.004 18.49a 13.78 0.006 5.24b 6.86 0.097
Kentucky 6.16 5.54 0.371 5.26a 2.42 0.000 14.67b 11.82 0.088 4.80 4.86 0.936
Louisiana 7.95a 6.03 0.012 5.97a 2.62 0.000 17.56a 10.13 0.000 6.33 5.73 0.526
Maine 7.31a 5.71 0.033 5.59a 2.74 0.000 18.26a 13.39 0.007 5.88 4.94 0.281
Maryland 7.55 6.66 0.268 5.37a 2.68 0.001 15.98a 11.92 0.015 6.52 6.27 0.803
Massachusetts 8.60a 6.66 0.024 7.35a 3.02 0.000 18.47a 14.37 0.035 7.18 5.71 0.144
Michigan 8.46a 6.11 0.000 6.42a 2.44 0.000 18.29a 12.77 0.000 7.05a 5.41 0.012
Minnesota 9.01a 6.31 0.001 7.24a 2.38 0.000 20.99a 13.54 0.000 7.08 5.62 0.140
Mississippi 6.46 5.79 0.376 3.78a 2.27 0.013 13.96a 10.15 0.014 5.35 5.46 0.902
Missouri 7.89a 6.37 0.037 6.34a 2.68 0.000 19.76a 13.02 0.000 6.01 5.70 0.718
Montana 10.70a 7.65 0.002 11.21a 3.50 0.000 23.39a 15.72 0.000 8.36 6.77 0.188
Nebraska 10.18a 7.52 0.003 8.94a 2.79 0.000 25.16a 15.82 0.000 7.47 6.64 0.443
Nevada 8.01 6.78 0.134 6.93a 3.10 0.000 16.19a 12.52 0.033 6.88 6.33 0.581
New Hampshire 9.09 7.60 0.103 7.54a 3.64 0.000 23.21a 17.17 0.003 7.10 6.54 0.604
New Jersey 6.30 6.48 0.794 5.16a 3.28 0.019 16.62a 11.92 0.004 4.97 6.04 0.223
New Mexico 10.01a 6.91 0.001 7.73a 2.64 0.000 22.68a 13.06 0.000 8.01 6.38 0.165
New York 7.15 6.61 0.308 5.59a 2.74 0.000 15.84a 11.92 0.000 5.90 6.12 0.736
North Carolina 6.75 6.13 0.396 5.66a 2.53 0.000 16.54a 12.20 0.009 5.25 5.56 0.719
North Dakota 10.83a 7.76 0.001 10.33a 3.54 0.000 27.11a 14.69 0.000 7.49 6.69 0.465
Ohio 7.90a 6.66 0.020 5.80a 2.74 0.000 18.54a 12.98 0.000 6.36 6.10 0.688
Oklahoma 6.92 6.37 0.489 5.68a 2.12 0.000 17.03a 11.24 0.001 5.15 6.05 0.339
Oregon 7.37 6.97 0.597 5.84a 3.36 0.002 17.83a 13.54 0.012 5.79 6.34 0.543
Pennsylvania 6.93 6.63 0.557 5.34a 2.66 0.000 18.08a 14.00 0.000 5.33 5.87 0.372
Rhode Island 10.10a 7.70 0.010 6.62a 2.86 0.000 25.59a 16.39 0.000 7.70 6.59 0.311
South Carolina 7.88a 5.90 0.011 4.83a 2.56 0.001 19.48a 10.58 0.000 6.23 5.50 0.433
South Dakota 10.79a 7.65 0.001 9.77a 3.01 0.000 26.15a 15.46 0.000 7.93 6.85 0.325
Tennessee 5.97 5.38 0.385 4.77a 2.49 0.001 14.83b 11.50 0.058 4.63 4.72 0.907
Texas 7.62a 6.50 0.012 5.84a 2.82 0.000 16.78a 11.60 0.000 6.10 6.08 0.981
Utah 6.87a 5.44 0.039 4.72a 2.47 0.002 12.98 11.33 0.307 5.50 4.61 0.319
Vermont 7.77 7.18 0.466 6.45a 3.65 0.003 19.28a 14.89 0.023 5.96 6.20 0.804
Virginia 7.33 7.07 0.751 6.18a 2.77 0.000 17.60 15.12 0.179 5.81 6.22 0.673
Washington 7.47 6.56 0.235 5.83a 2.92 0.000 18.24a 12.73 0.001 5.85 5.99 0.878
West Virginia 6.52 6.34 0.808 6.32a 3.45 0.001 16.12a 11.97 0.012 4.99 5.78 0.365
Wisconsin 9.53a 7.79 0.049 7.19a 3.86 0.001 23.30a 16.51 0.001 7.39 6.81 0.587
Wyoming 9.23a 7.54 0.047 7.54a 3.51 0.000 23.24a 14.34 0.000 6.81 6.85 0.969
151111
Table 17 – Alcohol Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 3.34a 3.04 0.006 2.09a 1.01 0.000 6.87a 5.61 0.000 2.90 2.86 0.756
Northeast 3.35b 3.01 0.072 2.13a 1.02 0.000 6.80a 5.43 0.001 2.95 2.83 0.611
Midwest 3.51a 3.06 0.003 2.19a 1.03 0.000 7.70a 5.83 0.000 2.94 2.84 0.594
South 3.14 2.92 0.145 1.94a 0.96 0.000 6.42a 5.16 0.000 2.73 2.78 0.780
West 3.48 3.25 0.267 2.19a 1.05 0.000 6.77 6.24 0.211 3.06 3.00 0.803
Alabama 2.76 2.99 0.579 1.67b 0.98 0.056 5.54 4.74 0.385 2.41 2.94 0.325
Alaska 3.75 3.21 0.268 2.33a 0.77 0.000 7.09 6.19 0.460 3.45 2.98 0.439
Arizona 3.91 3.44 0.391 3.20a 1.11 0.000 7.94b 5.68 0.064 3.29 3.35 0.929
Arkansas 3.29 2.73 0.199 2.34a 0.96 0.001 6.90b 5.03 0.070 2.77 2.57 0.692
California 3.40 3.32 0.801 1.87a 1.03 0.004 6.11 6.69 0.379 3.13 2.99 0.732
Colorado 3.73 3.22 0.264 2.51a 1.15 0.003 7.74b 5.64 0.053 3.20 3.06 0.809
Connecticut 2.96 2.92 0.925 1.88a 0.94 0.020 6.60 5.94 0.571 2.57 2.67 0.863
Delaware 3.43 2.79 0.150 1.93a 0.85 0.003 7.50a 5.19 0.045 2.93 2.61 0.552
District of Columbia 4.81 4.35 0.507 1.44 0.87 0.154 6.76 6.39 0.791 4.73 4.15 0.493
Florida 2.91 2.77 0.652 1.79a 0.93 0.002 6.45a 4.57 0.003 2.54 2.69 0.677
Georgia 3.19 3.09 0.813 1.65b 0.95 0.052 5.26 5.88 0.518 3.04 2.88 0.781
Hawaii 3.52 3.47 0.927 2.87a 0.84 0.000 7.21 6.69 0.701 3.02 3.25 0.749
Idaho 3.66 3.15 0.270 2.83a 1.15 0.001 7.23 5.69 0.167 3.06 3.00 0.915
Illinois 3.73a 2.96 0.015 2.25a 0.94 0.000 7.59a 6.02 0.026 3.25 2.70 0.168
Indiana 3.17 3.26 0.836 2.19a 1.20 0.026 7.47 6.25 0.286 2.52 2.99 0.343
Iowa 3.15 2.86 0.480 2.71a 1.08 0.001 6.94 5.49 0.171 2.49 2.61 0.809
Kansas 2.88 3.34 0.304 1.81b 1.08 0.068 6.81 5.65 0.249 2.28b 3.21 0.092
Kentucky 2.81 2.56 0.557 1.92a 0.95 0.010 5.98 4.64 0.174 2.37 2.40 0.948
Louisiana 3.87 3.17 0.165 2.67a 0.84 0.000 7.50b 5.55 0.079 3.32 3.03 0.650
Maine 3.33 2.67 0.134 2.36a 1.03 0.004 8.12a 4.69 0.002 2.73 2.55 0.734
Maryland 3.63 3.05 0.232 1.94a 0.85 0.002 6.20 5.16 0.298 3.46 2.97 0.418
Massachusetts 3.95a 2.80 0.019 2.89a 0.96 0.000 7.45b 5.29 0.053 3.52 2.56 0.114
Michigan 3.80a 3.03 0.022 2.26a 0.96 0.000 7.73a 6.02 0.021 3.34 2.77 0.175
Minnesota 3.56a 2.68 0.047 2.57a 0.90 0.000 7.62a 5.11 0.022 2.97 2.50 0.384
Mississippi 3.11 3.06 0.908 1.37 0.90 0.170 5.05 5.37 0.757 2.98 2.92 0.918
Missouri 3.17 2.81 0.376 1.87a 0.98 0.019 7.60a 5.21 0.027 2.57 2.63 0.909
Montana 4.43b 3.48 0.089 4.75a 1.17 0.000 9.64a 6.76 0.026 3.46 3.19 0.699
Nebraska 3.85 3.45 0.400 2.85a 1.03 0.000 7.99 6.92 0.380 3.20 3.14 0.917
Nevada 3.44 3.25 0.682 2.23a 1.06 0.005 6.84 6.08 0.502 3.07 3.07 0.998
New Hampshire 3.48 3.51 0.950 2.32a 1.17 0.010 7.69 7.01 0.569 2.98 3.22 0.691
New Jersey 2.97 2.80 0.697 1.81a 1.00 0.033 6.57b 4.79 0.081 2.61 2.71 0.850
New Mexico 4.05 3.41 0.249 2.72a 1.08 0.001 9.90a 5.88 0.003 3.17 3.28 0.869
New York 3.60 3.28 0.336 2.17a 1.06 0.000 6.48 5.58 0.203 3.30 3.12 0.671
North Carolina 3.05 2.90 0.716 1.93a 0.89 0.007 6.13 4.88 0.179 2.69 2.81 0.813
North Dakota 3.75 3.56 0.701 3.25a 1.35 0.001 8.42 6.86 0.215 2.84 3.08 0.687
Ohio 3.39 3.11 0.405 1.72a 0.98 0.004 7.87a 5.04 0.000 2.85 3.06 0.626
Oklahoma 2.86 2.85 0.989 2.02a 0.83 0.001 6.61a 4.58 0.039 2.26 2.81 0.317
Oregon 3.31 3.21 0.806 2.13a 1.14 0.018 7.26 6.01 0.256 2.80 2.99 0.725
Pennsylvania 2.90 2.79 0.711 1.89a 0.98 0.001 6.56b 5.25 0.057 2.44 2.60 0.677
Rhode Island 4.39 3.64 0.175 2.41a 1.09 0.005 10.70a 6.89 0.007 3.49 3.30 0.789
South Carolina 3.64 2.95 0.141 1.76a 0.84 0.010 7.93a 5.33 0.020 3.13 2.79 0.555
South Dakota 4.50b 3.42 0.056 3.86a 1.13 0.000 8.72 6.91 0.169 3.77 3.10 0.323
Tennessee 2.71 2.51 0.604 1.71a 0.92 0.043 5.87 4.76 0.282 2.31 2.33 0.973
Texas 3.11 2.92 0.499 1.93a 1.08 0.003 6.69a 5.11 0.014 2.60 2.78 0.610
Utah 3.14 2.70 0.300 1.77a 1.01 0.048 5.61 4.95 0.498 2.67 2.48 0.721
Vermont 3.25 3.39 0.765 2.90a 1.23 0.001 7.10 6.15 0.425 2.64 3.14 0.388
Virginia 3.48 3.28 0.651 2.60a 0.94 0.000 7.38 6.66 0.519 2.96 2.98 0.975
Washington 3.16 2.84 0.426 2.19a 1.07 0.009 7.44b 5.34 0.051 2.56 2.64 0.874
West Virginia 2.74 3.06 0.466 2.30a 1.22 0.022 6.01 5.27 0.477 2.26 2.91 0.210
Wisconsin 3.64 3.37 0.559 2.27a 1.30 0.038 8.56 7.12 0.236 2.95 3.00 0.935
Wyoming 3.57 3.60 0.940 2.40a 1.31 0.028 8.17 7.02 0.411 2.87 3.29 0.472
151111
Table 18 – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 2.95a 2.64 0.001 5.35a 3.50 0.000 8.02a 7.00 0.000 1.74 1.79 0.594
Northeast 2.97 2.80 0.231 5.45a 3.26 0.000 8.99a 7.58 0.002 1.70 1.95 0.133
Midwest 2.84a 2.55 0.014 5.47a 3.23 0.000 7.69a 6.91 0.024 1.60 1.72 0.400
South 2.92a 2.53 0.001 5.22a 3.43 0.000 7.53a 6.55 0.003 1.80 1.74 0.625
West 3.09b 2.78 0.057 5.36a 4.04 0.000 8.36a 7.32 0.033 1.79 1.82 0.887
Alabama 2.68 2.64 0.904 4.67a 2.86 0.011 6.53 6.07 0.653 1.73 2.03 0.439
Alaska 3.13 3.21 0.839 6.31a 3.39 0.001 8.57 8.73 0.902 1.62 2.13 0.199
Arizona 3.35 3.21 0.723 6.83a 4.50 0.024 8.15 7.49 0.595 1.98 2.30 0.474
Arkansas 2.96b 2.39 0.056 5.13a 3.52 0.036 7.94b 5.91 0.070 1.77 1.65 0.708
California 3.01 2.74 0.254 4.93 4.06 0.106 7.82 7.52 0.694 1.84 1.70 0.598
Colorado 3.23 2.91 0.323 5.02 4.42 0.504 10.20b 7.83 0.070 1.78 1.90 0.735
Connecticut 2.88 2.88 0.991 5.41a 3.29 0.007 9.20 9.13 0.961 1.62 1.83 0.572
Delaware 3.03 3.44 0.298 5.26a 3.38 0.026 8.03 9.47 0.272 1.89 2.45 0.195
District of Columbia 3.96 3.53 0.406 4.30 4.18 0.890 8.72 7.75 0.470 2.99 2.58 0.494
Florida 3.12a 2.45 0.006 5.77a 4.19 0.006 8.41a 6.88 0.045 2.04 1.61 0.123
Georgia 2.88 2.91 0.927 4.93a 3.29 0.019 6.35 7.19 0.442 1.95 2.10 0.711
Hawaii 2.75 2.32 0.233 5.77a 3.03 0.001 8.13 6.59 0.246 1.48 1.58 0.798
Idaho 2.93a 2.38 0.046 6.02a 3.70 0.004 7.66b 5.74 0.069 1.46 1.61 0.631
Illinois 2.81 2.49 0.130 5.36a 3.41 0.000 7.69 6.99 0.333 1.59 1.62 0.897
Indiana 2.84 2.84 0.981 4.68a 3.01 0.016 7.88 8.25 0.759 1.64 1.86 0.545
Iowa 2.52 2.17 0.238 4.81a 2.94 0.011 6.61 6.24 0.735 1.44 1.36 0.805
Kansas 2.52 2.35 0.573 4.35 3.44 0.239 6.66 5.88 0.432 1.44 1.57 0.714
Kentucky 2.80 2.65 0.632 5.24a 2.87 0.001 7.41 6.63 0.496 1.69 1.96 0.451
Louisiana 3.34 2.95 0.308 5.07b 3.61 0.064 7.63 6.85 0.497 2.21 2.17 0.924
Maine 2.94 2.62 0.321 5.66a 3.16 0.002 9.78 8.04 0.180 1.57 1.82 0.477
Maryland 3.02 2.81 0.523 5.22b 3.79 0.083 9.15 8.22 0.485 1.75 1.82 0.862
Massachusetts 3.63 3.02 0.104 6.44a 3.60 0.002 11.41a 8.34 0.035 2.05 2.02 0.939
Michigan 2.99a 2.46 0.030 6.16a 3.27 0.000 7.52a 6.00 0.030 1.75 1.74 0.986
Minnesota 2.75 2.37 0.201 5.73a 2.93 0.000 7.45 6.60 0.451 1.48 1.61 0.696
Mississippi 2.85 2.68 0.612 4.23 3.13 0.112 6.79 6.38 0.712 1.84 1.94 0.811
Missouri 3.01 2.57 0.159 5.13a 3.05 0.003 8.54 7.63 0.449 1.74 1.66 0.830
Montana 3.19a 2.14 0.001 7.18a 3.16 0.000 8.48b 6.34 0.058 1.69 1.34 0.289
Nebraska 2.84 2.45 0.164 5.92a 3.63 0.004 7.04 6.61 0.688 1.59 1.56 0.915
Nevada 2.98 2.65 0.331 5.98a 3.94 0.020 8.03 6.99 0.372 1.78 1.81 0.943
New Hampshire 3.37b 2.78 0.095 6.95a 4.01 0.002 11.18a 8.22 0.042 1.67 1.79 0.733
New Jersey 2.69 2.37 0.279 5.06a 3.11 0.006 7.82 7.15 0.550 1.65 1.56 0.777
New Mexico 3.81b 3.01 0.074 6.05a 3.99 0.042 11.15a 6.22 0.000 2.09 2.33 0.641
New York 3.03 2.90 0.599 5.28a 3.28 0.000 8.87a 7.08 0.025 1.78 2.14 0.214
North Carolina 2.94 2.81 0.681 5.67a 3.61 0.009 7.39 7.13 0.809 1.83 1.99 0.658
North Dakota 2.79 2.30 0.119 5.89a 2.84 0.000 7.33 5.90 0.198 1.41 1.44 0.909
Ohio 2.93 2.76 0.446 5.61a 3.05 0.000 8.36 7.24 0.141 1.63 1.98 0.201
Oklahoma 2.85 2.35 0.105 5.13a 2.96 0.004 7.89 6.32 0.198 1.56 1.56 0.999
Oregon 3.05 2.95 0.775 5.27 4.44 0.336 9.44 7.75 0.171 1.67 2.04 0.341
Pennsylvania 2.60 2.75 0.527 5.11a 2.99 0.000 7.76 7.58 0.817 1.44b 1.93 0.074
Rhode Island 3.90 3.38 0.219 6.15a 4.04 0.024 12.71a 8.11 0.003 2.02 2.41 0.426
South Carolina 2.85 2.56 0.341 4.67a 3.23 0.043 7.87 6.73 0.295 1.72 1.78 0.863
South Dakota 2.67b 2.20 0.092 5.83a 2.89 0.000 7.10 6.21 0.404 1.32 1.40 0.793
Tennessee 2.80b 2.30 0.087 4.85a 3.27 0.021 7.08 5.90 0.285 1.82 1.58 0.501
Texas 2.73a 2.16 0.011 5.14a 3.34 0.001 6.89a 5.42 0.033 1.53 1.39 0.559
Utah 2.85 2.68 0.583 4.75 3.56 0.122 5.98 6.13 0.880 1.57 1.74 0.623
Vermont 3.63 3.10 0.181 7.86a 3.50 0.000 12.03a 8.87 0.039 1.62 2.06 0.277
Virginia 3.03b 2.50 0.077 5.67a 2.89 0.000 8.55 7.25 0.261 1.79 1.65 0.691
Washington 3.29b 2.72 0.075 6.05a 3.72 0.006 10.50a 7.03 0.007 1.67 1.90 0.490
West Virginia 2.96 2.94 0.965 5.58a 3.16 0.002 9.27 7.50 0.163 1.64 2.23 0.135
Wisconsin 2.71 2.61 0.744 5.86a 3.86 0.017 7.28 6.93 0.757 1.45 1.75 0.374
Wyoming 2.64 2.21 0.134 4.53 3.83 0.366 8.18a 5.76 0.026 1.32 1.41 0.769
151111
Table 19 – Illicit Drug Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 1.91 1.88 0.712 2.97a 1.88 0.000 5.36b 4.98 0.060 1.16a 1.35 0.026
Northeast 1.97 2.09 0.360 3.07a 1.76 0.000 6.12 5.56 0.160 1.17a 1.55 0.012
Midwest 1.86 1.84 0.877 3.07a 1.83 0.000 5.14 4.98 0.578 1.10b 1.31 0.072
South 1.89 1.77 0.240 2.93a 1.88 0.000 5.02b 4.53 0.071 1.20 1.29 0.493
West 1.93 1.92 0.971 2.84a 2.01 0.000 5.54 5.24 0.465 1.13 1.32 0.205
Alabama 1.77 1.92 0.552 2.56b 1.67 0.052 4.65 4.54 0.909 1.15 1.51 0.277
Alaska 2.08 2.19 0.697 3.33a 1.88 0.007 6.00 6.53 0.642 1.18 1.42 0.468
Arizona 1.98 1.88 0.706 3.77a 2.08 0.008 5.88 4.67 0.210 1.02 1.37 0.251
Arkansas 1.95 1.68 0.284 2.97a 1.94 0.050 5.29 4.28 0.272 1.22 1.20 0.965
California 1.88 1.96 0.655 2.62 2.03 0.101 5.22 5.57 0.580 1.15 1.29 0.531
Colorado 2.01 1.93 0.745 2.78 2.19 0.277 6.46 5.46 0.347 1.13 1.30 0.579
Connecticut 1.86 2.22 0.212 2.89a 1.78 0.026 6.08 7.36 0.293 1.11 1.45 0.300
Delaware 1.98a 2.70 0.033 2.87b 1.97 0.076 5.65b 7.97 0.061 1.23b 1.91 0.078
District of Columbia 2.95 2.86 0.849 2.06 2.05 0.979 6.26 5.37 0.404 2.37 2.37 0.999
Florida 2.02 1.74 0.193 3.20a 2.30 0.026 5.83 5.21 0.339 1.34 1.17 0.498
Georgia 1.86 2.01 0.610 2.73b 1.89 0.085 3.89 4.75 0.302 1.37 1.54 0.631
Hawaii 1.70 1.72 0.944 2.87a 1.60 0.022 5.39 4.63 0.472 0.96 1.28 0.329
Idaho 1.79 1.55 0.321 3.18a 1.76 0.006 4.67 3.93 0.377 0.97 1.11 0.613
Illinois 1.89 1.77 0.517 3.26a 1.73 0.000 5.00 4.94 0.918 1.15 1.24 0.673
Indiana 1.85 2.00 0.550 2.80b 1.92 0.077 5.21 5.82 0.512 1.10 1.33 0.419
Iowa 1.61 1.55 0.792 2.53b 1.70 0.085 4.51 4.20 0.711 0.94 1.07 0.621
Kansas 1.67 1.58 0.688 2.66a 1.64 0.035 4.66 3.90 0.366 0.95 1.15 0.454
Kentucky 1.91 1.97 0.824 3.31a 1.67 0.002 4.94 4.75 0.833 1.21 1.55 0.323
Louisiana 2.17 1.89 0.340 2.67b 1.83 0.085 5.07 4.34 0.388 1.51 1.46 0.891
Maine 1.74 1.87 0.617 2.90a 1.86 0.036 6.39 5.96 0.698 0.90 1.30 0.149
Maryland 2.00 2.06 0.823 2.95 2.12 0.126 5.85 5.64 0.839 1.26 1.48 0.523
Massachusetts 2.43 2.13 0.376 3.46a 1.90 0.007 8.33b 5.87 0.053 1.36 1.50 0.710
Michigan 1.93 1.72 0.301 3.34a 1.79 0.000 5.16b 4.08 0.072 1.16 1.31 0.556
Minnesota 1.76 1.68 0.737 3.42a 1.54 0.000 5.02 4.26 0.384 0.94 1.28 0.222
Mississippi 1.84 1.87 0.901 2.49 1.89 0.197 4.25 4.40 0.855 1.25 1.41 0.641
Missouri 1.88 2.01 0.604 2.94b 1.97 0.059 5.55 6.10 0.579 1.08 1.32 0.409
Montana 1.90 1.61 0.262 3.62a 1.81 0.001 5.37 4.47 0.310 1.03 1.12 0.773
Nebraska 1.93 1.73 0.427 3.47a 1.93 0.006 4.68 5.05 0.695 1.17 1.11 0.842
Nevada 1.91 1.86 0.832 3.41a 2.13 0.025 5.52 5.07 0.643 1.15 1.32 0.555
New Hampshire 2.07 1.94 0.632 3.19a 2.01 0.030 7.36 5.77 0.147 1.10 1.34 0.431
New Jersey 1.72 1.75 0.880 2.80a 1.55 0.008 5.52 4.91 0.510 1.04 1.30 0.365
New Mexico 2.11 1.89 0.464 3.12a 1.78 0.018 6.94a 4.14 0.009 1.05 1.52 0.166
New York 2.10 2.25 0.504 3.18a 1.70 0.000 6.03 5.30 0.276 1.31b 1.79 0.084
North Carolina 1.89 1.75 0.579 3.30a 1.80 0.004 4.96 4.33 0.439 1.19 1.32 0.673
North Dakota 1.69 1.64 0.831 3.17a 1.69 0.005 4.35 3.96 0.627 0.92 1.11 0.484
Ohio 1.97 2.09 0.522 2.83a 1.84 0.006 5.76 5.52 0.710 1.19 1.56 0.122
Oklahoma 1.88 1.56 0.192 2.89a 1.59 0.006 5.55 4.03 0.102 1.03 1.11 0.751
Oregon 2.02 2.06 0.893 2.46 2.16 0.553 6.22 5.71 0.635 1.25 1.48 0.482
Pennsylvania 1.68b 2.03 0.061 2.90a 1.84 0.002 5.06 5.54 0.423 0.98a 1.48 0.027
Rhode Island 2.63 2.22 0.262 3.62a 1.99 0.008 8.27a 5.57 0.034 1.48 1.61 0.756
South Carolina 1.75 1.88 0.611 2.55 2.01 0.260 4.37 4.93 0.506 1.17 1.35 0.578
South Dakota 1.66 1.50 0.471 3.01a 1.80 0.019 4.47 4.04 0.591 0.90 1.01 0.652
Tennessee 1.83 1.72 0.656 2.95a 1.85 0.030 4.74 4.18 0.513 1.20 1.30 0.759
Texas 1.71 1.50 0.195 2.85a 1.74 0.002 4.68b 3.70 0.076 0.95 1.06 0.573
Utah 1.77 1.82 0.860 2.62a 1.69 0.050 3.67 4.04 0.648 1.05 1.33 0.366
Vermont 2.16 2.39 0.429 3.62a 2.30 0.033 7.57 7.57 0.998 1.03 1.50 0.131
Virginia 1.99 1.75 0.368 2.99a 1.70 0.007 5.65 4.65 0.269 1.26 1.27 0.977
Washington 2.12 1.88 0.343 3.08a 2.00 0.047 6.90a 4.86 0.037 1.17 1.38 0.461
West Virginia 1.86 2.08 0.427 3.11a 1.87 0.022 6.03 5.69 0.739 1.05 1.56 0.112
Wisconsin 1.73 1.88 0.562 3.08 2.26 0.150 4.78 5.36 0.553 1.00 1.26 0.367
Wyoming 1.71 1.61 0.656 2.67b 1.78 0.071 5.18 4.17 0.260 0.92 1.14 0.395
151111
Table 20 – Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 9.22a 8.16 0.000 8.89a 5.13 0.000 21.37a 16.80 0.000 7.15 7.05 0.643
Northeast 8.88 8.36 0.108 8.91a 4.95 0.000 21.57a 17.68 0.000 6.86 7.20 0.401
Midwest 9.92a 8.23 0.000 9.46a 4.93 0.000 23.37a 17.60 0.000 7.58b 7.04 0.097
South 8.77a 7.81 0.000 8.44a 5.08 0.000 20.21a 15.52 0.000 6.82 6.83 0.970
West 9.52a 8.51 0.002 9.00a 5.51 0.000 21.01a 17.40 0.000 7.49 7.31 0.667
Alabama 7.40 7.33 0.928 7.14a 5.13 0.047 16.46 14.10 0.152 5.83 6.44 0.524
Alaska 10.41 9.23 0.182 9.45a 4.80 0.000 23.91a 19.24 0.024 8.31 7.93 0.733
Arizona 11.04 9.49 0.134 10.62a 6.05 0.001 23.42a 18.02 0.009 8.87 8.45 0.738
Arkansas 9.10a 7.08 0.012 9.02a 5.67 0.004 21.53a 14.53 0.000 6.90 6.00 0.342
California 9.00 8.27 0.138 8.27a 5.43 0.000 19.40b 17.41 0.078 7.21 6.95 0.679
Colorado 10.81 9.47 0.159 9.24a 6.44 0.029 25.03a 18.41 0.001 8.55 8.32 0.841
Connecticut 8.80 8.43 0.669 8.95a 4.67 0.000 22.74b 19.17 0.081 6.76 7.16 0.702
Delaware 9.29 8.35 0.264 8.74a 4.63 0.000 21.46 19.50 0.342 7.26 6.91 0.721
District of Columbia 11.87 12.14 0.817 5.95 5.63 0.756 21.16 19.50 0.451 10.56 11.01 0.746
Florida 8.80b 7.80 0.074 8.85a 5.77 0.000 21.29a 14.81 0.000 7.01 6.98 0.962
Georgia 9.11b 7.68 0.071 7.82a 4.76 0.002 19.07a 15.24 0.033 7.49 6.73 0.435
Hawaii 9.15 8.21 0.309 9.95a 4.97 0.000 23.25a 16.73 0.001 6.79 7.22 0.696
Idaho 9.75b 8.29 0.086 10.91a 5.59 0.000 21.24a 14.66 0.000 7.19 7.57 0.723
Illinois 10.11a 7.64 0.000 9.05a 4.73 0.000 23.32a 17.20 0.000 7.92a 6.40 0.026
Indiana 9.32 8.52 0.334 8.81a 5.09 0.001 23.20a 18.49 0.017 6.84 7.19 0.722
Iowa 9.47a 7.76 0.035 9.51a 4.50 0.000 22.21a 17.37 0.014 7.04 6.45 0.541
Kansas 8.33 8.79 0.579 7.33b 5.25 0.053 20.75b 17.21 0.059 6.07b 7.73 0.098
Kentucky 8.04 7.38 0.398 8.27a 4.28 0.000 18.86 16.14 0.136 6.13 6.30 0.850
Louisiana 9.70b 8.16 0.071 8.67a 5.56 0.004 20.91a 14.81 0.001 7.60 7.30 0.773
Maine 8.81 7.67 0.160 9.07a 4.88 0.000 21.37a 17.69 0.048 6.89 6.56 0.730
Maryland 9.19 8.52 0.462 8.20a 5.61 0.019 20.17 17.75 0.209 7.59 7.37 0.838
Massachusetts 10.71a 8.64 0.023 10.82a 5.13 0.000 24.13a 19.43 0.025 8.55 7.13 0.185
Michigan 10.05a 7.74 0.000 9.80a 4.70 0.000 21.81a 16.36 0.000 8.04a 6.62 0.049
Minnesota 10.57a 7.96 0.004 10.60a 4.17 0.000 24.61a 17.83 0.001 8.02 6.82 0.255
Mississippi 7.91 7.68 0.777 6.29 4.93 0.164 17.46a 14.09 0.049 6.22 6.88 0.501
Missouri 9.58a 7.94 0.048 9.19a 4.87 0.000 23.72a 17.11 0.001 7.14 6.77 0.704
Montana 12.02a 9.16 0.007 15.02a 5.61 0.000 26.55a 19.29 0.000 9.00 7.87 0.378
Nebraska 11.07a 9.17 0.041 11.75a 5.51 0.000 26.52a 19.27 0.000 7.98 7.83 0.891
Nevada 9.75 8.53 0.178 10.26a 5.39 0.000 21.32a 17.21 0.042 7.87 7.55 0.767
New Hampshire 10.90 9.53 0.163 11.69a 6.34 0.000 27.70a 21.15 0.002 8.18 8.06 0.921
New Jersey 7.59 7.74 0.853 8.08a 5.14 0.004 19.65b 16.50 0.088 5.80 6.72 0.346
New Mexico 12.04a 8.74 0.002 11.74a 5.27 0.000 27.35a 16.26 0.000 9.24 7.87 0.304
New York 8.88 8.41 0.402 8.61a 4.90 0.000 20.33a 16.38 0.001 7.02 7.42 0.557
North Carolina 8.31 8.12 0.814 8.30a 5.20 0.003 20.21b 16.87 0.072 6.32 7.01 0.479
North Dakota 11.60a 8.78 0.003 12.97a 5.20 0.000 27.99a 17.34 0.000 7.98 7.27 0.537
Ohio 9.56b 8.55 0.062 8.99a 4.87 0.000 22.42a 17.27 0.000 7.43 7.57 0.831
Oklahoma 8.66 7.59 0.185 8.96a 4.06 0.000 21.08a 15.51 0.004 6.23 6.63 0.681
Oregon 9.25 9.12 0.874 9.35a 6.29 0.008 22.35a 18.43 0.045 7.02 7.97 0.351
Pennsylvania 8.30 8.29 0.990 8.45a 4.66 0.000 21.57a 18.42 0.009 6.14 7.05 0.174
Rhode Island 11.97b 10.01 0.054 9.88a 5.52 0.000 29.42a 20.88 0.000 9.04 8.44 0.620
South Carolina 9.26b 7.65 0.056 7.71a 4.94 0.007 22.59a 14.48 0.000 7.11 6.82 0.777
South Dakota 11.70a 8.82 0.003 12.84a 4.99 0.000 28.81a 19.22 0.000 8.18 7.47 0.537
Tennessee 7.94 6.95 0.201 7.86a 4.67 0.003 19.07a 14.66 0.023 6.08 5.95 0.887
Texas 8.98a 7.69 0.013 8.81a 4.93 0.000 20.09a 14.75 0.000 6.82 6.78 0.945
Utah 7.99 6.98 0.191 6.98a 4.55 0.022 15.73 14.54 0.510 5.90 5.67 0.813
Vermont 9.90 9.39 0.583 11.47a 5.83 0.000 24.33a 18.99 0.009 7.20 8.09 0.421
Virginia 9.09 8.30 0.353 9.40a 4.71 0.000 22.13 18.87 0.103 6.93 6.94 0.992
Washington 9.48 8.27 0.132 9.30a 5.06 0.000 23.41a 17.61 0.003 7.12 7.13 0.990
West Virginia 8.13 8.60 0.593 9.30a 5.65 0.002 20.37a 16.57 0.048 6.02b 7.69 0.099
Wisconsin 10.65 9.46 0.200 10.09a 6.36 0.003 26.38a 20.16 0.004 7.91 8.05 0.895
Wyoming 10.07 8.83 0.158 9.77a 5.79 0.001 25.38a 16.30 0.000 7.21 7.90 0.518
151111
Table 21 – Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for illicit drugs, but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], or mental health centers). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 2.66a 2.35 0.000 5.00a 3.29 0.000 7.45a 6.40 0.000 1.50 1.55 0.640
Northeast 2.63 2.44 0.169 5.10a 3.03 0.000 8.33a 6.64 0.000 1.41b 1.67 0.095
Midwest 2.53a 2.25 0.013 5.09a 3.04 0.000 7.11a 6.32 0.018 1.35 1.46 0.376
South 2.61a 2.28 0.004 4.87a 3.26 0.000 6.96a 6.13 0.009 1.54 1.50 0.782
West 2.90a 2.50 0.009 5.01a 3.74 0.000 7.89a 6.70 0.013 1.67 1.59 0.662
Alabama 2.22 2.42 0.493 4.25a 2.84 0.049 5.94 5.88 0.947 1.28 1.78 0.168
Alaska 3.13 2.78 0.376 5.55a 3.02 0.003 8.08 8.08 0.999 1.83 1.74 0.841
Arizona 3.21 2.86 0.376 6.65a 4.13 0.016 7.80 7.01 0.479 1.88 1.97 0.838
Arkansas 2.67b 2.19 0.098 4.78a 3.24 0.040 7.51 5.92 0.139 1.52 1.43 0.775
California 2.81 2.47 0.129 4.57 3.85 0.158 7.33 6.79 0.455 1.72 1.51 0.426
Colorado 3.04 2.58 0.157 4.72 4.11 0.452 9.68b 7.30 0.067 1.66 1.60 0.877
Connecticut 2.81 2.47 0.335 5.05a 3.13 0.015 8.19 7.63 0.647 1.73 1.56 0.683
Delaware 2.60 2.62 0.962 4.50a 2.96 0.032 6.70 7.42 0.519 1.65 1.78 0.746
District of Columbia 3.02 3.25 0.628 3.80 3.88 0.923 8.13 7.54 0.637 1.94 2.29 0.560
Florida 2.83a 2.21 0.005 5.20a 4.00 0.029 7.76a 6.29 0.042 1.83 1.41 0.109
Georgia 2.55 2.54 0.974 4.79a 3.27 0.030 5.92 6.48 0.558 1.62 1.75 0.729
Hawaii 2.63 2.22 0.306 5.47a 2.82 0.001 7.73 6.38 0.280 1.43 1.51 0.865
Idaho 2.75a 2.10 0.021 5.82a 3.32 0.003 7.21b 5.38 0.063 1.34 1.36 0.954
Illinois 2.48 2.30 0.353 5.01a 3.37 0.002 6.96 6.42 0.445 1.34 1.47 0.565
Indiana 2.52 2.43 0.768 4.14b 2.92 0.088 6.96 7.30 0.762 1.47 1.50 0.942
Iowa 2.36 2.02 0.236 4.18a 2.71 0.032 6.00 5.84 0.873 1.43 1.26 0.611
Kansas 2.20 2.09 0.681 3.88 3.15 0.304 6.29 5.64 0.504 1.16 1.30 0.652
Kentucky 2.56 2.26 0.320 5.02a 2.67 0.001 6.98 5.74 0.213 1.49 1.63 0.695
Louisiana 2.89 2.55 0.325 4.25 3.23 0.170 6.77 6.60 0.868 1.90 1.73 0.705
Maine 2.84b 2.26 0.072 5.35a 2.89 0.002 8.95 7.24 0.154 1.61 1.50 0.780
Maryland 2.68 2.48 0.503 4.96b 3.57 0.082 8.62 7.40 0.311 1.43 1.55 0.739
Massachusetts 3.12 2.71 0.241 6.08a 3.43 0.003 10.41a 7.50 0.027 1.60 1.79 0.643
Michigan 2.60a 2.17 0.038 5.88a 3.06 0.000 7.19a 5.71 0.025 1.33 1.45 0.628
Minnesota 2.57 2.15 0.141 5.46a 2.55 0.000 6.97 6.03 0.366 1.36 1.48 0.740
Mississippi 2.52 2.40 0.721 3.92 3.05 0.228 6.26 5.87 0.701 1.55 1.68 0.726
Missouri 2.78b 2.23 0.067 4.66a 2.82 0.007 8.01 6.87 0.310 1.60 1.38 0.531
Montana 2.90a 1.97 0.001 6.42a 2.79 0.000 8.02b 6.08 0.062 1.49 1.19 0.364
Nebraska 2.64b 2.16 0.087 5.36a 3.35 0.010 6.25 5.93 0.733 1.55 1.33 0.539
Nevada 2.69 2.36 0.302 5.40a 3.52 0.019 7.75 6.54 0.273 1.54 1.56 0.937
New Hampshire 3.01b 2.39 0.061 6.54a 3.57 0.001 10.57a 7.23 0.010 1.35 1.50 0.681
New Jersey 2.27 2.13 0.624 4.64a 2.93 0.015 7.07 6.46 0.553 1.28 1.39 0.726
New Mexico 3.50a 2.55 0.026 5.64a 3.48 0.020 10.19a 5.66 0.001 1.92 1.90 0.965
New York 2.74 2.52 0.351 4.98a 3.03 0.000 8.38a 6.24 0.004 1.52 1.82 0.255
North Carolina 2.62 2.47 0.607 5.21a 3.37 0.014 6.65 6.69 0.965 1.60 1.65 0.898
North Dakota 2.59a 2.04 0.050 5.37a 2.32 0.000 6.90 5.34 0.117 1.31 1.27 0.916
Ohio 2.61 2.36 0.241 5.24a 2.90 0.000 7.76b 6.51 0.085 1.36 1.62 0.307
Oklahoma 2.74a 2.02 0.020 4.91a 2.55 0.001 7.25 5.89 0.203 1.56 1.26 0.428
Oregon 2.88 2.66 0.510 5.07 3.95 0.172 9.17b 7.23 0.099 1.53 1.80 0.480
Pennsylvania 2.24 2.34 0.641 4.80a 2.78 0.000 7.21 6.40 0.258 1.11a 1.63 0.034
Rhode Island 3.18 2.86 0.397 5.54a 3.69 0.040 11.23a 7.18 0.003 1.42 1.96 0.201
South Carolina 2.43 2.24 0.528 4.32b 2.99 0.063 7.31 6.40 0.409 1.31 1.46 0.658
South Dakota 2.37b 1.91 0.085 5.08a 2.44 0.000 6.20 5.70 0.620 1.21 1.18 0.926
Tennessee 2.54 2.14 0.178 4.43b 3.05 0.052 6.71 5.79 0.391 1.59 1.43 0.649
Texas 2.47a 2.05 0.039 4.91a 3.25 0.002 6.39b 5.29 0.090 1.31 1.27 0.884
Utah 2.69 2.42 0.380 4.22 3.37 0.272 5.42 5.76 0.719 1.59 1.49 0.788
Vermont 3.39a 2.66 0.044 7.19a 3.14 0.000 11.52a 8.02 0.012 1.49 1.68 0.633
Virginia 2.69 2.25 0.142 5.51a 2.74 0.000 7.95 6.62 0.217 1.46 1.46 0.991
Washington 3.08a 2.42 0.039 5.76a 3.25 0.001 10.00a 6.42 0.004 1.53 1.68 0.689
West Virginia 2.46 2.65 0.553 5.29a 2.87 0.001 8.37 7.21 0.331 1.18a 1.93 0.038
Wisconsin 2.28 2.31 0.908 5.67a 3.57 0.013 6.84 6.35 0.641 0.99b 1.49 0.081
Wyoming 2.46b 1.94 0.056 4.23 3.08 0.103 7.82a 5.39 0.030 1.19 1.22 0.926
151111
Table 22 – Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2013-2014)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2013-2014)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2013-2014)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2013-2014)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for alcohol, but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], or mental health centers).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2013, and 2014.
Total U.S. 7.19a 6.20 0.000 5.59a 2.62 0.000 16.89a 12.22 0.000 5.73 5.61 0.523
Northeast 6.77b 6.24 0.060 5.54a 2.73 0.000 16.94a 12.45 0.000 5.31 5.60 0.399
Midwest 7.96a 6.32 0.000 6.15a 2.53 0.000 18.96a 12.92 0.000 6.25a 5.66 0.046
South 6.79a 5.98 0.000 5.19a 2.52 0.000 15.99a 11.46 0.000 5.41 5.48 0.802
West 7.41a 6.41 0.000 5.69a 2.80 0.000 16.15a 12.58 0.000 6.06 5.77 0.399
Alabama 5.81 5.58 0.719 4.65a 2.68 0.006 13.20 10.72 0.101 4.65 5.05 0.615
Alaska 7.76b 6.42 0.081 5.37a 2.01 0.000 18.23a 12.88 0.003 6.44 5.80 0.516
Arizona 9.02a 6.96 0.015 7.16a 3.06 0.000 18.75a 12.39 0.000 7.54 6.52 0.330
Arkansas 7.33a 5.15 0.001 6.08a 2.59 0.000 17.14a 10.30 0.000 5.76 4.60 0.150
California 6.95 6.35 0.165 5.05a 2.73 0.000 14.54b 12.73 0.076 5.84 5.64 0.710
Colorado 8.55a 6.94 0.039 6.24a 3.10 0.000 20.00a 13.24 0.000 6.87 6.33 0.572
Connecticut 6.44 6.53 0.906 5.24a 2.68 0.000 18.16a 13.70 0.020 4.90 5.84 0.293
Delaware 7.09b 5.89 0.076 5.50a 2.43 0.000 17.19a 13.69 0.047 5.56 4.98 0.476
District of Columbia 8.88 9.25 0.708 2.48 2.36 0.839 16.09 14.47 0.402 8.03 8.62 0.629
Florida 6.47 5.83 0.179 4.93a 2.72 0.000 16.46a 10.89 0.000 5.22 5.40 0.756
Georgia 7.07b 5.89 0.087 4.68a 2.17 0.000 14.94a 10.94 0.013 5.99 5.49 0.566
Hawaii 7.31 6.37 0.242 6.19a 2.36 0.000 17.85a 13.09 0.016 5.79 5.75 0.969
Idaho 8.18a 6.31 0.009 7.69a 3.20 0.000 18.00a 11.41 0.000 6.23 5.87 0.687
Illinois 8.31a 5.93 0.000 5.84a 2.20 0.000 18.98a 12.44 0.000 6.77a 5.29 0.015
Indiana 7.15 6.38 0.271 5.51a 2.63 0.000 18.15a 12.34 0.001 5.36 5.81 0.598
Iowa 7.64a 5.97 0.017 7.01a 2.46 0.000 18.20a 13.14 0.006 5.72 5.13 0.484
Kansas 6.85 7.05 0.789 4.98a 2.71 0.002 17.70a 13.09 0.008 5.02b 6.52 0.098
Kentucky 5.90 5.48 0.540 5.21a 2.38 0.000 14.15 11.58 0.120 4.55 4.84 0.723
Louisiana 7.34a 5.86 0.037 5.09a 2.31 0.000 16.67a 10.54 0.000 5.81 5.48 0.708
Maine 6.59 5.62 0.150 5.43a 2.57 0.000 17.24a 12.89 0.014 5.15 4.91 0.776
Maryland 7.09 6.26 0.239 5.19a 2.59 0.000 15.17b 11.86 0.052 6.08 5.78 0.732
Massachusetts 7.86a 6.28 0.034 7.15a 2.98 0.000 18.08a 13.68 0.021 6.31 5.35 0.283
Michigan 8.05a 5.94 0.000 6.22a 2.35 0.000 17.31a 12.42 0.000 6.70a 5.26 0.023
Minnesota 8.14a 6.05 0.005 6.55a 2.28 0.000 19.75a 12.98 0.000 6.26 5.38 0.322
Mississippi 6.17 5.67 0.464 3.47a 2.06 0.007 13.69a 9.74 0.008 5.06 5.41 0.692
Missouri 7.63a 6.17 0.034 6.09a 2.45 0.000 19.32a 12.44 0.000 5.78 5.57 0.799
Montana 9.99a 6.94 0.001 10.37a 3.01 0.000 22.55a 14.63 0.000 7.69 6.11 0.163
Nebraska 9.51a 7.19 0.005 8.42a 2.51 0.000 23.20a 14.70 0.000 7.03 6.44 0.567
Nevada 7.83b 6.43 0.070 6.80a 3.05 0.000 15.54b 12.34 0.060 6.75 5.91 0.374
New Hampshire 8.64b 7.25 0.094 7.33a 3.39 0.000 22.30a 16.58 0.005 6.69 6.21 0.633
New Jersey 5.81 6.12 0.643 4.97a 3.23 0.030 15.91a 11.76 0.013 4.48 5.61 0.169
New Mexico 9.40a 6.59 0.002 7.46a 2.49 0.000 21.52a 12.32 0.000 7.45 6.11 0.226
New York 6.77 6.08 0.167 5.36a 2.50 0.000 15.53a 11.26 0.000 5.50 5.59 0.888
North Carolina 6.31 5.83 0.477 5.34a 2.37 0.000 16.04a 11.94 0.014 4.80 5.24 0.601
North Dakota 9.91a 7.40 0.003 9.46a 3.07 0.000 25.71a 15.08 0.000 6.66 6.17 0.632
Ohio 7.47a 6.38 0.032 5.59a 2.59 0.000 17.69a 12.54 0.000 5.97 5.84 0.832
Oklahoma 6.61 5.82 0.241 5.41a 1.96 0.000 16.77a 11.05 0.001 4.83 5.38 0.506
Oregon 6.93 6.49 0.534 5.78a 3.26 0.001 16.86a 12.75 0.015 5.40 5.87 0.584
Pennsylvania 6.54 6.32 0.640 5.20a 2.52 0.000 17.60a 12.96 0.000 4.93 5.66 0.201
Rhode Island 9.01a 7.07 0.021 6.28a 2.74 0.000 23.85a 15.50 0.000 6.65 5.95 0.496
South Carolina 7.38a 5.76 0.030 4.50a 2.37 0.002 18.58a 10.20 0.000 5.78 5.41 0.687
South Dakota 9.59a 6.87 0.001 8.55a 2.51 0.000 24.04a 14.03 0.000 6.92 6.15 0.440
Tennessee 5.70 5.34 0.560 4.62a 2.41 0.001 14.41b 11.58 0.096 4.38 4.66 0.701
Texas 7.43a 6.33 0.014 5.65a 2.70 0.000 16.62a 11.50 0.000 5.91 5.89 0.972
Utah 6.33b 5.17 0.081 4.71a 2.46 0.002 12.89b 9.77 0.051 4.71 4.60 0.897
Vermont 7.30 6.65 0.384 6.43a 3.22 0.000 18.33a 14.01 0.020 5.51 5.73 0.804
Virginia 7.08 6.78 0.676 6.01a 2.58 0.000 17.15 14.55 0.144 5.59 5.97 0.668
Washington 7.00 6.08 0.174 5.70a 2.67 0.000 17.79a 12.55 0.003 5.33 5.42 0.908
West Virginia 6.17 5.86 0.651 6.31a 3.03 0.000 15.53a 11.71 0.023 4.64 5.26 0.447
Wisconsin 8.92b 7.38 0.070 7.00a 3.53 0.000 22.25a 15.48 0.001 6.80 6.50 0.767
Wyoming 8.71b 7.21 0.055 7.13a 3.06 0.000 23.02a 14.03 0.000 6.22 6.52 0.754

Methodology Used to Estimate the Bayes
Significance Level for the Null Hypothesis of
No Change between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014
Population Percentages

To determine whether the differences between the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) state prevalence rates are statistically significant, let pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a denote the 2002-2003 and 2013-2014 prevalence rates, respectively, for state-s and age group-a. The difference between pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a is defined in terms of the log odds ratio (lor sub s and a) as opposed to the simple difference because the posterior distribution of lor sub s and a is closer to Gaussian than the posterior distribution of the simple difference (Pi 2 sub s and a minus pi 1 sub s and a represents the simple difference between the 2013-2014 and 2002-2003 prevalence rates.). The lor sub s and a is defined as

Equation 1,     D


where ln denotes the natural logarithm. The p value given in each of the tables in this document (i.e., Tables 1 to 22) is computed to test the null hypothesis of no change (i.e., Pi 2 sub s and a is equal to pi 1 sub s and a. or equivalently, Log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a, is equal to zero.). An estimate of lor sub s and a is given by

Equation 2,     D


where p 1 sub s and a are the previously published 2002-2003 state estimates1 and p 2 sub s and a are the 2013-2014 state estimates presented in Tables 1 to 22 and elsewhere at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/. To compute the variance of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a that is, variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, let Theta 1 hat equal the ratio of p 1 sub s and a and 1 minus p 1 sub s and a and Theta 2 hat equal the ratio of p 2 sub s and a and 1 minus p 2 sub s and a, then

Equation 3,     D

where the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation 4.     D

Note that the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat used here to calculate the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a are the same variances used in calculating the previously published 2002-2003 Bayesian confidence intervals and the 2013-2014 Bayesian confidence intervals given here, respectively.

The correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat was obtained by simultaneously modeling the pooled 2002-2003 and pooled 2013-2014 NSDUH data. For this simultaneous model, four age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 to 34, and 35 or older) by two time periods (2002-2003 and 2013-2014), that is, eight subpopulation-specific models were fitted, each with its own set of fixed and random effects. In this case, the general covariance matrices for the state and within-state random effects2 were 8 × 8 matrices corresponding to the eight element (age group × time period) vectors of random effects.

To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero.), it is assumed that the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio lor is normal with Mean is equal to the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a. and Variance is equal to the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a.. With the null value of (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero.), the Bayes p value or significance level for the null hypothesis of no difference is The p value is equal to 2 times the probability of realizing a standard normal variate greater than or equal to the absolute value of a quantity z., where capital Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, divided by the square root of the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a., and absolute value of quantity z denotes the absolute value of quantity z. This Bayesian significance level (or p value) for the null value of log-odds ratio lor, say log-odds ratio lor sub zero, is defined following Rubin3 as the posterior probability for the collection of the log-odds ratio lor values that are less likely or have smaller posterior density d of the log-odds ratio lor than the null (no change) value log-odds ratio lor sub zero. That is, The p value of log-odds ratio lor sub zero is equal to the probability of d of the log-odds ratio lor when it is less than or equal to d of the log-odds ratio lor sub zero.. With the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio lor approximately normal, the p value of log-odds ratio lor sub zero is given by the above expression.



End Notes

1 Wright, D., & Sathe, N. (2005). State estimates of substance use from the 2002-2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 05-3989, NSDUH Series H-26). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

2 For the model used to estimate correlations between 2002-2003 and 2013-2014, the respondents from the 2002, 2003, and 2014 samples were assigned to 300 grouped state sampling regions (SSRs) based on the 2013 sample. The 2013 sample used the 2000 census to define the ungrouped SSRs, while the ungrouped SSRs in the 2002 and 2003 samples were based on the 1990 census and the 2014 ungrouped SSRs were based on the 2010 census. Specifically, California, Florida, Illinois, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas each had 16 grouped SSRs (for a total of 128 grouped SSRs), and the rest of the states and the District of Columbia each had 4 grouped SSRs (for a total of 172 grouped SSRs). As a result, 300 common within-state random effects were fitted using all 4 years of NSDUH data.

3 Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys (Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics: Applied Probability and Statistics). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.



Long Descriptions

Long description, Equation 1. The log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is pi 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 2 sub s and a. The denominator of the ratio is pi 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 1 sub s and a.

Long description end. Return to Equation 1.

Long description, Equation 2. The estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is p 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus p 2 sub s and a. The denominator of the ratio is p 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus p 1 sub s and a, where p 1 sub s and a are the 2002-2003 state estimates and p 2 sub s and a are the 2013-2014 state estimates.

Long description end. Return to Equation 2.

Long description, Equation 3. Variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, is a function of three quantities: q1, q2, and q3. It is expressed as the sum of q1 and q2 minus q3. Quantity q1 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat, quantity q2 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat, and quantity q3 is 2 times the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.

Long description end. Return to Equation 3.

Long description, Equation 4. The covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat is equal to the correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat multiplied by the square root of the product of the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.

Long description end. Return to Equation 4.

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