National Survey on Drug Use and Health:
Comparison of 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 Population Percentages
(50 States and the District of Columbia)

150806
Table 1 – Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 10.88a 13.36 0.000 13.37 12.86 0.109 29.31a 32.07 0.000 7.38a 10.25 0.000 10.61a 13.41 0.000
Northeast 11.95a 14.66 0.000 14.22 13.51 0.240 34.64b 36.45 0.063 7.84a 11.22 0.000 11.71a 14.77 0.000
Midwest 10.36a 12.76 0.000 12.84 12.33 0.265 28.53a 32.20 0.000 6.90a 9.51 0.000 10.08a 12.80 0.000
South 9.59a 11.64 0.000 12.06 11.88 0.697 25.38a 29.20 0.000 6.62a 8.67 0.000 9.32a 11.62 0.000
West 12.55a 15.62 0.000 15.26 14.43 0.215 31.83 33.19 0.173 8.69a 12.71 0.000 12.25a 15.75 0.000
Alabama 8.49 9.60 0.141 10.11 9.71 0.762 22.60b 26.13 0.094 5.89 6.81 0.252 8.31 9.59 0.108
Alaska 16.25a 21.92 0.000 15.89 18.44 0.182 35.51b 40.69 0.056 12.67a 18.76 0.000 16.29a 22.31 0.000
Arizona 10.89a 13.12 0.019 14.28 13.45 0.624 29.42 31.15 0.498 7.29a 9.97 0.012 10.50a 13.08 0.011
Arkansas 10.78 11.59 0.361 12.33 12.14 0.900 27.59 27.06 0.824 7.85 8.93 0.265 10.61 11.54 0.330
California 12.91a 15.25 0.000 15.12 14.11 0.326 32.15 32.72 0.698 8.91a 12.25 0.000 12.65a 15.36 0.000
Colorado 15.12a 23.09 0.000 18.55 18.35 0.921 38.59a 45.24 0.015 10.79a 19.91 0.000 14.76a 23.57 0.000
Connecticut 12.56a 15.67 0.003 15.91 15.63 0.878 37.10b 42.10 0.071 8.25a 11.41 0.006 12.20a 15.68 0.002
Delaware 11.82 13.06 0.194 15.53 13.04 0.130 35.92 37.32 0.589 7.35b 9.17 0.084 11.43 13.06 0.108
District of Columbia 14.34a 23.51 0.000 14.59 16.55 0.302 33.16a 43.78 0.000 10.11a 19.71 0.000 14.33a 23.90 0.000
Florida 10.12a 12.59 0.000 12.94 13.49 0.599 26.58a 32.88 0.000 7.38a 9.57 0.003 9.85a 12.51 0.000
Georgia 11.03b 12.67 0.075 12.69 11.68 0.464 26.60 29.38 0.210 8.15b 9.87 0.095 10.84b 12.79 0.051
Hawaii 12.06 12.72 0.567 14.45 13.77 0.718 31.14 27.21 0.144 8.74 10.37 0.210 11.82 12.62 0.516
Idaho 10.66 11.40 0.398 13.44 13.31 0.938 28.30 25.66 0.251 7.15 8.68 0.110 10.32 11.17 0.368
Illinois 10.54a 12.47 0.001 13.33b 11.53 0.085 27.95a 31.96 0.010 7.01a 9.33 0.001 10.22a 12.56 0.000
Indiana 10.28a 13.88 0.000 12.90 13.83 0.558 27.22a 33.55 0.009 7.08a 10.40 0.001 9.99a 13.89 0.000
Iowa 7.68b 9.05 0.068 11.72 9.46 0.118 20.54a 27.32 0.003 4.90 5.73 0.278 7.25a 9.01 0.027
Kansas 9.39a 12.38 0.000 12.12 12.45 0.821 25.63 29.27 0.124 6.00a 9.27 0.000 9.09a 12.37 0.000
Kentucky 8.83a 12.28 0.000 10.91 11.68 0.601 24.66b 28.68 0.086 6.10a 9.62 0.000 8.61a 12.34 0.000
Louisiana 8.52a 11.22 0.001 9.76 10.04 0.834 23.23b 27.56 0.052 5.51a 8.50 0.001 8.37a 11.35 0.001
Maine 13.55a 19.69 0.000 14.20b 17.51 0.068 39.68 41.80 0.441 9.85a 16.91 0.000 13.49a 19.88 0.000
Maryland 10.69a 15.13 0.000 13.73 14.45 0.671 30.32a 39.01 0.002 6.98a 11.41 0.000 10.36a 15.20 0.000
Massachusetts 14.57a 18.26 0.001 16.44 15.91 0.768 40.19 42.21 0.465 9.81a 14.33 0.000 14.39a 18.47 0.001
Michigan 12.20a 15.10 0.000 14.21 14.04 0.879 32.33 33.41 0.499 8.51a 12.08 0.000 11.97a 15.21 0.000
Minnesota 10.37a 12.69 0.011 11.29 11.43 0.925 29.92a 35.56 0.024 6.92a 9.17 0.025 10.27a 12.82 0.009
Mississippi 7.88 8.67 0.282 9.92 9.54 0.777 20.36 21.69 0.522 5.30 6.19 0.254 7.64 8.57 0.231
Missouri 9.73a 13.53 0.000 11.54 12.94 0.344 27.19a 32.67 0.024 6.62a 10.39 0.000 9.53a 13.59 0.000
Montana 12.23a 15.38 0.003 15.50 14.62 0.608 34.96 33.33 0.522 8.04a 12.49 0.000 11.90a 15.45 0.002
Nebraska 9.25b 10.75 0.061 10.87 10.24 0.652 24.63a 30.47 0.014 6.12 7.28 0.173 9.07a 10.81 0.041
Nevada 11.09b 12.95 0.069 16.45b 13.50 0.086 28.98 30.46 0.562 7.74a 10.19 0.035 10.49a 12.89 0.029
New Hampshire 14.87a 17.35 0.044 16.56 16.41 0.935 41.83 41.98 0.957 10.55a 13.57 0.031 14.69a 17.44 0.037
New Jersey 9.19a 11.86 0.001 11.63 12.41 0.582 30.00 32.75 0.234 5.67a 8.66 0.001 8.93a 11.81 0.001
New Mexico 10.95a 14.72 0.000 16.83 15.15 0.353 29.23 31.08 0.470 6.82a 11.87 0.000 10.30a 14.67 0.000
New York 12.82a 15.04 0.001 14.87 13.17 0.111 36.36 35.95 0.801 8.34a 11.68 0.000 12.61a 15.21 0.000
North Carolina 10.46 11.79 0.102 13.41 11.44 0.159 28.35 31.25 0.199 7.20 8.61 0.114 10.14b 11.82 0.054
North Dakota 8.29a 9.90 0.036 9.42 11.79 0.104 23.06 26.65 0.117 4.85 5.90 0.173 8.18b 9.72 0.056
Ohio 10.08a 12.13 0.000 12.97b 11.35 0.095 29.54 32.04 0.115 6.52a 9.00 0.000 9.77a 12.21 0.000
Oklahoma 10.19 11.28 0.230 12.69 11.74 0.558 25.06 27.59 0.304 7.16 8.32 0.238 9.91 11.23 0.172
Oregon 14.41a 19.42 0.000 18.34 17.56 0.676 37.33 39.83 0.339 10.40a 16.47 0.000 14.01a 19.59 0.000
Pennsylvania 10.04a 12.35 0.000 12.87 11.88 0.354 28.78a 32.36 0.028 6.62a 9.21 0.000 9.75a 12.40 0.000
Rhode Island 14.34a 18.81 0.000 16.31 16.28 0.984 39.48 43.84 0.156 9.39a 14.44 0.000 14.14a 19.04 0.000
South Carolina 9.36a 12.56 0.000 11.75 12.02 0.850 25.58a 31.90 0.009 6.40a 9.43 0.002 9.10a 12.61 0.000
South Dakota 8.96a 10.77 0.025 12.05 10.86 0.428 25.67 27.84 0.343 5.55a 7.76 0.010 8.62a 10.76 0.011
Tennessee 9.61b 11.05 0.094 10.52 11.21 0.617 26.28 26.95 0.766 6.95 8.41 0.121 9.52b 11.03 0.096
Texas 8.31a 10.10 0.000 11.24 11.70 0.620 22.03a 25.21 0.020 5.29a 7.07 0.001 7.95a 9.90 0.000
Utah 7.18a 9.07 0.012 9.73 9.00 0.577 17.70b 21.44 0.087 4.13a 6.25 0.007 6.83a 9.09 0.006
Vermont 15.95a 20.50 0.000 16.67 17.04 0.838 45.25 48.30 0.301 11.09a 16.00 0.001 15.88a 20.80 0.000
Virginia 9.75a 11.54 0.024 13.80b 11.42 0.090 27.03 30.07 0.179 6.32a 8.46 0.014 9.33a 11.55 0.009
Washington 12.81a 17.49 0.000 15.24 15.61 0.831 34.11 35.03 0.714 9.08a 14.90 0.000 12.55a 17.68 0.000
West Virginia 9.60b 11.07 0.096 12.05 12.15 0.948 26.63 30.27 0.144 6.88 8.09 0.198 9.37b 10.97 0.085
Wisconsin 10.65 12.05 0.110 13.71 14.04 0.838 31.13 32.24 0.664 6.82b 8.47 0.085 10.33 11.85 0.101
Wyoming 9.88 10.87 0.256 14.19 13.30 0.604 27.24 27.41 0.949 6.27 7.77 0.110 9.43 10.62 0.191
150806
Table 2 – Marijuana Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 6.40a 8.34 0.000 7.03 7.20 0.493 17.42a 19.70 0.000 4.42a 6.55 0.000 6.33a 8.45 0.000
Northeast 7.14a 9.28 0.000 7.94 7.73 0.652 21.45 22.64 0.148 4.63a 7.27 0.000 7.06a 9.43 0.000
Midwest 6.07a 7.92 0.000 7.03 6.80 0.505 16.57a 19.29 0.000 4.14a 6.12 0.000 5.97a 8.03 0.000
South 5.47a 7.02 0.000 6.06 6.49 0.179 15.21a 17.79 0.000 3.76a 5.28 0.000 5.41a 7.08 0.000
West 7.57a 10.08 0.000 7.86 8.31 0.371 18.43a 20.85 0.004 5.56a 8.42 0.000 7.54a 10.26 0.000
Alabama 5.04 5.35 0.563 5.70 5.16 0.561 14.49 14.33 0.925 3.35 3.86 0.373 4.97 5.37 0.482
Alaska 11.52a 14.38 0.016 9.14 10.64 0.322 25.16 25.02 0.957 9.30a 12.83 0.016 11.81a 14.80 0.022
Arizona 6.70a 8.51 0.024 7.28 7.71 0.707 17.08 18.92 0.374 4.86a 6.81 0.033 6.63a 8.59 0.024
Arkansas 6.11 7.17 0.114 6.73 6.46 0.794 16.16 16.93 0.685 4.40b 5.62 0.097 6.04b 7.25 0.095
California 7.67a 9.67 0.000 7.70 8.32 0.419 18.67 20.52 0.128 5.57a 7.90 0.000 7.67a 9.82 0.000
Colorado 9.77a 16.57 0.000 10.17 11.13 0.528 24.18a 31.75 0.003 7.31a 14.65 0.000 9.72a 17.12 0.000
Connecticut 7.26a 9.59 0.004 8.35 8.34 0.995 22.56 24.99 0.325 4.70a 7.25 0.006 7.14a 9.72 0.004
Delaware 6.97 8.05 0.144 7.54 7.42 0.913 22.67 21.19 0.511 4.29a 6.01 0.035 6.91 8.11 0.128
District of Columbia 8.46a 11.93 0.000 7.50 8.85 0.332 19.59a 26.19 0.007 6.07a 9.14 0.007 8.54a 12.10 0.001
Florida 5.80a 7.78 0.000 6.31 6.78 0.515 15.21a 20.74 0.000 4.35a 6.01 0.003 5.75a 7.87 0.000
Georgia 6.06a 7.79 0.007 5.50 6.92 0.137 15.87 18.59 0.121 4.46a 6.00 0.032 6.12a 7.89 0.011
Hawaii 8.46 7.95 0.587 7.72 6.15 0.198 19.15 16.09 0.163 6.84 6.88 0.971 8.54 8.11 0.678
Idaho 5.89 6.34 0.474 7.50 6.51 0.351 14.13 13.69 0.801 4.21 5.06 0.229 5.69 6.32 0.357
Illinois 5.91a 7.91 0.000 7.29 6.55 0.330 16.23a 19.63 0.009 3.86a 6.13 0.000 5.76a 8.06 0.000
Indiana 6.08a 8.72 0.000 7.24 8.08 0.466 16.48a 20.71 0.038 4.17a 6.67 0.002 5.95a 8.79 0.000
Iowa 4.48 4.78 0.577 6.88 5.30 0.132 11.62 12.67 0.532 2.92 3.30 0.483 4.23 4.72 0.378
Kansas 5.02a 7.28 0.000 5.97 6.43 0.654 13.04 15.73 0.128 3.40a 5.85 0.001 4.91a 7.38 0.000
Kentucky 4.81a 7.06 0.000 5.27 6.36 0.269 14.25 16.72 0.174 3.27a 5.54 0.001 4.76a 7.13 0.000
Louisiana 5.14b 6.32 0.051 4.82 5.33 0.578 15.19 16.22 0.571 3.26a 4.71 0.027 5.18b 6.43 0.054
Maine 9.81a 13.66 0.001 8.43 10.01 0.259 26.13 29.72 0.159 7.69a 11.84 0.001 9.94a 13.98 0.001
Maryland 5.66a 9.62 0.000 7.01b 9.20 0.089 17.03a 24.87 0.001 3.56a 7.24 0.000 5.51a 9.66 0.000
Massachusetts 8.74a 11.68 0.001 9.09 9.22 0.915 24.84 27.39 0.302 5.84a 9.21 0.001 8.70a 11.91 0.001
Michigan 7.52a 10.08 0.000 7.88 8.06 0.827 18.99a 22.78 0.004 5.52a 8.14 0.000 7.48a 10.29 0.000
Minnesota 5.98a 7.60 0.023 5.58 6.21 0.526 17.10 19.30 0.268 4.13a 5.88 0.028 6.02a 7.74 0.024
Mississippi 4.54 5.35 0.149 5.02 5.29 0.766 11.72 13.91 0.191 3.15 3.81 0.275 4.48 5.36 0.148
Missouri 5.94a 8.02 0.004 5.74 6.56 0.422 16.91 19.46 0.203 4.15a 6.28 0.008 5.96a 8.17 0.005
Montana 8.12a 11.09 0.002 8.78 8.71 0.951 21.99 22.88 0.676 5.72a 9.41 0.001 8.05a 11.32 0.001
Nebraska 5.36 6.29 0.129 6.09 5.26 0.400 14.70 16.83 0.266 3.50 4.53 0.115 5.28b 6.40 0.088
Nevada 7.00 7.81 0.324 8.96 7.39 0.192 18.34 17.05 0.534 5.06 6.43 0.139 6.78 7.85 0.224
New Hampshire 9.62a 12.06 0.018 9.66 9.44 0.873 27.28 29.12 0.471 6.91a 9.65 0.019 9.61a 12.31 0.015
New Jersey 5.04a 7.01 0.001 6.16 6.81 0.511 17.42 18.96 0.409 2.99a 5.23 0.001 4.92a 7.03 0.001
New Mexico 6.54a 10.14 0.000 9.25 8.53 0.599 15.74a 20.61 0.022 4.49a 8.55 0.000 6.24a 10.31 0.000
New York 7.73a 9.56 0.000 8.50 7.55 0.234 23.09 22.69 0.773 4.87a 7.54 0.000 7.65a 9.75 0.000
North Carolina 6.30 7.29 0.129 7.19 5.97 0.198 16.85 19.04 0.230 4.49 5.51 0.164 6.21b 7.43 0.082
North Dakota 4.67a 5.95 0.032 5.06 6.21 0.248 10.65a 14.77 0.012 3.30 3.93 0.312 4.64a 5.92 0.042
Ohio 5.96a 7.65 0.000 7.63a 6.05 0.037 17.26b 19.55 0.080 3.89a 5.91 0.000 5.77a 7.82 0.000
Oklahoma 5.60 6.24 0.348 6.23 5.42 0.428 14.18 14.87 0.719 3.96 4.82 0.257 5.53 6.33 0.275
Oregon 9.29a 12.73 0.001 8.66 9.42 0.561 23.87 26.29 0.280 7.11a 10.99 0.001 9.36a 13.04 0.001
Pennsylvania 5.81a 7.73 0.000 7.19 6.98 0.786 17.08 18.97 0.156 3.80a 6.02 0.000 5.67a 7.80 0.000
Rhode Island 10.04a 13.02 0.006 9.09 10.19 0.439 27.14 28.89 0.530 6.94a 10.39 0.005 10.13a 13.28 0.007
South Carolina 5.91a 8.11 0.001 5.55 6.57 0.292 16.88a 21.07 0.037 4.16a 6.16 0.011 5.95a 8.27 0.002
South Dakota 5.14a 6.93 0.006 6.61 6.43 0.866 13.55b 17.05 0.057 3.44a 5.22 0.015 4.98a 6.99 0.004
Tennessee 5.42 6.34 0.125 5.19 5.90 0.440 16.64 15.95 0.704 3.72 4.81 0.102 5.44 6.38 0.144
Texas 4.74a 6.10 0.000 6.11 6.86 0.286 13.45 15.08 0.136 2.91a 4.32 0.001 4.58a 6.00 0.000
Utah 3.60a 5.04 0.006 4.78 4.54 0.786 8.21b 11.07 0.060 2.27a 3.75 0.010 3.44a 5.11 0.003
Vermont 10.85a 14.74 0.001 9.73 10.86 0.446 30.56 34.95 0.103 7.75a 11.61 0.004 10.96a 15.08 0.001
Virginia 5.33a 6.63 0.027 6.33 5.44 0.353 15.70 17.82 0.235 3.45a 4.90 0.024 5.23a 6.74 0.015
Washington 7.21a 11.22 0.000 7.74 9.17 0.264 17.19a 21.87 0.024 5.53a 9.74 0.000 7.15a 11.42 0.000
West Virginia 5.50a 6.92 0.029 5.74 6.05 0.746 17.46 18.89 0.483 3.74a 5.22 0.037 5.47a 7.00 0.028
Wisconsin 6.19 6.89 0.291 7.20 7.60 0.736 17.49 17.52 0.986 4.16 5.05 0.220 6.09 6.82 0.296
Wyoming 5.42 6.32 0.151 7.55 6.59 0.392 15.50 15.64 0.943 3.37b 4.71 0.054 5.19 6.30 0.102
150806
Table 3 – First Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and State: Average Annual Incidence Estimates (Expressed as Percentages of the At-Risk Population) and P Values from Tests of Differences between Rates, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Average annual initiation of marijuana (%) = 100 × {[X1 ÷ (0.5 × X1 + X2)] ÷ 2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of individuals who never used marijuana (with the at-risk population defined as 0.5 × X1 + X2). Both of the computation components, X1 and X2, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach. The age group shown is based on a respondent's age at the time of the interview, not his or her age at first use. For details, see Section B of the "2011-2012 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 1.75a 1.95 0.000 5.74a 5.41 0.050 7.09a 7.88 0.005 0.13a 0.31 0.000 1.07a 1.36 0.000
Northeast 1.80a 2.04 0.005 5.92 5.55 0.183 7.96 8.67 0.141 0.13a 0.34 0.000 1.12a 1.47 0.000
Midwest 1.79a 1.96 0.014 5.57a 5.12 0.038 7.41b 8.14 0.059 0.12a 0.29 0.000 1.12a 1.39 0.000
South 1.56a 1.75 0.002 5.22 5.13 0.631 6.34a 7.12 0.021 0.12a 0.26 0.000 0.95a 1.20 0.000
West 2.00a 2.21 0.033 6.57b 6.02 0.086 7.38b 8.32 0.053 0.14a 0.41 0.000 1.18a 1.54 0.000
Alabama 1.38 1.49 0.454 4.47 4.36 0.870 5.53 6.39 0.305 0.12b 0.20 0.059 0.87 1.05 0.185
Alaska 2.30a 3.54 0.000 6.35 7.52 0.207 7.33a 10.69 0.012 0.17a 0.74 0.000 1.34a 2.52 0.000
Arizona 1.72a 2.15 0.030 6.10 6.09 0.992 6.58b 8.36 0.099 0.12a 0.35 0.000 0.95a 1.44 0.002
Arkansas 1.56b 1.84 0.096 5.15 5.37 0.746 6.99 7.08 0.925 0.12a 0.26 0.005 0.95b 1.23 0.052
California 2.06 2.16 0.440 6.66 5.89 0.107 7.39 8.17 0.264 0.14a 0.42 0.000 1.23a 1.53 0.014
Colorado 2.45a 3.18 0.011 8.11 8.16 0.961 9.23b 12.05 0.064 0.17a 0.53 0.000 1.38a 2.13 0.002
Connecticut 2.14 2.42 0.235 7.09 6.61 0.577 8.98 9.80 0.535 0.14a 0.37 0.000 1.23a 1.63 0.033
Delaware 2.13 1.83 0.139 6.67b 5.29 0.082 9.55 7.73 0.135 0.14a 0.29 0.006 1.32 1.26 0.735
District of Columbia 2.33a 3.60 0.000 7.25 8.26 0.332 8.38a 12.98 0.003 0.24a 0.78 0.000 1.68a 2.99 0.000
Florida 1.39a 1.67 0.008 5.35 5.57 0.610 6.22b 7.39 0.072 0.10a 0.28 0.000 0.83a 1.11 0.002
Georgia 1.87 1.94 0.684 5.46 5.17 0.664 6.90 7.58 0.469 0.17a 0.28 0.042 1.17 1.34 0.268
Hawaii 1.71 2.04 0.150 6.42 6.31 0.912 7.57 6.99 0.635 0.11a 0.59 0.001 1.01a 1.42 0.047
Idaho 1.86 1.82 0.833 5.50 5.50 0.993 7.18 6.13 0.282 0.13a 0.25 0.015 1.14 1.12 0.892
Illinois 1.74 1.81 0.532 5.65a 4.59 0.017 6.85 7.97 0.115 0.12a 0.29 0.000 1.07a 1.33 0.023
Indiana 1.76a 2.30 0.006 5.81 5.97 0.838 7.37 8.97 0.148 0.11a 0.33 0.000 1.05a 1.59 0.001
Iowa 1.55 1.66 0.510 5.34 4.31 0.129 5.97a 7.90 0.049 0.10a 0.21 0.010 0.95a 1.25 0.048
Kansas 1.72 1.85 0.514 5.65 5.01 0.373 6.85 7.28 0.676 0.10a 0.26 0.001 1.06 1.29 0.141
Kentucky 1.48 1.63 0.352 5.46 4.62 0.211 6.09 6.48 0.664 0.14b 0.23 0.055 0.86a 1.12 0.045
Louisiana 1.33a 1.74 0.010 3.89 4.46 0.344 5.53a 7.80 0.018 0.12a 0.24 0.011 0.91a 1.29 0.009
Maine 1.73a 2.50 0.000 5.43a 7.45 0.012 8.97 10.31 0.336 0.14a 0.42 0.000 1.09a 1.61 0.005
Maryland 1.81a 2.33 0.016 5.61 6.12 0.508 8.20 9.86 0.204 0.12a 0.38 0.000 1.17a 1.62 0.017
Massachusetts 2.27 2.56 0.233 7.13 6.82 0.715 9.69 10.16 0.741 0.16a 0.43 0.000 1.42b 1.83 0.060
Michigan 2.10 2.23 0.375 5.97 5.79 0.699 8.72 8.17 0.497 0.13a 0.35 0.000 1.33 1.54 0.129
Minnesota 1.77 1.84 0.699 4.85 4.39 0.464 7.89 8.36 0.681 0.12a 0.29 0.001 1.20 1.37 0.314
Mississippi 1.34 1.48 0.355 4.09 4.41 0.600 5.22 5.92 0.385 0.11b 0.18 0.096 0.88 1.02 0.294
Missouri 1.64a 2.08 0.017 5.11 5.62 0.468 7.12b 9.06 0.083 0.12a 0.28 0.001 1.02a 1.46 0.006
Montana 2.04 2.30 0.234 6.67 6.19 0.549 9.79 8.67 0.383 0.13a 0.38 0.000 1.25b 1.58 0.084
Nebraska 1.54 1.52 0.891 4.48b 3.51 0.099 6.32 7.13 0.419 0.10a 0.22 0.008 1.05 1.19 0.400
Nevada 1.85a 2.26 0.047 7.16 6.28 0.322 6.55a 9.85 0.005 0.15a 0.39 0.000 0.91a 1.56 0.000
New Hampshire 2.25a 2.84 0.022 6.29 6.82 0.514 10.53 10.88 0.820 0.15a 0.47 0.000 1.44a 2.00 0.015
New Jersey 1.50 1.74 0.133 4.89 4.99 0.884 7.69 7.83 0.890 0.10a 0.30 0.000 0.96b 1.22 0.062
New Mexico 2.06 2.01 0.801 7.84 6.71 0.236 8.01 6.90 0.334 0.12a 0.36 0.001 1.09 1.21 0.456
New York 1.81 2.02 0.113 6.05 5.43 0.184 7.38 8.63 0.104 0.13a 0.36 0.000 1.12a 1.50 0.002
North Carolina 1.69 1.88 0.246 6.24 5.35 0.191 6.67 7.81 0.239 0.13a 0.27 0.007 0.96a 1.28 0.020
North Dakota 1.56 1.83 0.143 4.28 4.91 0.332 6.59 6.68 0.934 0.08a 0.26 0.000 1.15 1.38 0.187
Ohio 1.78 1.86 0.510 5.59 4.90 0.132 7.47 7.92 0.550 0.13a 0.27 0.002 1.10b 1.31 0.060
Oklahoma 1.47b 1.80 0.062 4.87 5.62 0.316 5.77 6.03 0.769 0.11a 0.27 0.001 0.91 1.14 0.108
Oregon 2.42 2.48 0.825 7.87 6.85 0.263 9.63 9.74 0.935 0.19a 0.45 0.004 1.39 1.69 0.160
Pennsylvania 1.61 1.76 0.222 5.37 4.74 0.175 7.47 7.65 0.820 0.10a 0.29 0.000 1.01a 1.28 0.023
Rhode Island 2.27 2.50 0.371 7.20 6.71 0.596 9.16 10.32 0.436 0.16a 0.39 0.001 1.40b 1.78 0.082
South Carolina 1.46a 1.91 0.008 4.77 5.82 0.128 6.41 8.06 0.109 0.12a 0.26 0.002 0.93a 1.28 0.015
South Dakota 1.59 1.66 0.684 5.17 4.45 0.282 6.70 7.17 0.625 0.09a 0.24 0.001 1.01 1.20 0.181
Tennessee 1.26a 1.55 0.047 4.11 4.46 0.553 6.00 6.71 0.426 0.12a 0.22 0.024 0.81a 1.09 0.029
Texas 1.59 1.65 0.575 5.20 4.87 0.439 5.86 6.08 0.711 0.11a 0.23 0.004 0.95 1.08 0.178
Utah 1.29 1.38 0.588 3.94 3.05 0.115 3.64b 4.93 0.092 0.10 0.18 0.183 0.82 1.05 0.129
Vermont 2.47 2.86 0.177 7.37 6.97 0.653 11.93 13.02 0.548 0.15a 0.45 0.001 1.56a 2.10 0.034
Virginia 1.90 1.90 0.983 5.98 5.03 0.150 7.59 8.10 0.607 0.13a 0.29 0.002 1.20 1.38 0.252
Washington 1.94b 2.30 0.096 5.68 5.96 0.723 8.53 9.00 0.697 0.16a 0.41 0.000 1.24a 1.63 0.036
West Virginia 1.27a 1.71 0.004 5.33 5.66 0.643 5.76a 7.97 0.025 0.12a 0.23 0.015 0.72a 1.13 0.001
Wisconsin 1.92 2.12 0.322 6.16 6.05 0.890 8.39 8.24 0.899 0.12a 0.31 0.000 1.17 1.43 0.123
Wyoming 1.92 1.81 0.577 6.47 5.33 0.135 7.70 7.22 0.662 0.11a 0.26 0.001 1.15 1.21 0.685
150806
Table 4 – Cocaine Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 2.01a 1.76 0.001 1.11a 0.64 0.000 5.46a 4.98 0.040 1.53a 1.35 0.044 2.11a 1.88 0.006
Northeast 2.38 2.18 0.167 1.11a 0.66 0.000 6.68 6.06 0.154 1.81 1.71 0.548 2.52 2.32 0.234
Midwest 1.82a 1.43 0.000 1.06a 0.54 0.000 5.12a 4.22 0.004 1.34a 1.07 0.027 1.90a 1.53 0.001
South 1.81a 1.56 0.012 0.98a 0.57 0.000 4.64 4.32 0.238 1.44b 1.22 0.066 1.90a 1.67 0.031
West 2.21 2.05 0.292 1.35a 0.85 0.004 6.08 5.88 0.647 1.62 1.53 0.598 2.31 2.18 0.431
Alabama 1.38 1.22 0.557 0.76b 0.41 0.051 3.44 3.20 0.752 1.11 0.99 0.686 1.45 1.31 0.636
Alaska 2.99a 2.00 0.037 1.45a 0.65 0.006 7.38a 4.79 0.030 2.39 1.64 0.170 3.18b 2.15 0.052
Arizona 2.33 2.29 0.903 1.38b 0.85 0.066 6.91 6.92 0.994 1.68 1.67 0.975 2.44 2.44 0.999
Arkansas 1.43 1.07 0.131 0.89a 0.48 0.035 3.52 2.89 0.383 1.16 0.84 0.228 1.49 1.13 0.179
California 2.12 2.16 0.863 1.39b 0.94 0.072 5.57 5.91 0.614 1.56 1.63 0.769 2.20 2.28 0.748
Colorado 3.28 2.75 0.271 1.37 0.98 0.230 8.94 8.62 0.827 2.56 1.97 0.247 3.47 2.93 0.302
Connecticut 2.05 2.43 0.333 1.26a 0.67 0.018 6.25 7.60 0.292 1.49 1.80 0.465 2.14 2.60 0.276
Delaware 2.36 2.21 0.709 0.91b 0.56 0.074 6.40 6.36 0.970 1.87 1.73 0.761 2.52 2.37 0.744
District of Columbia 3.76 3.19 0.415 0.43 0.34 0.481 5.14 5.60 0.668 3.76 2.88 0.289 4.01 3.35 0.378
Florida 1.80 1.90 0.658 1.05a 0.65 0.022 4.70b 5.91 0.070 1.46 1.45 0.983 1.88 2.02 0.569
Georgia 1.51 1.72 0.480 0.81b 0.51 0.084 3.93 3.85 0.919 1.20 1.51 0.377 1.60 1.86 0.432
Hawaii 1.76 1.89 0.730 1.25 0.76 0.191 4.39 5.21 0.450 1.40 1.50 0.809 1.81 1.99 0.655
Idaho 1.31 1.04 0.202 1.24a 0.57 0.008 4.52 3.59 0.281 0.75 0.67 0.680 1.31 1.09 0.349
Illinois 1.91 1.80 0.660 0.99a 0.60 0.026 4.64 4.81 0.806 1.53 1.45 0.752 2.01 1.93 0.756
Indiana 1.66 1.24 0.104 1.09a 0.51 0.009 4.97 3.91 0.257 1.18 0.86 0.230 1.72 1.32 0.159
Iowa 1.11 1.06 0.797 1.11a 0.47 0.006 3.64 3.63 0.984 0.66 0.67 0.976 1.11 1.12 0.973
Kansas 1.52 1.18 0.149 1.11a 0.61 0.042 4.97 3.59 0.132 0.94 0.82 0.610 1.57 1.24 0.216
Kentucky 1.36 1.59 0.389 1.02a 0.56 0.039 4.37 4.74 0.697 0.93 1.19 0.364 1.40 1.69 0.310
Louisiana 2.34 1.74 0.122 0.84a 0.44 0.031 4.77 3.61 0.188 2.08 1.57 0.269 2.51 1.88 0.143
Maine 2.30 1.79 0.115 1.13a 0.65 0.040 7.67 6.41 0.326 1.69 1.27 0.226 2.42 1.88 0.140
Maryland 1.57 1.51 0.853 0.87a 0.46 0.027 4.03 3.66 0.667 1.24 1.28 0.902 1.64 1.61 0.932
Massachusetts 2.45 2.45 0.997 1.18b 0.71 0.052 7.16 7.28 0.922 1.76 1.79 0.941 2.58 2.61 0.939
Michigan 2.00a 1.24 0.000 1.05a 0.44 0.001 5.74a 3.56 0.001 1.49a 0.94 0.020 2.11a 1.33 0.001
Minnesota 1.77 1.52 0.391 1.12a 0.57 0.016 5.14 4.85 0.781 1.27 1.10 0.553 1.84 1.62 0.492
Mississippi 1.36 1.00 0.159 0.63b 0.36 0.072 3.15a 1.83 0.030 1.14 0.94 0.510 1.45 1.08 0.188
Missouri 2.01a 1.35 0.025 1.00a 0.49 0.011 5.74 4.12 0.103 1.52b 0.98 0.086 2.12a 1.43 0.036
Montana 2.32a 1.49 0.006 1.17a 0.62 0.024 7.60a 4.65 0.010 1.58b 1.06 0.090 2.44a 1.57 0.009
Nebraska 1.57 1.37 0.425 1.10a 0.56 0.013 4.61 3.99 0.492 1.06 1.00 0.831 1.62 1.46 0.555
Nevada 2.34a 1.46 0.006 1.50a 0.72 0.007 6.72a 4.16 0.015 1.79b 1.14 0.052 2.43a 1.54 0.011
New Hampshire 2.75 3.07 0.471 1.23 0.83 0.177 8.97 10.54 0.335 1.98 2.13 0.743 2.91 3.28 0.451
New Jersey 1.73 1.72 0.948 1.04a 0.60 0.043 4.93 4.55 0.667 1.33 1.42 0.781 1.81 1.83 0.952
New Mexico 2.17 1.92 0.489 1.30 0.82 0.111 6.55 5.93 0.616 1.47 1.38 0.782 2.26 2.04 0.568
New York 2.66 2.54 0.650 1.09b 0.73 0.063 7.31 6.29 0.192 2.02 2.10 0.811 2.83 2.71 0.691
North Carolina 2.10 1.80 0.343 0.93a 0.53 0.032 4.90 5.12 0.809 1.79 1.40 0.269 2.22 1.93 0.403
North Dakota 1.22 1.18 0.855 1.05a 0.56 0.039 3.78 3.45 0.684 0.68 0.74 0.764 1.24 1.24 0.993
Ohio 1.49 1.45 0.836 1.02a 0.50 0.002 4.51 4.24 0.662 1.05 1.11 0.787 1.54 1.54 0.973
Oklahoma 1.50b 1.11 0.092 1.14a 0.50 0.007 4.70 3.58 0.211 0.97 0.75 0.337 1.54 1.17 0.156
Oregon 2.63 2.14 0.163 1.23b 0.80 0.096 8.04 6.81 0.316 1.95 1.57 0.294 2.77 2.27 0.191
Pennsylvania 2.27a 1.62 0.012 1.08a 0.54 0.001 5.86 4.71 0.107 1.82a 1.24 0.044 2.39a 1.72 0.018
Rhode Island 3.89a 2.52 0.009 1.28a 0.74 0.037 9.39 7.64 0.260 3.17a 1.77 0.013 4.15a 2.68 0.011
South Carolina 2.75a 1.63 0.005 0.83b 0.50 0.061 4.97 4.42 0.555 2.62a 1.30 0.004 2.95a 1.74 0.006
South Dakota 1.17 1.02 0.462 0.95a 0.49 0.040 3.91 3.15 0.328 0.71 0.71 0.989 1.20 1.08 0.595
Tennessee 1.57 1.52 0.851 0.93a 0.54 0.050 4.31 4.22 0.918 1.23 1.19 0.902 1.64 1.62 0.948
Texas 1.89a 1.41 0.013 1.16a 0.70 0.019 5.09 4.19 0.141 1.40b 1.00 0.063 1.98a 1.50 0.024
Utah 1.43a 0.87 0.020 1.16a 0.40 0.006 4.14 2.73 0.115 0.80 0.53 0.202 1.47a 0.94 0.049
Vermont 3.01 2.67 0.407 1.22 0.81 0.151 10.17 9.33 0.600 2.05 1.70 0.409 3.19 2.83 0.433
Virginia 1.75a 1.24 0.049 1.02a 0.46 0.003 4.95b 3.50 0.072 1.30 0.95 0.223 1.83b 1.31 0.077
Washington 2.08 1.84 0.465 1.20a 0.67 0.032 6.24 5.39 0.432 1.51 1.40 0.745 2.17 1.95 0.548
West Virginia 2.51a 1.54 0.005 1.05a 0.59 0.038 7.65b 5.32 0.058 1.93a 1.07 0.017 2.65a 1.63 0.007
Wisconsin 2.71a 1.59 0.001 1.19b 0.72 0.076 7.27a 4.96 0.050 2.13a 1.13 0.005 2.87a 1.68 0.001
Wyoming 1.46 1.07 0.127 1.13a 0.56 0.020 5.25 3.74 0.126 0.83 0.68 0.555 1.49 1.12 0.184
150806
Table 5 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 51.74 52.18 0.237 14.79a 10.58 0.000 61.45a 58.96 0.000 54.80a 56.04 0.007 55.78b 56.46 0.093
Northeast 56.57 56.66 0.912 16.68a 12.57 0.000 67.33a 64.17 0.003 59.59 60.30 0.425 60.71 60.85 0.867
Midwest 54.26 54.36 0.875 15.24a 10.30 0.000 65.07a 61.88 0.001 57.42 58.48 0.171 58.55 58.97 0.556
South 47.74b 48.85 0.079 13.75a 9.74 0.000 57.62 56.16 0.121 50.43a 52.42 0.007 51.47a 52.95 0.033
West 51.78 52.07 0.708 14.56a 10.76 0.000 59.40a 56.92 0.026 55.40 56.30 0.322 56.01 56.39 0.651
Alabama 42.94 43.94 0.596 12.70a 8.76 0.002 54.41 51.99 0.361 44.84 46.83 0.398 46.22 47.57 0.517
Alaska 54.52 54.98 0.801 14.22b 11.04 0.089 60.50 62.57 0.448 59.37 59.45 0.971 59.54 59.95 0.839
Arizona 51.15 51.19 0.982 14.80a 10.45 0.005 59.35 56.38 0.268 54.60 55.47 0.709 55.29 55.60 0.880
Arkansas 43.29 41.81 0.440 15.34a 9.34 0.000 55.94b 51.60 0.100 44.80 44.20 0.801 46.36 45.26 0.605
California 50.65 51.54 0.418 14.11a 10.92 0.001 59.79b 56.85 0.064 53.99 55.58 0.247 54.92 55.77 0.487
Colorado 62.22 59.22 0.103 20.22a 12.55 0.000 69.51 67.56 0.435 66.11 63.39 0.228 66.60 63.99 0.194
Connecticut 59.32 60.33 0.608 18.56a 13.61 0.010 67.86 67.18 0.800 63.08 64.76 0.481 63.73 65.09 0.523
Delaware 56.32 53.85 0.223 16.35a 10.36 0.000 68.53a 62.37 0.012 59.18 57.29 0.451 60.52 57.99 0.254
District of Columbia 61.55a 69.07 0.000 15.63 13.18 0.205 71.82 74.21 0.342 63.53a 71.86 0.000 65.04a 72.27 0.000
Florida 51.41a 54.83 0.005 15.30a 10.72 0.000 56.91 58.85 0.236 54.58a 58.76 0.005 54.88a 58.77 0.004
Georgia 48.89 48.90 0.997 13.56a 8.93 0.000 58.18 55.06 0.203 52.19 53.15 0.662 53.06 53.43 0.847
Hawaii 48.23 46.60 0.415 11.64 10.55 0.483 57.21 55.52 0.574 50.95 49.04 0.431 51.81 49.91 0.383
Idaho 45.71 44.54 0.526 12.91b 10.25 0.071 52.50b 47.50 0.058 49.19 48.93 0.911 49.68 48.72 0.638
Illinois 54.33 54.25 0.947 15.16a 9.88 0.000 64.88a 60.53 0.011 57.60 58.66 0.475 58.72 58.93 0.873
Indiana 48.06 50.44 0.210 14.41a 10.06 0.002 57.94 59.71 0.511 50.82 54.01 0.174 51.85 54.87 0.147
Iowa 56.70 56.01 0.712 17.34a 10.16 0.000 69.06 66.44 0.295 59.43 59.73 0.897 60.87 60.75 0.950
Kansas 53.92 52.55 0.480 15.93a 10.45 0.000 66.34a 59.33 0.008 56.66 56.88 0.929 58.18 57.26 0.664
Kentucky 38.74a 42.63 0.047 12.21a 8.24 0.003 50.64 50.69 0.985 40.10a 45.39 0.028 41.52a 46.14 0.031
Louisiana 48.24 50.03 0.347 15.26a 10.75 0.003 61.67 57.93 0.141 50.16 53.57 0.147 52.02 54.22 0.289
Maine 55.07a 60.41 0.009 14.57 12.47 0.187 65.34 66.34 0.705 58.08a 64.39 0.010 58.97a 64.62 0.010
Maryland 54.24a 58.38 0.044 14.02 12.09 0.221 61.74 62.62 0.753 58.09a 63.07 0.047 58.62b 63.01 0.051
Massachusetts 61.54a 57.91 0.050 16.89a 12.21 0.006 72.39 69.15 0.194 64.83b 60.89 0.083 65.97b 62.11 0.055
Michigan 54.65 53.89 0.531 14.56a 10.69 0.000 63.73b 60.77 0.074 58.39 57.96 0.775 59.17 58.37 0.554
Minnesota 60.95 59.40 0.398 14.70a 10.71 0.006 68.13 65.64 0.313 65.51 64.23 0.571 65.90 64.42 0.463
Mississippi 40.39 39.52 0.655 12.70a 8.78 0.003 52.99a 46.93 0.027 41.96 42.22 0.916 43.68 42.94 0.733
Missouri 50.15 50.78 0.754 13.92a 9.83 0.004 61.01 59.32 0.522 52.95 54.27 0.598 54.09 54.99 0.686
Montana 59.07 57.93 0.583 21.39a 9.90 0.000 69.07a 61.56 0.003 61.95 62.62 0.791 62.97 62.47 0.825
Nebraska 53.59a 57.43 0.042 13.81a 8.88 0.001 64.98 62.82 0.415 56.67a 62.68 0.011 57.99a 62.70 0.024
Nevada 54.47 52.81 0.422 15.29 13.67 0.343 60.32 56.81 0.196 58.63 56.85 0.486 58.85 56.84 0.378
New Hampshire 63.98 63.63 0.847 17.83a 13.12 0.005 74.97a 68.92 0.015 67.91 68.27 0.871 68.85 68.36 0.803
New Jersey 54.18 56.67 0.208 15.17 13.88 0.408 64.96 63.69 0.595 57.37 60.63 0.181 58.39 61.03 0.221
New Mexico 47.59 47.02 0.769 15.62a 9.40 0.000 57.11 55.79 0.625 50.05 50.25 0.933 51.15 51.06 0.967
New York 55.72 54.60 0.346 16.83a 12.57 0.000 66.32a 61.51 0.003 58.57 58.01 0.700 59.75 58.51 0.343
North Carolina 47.45 45.84 0.360 12.83a 8.19 0.000 58.35 55.77 0.297 49.98 48.75 0.567 51.15 49.74 0.467
North Dakota 57.80 58.79 0.589 18.98a 11.85 0.000 71.80 70.20 0.508 59.46 61.51 0.379 61.71 63.11 0.483
Ohio 51.67 52.56 0.461 14.99a 10.33 0.000 65.37a 61.18 0.016 54.08 56.28 0.139 55.67 56.97 0.335
Oklahoma 45.62 46.04 0.839 13.86a 10.22 0.017 59.12 57.68 0.606 47.31 48.58 0.616 49.13 49.95 0.712
Oregon 59.77 58.85 0.634 17.75a 11.68 0.000 66.69 63.02 0.145 63.58 63.31 0.908 64.00 63.28 0.729
Pennsylvania 55.06 56.56 0.257 16.73a 11.34 0.000 66.31 63.95 0.191 57.81 60.32 0.116 59.01 60.82 0.207
Rhode Island 59.91 59.37 0.779 18.29a 13.23 0.006 71.17a 65.22 0.024 62.78 63.25 0.840 64.10 63.56 0.796
South Carolina 45.89 46.17 0.885 12.45a 8.87 0.005 53.32b 58.59 0.053 48.82 48.44 0.875 49.46 49.88 0.842
South Dakota 57.81 58.02 0.911 15.85a 10.38 0.001 70.66 67.10 0.147 60.93 62.30 0.555 62.41 63.02 0.769
Tennessee 41.06 43.44 0.217 11.39a 8.17 0.011 53.40 51.08 0.391 42.77 46.37 0.127 44.18 47.04 0.177
Texas 48.42 47.90 0.638 14.09a 9.96 0.000 58.49a 54.86 0.031 51.52 52.03 0.714 52.63 52.48 0.903
Utah 28.11b 31.31 0.088 6.73 5.44 0.283 32.09 34.77 0.377 30.72b 35.04 0.076 30.98b 34.99 0.059
Vermont 60.28 60.67 0.848 18.40a 13.16 0.003 73.56 70.65 0.246 62.87 63.80 0.707 64.37 64.82 0.838
Virginia 50.79 51.77 0.584 13.10b 10.65 0.059 60.21 60.66 0.855 53.83 55.06 0.574 54.75 55.86 0.571
Washington 56.13 57.26 0.548 14.03a 10.65 0.020 60.77 58.45 0.384 60.54 62.39 0.422 60.58 61.84 0.536
West Virginia 38.17 41.28 0.140 13.23a 9.97 0.025 53.45 56.06 0.350 38.66 42.29 0.153 40.53 44.08 0.120
Wisconsin 61.78 60.36 0.451 18.62a 11.25 0.000 71.81a 66.26 0.022 65.42 65.19 0.922 66.34 65.34 0.629
Wyoming 54.21 54.32 0.958 17.06a 10.72 0.003 62.33 62.15 0.950 57.41 58.15 0.769 58.15 58.73 0.795
150806
Table 6 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Individuals Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2008-2009)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2014-2015)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 26.83a 21.57 0.000
Northeast 30.69a 25.98 0.000
Midwest 27.60a 22.00 0.000
South 25.18a 19.66 0.000
West 25.76a 21.01 0.000
Alabama 23.65a 18.19 0.001
Alaska 25.51   23.91 0.420
Arizona 24.59a 19.25 0.003
Arkansas 23.06a 16.65 0.000
California 25.24a 21.21 0.000
Colorado 32.89a 24.83 0.000
Connecticut 31.02b 27.67 0.097
Delaware 32.60a 23.46 0.000
District of Columbia 31.66   31.34 0.893
Florida 26.62a 21.20 0.000
Georgia 24.21a 18.12 0.000
Hawaii 23.87b 20.57 0.076
Idaho 23.93a 16.80 0.000
Illinois 28.38a 21.46 0.000
Indiana 23.50   20.97 0.138
Iowa 29.93a 24.57 0.003
Kansas 28.91a 21.41 0.000
Kentucky 23.65a 17.91 0.001
Louisiana 29.69a 23.73 0.001
Maine 26.61   25.68 0.610
Maryland 26.66b 23.50 0.073
Massachusetts 32.97b 29.63 0.082
Michigan 26.72a 21.21 0.000
Minnesota 27.61a 23.01 0.009
Mississippi 24.28a 17.73 0.000
Missouri 24.24a 20.22 0.019
Montana 34.33a 21.31 0.000
Nebraska 26.45a 21.63 0.007
Nevada 24.63   23.67 0.600
New Hampshire 34.84a 27.78 0.000
New Jersey 27.22   25.97 0.449
New Mexico 25.80a 19.40 0.000
New York 32.01a 24.72 0.000
North Carolina 22.42a 16.96 0.000
North Dakota 36.44a 31.34 0.015
Ohio 28.41a 22.09 0.000
Oklahoma 25.90a 19.63 0.000
Oregon 31.36a 23.57 0.000
Pennsylvania 29.02a 24.79 0.001
Rhode Island 34.78a 28.02 0.001
South Carolina 21.88   19.39 0.127
South Dakota 32.31a 25.57 0.000
Tennessee 20.16   17.66 0.122
Texas 26.46a 19.49 0.000
Utah 14.34a 10.75 0.036
Vermont 36.53a 30.60 0.003
Virginia 25.83a 20.87 0.001
Washington 27.00a 22.67 0.014
West Virginia 22.75   21.89 0.630
Wisconsin 30.83a 23.86 0.000
Wyoming 30.54a 21.59 0.000
150806
Table 7 – Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., snuff, dip, chewing tobacco, or "snus"), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 28.06a 24.56 0.000 11.64a 6.50 0.000 41.53a 34.02 0.000 27.85a 25.14 0.000 29.86a 26.42 0.000
Northeast 26.45a 23.30 0.000 11.37a 6.22 0.000 41.23a 32.89 0.000 25.78a 23.62 0.004 28.01a 24.92 0.000
Midwest 30.55a 27.39 0.000 13.24a 7.68 0.000 46.33a 38.61 0.000 30.06a 27.90 0.001 32.45a 29.46 0.000
South 29.54a 26.24 0.000 11.53a 6.67 0.000 41.69a 35.33 0.000 29.79a 27.11 0.000 31.51a 28.29 0.000
West 24.67a 20.29 0.000 10.55a 5.35 0.000 37.12a 28.78 0.000 24.31a 20.65 0.000 26.27a 21.86 0.000
Alabama 32.94 30.46 0.119 13.26a 7.78 0.000 45.41 42.27 0.199 33.33 31.21 0.281 35.08 32.80 0.191
Alaska 29.41 31.51 0.202 13.46a 9.87 0.021 44.60 42.61 0.459 28.91 32.30 0.102 31.40 33.96 0.159
Arizona 25.71a 22.51 0.034 10.17a 6.18 0.001 39.80a 31.23 0.001 25.39 23.09 0.208 27.48b 24.28 0.054
Arkansas 35.26 34.05 0.489 14.99a 9.67 0.000 47.74a 41.50 0.016 35.81 35.83 0.994 37.48 36.64 0.664
California 22.79a 17.94 0.000 9.47a 4.29 0.000 34.37a 25.84 0.000 22.43a 18.20 0.000 24.35a 19.36 0.000
Colorado 27.37 24.92 0.117 13.30a 7.02 0.000 43.67a 36.39 0.006 26.37 25.12 0.513 28.84 26.75 0.220
Connecticut 25.34a 21.88 0.027 11.01a 6.39 0.000 41.49a 35.71 0.031 24.58b 21.47 0.100 26.89a 23.46 0.045
Delaware 30.13a 26.35 0.022 13.07a 6.77 0.000 45.53a 37.20 0.001 29.65 26.76 0.150 31.92a 28.21 0.039
District of Columbia 27.62b 24.77 0.078 9.48a 5.01 0.000 34.96 30.75 0.102 27.66 24.88 0.156 28.99b 25.89 0.071
Florida 26.78a 22.65 0.000 10.61a 5.17 0.000 38.36a 29.75 0.000 26.85a 23.40 0.004 28.33a 24.21 0.000
Georgia 28.86a 26.02 0.049 11.68a 6.10 0.000 40.80a 35.21 0.014 29.20 27.07 0.238 30.89 28.28 0.102
Hawaii 22.31a 19.21 0.039 9.93a 5.09 0.000 37.26a 28.22 0.001 21.32 19.31 0.264 23.51b 20.50 0.064
Idaho 26.80a 22.03 0.001 10.75a 7.15 0.005 39.73a 31.66 0.001 26.82a 22.50 0.014 28.75a 23.84 0.002
Illinois 29.01a 23.94 0.000 12.45a 5.93 0.000 44.24a 34.27 0.000 28.44a 24.43 0.001 30.87a 25.84 0.000
Indiana 31.88 30.83 0.522 13.97a 9.05 0.000 46.31 42.65 0.146 31.80 31.55 0.902 33.89 33.22 0.708
Iowa 30.23a 26.97 0.035 12.41a 9.12 0.021 44.08a 37.25 0.007 30.01 27.30 0.156 32.12a 28.81 0.050
Kansas 30.69a 24.70 0.000 13.11a 7.75 0.000 47.46a 34.60 0.000 29.91a 25.14 0.015 32.67a 26.60 0.000
Kentucky 38.08a 34.47 0.049 16.82a 10.40 0.000 52.70a 44.58 0.002 38.37 35.66 0.226 40.31b 36.93 0.092
Louisiana 30.67 31.06 0.812 10.72a 7.92 0.026 41.06 39.93 0.652 31.40 32.41 0.618 32.96 33.53 0.749
Maine 29.82a 24.47 0.001 12.13a 8.43 0.006 47.65a 38.26 0.001 29.28a 24.18 0.011 31.52a 25.87 0.002
Maryland 23.84 23.79 0.972 9.04a 6.05 0.007 35.70 33.98 0.515 23.72 24.21 0.802 25.46 25.56 0.954
Massachusetts 25.06a 20.76 0.003 10.50a 5.98 0.000 41.42a 32.06 0.000 23.85a 20.38 0.048 26.50a 22.12 0.005
Michigan 30.47a 27.19 0.002 12.88a 7.57 0.000 45.86a 37.86 0.000 30.17b 27.74 0.065 32.45a 29.23 0.005
Minnesota 27.59 25.28 0.130 12.49a 6.68 0.000 47.57a 35.55 0.000 26.07 25.86 0.910 29.20 27.20 0.229
Mississippi 31.60 31.79 0.911 12.10a 8.92 0.024 43.29b 38.62 0.078 32.19 33.56 0.502 33.92 34.33 0.819
Missouri 32.65 30.80 0.269 14.57a 9.28 0.000 47.19 44.22 0.243 32.55 31.14 0.490 34.62 33.01 0.380
Montana 31.17a 27.37 0.022 15.59a 9.50 0.000 49.20a 40.70 0.001 30.03 27.14 0.150 32.78a 29.06 0.038
Nebraska 29.00 27.29 0.290 12.29a 7.47 0.000 42.14b 37.69 0.085 28.71 27.97 0.711 30.85 29.45 0.429
Nevada 28.44a 24.76 0.029 11.98a 6.94 0.000 40.40a 32.72 0.003 28.78 25.65 0.130 30.28a 26.60 0.047
New Hampshire 28.12a 24.94 0.042 12.55a 8.40 0.001 45.16a 39.58 0.029 27.40 24.42 0.113 29.76b 26.49 0.054
New Jersey 24.81a 20.74 0.007 9.81a 5.33 0.000 38.34a 30.95 0.001 24.58b 21.00 0.053 26.42a 22.31 0.013
New Mexico 26.72b 24.15 0.086 12.82a 6.26 0.000 42.62a 35.47 0.007 25.62 24.46 0.527 28.26 26.07 0.181
New York 24.57 23.17 0.149 10.73a 5.70 0.000 39.13a 29.47 0.000 23.64 24.00 0.760 26.00 24.80 0.253
North Carolina 31.32a 25.73 0.000 12.01a 5.96 0.000 43.70a 35.77 0.001 31.72a 26.46 0.003 33.38a 27.78 0.000
North Dakota 30.37 30.36 0.995 13.46a 9.83 0.016 46.39 42.38 0.108 28.87 29.98 0.575 32.07 32.24 0.919
Ohio 32.29b 30.22 0.056 14.11a 7.86 0.000 49.54a 42.54 0.000 31.76 30.93 0.533 34.27 32.55 0.147
Oklahoma 34.82 32.12 0.135 13.78a 10.22 0.032 48.56a 42.71 0.030 35.07 33.06 0.366 37.14 34.51 0.183
Oregon 30.12a 22.53 0.000 14.94a 7.01 0.000 45.09a 34.16 0.000 29.56a 22.41 0.000 31.65a 23.99 0.000
Pennsylvania 30.97a 26.54 0.000 13.84a 7.24 0.000 45.29a 37.54 0.000 30.67a 26.89 0.005 32.74a 28.36 0.000
Rhode Island 26.34b 23.45 0.072 10.30a 5.86 0.000 41.51a 34.58 0.013 25.41 23.29 0.272 27.95b 25.05 0.096
South Carolina 31.30b 28.49 0.086 11.78a 7.11 0.000 44.29 40.56 0.141 31.59 28.98 0.191 33.37 30.62 0.122
South Dakota 31.32a 28.05 0.039 14.94a 9.20 0.000 49.54a 41.55 0.001 30.16 28.00 0.265 33.12b 30.02 0.073
Tennessee 33.55a 28.66 0.004 12.46a 7.85 0.000 46.98a 39.75 0.004 34.05a 29.31 0.021 35.77a 30.79 0.007
Texas 27.05a 23.12 0.000 10.01a 5.74 0.000 38.36a 31.14 0.000 27.41a 24.13 0.005 29.15a 25.22 0.000
Utah 18.44a 15.39 0.030 6.72a 3.70 0.005 24.94a 19.63 0.033 18.80 16.49 0.193 20.02b 17.06 0.059
Vermont 27.61 27.42 0.909 12.66a 8.13 0.001 44.28 42.38 0.481 26.58 26.78 0.921 29.07 29.10 0.986
Virginia 27.48b 25.04 0.090 11.74a 6.06 0.000 41.54a 34.37 0.002 27.03 25.68 0.450 29.13 26.92 0.162
Washington 26.86a 22.09 0.001 11.87a 6.32 0.000 41.46a 31.00 0.000 26.35a 22.46 0.027 28.44a 23.65 0.002
West Virginia 38.41 37.40 0.602 16.88a 12.55 0.009 54.20 50.84 0.205 38.44 37.93 0.827 40.43 39.62 0.697
Wisconsin 30.21a 25.37 0.002 12.88a 7.96 0.000 45.41a 36.14 0.000 29.79a 25.64 0.034 32.04a 27.13 0.005
Wyoming 34.32b 31.00 0.064 18.41a 10.59 0.000 49.70a 42.10 0.005 33.58 31.53 0.351 36.01 33.06 0.133
150806
Table 8 – Cigarette Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 23.63a 20.12 0.000 9.09a 4.53 0.000 35.80a 27.54 0.000 23.40a 20.74 0.000 25.23a 21.72 0.000
Northeast 22.40a 19.13 0.000 8.82a 4.37 0.000 35.95a 26.89 0.000 21.75a 19.48 0.001 23.81a 20.53 0.000
Midwest 25.66a 22.50 0.000 10.45a 5.55 0.000 39.92a 30.61 0.000 25.16a 23.20 0.002 27.33a 24.28 0.000
South 24.80a 21.41 0.000 9.12a 4.50 0.000 35.96a 28.57 0.000 24.92a 22.28 0.000 26.52a 23.19 0.000
West 20.86a 16.66 0.000 7.97a 3.75 0.000 31.69a 23.72 0.000 20.62a 17.02 0.000 22.32a 18.01 0.000
Alabama 26.82b 24.25 0.096 10.40a 5.34 0.000 38.16b 34.00 0.097 26.98 24.89 0.269 28.60 26.20 0.157
Alaska 24.21 24.64 0.781 9.37a 6.02 0.005 38.26 35.38 0.281 23.78 25.09 0.493 26.07 26.74 0.690
Arizona 21.97a 19.23 0.044 8.70a 4.15 0.000 33.07a 25.33 0.002 21.85 20.10 0.297 23.48b 20.87 0.082
Arkansas 30.28 27.81 0.127 12.05a 6.35 0.000 42.83a 32.28 0.000 30.56 29.73 0.682 32.28 30.10 0.221
California 19.28a 14.82 0.000 7.05a 3.09 0.000 29.58a 21.90 0.000 19.02a 15.00 0.000 20.71a 16.05 0.000
Colorado 22.33b 19.71 0.061 9.69a 4.84 0.000 36.42a 29.65 0.007 21.52 19.80 0.320 23.65 21.23 0.115
Connecticut 21.47a 17.56 0.006 8.67a 4.50 0.000 36.51a 30.39 0.020 20.69a 17.03 0.034 22.85a 18.89 0.011
Delaware 25.41b 22.46 0.058 9.74a 4.85 0.000 39.95a 31.48 0.001 24.90 22.95 0.306 27.05b 24.13 0.087
District of Columbia 23.85a 19.87 0.008 6.30a 3.02 0.000 30.11a 23.86 0.008 24.08a 20.21 0.034 25.17a 20.83 0.007
Florida 22.66a 18.89 0.000 8.30a 3.56 0.000 32.61a 23.66 0.000 22.76a 19.75 0.009 24.03a 20.26 0.000
Georgia 24.48a 20.37 0.002 8.95a 3.76 0.000 35.71a 26.61 0.000 24.72b 21.50 0.056 26.32a 22.26 0.006
Hawaii 20.24a 16.53 0.008 7.60a 3.13 0.000 34.07a 23.98 0.000 19.46 16.79 0.113 21.47a 17.76 0.015
Idaho 23.14a 17.71 0.000 9.05a 5.04 0.000 35.00a 23.99 0.000 23.07a 18.45 0.006 24.85a 19.26 0.000
Illinois 24.93a 20.44 0.000 10.01a 4.40 0.000 38.97a 28.80 0.000 24.37a 21.02 0.006 26.60a 22.14 0.000
Indiana 26.78 25.91 0.564 10.84a 6.74 0.001 40.95a 35.13 0.026 26.49 26.75 0.892 28.58 28.01 0.735
Iowa 24.90a 21.27 0.011 10.17a 5.99 0.000 37.13a 28.75 0.001 24.58 21.79 0.113 26.46a 22.85 0.022
Kansas 25.04a 18.93 0.000 10.80a 4.77 0.000 39.71a 24.75 0.000 24.19a 19.75 0.011 26.63a 20.52 0.000
Kentucky 31.94b 28.79 0.057 12.44a 7.77 0.000 44.22a 37.23 0.007 32.38 29.89 0.224 33.98b 30.94 0.094
Louisiana 26.54 26.44 0.950 8.41a 5.82 0.014 36.03 33.60 0.331 27.20 27.78 0.773 28.62 28.65 0.988
Maine 25.64a 20.71 0.002 9.72a 6.12 0.001 42.51a 29.53 0.000 25.03a 20.95 0.029 27.17a 21.99 0.002
Maryland 19.82 19.07 0.614 7.61a 3.93 0.000 31.15a 25.71 0.027 19.45 19.76 0.867 21.15 20.58 0.729
Massachusetts 20.99a 16.66 0.001 7.63a 4.11 0.000 34.67a 25.91 0.001 20.13a 16.40 0.019 22.32a 17.81 0.002
Michigan 26.12a 22.31 0.000 10.34a 5.17 0.000 39.79a 28.83 0.000 25.87a 23.27 0.031 27.89a 24.09 0.000
Minnesota 23.49a 19.50 0.004 9.72a 4.69 0.000 41.01a 26.81 0.000 22.22 20.09 0.209 24.96a 21.02 0.010
Mississippi 26.35 25.34 0.511 9.66a 5.59 0.000 36.57a 31.20 0.031 26.82 26.88 0.976 28.34 27.54 0.640
Missouri 26.31 25.09 0.433 10.98a 6.95 0.001 39.48 35.67 0.141 26.09 25.49 0.759 27.98 26.96 0.549
Montana 24.75a 19.65 0.001 11.24a 6.29 0.000 39.49a 28.78 0.000 23.91a 19.61 0.021 26.14a 20.92 0.002
Nebraska 24.27 21.95 0.116 9.36a 5.10 0.000 36.05a 27.92 0.001 24.00 23.04 0.603 25.91 23.78 0.191
Nevada 24.45b 21.25 0.053 9.44a 4.40 0.000 33.92a 27.51 0.009 24.97 22.29 0.184 26.13b 22.99 0.085
New Hampshire 23.36a 19.70 0.009 10.23a 5.92 0.000 39.18a 30.47 0.000 22.53b 19.49 0.074 24.74a 20.99 0.014
New Jersey 20.88a 16.69 0.002 7.59a 3.51 0.000 35.13a 24.71 0.000 20.33a 17.02 0.044 22.32a 18.03 0.003
New Mexico 22.74b 20.32 0.098 10.06a 4.11 0.000 36.12a 30.09 0.016 21.95 20.68 0.485 24.15 22.05 0.195
New York 21.30b 19.55 0.058 8.21a 4.13 0.000 34.38a 25.24 0.000 20.55 20.26 0.807 22.66b 20.99 0.098
North Carolina 26.45a 21.17 0.000 9.16a 4.35 0.000 37.96a 29.37 0.000 26.73a 21.85 0.004 28.30a 22.92 0.000
North Dakota 24.70 23.93 0.602 10.42a 7.31 0.011 36.38a 31.27 0.033 23.86 24.17 0.866 26.14 25.46 0.672
Ohio 26.71 25.26 0.156 10.93a 5.98 0.000 41.85a 33.72 0.000 26.23 26.22 0.997 28.43 27.27 0.300
Oklahoma 28.24b 25.50 0.094 11.31a 6.18 0.000 41.18a 34.03 0.007 28.10 26.48 0.428 30.11 27.61 0.167
Oregon 25.01a 18.00 0.000 10.32a 5.25 0.000 37.51a 26.99 0.000 24.78a 17.99 0.000 26.49a 19.20 0.000
Pennsylvania 25.69a 21.55 0.000 11.13a 5.03 0.000 38.72a 29.58 0.000 25.30a 22.07 0.011 27.19a 23.11 0.000
Rhode Island 22.58a 19.18 0.024 7.93a 4.38 0.000 35.37a 27.31 0.003 21.93 19.27 0.147 24.05a 20.52 0.031
South Carolina 26.94a 23.42 0.016 9.52a 4.69 0.000 37.73 34.05 0.150 27.33b 23.83 0.053 28.80a 25.28 0.029
South Dakota 25.04a 22.16 0.047 11.43a 6.63 0.000 39.83a 32.69 0.005 24.14 22.23 0.286 26.53b 23.79 0.085
Tennessee 28.20a 22.75 0.000 9.69a 5.32 0.000 39.48a 30.33 0.000 28.71a 23.57 0.007 30.14a 24.53 0.001
Texas 22.51a 19.13 0.000 8.17a 3.91 0.000 33.64a 26.34 0.000 22.51a 19.99 0.023 24.27a 20.97 0.001
Utah 16.42a 13.44 0.021 5.39a 3.34 0.023 22.29a 16.99 0.029 16.83 14.43 0.150 17.91a 14.88 0.038
Vermont 22.31 21.98 0.828 8.73a 6.20 0.022 38.02b 33.55 0.098 21.29 21.58 0.876 23.64 23.36 0.867
Virginia 23.23a 20.11 0.017 9.56a 3.92 0.000 35.65a 28.12 0.001 22.79 20.65 0.182 24.66a 21.72 0.041
Washington 22.91a 17.51 0.000 8.89a 4.10 0.000 35.68a 23.73 0.000 22.56a 18.04 0.007 24.38a 18.83 0.000
West Virginia 30.76 29.77 0.568 13.14a 8.29 0.000 47.13a 40.10 0.011 30.30 30.41 0.956 32.42 31.68 0.698
Wisconsin 25.74a 20.60 0.000 10.57a 5.90 0.000 40.34a 29.13 0.000 25.15a 20.93 0.018 27.35a 22.10 0.001
Wyoming 26.58 24.24 0.137 12.60a 7.76 0.001 39.19a 31.24 0.002 26.09 25.00 0.578 28.06 25.90 0.211
150806
Table 9 – Alcohol Use Disorder in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Alcohol Use Disorder is defined as meeting criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse. Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 7.42a 6.14 0.000 4.76a 2.62 0.000 16.76a 11.61 0.000 6.16a 5.64 0.005 7.72a 6.51 0.000
Northeast 7.42a 6.39 0.000 4.73a 2.72 0.000 17.81a 12.31 0.000 5.99 5.82 0.592 7.70a 6.73 0.001
Midwest 7.84a 6.25 0.000 5.14a 2.52 0.000 18.24a 12.45 0.000 6.39a 5.66 0.008 8.13a 6.64 0.000
South 6.90a 5.76 0.000 4.14a 2.52 0.000 15.18a 10.61 0.000 5.86a 5.34 0.047 7.20a 6.09 0.000
West 7.86a 6.47 0.000 5.37a 2.78 0.000 16.97a 11.88 0.000 6.54 5.99 0.119 8.14a 6.86 0.000
Alabama 6.40a 4.64 0.004 4.12a 2.17 0.002 13.75a 9.65 0.004 5.45b 4.10 0.064 6.65a 4.90 0.008
Alaska 8.06 7.43 0.431 5.31a 2.55 0.000 16.94a 12.30 0.007 6.80 7.16 0.707 8.40 7.99 0.636
Arizona 7.73 6.66 0.145 5.40a 2.90 0.002 18.24a 12.36 0.001 6.26 6.15 0.900 8.00 7.06 0.243
Arkansas 6.75a 4.88 0.002 4.90a 2.76 0.003 15.57a 9.64 0.000 5.54 4.34 0.102 6.95a 5.11 0.006
California 7.87a 6.55 0.003 5.27a 2.73 0.000 16.36a 11.85 0.000 6.61 6.07 0.327 8.18a 6.95 0.013
Colorado 8.97b 7.47 0.070 6.32a 3.20 0.000 21.03a 12.56 0.000 7.28 7.13 0.873 9.25 7.91 0.135
Connecticut 8.64a 6.90 0.033 5.92a 2.74 0.000 19.92a 13.00 0.000 7.19 6.40 0.420 8.93b 7.32 0.070
Delaware 7.88a 5.88 0.005 4.86a 2.42 0.000 18.98a 12.46 0.000 6.40 5.20 0.161 8.19a 6.21 0.010
District of Columbia 9.26 8.22 0.239 3.04 2.44 0.347 17.04a 12.85 0.015 8.10 7.65 0.671 9.73 8.55 0.206
Florida 6.93a 5.91 0.036 4.33a 2.69 0.001 14.60a 10.30 0.000 6.08 5.60 0.408 7.18b 6.19 0.061
Georgia 6.68a 5.48 0.050 3.38a 2.18 0.022 15.02a 10.55 0.001 5.72 5.03 0.353 7.07b 5.86 0.070
Hawaii 7.58a 5.37 0.004 5.83a 2.48 0.000 16.34a 10.67 0.001 6.38b 4.86 0.088 7.75a 5.64 0.010
Idaho 7.14b 6.05 0.089 5.16a 2.98 0.003 16.35a 11.89 0.005 5.79 5.48 0.684 7.37 6.42 0.176
Illinois 7.58a 6.05 0.002 4.32a 2.42 0.000 17.59a 12.07 0.000 6.19 5.49 0.231 7.94a 6.43 0.005
Indiana 6.99 5.94 0.102 5.01a 2.65 0.001 17.00a 12.48 0.006 5.57 5.21 0.630 7.22 6.30 0.189
Iowa 8.64a 6.36 0.001 6.67a 2.57 0.000 19.79a 13.00 0.000 6.92 5.63 0.122 8.85a 6.75 0.006
Kansas 8.06a 5.98 0.002 5.68a 2.51 0.000 19.37a 12.38 0.000 6.27 5.27 0.207 8.33a 6.37 0.009
Kentucky 5.98 5.61 0.572 3.83a 2.36 0.020 14.21a 10.14 0.008 4.95 5.25 0.691 6.20 5.95 0.714
Louisiana 7.02 6.59 0.566 3.63b 2.43 0.061 14.96a 10.54 0.004 5.95 6.42 0.598 7.40 7.04 0.651
Maine 6.76a 5.33 0.032 4.06a 2.52 0.021 17.72a 12.07 0.001 5.52 4.69 0.276 7.01a 5.57 0.045
Maryland 7.05 6.57 0.528 3.70b 2.56 0.080 15.17a 11.25 0.015 6.10 6.28 0.846 7.42 6.97 0.591
Massachusetts 7.42 6.70 0.310 4.74a 2.98 0.022 18.97a 12.58 0.000 5.68 6.07 0.636 7.68 7.04 0.400
Michigan 7.63a 5.66 0.000 4.90a 2.63 0.000 16.79a 11.49 0.000 6.43a 5.02 0.015 7.93a 5.97 0.000
Minnesota 9.20a 6.33 0.000 5.77a 2.20 0.000 21.08a 13.33 0.000 7.60a 5.70 0.038 9.56a 6.75 0.001
Mississippi 6.29b 5.15 0.071 3.68a 2.17 0.011 13.24a 8.90 0.002 5.38 4.86 0.499 6.60 5.48 0.106
Missouri 7.63a 6.14 0.032 5.15a 2.28 0.000 17.62a 12.57 0.003 6.29 5.53 0.344 7.90b 6.54 0.072
Montana 9.78a 6.95 0.001 8.23a 2.60 0.000 24.59a 14.09 0.000 7.49 6.25 0.214 9.94a 7.37 0.005
Nebraska 8.50a 6.85 0.035 5.65a 2.33 0.000 19.05a 13.25 0.001 6.88 6.28 0.521 8.81b 7.34 0.083
Nevada 7.61b 6.25 0.060 5.40a 3.02 0.004 16.76a 11.71 0.002 6.53 5.79 0.394 7.86 6.58 0.106
New Hampshire 7.50 7.20 0.704 5.09a 2.68 0.001 19.31a 14.12 0.007 5.98 6.59 0.511 7.75 7.62 0.880
New Jersey 6.61 5.72 0.159 3.71 3.24 0.492 15.87a 11.42 0.002 5.54 5.15 0.607 6.93 5.97 0.168
New Mexico 8.64a 6.82 0.024 6.64a 2.59 0.000 18.71a 12.05 0.000 7.05 6.46 0.548 8.86b 7.28 0.070
New York 7.88a 6.41 0.002 5.31a 2.51 0.000 18.10a 11.59 0.000 6.36 5.95 0.486 8.15a 6.77 0.009
North Carolina 6.27b 5.29 0.089 3.40a 2.08 0.013 14.65a 10.89 0.008 5.28 4.75 0.445 6.58 5.62 0.128
North Dakota 8.38b 7.06 0.078 5.29a 2.96 0.005 20.61a 13.19 0.000 6.03 6.15 0.891 8.69 7.44 0.120
Ohio 7.62a 6.47 0.021 5.19a 2.45 0.000 17.80a 11.66 0.000 6.26 6.11 0.808 7.89b 6.89 0.068
Oklahoma 7.55b 6.18 0.054 4.96a 2.11 0.000 16.78a 11.04 0.001 6.21 5.84 0.664 7.84 6.63 0.118
Oregon 8.54a 6.92 0.040 6.33a 3.05 0.000 18.71a 12.48 0.000 7.22 6.49 0.429 8.76b 7.29 0.080
Pennsylvania 6.91 6.45 0.363 4.21a 2.53 0.001 17.07a 13.26 0.002 5.56 5.79 0.700 7.18 6.82 0.505
Rhode Island 8.26 6.98 0.104 4.86a 2.86 0.010 18.03a 13.83 0.028 6.84 6.16 0.463 8.60 7.36 0.142
South Carolina 7.90a 5.94 0.007 3.98a 2.56 0.027 16.24a 10.50 0.000 7.03b 5.57 0.100 8.32a 6.27 0.010
South Dakota 9.68a 7.39 0.006 6.74a 2.63 0.000 23.35a 14.55 0.000 7.59 6.72 0.370 10.00a 7.89 0.019
Tennessee 6.18 5.29 0.162 3.28b 2.18 0.057 14.18a 10.43 0.011 5.30 4.81 0.521 6.48 5.61 0.205
Texas 6.98a 5.95 0.017 4.63a 2.98 0.002 14.76a 10.70 0.000 5.85 5.50 0.493 7.26a 6.31 0.042
Utah 6.07a 4.79 0.040 3.31 2.26 0.113 12.42 9.85 0.110 4.96 4.08 0.236 6.44b 5.15 0.063
Vermont 7.84 6.95 0.234 4.92a 2.75 0.004 20.15a 15.50 0.016 6.16 5.89 0.759 8.12 7.32 0.315
Virginia 8.04a 5.76 0.000 5.07a 2.19 0.000 19.44a 11.43 0.000 6.47 5.23 0.105 8.35a 6.12 0.001
Washington 7.08a 5.68 0.033 4.74a 2.74 0.004 16.26a 11.57 0.004 5.88 5.07 0.293 7.32b 5.97 0.057
West Virginia 6.54 5.49 0.118 4.45a 2.87 0.027 15.43a 11.46 0.012 5.48 4.87 0.439 6.73 5.73 0.160
Wisconsin 8.06 7.33 0.343 5.43a 3.06 0.004 19.67a 14.57 0.005 6.43 6.64 0.821 8.34 7.76 0.488
Wyoming 8.51a 6.36 0.003 6.96a 2.94 0.000 19.54a 13.15 0.000 6.75 5.62 0.188 8.67a 6.71 0.013
150806
Table 10 – Alcohol Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 3.54a 2.97 0.000 1.92a 0.95 0.000 6.96a 5.18 0.000 3.16a 2.84 0.017 3.72a 3.18 0.000
Northeast 3.53a 3.09 0.025 1.96a 0.94 0.000 7.51a 5.25 0.000 3.05 2.98 0.775 3.69b 3.30 0.065
Midwest 3.51a 2.86 0.000 1.96a 0.93 0.000 7.54a 5.30 0.000 3.02b 2.68 0.081 3.68a 3.06 0.000
South 3.44a 2.73 0.000 1.73a 0.92 0.000 6.37a 4.66 0.000 3.16a 2.62 0.006 3.63a 2.92 0.000
West 3.74b 3.37 0.074 2.13a 1.05 0.000 6.89a 5.82 0.014 3.39 3.23 0.544 3.93 3.61 0.176
Alabama 3.17a 2.34 0.046 1.75a 0.80 0.001 6.31a 3.86 0.004 2.81 2.27 0.294 3.32b 2.50 0.075
Alaska 3.88 3.67 0.675 1.80a 0.87 0.002 6.85 6.23 0.581 3.63 3.55 0.905 4.14 3.99 0.786
Arizona 3.50 3.62 0.808 2.03a 1.10 0.009 7.40 5.92 0.176 3.04 3.55 0.417 3.67 3.89 0.685
Arkansas 3.25a 2.42 0.046 1.75a 0.96 0.008 6.67a 4.30 0.010 2.88 2.28 0.251 3.41b 2.57 0.071
California 3.83 3.48 0.278 2.17a 1.07 0.000 6.54 6.02 0.429 3.55 3.32 0.588 4.03 3.73 0.412
Colorado 3.74 3.72 0.968 1.95a 1.11 0.013 6.98 5.80 0.264 3.42 3.68 0.689 3.93 3.99 0.917
Connecticut 3.48 3.16 0.513 2.06a 0.92 0.000 7.27 6.02 0.269 3.06 2.96 0.874 3.64 3.39 0.651
Delaware 3.47 2.74 0.119 1.72a 0.92 0.004 6.67 5.26 0.160 3.15 2.54 0.298 3.66 2.92 0.154
District of Columbia 4.61 3.97 0.281 1.23 0.84 0.166 7.75 6.15 0.214 4.22 3.72 0.505 4.87 4.14 0.259
Florida 3.60a 2.60 0.005 1.74a 0.86 0.000 6.14a 4.43 0.005 3.43a 2.51 0.038 3.78a 2.75 0.009
Georgia 3.55a 2.60 0.031 1.47a 0.84 0.012 6.19a 4.52 0.037 3.39 2.50 0.127 3.79a 2.80 0.046
Hawaii 3.22 2.69 0.269 2.03a 0.84 0.002 7.02 5.32 0.130 2.74 2.47 0.641 3.33 2.85 0.366
Idaho 3.25 3.02 0.599 2.11a 0.92 0.000 7.04b 5.37 0.095 2.75 2.92 0.763 3.39 3.28 0.818
Illinois 3.66a 2.82 0.013 1.67a 0.91 0.001 7.94a 5.53 0.002 3.14 2.61 0.197 3.88a 3.02 0.022
Indiana 3.31 3.16 0.729 2.21a 0.98 0.000 7.61 6.00 0.136 2.73 2.94 0.717 3.44 3.40 0.937
Iowa 3.41a 2.59 0.049 2.41a 0.94 0.000 7.01a 4.81 0.020 2.90 2.39 0.338 3.52 2.76 0.103
Kansas 3.40a 2.50 0.038 1.97a 0.94 0.001 6.98a 4.82 0.029 2.92 2.28 0.244 3.56b 2.67 0.068
Kentucky 3.03 2.85 0.701 1.75a 0.82 0.001 6.02a 4.24 0.047 2.71 2.86 0.804 3.16 3.06 0.840
Louisiana 3.55 3.57 0.970 1.49a 0.85 0.018 6.32 5.98 0.730 3.30 3.49 0.775 3.79 3.86 0.897
Maine 3.25a 2.29 0.034 1.71a 0.86 0.004 6.87a 3.86 0.001 2.92 2.22 0.210 3.40a 2.42 0.049
Maryland 3.67 2.94 0.159 1.68a 0.79 0.001 6.50 4.95 0.114 3.45 2.87 0.383 3.89 3.16 0.205
Massachusetts 3.62 3.09 0.264 2.04a 0.91 0.000 7.96a 5.52 0.029 3.03 2.90 0.820 3.77 3.29 0.352
Michigan 3.43a 2.64 0.016 1.94a 0.95 0.000 6.85a 5.01 0.009 3.04 2.43 0.132 3.60a 2.81 0.031
Minnesota 4.17a 2.75 0.006 1.98a 0.85 0.000 7.72a 5.01 0.009 3.84b 2.62 0.062 4.41a 2.95 0.012
Mississippi 3.35a 2.46 0.046 1.59a 0.85 0.006 6.21a 4.00 0.013 3.07 2.40 0.236 3.56b 2.64 0.067
Missouri 3.29 2.63 0.144 1.91a 0.83 0.000 6.67b 4.91 0.061 2.90 2.47 0.437 3.43 2.82 0.213
Montana 3.99 3.38 0.271 2.60a 0.94 0.000 10.69a 6.06 0.000 3.03 3.21 0.791 4.13 3.61 0.394
Nebraska 3.54 3.18 0.449 2.10a 0.92 0.000 7.42 6.42 0.361 2.99 2.89 0.865 3.70 3.43 0.609
Nevada 3.61 3.15 0.354 2.21a 1.04 0.001 6.84 5.54 0.207 3.30 3.03 0.656 3.76 3.37 0.471
New Hampshire 3.41 3.52 0.814 2.36a 0.88 0.000 8.32a 5.85 0.025 2.78 3.44 0.285 3.52 3.77 0.641
New Jersey 3.09 2.50 0.148 1.76a 0.91 0.003 6.03 4.83 0.155 2.80 2.33 0.372 3.23 2.66 0.209
New Mexico 4.16 4.02 0.818 2.41a 1.23 0.008 8.37 6.36 0.103 3.62 3.98 0.638 4.36 4.32 0.960
New York 3.86 3.33 0.141 2.24a 1.02 0.000 8.36a 5.43 0.000 3.24 3.23 0.970 4.02 3.55 0.222
North Carolina 3.52 2.81 0.104 1.49a 0.81 0.004 6.50a 4.69 0.036 3.29 2.74 0.333 3.74 3.01 0.141
North Dakota 3.36 2.90 0.283 2.13a 0.97 0.001 7.67 6.05 0.141 2.55 2.41 0.799 3.48 3.08 0.392
Ohio 3.35 3.15 0.577 1.93a 0.95 0.000 7.80a 4.97 0.000 2.80 3.13 0.433 3.50 3.38 0.758
Oklahoma 3.28 2.85 0.312 1.88a 0.84 0.000 7.33a 5.11 0.027 2.72 2.70 0.971 3.43 3.07 0.444
Oregon 4.25 3.54 0.211 2.18a 1.06 0.001 7.70b 5.66 0.052 3.95 3.48 0.513 4.45 3.77 0.275
Pennsylvania 3.26 3.10 0.642 1.62a 0.88 0.002 6.84a 4.78 0.004 2.87 3.07 0.663 3.43 3.31 0.748
Rhode Island 4.27 3.53 0.214 1.75a 0.96 0.011 7.60 6.22 0.248 3.94 3.31 0.400 4.52 3.77 0.247
South Carolina 4.09a 2.89 0.023 1.56a 0.81 0.005 6.43 4.93 0.119 4.02b 2.79 0.068 4.36a 3.09 0.031
South Dakota 3.68 3.30 0.440 2.17a 0.95 0.000 9.13a 5.98 0.007 2.89 3.12 0.711 3.85 3.55 0.587
Tennessee 3.29b 2.45 0.059 1.63a 0.79 0.001 6.62a 3.99 0.003 2.98 2.40 0.293 3.47b 2.62 0.087
Texas 3.17 2.70 0.115 1.92a 1.16 0.006 5.83b 4.73 0.081 2.85 2.54 0.421 3.32 2.88 0.193
Utah 3.25a 2.36 0.024 1.81a 0.95 0.006 5.90 4.66 0.181 2.83 2.08 0.154 3.44b 2.56 0.053
Vermont 3.84 3.73 0.849 1.93a 0.96 0.003 7.46 6.15 0.253 3.46 3.59 0.860 4.03 3.97 0.933
Virginia 3.63b 2.89 0.077 1.91a 0.83 0.000 7.85a 5.01 0.002 3.12 2.78 0.527 3.81 3.10 0.127
Washington 3.48b 2.64 0.051 2.07a 0.93 0.000 7.44a 5.21 0.027 3.02 2.42 0.270 3.63b 2.81 0.086
West Virginia 3.37 2.70 0.161 2.03a 0.96 0.001 6.62 5.05 0.106 3.04 2.53 0.383 3.50 2.85 0.222
Wisconsin 3.62 2.88 0.116 2.12a 0.98 0.000 8.25a 5.68 0.018 3.03 2.65 0.514 3.78 3.08 0.177
Wyoming 3.48 3.35 0.785 2.50a 1.06 0.000 7.93 6.71 0.303 2.81 3.05 0.685 3.58 3.58 0.999
150806
Table 11 – Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Serious mental illness (SMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder, assessed by the Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition—Research Version—Axis I Disorders (MHSS-SCID), which is based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). SMI includes individuals with diagnoses resulting in serious functional impairment. For details, see Section B of the "2011-2012 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012 and October 2013).
Total U.S. 3.70a 4.05 0.006 3.55a 4.92 0.000 3.72 3.91 0.214
Northeast 3.64 3.94 0.199 3.65a 5.15 0.000 3.64 3.74 0.712
Midwest 4.00 4.36 0.101 3.79a 5.33 0.000 4.04 4.19 0.530
South 3.59a 4.00 0.027 3.28a 4.54 0.000 3.64 3.91 0.198
West 3.63 3.96 0.151 3.66a 4.98 0.000 3.62 3.78 0.549
Alabama 3.57b 4.64 0.070 3.44a 4.97 0.029 3.59 4.59 0.143
Alaska 3.49 4.02 0.323 3.11a 5.75 0.001 3.56 3.69 0.830
Arizona 3.84 4.33 0.408 3.72b 5.06 0.073 3.86 4.21 0.605
Arkansas 4.74 5.27 0.449 3.99 5.16 0.125 4.86 5.29 0.593
California 3.20 3.53 0.344 3.62b 4.47 0.076 3.12 3.36 0.548
Colorado 4.65 4.27 0.554 3.67a 5.27 0.035 4.81 4.10 0.323
Connecticut 3.52 3.46 0.912 3.53a 5.01 0.050 3.51 3.21 0.599
Delaware 3.55 3.75 0.700 3.49a 5.03 0.039 3.56 3.55 0.987
District of Columbia 3.06 3.63 0.254 3.00a 4.70 0.014 3.07 3.41 0.562
Florida 3.64 3.61 0.953 3.39b 4.33 0.052 3.67 3.51 0.713
Georgia 3.39 3.99 0.278 2.78a 4.12 0.031 3.49 3.96 0.450
Hawaii 3.11 3.59 0.380 3.89 4.34 0.581 2.98 3.48 0.425
Idaho 4.75 4.57 0.774 3.74a 5.64 0.016 4.93 4.38 0.450
Illinois 3.62 3.53 0.818 3.51b 4.50 0.063 3.64 3.37 0.536
Indiana 4.71 4.81 0.884 4.02a 5.71 0.038 4.82 4.65 0.821
Iowa 3.83 4.15 0.556 3.76b 5.25 0.052 3.84 3.96 0.851
Kansas 3.51 4.08 0.313 3.78 4.97 0.112 3.46 3.91 0.478
Kentucky 4.18 5.08 0.184 3.42a 4.93 0.035 4.30 5.11 0.295
Louisiana 3.59b 4.53 0.094 3.49 4.60 0.103 3.61 4.51 0.161
Maine 4.00 5.06 0.111 4.33 5.39 0.197 3.95 5.01 0.154
Maryland 3.28 3.05 0.625 3.46b 4.66 0.092 3.25 2.79 0.387
Massachusetts 3.73 3.86 0.818 3.21a 5.09 0.010 3.82 3.64 0.771
Michigan 3.98 4.33 0.413 4.12a 5.39 0.027 3.96 4.15 0.694
Minnesota 4.37 4.33 0.959 3.84a 5.45 0.040 4.46 4.15 0.668
Mississippi 3.43 4.14 0.225 2.99 3.92 0.156 3.51 4.17 0.320
Missouri 4.09 4.68 0.346 3.58a 5.56 0.008 4.18 4.53 0.617
Montana 3.95b 5.19 0.057 3.98a 5.73 0.027 3.95 5.10 0.119
Nebraska 3.57 4.43 0.124 3.59a 5.69 0.008 3.57 4.21 0.316
Nevada 4.37 4.41 0.946 3.81b 5.38 0.052 4.45 4.26 0.802
New Hampshire 3.75a 5.42 0.012 3.98a 7.55 0.000 3.72b 5.08 0.063
New Jersey 3.35 3.62 0.593 3.77a 5.49 0.020 3.29 3.34 0.931
New Mexico 3.45b 4.47 0.085 3.61 4.46 0.230 3.42 4.47 0.121
New York 3.84 3.90 0.879 3.80b 4.75 0.064 3.85 3.76 0.838
North Carolina 3.63b 4.67 0.079 3.02a 4.49 0.022 3.73 4.70 0.150
North Dakota 3.25 3.90 0.177 3.36a 5.18 0.014 3.23 3.61 0.491
Ohio 4.10a 5.22 0.018 3.69a 5.94 0.000 4.17b 5.10 0.082
Oklahoma 3.97 4.33 0.549 4.07 5.02 0.240 3.95 4.20 0.707
Oregon 4.23 4.73 0.452 3.82a 6.81 0.000 4.30 4.40 0.882
Pennsylvania 3.31b 4.01 0.078 3.43a 5.39 0.000 3.29 3.79 0.269
Rhode Island 5.38 4.51 0.247 4.29 5.13 0.334 5.58 4.39 0.167
South Carolina 3.57 4.08 0.367 3.26a 4.68 0.044 3.62 3.98 0.570
South Dakota 3.19b 4.13 0.072 3.44b 4.83 0.055 3.14 4.00 0.150
Tennessee 3.80 4.36 0.358 3.25a 4.82 0.025 3.89 4.29 0.558
Texas 3.33 3.34 0.961 3.08a 4.22 0.014 3.37 3.18 0.630
Utah 4.64 4.55 0.878 3.78a 6.12 0.005 4.86 4.19 0.335
Vermont 3.78b 4.88 0.097 3.97b 5.32 0.094 3.75 4.80 0.165
Virginia 3.34a 4.45 0.041 3.55a 5.32 0.014 3.30 4.30 0.104
Washington 3.78 4.43 0.257 3.55a 5.85 0.003 3.82 4.21 0.543
West Virginia 4.87 5.41 0.487 3.66a 5.30 0.035 5.04 5.43 0.660
Wisconsin 4.12 3.99 0.822 4.16 5.28 0.166 4.11 3.77 0.608
Wyoming 4.20 4.41 0.735 3.49a 5.76 0.003 4.32 4.18 0.831
150806
Table 12 – Any Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Any mental illness (AMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder, assessed by the Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition—Research Version—Axis I Disorders (MHSS-SCID), which is based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Three categories of mental illness severity are defined based on the level of functional impairment: mild mental illness, moderate mental illness, and serious mental illness. Any mental illness includes individuals in any of the three categories. For details, see Section B of the "2011-2012 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012 and October 2013).
Total U.S. 17.92 18.01 0.764 18.25a 20.89 0.000 17.86 17.52 0.272
Northeast 18.18 17.76 0.430 18.61a 22.00 0.000 18.10b 17.07 0.084
Midwest 18.36 18.34 0.965 19.22a 21.43 0.000 18.21 17.81 0.430
South 17.33 17.82 0.240 17.06a 19.31 0.000 17.38 17.57 0.682
West 18.23 18.18 0.929 18.88a 22.03 0.000 18.12 17.51 0.337
Alabama 17.44 18.85 0.300 16.53 18.78 0.195 17.59 18.86 0.412
Alaska 16.72 18.11 0.291 15.79a 24.93 0.000 16.90 16.80 0.947
Arizona 17.15 18.32 0.407 18.31 19.58 0.503 16.95 18.10 0.474
Arkansas 19.60 19.77 0.907 19.89 21.50 0.405 19.55 19.48 0.967
California 17.44 17.04 0.635 18.49b 20.70 0.054 17.23 16.38 0.366
Colorado 18.95 19.55 0.682 17.74a 24.26 0.001 19.15 18.75 0.809
Connecticut 17.87 17.42 0.751 19.35 21.34 0.317 17.64 16.78 0.595
Delaware 17.75 18.51 0.596 18.41 20.97 0.178 17.64 18.11 0.770
District of Columbia 17.99 17.95 0.980 17.44 19.31 0.318 18.12 17.67 0.772
Florida 16.99 16.77 0.808 16.69a 19.01 0.042 17.03 16.44 0.565
Georgia 16.50 17.42 0.462 16.16a 19.90 0.025 16.56 16.99 0.762
Hawaii 17.52 15.91 0.230 19.54 20.03 0.812 17.20 15.28 0.199
Idaho 19.51 20.41 0.521 19.37a 23.90 0.020 19.54 19.82 0.861
Illinois 16.68 16.16 0.559 17.19 19.03 0.136 16.59 15.68 0.372
Indiana 20.37 20.56 0.897 20.62b 24.31 0.068 20.33 19.90 0.801
Iowa 17.23 17.10 0.923 18.24 19.27 0.581 17.05 16.72 0.816
Kansas 17.24 17.52 0.837 17.89 19.19 0.501 17.13 17.22 0.952
Kentucky 19.23 21.30 0.175 17.78 19.78 0.281 19.46 21.55 0.223
Louisiana 17.46 18.42 0.481 16.81 17.30 0.777 17.59 18.62 0.510
Maine 19.25 19.16 0.952 19.59b 23.21 0.081 19.20 18.61 0.718
Maryland 16.86 16.62 0.856 17.72b 21.14 0.078 16.72 15.89 0.585
Massachusetts 18.01 18.99 0.483 18.31b 21.81 0.075 17.95 18.50 0.729
Michigan 18.63 18.07 0.546 19.81b 22.10 0.070 18.43 17.38 0.318
Minnesota 18.94 18.78 0.910 19.72 22.58 0.143 18.81 18.17 0.680
Mississippi 16.95 17.95 0.475 17.28 16.41 0.624 16.89 18.23 0.400
Missouri 19.11 17.99 0.431 21.43 20.97 0.821 18.72 17.49 0.436
Montana 19.18 19.97 0.592 19.20a 24.13 0.013 19.17 19.28 0.948
Nebraska 17.56 18.19 0.637 17.25 20.00 0.149 17.63 17.87 0.872
Nevada 20.59b 17.91 0.074 20.46 20.74 0.893 20.60b 17.48 0.061
New Hampshire 18.35a 21.67 0.023 19.88a 28.01 0.000 18.11 20.68 0.115
New Jersey 17.65 16.19 0.273 18.52 20.62 0.224 17.51 15.52 0.181
New Mexico 17.85 19.93 0.162 18.04b 21.26 0.096 17.82 19.70 0.267
New York 18.35 17.22 0.205 18.27a 22.30 0.002 18.37a 16.36 0.047
North Carolina 17.74 19.48 0.188 16.43a 20.92 0.008 17.95 19.24 0.389
North Dakota 15.46 16.78 0.283 15.32a 21.85 0.000 15.50 15.65 0.918
Ohio 18.41b 20.20 0.070 18.75a 22.49 0.004 18.36 19.82 0.186
Oklahoma 20.33 19.18 0.445 20.56 20.58 0.995 20.28 18.93 0.427
Oregon 19.55 21.47 0.205 20.51a 27.21 0.001 19.40 20.59 0.484
Pennsylvania 17.83 18.21 0.695 18.55a 21.89 0.012 17.71 17.62 0.935
Rhode Island 23.53b 20.50 0.073 22.77 22.01 0.739 23.67b 20.22 0.073
South Carolina 16.95 17.52 0.682 16.99 18.89 0.309 16.94 17.29 0.821
South Dakota 16.40 17.57 0.376 16.94a 20.90 0.027 16.31 16.99 0.651
Tennessee 19.12 19.85 0.623 17.43 20.40 0.108 19.38 19.76 0.819
Texas 16.47 15.98 0.561 16.11 17.92 0.112 16.54 15.63 0.340
Utah 21.78 20.48 0.360 21.53 24.06 0.239 21.85 19.66 0.186
Vermont 18.66 20.27 0.273 19.42b 23.37 0.055 18.53 19.73 0.469
Virginia 16.33a 19.18 0.027 18.33 20.56 0.214 15.99a 18.94 0.041
Washington 19.85 19.68 0.908 20.00a 26.63 0.002 19.82 18.56 0.445
West Virginia 20.00 20.89 0.573 21.21 20.88 0.871 19.83 20.89 0.545
Wisconsin 19.96 18.75 0.410 22.43 22.42 0.994 19.55 18.15 0.397
Wyoming 20.24 19.51 0.618 20.38 23.37 0.136 20.22 18.85 0.410
150806
Table 13 – Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Respondents were asked, "At any time in the past 12 months, did you seriously think about trying to kill yourself?" If they answered "Yes," they were categorized as having serious thoughts of suicide in the past year.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 3.73a 3.99 0.032 6.42a 7.88 0.000 3.26 3.34 0.585
Northeast 3.73 3.93 0.349 6.64a 8.15 0.000 3.24 3.24 0.997
Midwest 4.10 4.14 0.843 6.79a 8.08 0.000 3.64 3.48 0.436
South 3.41a 3.86 0.008 5.91a 7.40 0.000 2.99 3.27 0.138
West 3.87 4.12 0.257 6.66a 8.25 0.000 3.36 3.41 0.865
Alabama 3.73 4.02 0.606 6.42 7.76 0.179 3.28 3.40 0.850
Alaska 3.76 4.68 0.104 6.00a 9.97 0.001 3.34 3.66 0.595
Arizona 3.98 4.34 0.544 6.60 8.06 0.171 3.54 3.70 0.805
Arkansas 4.11 4.41 0.600 6.67 7.43 0.448 3.69 3.90 0.742
California 3.39 3.80 0.198 6.53b 7.68 0.081 2.79 3.11 0.375
Colorado 4.30 4.47 0.777 6.14a 8.56 0.019 4.00 3.78 0.742
Connecticut 3.95 3.49 0.390 6.61 7.59 0.338 3.53 2.82 0.227
Delaware 3.02a 4.03 0.048 6.09a 8.33 0.028 2.51 3.34 0.135
District of Columbia 4.47 4.18 0.632 5.73 7.26 0.104 4.18 3.54 0.344
Florida 3.54 3.59 0.893 6.10b 7.33 0.069 3.16 3.04 0.774
Georgia 2.80a 4.03 0.007 5.26b 6.92 0.060 2.38a 3.53 0.024
Hawaii 3.81 3.88 0.904 7.53 7.96 0.719 3.21 3.25 0.955
Idaho 4.76 4.39 0.526 7.07 8.05 0.367 4.35 3.76 0.373
Illinois 4.28 3.89 0.349 6.31b 7.58 0.081 3.91 3.27 0.167
Indiana 4.21 4.17 0.936 6.56 8.03 0.145 3.82 3.49 0.591
Iowa 4.01 3.93 0.874 6.44 8.13 0.104 3.59 3.18 0.480
Kansas 3.60 4.14 0.291 6.42 7.91 0.149 3.07 3.45 0.506
Kentucky 3.96 4.66 0.247 6.28 7.89 0.102 3.60 4.12 0.443
Louisiana 3.11a 4.19 0.035 5.84 7.37 0.114 2.58b 3.63 0.065
Maine 4.56 4.10 0.455 7.07 8.02 0.378 4.21 3.57 0.334
Maryland 3.41 3.65 0.624 6.51 7.74 0.236 2.89 3.00 0.831
Massachusetts 3.93 3.88 0.925 5.99b 7.62 0.090 3.57 3.23 0.581
Michigan 4.26 4.14 0.753 7.67 8.35 0.386 3.69 3.41 0.545
Minnesota 3.67 4.07 0.448 6.59 8.21 0.120 3.18 3.41 0.687
Mississippi 3.29b 4.13 0.095 6.35 6.97 0.513 2.72 3.62 0.118
Missouri 3.87 3.92 0.934 6.34 7.67 0.174 3.47 3.29 0.772
Montana 4.35 4.95 0.353 6.85a 8.96 0.043 3.93 4.29 0.624
Nebraska 3.91 4.18 0.614 6.04a 8.27 0.025 3.51 3.45 0.919
Nevada 4.41 4.45 0.956 6.71b 8.56 0.094 4.07 3.82 0.727
New Hampshire 3.40a 4.94 0.008 6.82a 10.56 0.002 2.88b 4.06 0.064
New Jersey 3.28 3.78 0.291 6.97 8.10 0.257 2.71 3.13 0.420
New Mexico 4.15 4.08 0.904 6.85 7.93 0.318 3.65 3.42 0.726
New York 3.82 3.85 0.929 6.62b 8.00 0.066 3.32 3.15 0.694
North Carolina 3.55 4.20 0.216 5.80b 7.28 0.097 3.18 3.69 0.385
North Dakota 3.56 3.95 0.425 5.39a 8.01 0.007 3.14 3.04 0.845
Ohio 4.25 4.64 0.382 6.90a 8.52 0.041 3.82 4.01 0.698
Oklahoma 3.53 3.97 0.406 6.31 7.74 0.162 3.02 3.31 0.629
Oregon 4.43 4.37 0.931 6.64a 10.09 0.002 4.08 3.49 0.383
Pennsylvania 3.52 4.10 0.118 6.73a 8.64 0.014 2.99 3.38 0.347
Rhode Island 5.11 4.42 0.320 6.79 8.62 0.101 4.79 3.65 0.136
South Carolina 3.51 3.73 0.676 6.21 6.87 0.484 3.07 3.21 0.805
South Dakota 4.23 3.66 0.281 7.18 7.33 0.883 3.70 3.02 0.248
Tennessee 3.26a 4.26 0.049 5.64a 7.59 0.037 2.90 3.72 0.147
Texas 3.27 3.46 0.557 5.42a 7.28 0.004 2.86 2.76 0.780
Utah 5.39 5.25 0.841 7.49a 9.95 0.047 4.85 4.18 0.370
Vermont 4.49 4.59 0.872 7.04 7.94 0.400 4.07 4.01 0.929
Virginia 3.31 3.94 0.169 6.25b 8.06 0.061 2.80 3.25 0.374
Washington 4.56 4.54 0.983 7.18a 9.49 0.042 4.14 3.75 0.579
West Virginia 4.29 4.23 0.922 7.28 7.69 0.712 3.86 3.71 0.828
Wisconsin 4.05 4.18 0.802 7.90 8.30 0.716 3.40 3.50 0.862
Wyoming 4.52 4.14 0.514 6.32a 8.37 0.047 4.20 3.42 0.225
150806
Table 14 – Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Major depressive episode (MDE) is defined as in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when an individual experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms. For details, see Section B of the "2011-2012 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
NOTE: There are minor wording differences in the questions in the adult and adolescent MDE modules. Therefore, data from youths aged 12 to 17 were not combined with data from adults aged 18 or older to produce an estimate for those aged 12 or older.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 6.53 6.64 0.519 8.22a 11.93 0.000 8.21a 9.79 0.000 6.24 6.11 0.474
Northeast 6.42 6.82 0.192 7.92a 11.68 0.000 8.06a 10.56 0.000 6.15 6.21 0.858
Midwest 6.72 6.87 0.530 8.35a 12.12 0.000 8.50a 10.23 0.000 6.41 6.31 0.723
South 6.44 6.52 0.730 8.07a 11.51 0.000 7.79a 9.09 0.000 6.22 6.09 0.648
West 6.57 6.47 0.740 8.53a 12.59 0.000 8.67a 9.94 0.014 6.19 5.87 0.335
Alabama 6.35 6.81 0.556 7.99a 10.97 0.015 7.35 8.61 0.277 6.19 6.51 0.712
Alaska 5.86 6.73 0.259 7.70a 12.40 0.000 7.31a 11.68 0.002 5.59 5.77 0.827
Arizona 6.94 6.77 0.842 8.99a 13.20 0.003 8.88 8.46 0.747 6.61 6.48 0.893
Arkansas 7.86 7.78 0.935 9.03a 12.72 0.005 8.98 10.27 0.335 7.67 7.36 0.766
California 6.05 5.90 0.730 8.14a 12.28 0.000 8.50 9.57 0.168 5.58 5.24 0.493
Colorado 7.56 7.25 0.724 9.16a 13.73 0.001 8.40 10.47 0.120 7.41 6.71 0.467
Connecticut 5.95 6.77 0.282 8.03a 11.49 0.007 8.11b 10.28 0.098 5.61 6.21 0.473
Delaware 6.43 6.39 0.957 7.86a 11.47 0.003 8.55 9.88 0.291 6.08 5.83 0.775
District of Columbia 5.93 6.60 0.348 6.93a 9.96 0.017 7.39a 9.92 0.049 5.60 5.91 0.702
Florida 6.40 5.95 0.395 8.53a 11.88 0.000 7.93 8.84 0.244 6.17 5.53 0.277
Georgia 6.26 6.43 0.815 7.88a 10.08 0.049 7.65 9.10 0.187 6.02 5.96 0.944
Hawaii 6.15 5.65 0.530 8.08 9.87 0.197 8.68 8.31 0.788 5.74 5.24 0.567
Idaho 7.47 7.14 0.682 8.90a 13.03 0.004 9.19 10.94 0.188 7.16 6.49 0.451
Illinois 6.17 5.98 0.709 7.48a 11.20 0.000 7.93 9.06 0.193 5.85 5.46 0.506
Indiana 8.14 7.89 0.784 9.25a 14.64 0.000 8.51a 12.01 0.012 8.08 7.16 0.374
Iowa 5.87 6.41 0.453 8.07a 11.87 0.003 7.75 8.95 0.326 5.54 5.96 0.604
Kansas 6.61 7.01 0.625 8.58a 11.18 0.043 8.38 9.83 0.255 6.29 6.49 0.820
Kentucky 7.14 7.60 0.597 8.42a 11.05 0.037 7.98b 10.31 0.061 7.00 7.15 0.883
Louisiana 5.75 6.83 0.158 7.67a 11.00 0.008 6.97 8.42 0.201 5.51 6.55 0.236
Maine 6.81 7.88 0.209 8.08a 12.51 0.001 8.78a 12.13 0.018 6.53 7.30 0.414
Maryland 6.17 6.02 0.844 7.31a 11.03 0.003 8.18 10.21 0.126 5.83 5.36 0.569
Massachusetts 6.77 7.29 0.514 8.03a 12.37 0.001 8.51a 11.29 0.036 6.47 6.59 0.888
Michigan 6.65 6.57 0.875 8.21a 11.80 0.000 9.15 10.37 0.179 6.23 5.92 0.599
Minnesota 7.55 7.36 0.826 8.60a 12.55 0.002 8.87 9.83 0.463 7.33 6.97 0.712
Mississippi 5.80 5.88 0.916 7.26a 11.08 0.002 6.60 8.02 0.198 5.66 5.49 0.834
Missouri 7.03 6.62 0.611 8.91a 11.49 0.041 9.15 9.67 0.693 6.68 6.11 0.527
Montana 6.76 6.92 0.839 9.07b 11.42 0.078 8.85 9.29 0.718 6.41 6.53 0.895
Nebraska 6.31 7.21 0.243 8.20a 12.25 0.002 7.59a 10.84 0.011 6.07 6.56 0.574
Nevada 6.88 6.93 0.958 7.38a 13.94 0.000 8.89 9.65 0.558 6.58 6.51 0.937
New Hampshire 7.61 8.71 0.244 8.80a 13.43 0.001 8.88a 13.21 0.004 7.41 8.00 0.575
New Jersey 5.98 6.47 0.496 7.35a 10.32 0.008 8.12b 10.18 0.075 5.65 5.91 0.742
New Mexico 6.47 6.59 0.880 8.95b 11.50 0.055 8.56 8.59 0.986 6.08 6.25 0.854
New York 6.64 6.52 0.812 8.22a 11.92 0.000 7.84a 10.12 0.008 6.42 5.91 0.365
North Carolina 6.85 7.47 0.429 8.43a 12.35 0.001 8.07 9.62 0.177 6.65 7.12 0.596
North Dakota 6.26 6.37 0.877 9.03 10.47 0.250 7.21b 9.47 0.058 6.05 5.68 0.654
Ohio 6.18a 7.74 0.005 8.31a 11.85 0.000 8.16a 11.18 0.001 5.85a 7.19 0.032
Oklahoma 7.40 6.83 0.494 8.04a 12.57 0.001 9.47 9.45 0.992 7.03 6.36 0.482
Oregon 7.44 7.51 0.929 10.18a 14.33 0.006 9.83 11.61 0.208 7.07 6.88 0.848
Pennsylvania 5.92b 6.89 0.083 7.54a 11.64 0.000 7.64a 10.83 0.000 5.64 6.26 0.312
Rhode Island 9.34a 7.08 0.025 9.35a 13.03 0.014 10.87 9.81 0.493 9.05a 6.57 0.029
South Carolina 7.02 6.48 0.491 8.90b 10.96 0.091 8.43 8.67 0.843 6.79 6.12 0.449
South Dakota 5.71 6.11 0.575 8.47 9.90 0.275 6.90a 9.25 0.047 5.50 5.56 0.940
Tennessee 6.83 6.97 0.866 8.53b 10.92 0.062 7.19a 9.58 0.043 6.78 6.54 0.793
Texas 5.97 5.68 0.533 7.49a 11.53 0.000 7.25 8.15 0.229 5.73 5.23 0.339
Utah 7.51 7.02 0.525 8.43a 11.97 0.005 8.37 10.21 0.143 7.29 6.29 0.257
Vermont 6.52b 7.93 0.094 8.10a 12.06 0.002 9.43 10.45 0.455 6.04 7.49 0.128
Virginia 6.30a 7.93 0.038 8.78a 12.47 0.004 8.57b 10.58 0.100 5.92b 7.49 0.076
Washington 7.19 7.50 0.714 9.39a 12.54 0.023 9.07a 12.52 0.020 6.88 6.70 0.844
West Virginia 7.77 8.29 0.590 8.39a 13.26 0.000 8.81 10.61 0.199 7.62 7.95 0.764
Wisconsin 7.28 6.56 0.365 8.83a 13.64 0.001 9.55 10.61 0.430 6.89 5.89 0.258
Wyoming 7.37 7.51 0.867 8.50a 13.31 0.000 9.50 10.80 0.351 6.99 6.95 0.966

Methodology Used to Estimate the Bayes Significance Level for the Null Hypothesis
of No Change between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 Population Percentages

Estimating P Values

To determine whether the differences between the 2008-20091 and 2014-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) state prevalence rates are statistically significant, let pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a denote the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 prevalence rates, respectively, for state-s and age group-a. The difference between pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a is defined in terms of the log odds ratio (lor sub s and a) as opposed to the simple difference because the posterior distribution of lor sub s and a is closer to Gaussian than the posterior distribution of the simple difference (Pi 2 sub s and a minus pi 1 sub s and a represents the simple difference between the 2014-2015 and 2008-2009 prevalence rates.). The lor sub s and a is defined as follows:

Equation 1.     D


In this equation, the ln denotes the natural logarithm. The p value given in each of the tables in this document (i.e., Tables 1 to 14) is computed to test the null hypothesis of no change (i.e., Pi 2 sub s and a is equal to pi 1 sub s and a. or equivalently, Log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a, is equal to zero.). An estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a is given by

Equation 2,     D


where p 1 sub s and a are the previously published 2008-2009 state estimates2 and p 2 sub s and a are the 2014-2015 state estimates presented in Tables 1 to 14 and elsewhere at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/. To compute the variance of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, that is, variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, let Theta 1 hat equal the ratio of p 1 sub s and a and 1 minus p 1 sub s and a and Theta 2 hat equal the ratio of p 2 sub s and a and 1 minus p 2 sub s and a, then

Equation 3,     D

where the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation 4.     D

Note that the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat used here to calculate the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a are the same variances used in calculating the previously published 2008-2009 Bayesian confidence intervals and the 2014-2015 Bayesian confidence intervals given here, respectively. The correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat is estimated using generalized correlations,3 which are described in detail in the next section.

To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero.) between the 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 state estimates, it is assumed that the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio lor is normal with Mean is equal to the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a. and Variance is equal to the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a.. With the null value of (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero.), the Bayes p value or significance level for the null hypothesis of no difference is The p value is equal to 2 times the probability of realizing a standard normal variate greater than or equal to the absolute value of a quantity z., where capital Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, divided by the square root of the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a., and absolute value of quantity z denotes the absolute value of quantity z. This Bayesian significance level (or p value) for the null value of log-odds ratio lor, say log-odds ratio lor sub zero, is defined following Rubin4 as the posterior probability for the collection of the log-odds ratio lor values that are less likely or have smaller posterior density d of the log-odds ratio lor than the null (no change) value log-odds ratio lor sub zero. That is, The p value of log-odds ratio lor sub zero is equal to the probability of d of the log-odds ratio lor when it is less than or equal to d of the log-odds ratio lor sub zero.. With the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio lor approximately normal, the p value of log-odds ratio lor sub zero is given by the above expression.

Estimating Generalized Correlations

The correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat for each substance use outcome measure by state by age group combination was estimated by taking the average of seven correlations for each outcome measure by state by age group, as follows:

The average of these seven correlations is henceforth referred to as a "generalized correlation."

The generalized correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat for any mental illness (AMI), serious mental illness (SMI), and suicidal thoughts by state and age group was estimated by taking the average of six correlations for each outcome by state by age group, as follows:

The generalized correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat for the fourth mental health measure—major depressive episode (MDE)—was estimated by taking the average of eight correlations for each outcome by age group by state, as follows:

Each of these individual sets of correlations was produced by simultaneously fitting 4 years of NSDUH data separately for each outcome measure. For example, to produce correlations between the 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 state estimates for past month marijuana use, four age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 to 34, and 35 or older) by two time periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008), that is, eight subpopulation-specific models, were fitted each with its own set of fixed and random effects. In this case, the general covariance matrices for the state and within-state random effects were 8 × 8 matrices corresponding to the eight element (age group × time period) vectors of random effects.

A study was conducted using 2002-2003 versus 2007-2008 data and 2002-2003 versus 2008-2009 data.6 When the actual (modeled) correlation was replaced by an average correlation of those 2 years, the p values of testing differences between estimates from both sets of comparisons were fairly similar. In most cases, they had the same conclusion of whether the test between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 and the test between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 was statistically significant or not. Only a few tests changed their significance7 depending on which correlation (actual or the average) was used. For all of these cases where significance changed, the p values were close to 0.05 (i.e., borderline cases). Given these results, it was decided, starting in 2014-2015, that generalized correlations could be used to estimate long-term change.

Endnotes

1 Note that in prior state small area estimation (SAE) reports, 2002-2003 aggregated data were used as the baseline against which long-term changes for state-level estimates were compared. However, starting in 2014-2015, 2008-2009 aggregated data are now being used as the baseline so that mental health measures can also be included in long-term change testing.

2 See the tables in Appendix B of the following report, which is available at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/: Hughes, A., Muhuri, P., Sathe, N., & Spagnola, K. (2011). State estimates of substance use and mental disorders from the 2008-2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 11-4641, NSDUH Series H-40). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality.

3 In previous years (with the exception of 2002-2003 vs. 2011-2012), the correlations were produced by simultaneously modeling the 4 years of data instead of using the generalized correlations. See the "NSDUH: Comparison of 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 Population Percentages" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/ for more info about simultaneous modeling.

4 Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys (Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics: Applied Probability and Statistics). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

5 Correlations were available for 2002-2003 versus 2009-2010 for NSDUH data that included falsified cases, as well as 2009-2010 data excluding falsified cases (for more details on falsification and the revision of 2006 to 2010 data, see Section A.7 of the "2010-2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/). Note that the correlations for 2002-2003 versus 2007-2008 and 2002-2003 versus 2008-2009 were also based on falsified data.

6 More details on this study will be available at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.

7 A total of 61 out of 9,632 tests across all outcomes, states, and age groups changed their conclusion from significant to nonsignificant and vice versa.

Long Descriptions for Equations

Long description, Equation 1: The log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is pi 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 2 sub s and a. The denominator of the ratio is pi 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 1 sub s and a.

Long description end. Return to Equation 1.

Long description, Equation 2: The estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is p 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus p 2 sub s and a. The denominator of the ratio is p 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus p 1 sub s and a, where p 1 sub s and a represents the 2008-2009 state estimates and p 2 sub s and a represents the 2014-2015 state estimates.

Long description end. Return to Equation 2.

Long description, Equation 3: Variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, is a function of three quantities: q1, q2, and q3. It is expressed as the sum of q1 and q2 minus q3. Quantity q1 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat, quantity q2 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat, and quantity q3 is 2 times the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.

Long description end. Return to Equation 3.

Long description, Equation 4: The covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat is equal to the correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat multiplied by the square root of the product of the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.

Long description end. Return to Equation 4.

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