National Survey on Drug Use and Health:
Comparison of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 Population Percentages
(50 States and the District of Columbia)

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Table 1 – Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(2015-2016)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(2015-2016)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 13.36a 13.71 0.016 12.86a 12.29 0.012 32.07 32.60 0.160 10.25a 10.73 0.003 13.41a 13.85 0.005
Northeast 14.66 14.84 0.514 13.51a 12.39 0.005 36.45 37.45 0.166 11.22 11.45 0.470 14.77 15.07 0.316
Midwest 12.76 13.06 0.173 12.33 12.67 0.334 32.20 31.69 0.334 9.51b 9.97 0.083 12.80 13.10 0.217
South 11.64 11.78 0.480 11.88a 11.25 0.035 29.20 29.66 0.336 8.67 8.90 0.300 11.62 11.83 0.300
West 15.62a 16.49 0.003 14.43b 13.55 0.063 33.19b 34.39 0.064 12.71a 13.79 0.002 15.75a 16.80 0.001
Alabama 9.60 9.50 0.834 9.71 10.11 0.663 26.13 25.90 0.876 6.81 6.72 0.868 9.59 9.44 0.772
Alaska 21.92 23.00 0.240 18.44 18.86 0.774 40.69 41.88 0.511 18.76 20.09 0.259 22.31 23.46 0.260
Arizona 13.12 12.22 0.141 13.45 11.86 0.152 31.15 28.68 0.160 9.97 9.48 0.497 13.08 12.26 0.222
Arkansas 11.59 11.14 0.375 12.14 10.69 0.151 27.06 26.24 0.614 8.93 8.68 0.686 11.54 11.18 0.534
California 15.25a 16.23 0.017 14.11 13.23 0.228 32.72 33.98 0.201 12.25a 13.50 0.012 15.36a 16.54 0.009
Colorado 23.09 23.12 0.966 18.35 16.21 0.133 45.24 47.54 0.199 19.91 19.85 0.957 23.57 23.82 0.787
Connecticut 15.67 15.08 0.382 15.63 14.11 0.209 42.10 43.54 0.471 11.41 10.57 0.285 15.68 15.18 0.498
Delaware 13.06 13.18 0.834 13.04 14.37 0.294 37.32 35.82 0.391 9.17 9.57 0.569 13.06 13.07 0.985
District of Columbia 23.51 24.68 0.237 16.55a 13.58 0.026 43.78a 51.00 0.001 19.71 19.99 0.806 23.90 25.30 0.180
Florida 12.59 13.07 0.241 13.49 12.72 0.301 32.88 33.66 0.474 9.57 10.21 0.179 12.51 13.10 0.175
Georgia 12.67 12.46 0.645 11.68 10.90 0.348 29.38 30.40 0.429 9.87 9.57 0.600 12.79 12.64 0.772
Hawaii 12.72 13.05 0.649 13.77 13.38 0.731 27.21 28.07 0.595 10.37 10.82 0.617 12.62 13.02 0.617
Idaho 11.40 11.62 0.683 13.31 11.73 0.149 25.66 25.36 0.855 8.68 9.30 0.361 11.17 11.61 0.468
Illinois 12.47 12.31 0.727 11.53 11.87 0.647 31.96 32.55 0.631 9.33 9.03 0.564 12.56 12.36 0.669
Indiana 13.88 13.35 0.309 13.83 13.47 0.755 33.55b 30.41 0.059 10.40 10.32 0.896 13.89 13.33 0.333
Iowa 9.05 9.75 0.133 9.46 10.48 0.266 27.32 26.60 0.674 5.73b 6.65 0.073 9.01 9.68 0.190
Kansas 12.38a 11.17 0.013 12.45 12.42 0.971 29.27 26.92 0.159 9.27b 8.15 0.052 12.37a 11.03 0.014
Kentucky 12.28 12.79 0.358 11.68 12.30 0.524 28.68 29.45 0.636 9.62 10.11 0.469 12.34 12.84 0.418
Louisiana 11.22 11.22 0.997 10.04 10.20 0.862 27.56 28.25 0.660 8.50 8.45 0.926 11.35 11.33 0.972
Maine 19.69 19.81 0.898 17.51 16.22 0.353 41.80 41.89 0.963 16.91 17.19 0.807 19.88 20.12 0.815
Maryland 15.13 15.50 0.559 14.45 13.85 0.625 39.01 41.94 0.107 11.41 11.56 0.840 15.20 15.67 0.498
Massachusetts 18.26 18.64 0.621 15.91 14.45 0.249 42.21 43.58 0.451 14.33 14.75 0.652 18.47 19.02 0.514
Michigan 15.10 15.68 0.252 14.04 14.36 0.706 33.41 34.60 0.328 12.08 12.61 0.382 15.21 15.81 0.274
Minnesota 12.69 12.91 0.710 11.43 12.76 0.220 35.56a 32.12 0.046 9.17 9.86 0.309 12.82 12.92 0.873
Mississippi 8.67b 9.46 0.087 9.54 9.66 0.890 21.69 23.41 0.249 6.19 6.95 0.158 8.57b 9.43 0.088
Missouri 13.53 13.19 0.549 12.94 12.55 0.702 32.67 32.40 0.871 10.39 10.09 0.655 13.59 13.26 0.593
Montana 15.38a 18.41 0.000 14.62b 17.04 0.051 33.33a 38.05 0.006 12.49a 15.36 0.003 15.45a 18.54 0.000
Nebraska 10.75 11.33 0.294 10.24 11.36 0.284 30.47 29.84 0.723 7.28 8.00 0.230 10.81 11.32 0.389
Nevada 12.95 13.13 0.784 13.50 14.66 0.363 30.46 29.39 0.531 10.19 10.51 0.686 12.89 12.98 0.909
New Hampshire 17.35 17.58 0.770 16.41b 14.24 0.074 41.98 40.68 0.498 13.57 14.30 0.440 17.44 17.89 0.600
New Jersey 11.86 12.01 0.780 12.41b 10.80 0.072 32.75 35.35 0.103 8.66 8.66 0.996 11.81 12.14 0.575
New Mexico 14.72 15.83 0.192 15.15 15.34 0.870 31.08 32.79 0.331 11.87 13.04 0.257 14.67 15.88 0.195
New York 15.04 14.86 0.686 13.17 12.37 0.253 35.95 36.96 0.389 11.68 11.43 0.638 15.21 15.09 0.795
North Carolina 11.79 11.90 0.805 11.44 10.90 0.541 31.25 30.48 0.578 8.61 9.02 0.443 11.82 12.00 0.718
North Dakota 9.90 9.80 0.848 11.79 11.99 0.848 26.65 24.59 0.218 5.90 6.34 0.408 9.72 9.60 0.824
Ohio 12.13a 13.81 0.000 11.35 12.01 0.384 32.04 33.01 0.408 9.00a 10.95 0.000 12.21a 14.00 0.000
Oklahoma 11.28 11.18 0.859 11.74 11.10 0.549 27.59 26.58 0.548 8.32 8.49 0.793 11.23 11.19 0.948
Oregon 19.42a 22.70 0.000 17.56 17.35 0.881 39.83a 44.03 0.017 16.47a 20.01 0.001 19.59a 23.19 0.000
Pennsylvania 12.35 13.05 0.101 11.88 10.93 0.199 32.36 32.45 0.942 9.21a 10.24 0.041 12.40b 13.25 0.066
Rhode Island 18.81b 20.31 0.065 16.28 16.85 0.652 43.84 42.32 0.470 14.44a 16.66 0.022 19.04b 20.62 0.074
South Carolina 12.56a 10.92 0.005 12.02 11.21 0.419 31.90 29.46 0.111 9.43a 7.92 0.029 12.61a 10.89 0.007
South Dakota 10.77b 11.85 0.060 10.86 11.98 0.294 27.84 26.51 0.415 7.76a 9.29 0.027 10.76b 11.84 0.087
Tennessee 11.05a 12.82 0.001 11.21 11.83 0.529 26.95 29.54 0.103 8.41a 10.23 0.007 11.03a 12.92 0.002
Texas 10.10 10.14 0.898 11.70b 10.47 0.061 25.21 25.42 0.831 7.07 7.30 0.547 9.90 10.10 0.578
Utah 9.07 9.62 0.253 9.00 9.64 0.469 21.44 21.76 0.846 6.25 6.87 0.268 9.09 9.62 0.318
Vermont 20.50 21.79 0.148 17.04 15.64 0.274 48.30 48.06 0.913 16.00b 17.81 0.089 20.80 22.32 0.117
Virginia 11.54 11.06 0.286 11.42 10.51 0.287 30.07 30.81 0.587 8.46 7.89 0.300 11.55 11.11 0.377
Washington 17.49b 18.93 0.083 15.61b 13.54 0.098 35.03b 38.12 0.098 14.90 16.49 0.106 17.68a 19.45 0.049
West Virginia 11.07 11.45 0.505 12.15 12.30 0.877 30.27 28.07 0.195 8.09 8.90 0.208 10.97 11.37 0.515
Wisconsin 12.05 12.18 0.809 14.04 13.90 0.894 32.24 30.44 0.292 8.47 8.96 0.440 11.85 12.01 0.788
Wyoming 10.87 10.62 0.663 13.30 12.63 0.569 27.41 26.98 0.809 7.77 7.68 0.890 10.62 10.42 0.742
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Table 2 – Marijuana Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(2015-2016)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(2015-2016)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 8.34a 8.60 0.023 7.20a 6.75 0.017 19.70b 20.30 0.051 6.55a 6.88 0.013 8.45a 8.79 0.007
Northeast 9.28 9.50 0.317 7.73b 7.15 0.069 22.64b 23.64 0.086 7.27 7.46 0.420 9.43 9.72 0.217
Midwest 7.92a 8.28 0.018 6.80 6.69 0.645 19.29 19.28 0.974 6.12a 6.63 0.006 8.03a 8.45 0.013
South 7.02 7.05 0.862 6.49 6.13 0.108 17.79 17.74 0.891 5.28 5.40 0.495 7.08 7.14 0.683
West 10.08a 10.68 0.009 8.31a 7.52 0.026 20.85a 22.73 0.003 8.42a 9.01 0.029 10.26a 11.01 0.003
Alabama 5.35 5.25 0.758 5.16 5.20 0.943 14.33 14.25 0.942 3.86 3.77 0.795 5.37 5.25 0.746
Alaska 14.38a 16.03 0.031 10.64 10.43 0.831 25.02b 27.65 0.095 12.83b 14.65 0.061 14.80a 16.66 0.029
Arizona 8.51a 7.42 0.017 7.71 6.75 0.177 18.92 17.81 0.383 6.81a 5.74 0.047 8.59a 7.49 0.029
Arkansas 7.17 6.98 0.642 6.46 5.59 0.192 16.93 15.49 0.213 5.62 5.74 0.808 7.25 7.13 0.793
California 9.67a 10.51 0.012 8.32b 7.33 0.066 20.52a 23.09 0.007 7.90a 8.70 0.037 9.82a 10.84 0.005
Colorado 16.57 15.92 0.385 11.13a 9.08 0.046 31.75 32.20 0.791 14.65 14.00 0.467 17.12 16.62 0.533
Connecticut 9.59 9.36 0.641 8.34 7.95 0.643 24.99 26.94 0.228 7.25 6.66 0.315 9.72 9.50 0.688
Delaware 8.05b 8.88 0.073 7.42 7.35 0.938 21.19 23.29 0.134 6.01 6.83 0.125 8.11b 9.03 0.070
District of Columbia 11.93a 14.08 0.004 8.85 8.07 0.406 26.19a 32.39 0.000 9.14b 10.70 0.064 12.10a 14.41 0.003
Florida 7.78 7.65 0.680 6.78 7.03 0.636 20.74 19.82 0.275 6.01 6.00 0.984 7.87 7.70 0.627
Georgia 7.79 7.22 0.114 6.92 6.40 0.380 18.59 18.12 0.667 6.00 5.45 0.185 7.89 7.31 0.151
Hawaii 7.95 8.18 0.635 6.15 6.63 0.504 16.09b 18.66 0.053 6.88 6.81 0.910 8.11 8.32 0.694
Idaho 6.34 6.93 0.161 6.51 5.77 0.278 13.69 14.70 0.386 5.06 5.79 0.137 6.32 7.07 0.108
Illinois 7.91 7.90 0.973 6.55 6.71 0.762 19.63 20.87 0.204 6.13 5.91 0.559 8.06 8.03 0.933
Indiana 8.72 8.75 0.942 8.08 7.23 0.250 20.71 19.60 0.408 6.67 7.03 0.488 8.79 8.91 0.790
Iowa 4.78a 5.47 0.029 5.30 5.38 0.897 12.67 13.25 0.614 3.30a 4.09 0.027 4.72a 5.48 0.031
Kansas 7.28 6.91 0.342 6.43 6.15 0.678 15.73 15.73 0.994 5.85 5.41 0.335 7.38 7.00 0.375
Kentucky 7.06 7.02 0.926 6.36 6.13 0.718 16.72 15.79 0.429 5.54 5.69 0.753 7.13 7.11 0.966
Louisiana 6.32 6.82 0.174 5.33 5.70 0.566 16.22 17.46 0.283 4.71 5.15 0.312 6.43 6.94 0.204
Maine 13.66 14.69 0.223 10.01 9.70 0.760 29.72 30.85 0.550 11.84 13.00 0.231 13.98 15.12 0.210
Maryland 9.62 10.22 0.248 9.20b 7.78 0.072 24.87 27.34 0.114 7.24 7.83 0.332 9.66 10.47 0.158
Massachusetts 11.68 11.85 0.778 9.22 8.68 0.499 27.39 27.58 0.908 9.21 9.45 0.722 11.91 12.14 0.722
Michigan 10.08 10.55 0.249 8.06 7.98 0.880 22.78 22.07 0.478 8.14 8.89 0.128 10.29 10.81 0.244
Minnesota 7.60 7.32 0.515 6.21 5.88 0.622 19.30 17.42 0.156 5.88 5.88 0.998 7.74 7.47 0.556
Mississippi 5.35 5.69 0.339 5.29 4.95 0.574 13.91 14.46 0.659 3.81 4.23 0.277 5.36 5.77 0.284
Missouri 8.02 8.13 0.813 6.56 6.23 0.583 19.46 18.42 0.450 6.28 6.65 0.468 8.17 8.32 0.759
Montana 11.09 12.02 0.151 8.71 8.43 0.732 22.88 23.89 0.477 9.41 10.48 0.157 11.32 12.36 0.136
Nebraska 6.29a 7.21 0.020 5.26 5.74 0.477 16.83 17.35 0.699 4.53a 5.58 0.014 6.40a 7.37 0.024
Nevada 7.81 8.25 0.401 7.39 8.65 0.140 17.05 18.25 0.374 6.43 6.71 0.661 7.85 8.21 0.532
New Hampshire 12.06 12.06 0.997 9.44 8.06 0.103 29.12 28.30 0.621 9.65 9.93 0.704 12.31 12.42 0.858
New Jersey 7.01 6.77 0.521 6.81b 5.72 0.078 18.96 20.55 0.267 5.23 4.83 0.312 7.03 6.87 0.708
New Mexico 10.14 10.50 0.559 8.53 9.46 0.258 20.61 22.85 0.157 8.55 8.55 0.996 10.31 10.61 0.659
New York 9.56 9.68 0.715 7.55 7.28 0.598 22.69 23.38 0.462 7.54 7.65 0.780 9.75 9.90 0.667
North Carolina 7.29 7.72 0.273 5.97 5.80 0.783 19.04 19.92 0.405 5.51 5.98 0.309 7.43 7.92 0.251
North Dakota 5.95 5.61 0.337 6.21 5.63 0.362 14.77 13.92 0.455 3.93 3.80 0.721 5.92 5.61 0.408
Ohio 7.65a 8.95 0.000 6.05 6.41 0.490 19.55 20.79 0.194 5.91a 7.35 0.000 7.82a 9.21 0.000
Oklahoma 6.24 5.99 0.492 5.42 5.20 0.732 14.87 14.02 0.478 4.82 4.68 0.750 6.33 6.07 0.527
Oregon 12.73a 15.71 0.000 9.42 9.77 0.724 26.29a 30.60 0.010 10.99a 14.07 0.001 13.04a 16.26 0.000
Pennsylvania 7.73 8.20 0.146 6.98 6.25 0.167 18.97 20.04 0.270 6.02 6.55 0.148 7.80b 8.38 0.097
Rhode Island 13.02a 15.21 0.002 10.19 10.50 0.723 28.89 32.00 0.102 10.39a 12.65 0.009 13.28a 15.63 0.003
South Carolina 8.11a 6.82 0.002 6.57 6.40 0.812 21.07 19.66 0.271 6.16a 4.81 0.005 8.27a 6.86 0.002
South Dakota 6.93b 7.60 0.099 6.43 6.72 0.682 17.05 17.09 0.974 5.22b 6.06 0.072 6.99 7.70 0.108
Tennessee 6.34a 7.82 0.000 5.90 6.16 0.678 15.95b 18.34 0.056 4.81a 6.32 0.002 6.38a 7.99 0.000
Texas 6.10 5.91 0.487 6.86b 5.94 0.051 15.08 14.58 0.538 4.32 4.33 0.991 6.00 5.91 0.752
Utah 5.04 5.25 0.538 4.54 4.32 0.715 11.07 12.07 0.363 3.75 3.86 0.771 5.11 5.38 0.470
Vermont 14.74a 16.96 0.004 10.86 9.44 0.194 34.95 38.16 0.109 11.61a 14.00 0.009 15.08a 17.60 0.002
Virginia 6.63 6.86 0.484 5.44 5.35 0.871 17.82 17.94 0.910 4.90 5.22 0.389 6.74 7.01 0.467
Washington 11.22 12.02 0.240 9.17 7.93 0.123 21.87 23.30 0.317 9.74 10.69 0.253 11.42 12.41 0.182
West Virginia 6.92 6.76 0.688 6.05 5.94 0.849 18.89b 16.56 0.072 5.22 5.39 0.700 7.00 6.83 0.703
Wisconsin 6.89 7.38 0.252 7.60 6.96 0.354 17.52 17.26 0.836 5.05 5.80 0.121 6.82 7.42 0.194
Wyoming 6.32 6.27 0.875 6.59 5.81 0.204 15.64 15.00 0.612 4.71 4.88 0.679 6.30 6.31 0.967
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Table 3 – First Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and State: Average Annual Incidence Estimates (Expressed as Percentages of the At-Risk Population) and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(2015-2016)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(2015-2016)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Average annual initiation of marijuana (%) = 100 × {[X1 ÷ (0.5 × X1 + X2)] ÷ 2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of individuals who never used marijuana (with the at-risk population defined as 0.5 × X1 + X2). Both of the computation components, X1 and X2, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach. The age group shown is based on a respondent's age at the time of the interview, not his or her age at first use. For details, see Section B of the "2015-2016 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 1.95 1.96 0.810 5.41 5.25 0.182 7.88 7.74 0.529 0.31a 0.39 0.002 1.36 1.40 0.332
Northeast 2.04 2.07 0.596 5.55 5.34 0.253 8.67 8.85 0.608 0.34a 0.44 0.015 1.47 1.54 0.276
Midwest 1.96 2.04 0.111 5.12 5.25 0.433 8.14 8.16 0.936 0.29a 0.38 0.004 1.39 1.47 0.146
South 1.75 1.70 0.253 5.13 4.91 0.105 7.12 6.78 0.176 0.26 0.29 0.231 1.20 1.17 0.643
West 2.21 2.24 0.632 6.02 5.75 0.207 8.32 8.18 0.701 0.41a 0.53 0.002 1.54 1.62 0.211
Alabama 1.49 1.53 0.655 4.36 4.19 0.683 6.39 6.39 0.994 0.20 0.27 0.116 1.05 1.12 0.444
Alaska 3.54 3.56 0.927 7.52 7.79 0.691 10.69 10.76 0.947 0.74 0.81 0.684 2.52 2.51 0.949
Arizona 2.15 2.01 0.159 6.09b 5.12 0.051 8.36 7.31 0.162 0.35a 0.50 0.005 1.44 1.46 0.862
Arkansas 1.84 1.72 0.179 5.37b 4.56 0.068 7.08 6.71 0.546 0.26 0.31 0.287 1.23 1.23 0.994
California 2.16 2.08 0.364 5.89 5.68 0.506 8.17 7.57 0.253 0.42 0.48 0.190 1.53 1.48 0.535
Colorado 3.18a 3.84 0.003 8.16 7.74 0.546 12.05a 15.97 0.006 0.53a 0.83 0.015 2.13a 2.99 0.000
Connecticut 2.42 2.31 0.383 6.61 5.78 0.130 9.80 9.91 0.903 0.37b 0.49 0.097 1.63 1.68 0.731
Delaware 1.83 1.93 0.352 5.29 5.88 0.285 7.73 7.76 0.971 0.29 0.37 0.101 1.26 1.30 0.694
District of Columbia 3.60 3.66 0.837 8.26a 6.85 0.045 12.98 14.69 0.193 0.78 0.99 0.289 2.99 3.24 0.366
Florida 1.67 1.66 0.956 5.57 5.62 0.867 7.39 7.31 0.879 0.28 0.32 0.248 1.11 1.12 0.974
Georgia 1.94b 1.76 0.063 5.17 4.62 0.163 7.58 7.07 0.407 0.28 0.29 0.738 1.34 1.25 0.390
Hawaii 2.04 1.96 0.574 6.31 6.56 0.687 6.99 8.25 0.146 0.59b 0.42 0.089 1.42 1.31 0.437
Idaho 1.82 1.80 0.878 5.50a 4.20 0.009 6.13 6.28 0.825 0.25a 0.39 0.005 1.12b 1.31 0.080
Illinois 1.81 1.84 0.776 4.59 5.04 0.180 7.97 7.90 0.905 0.29 0.31 0.561 1.33 1.30 0.768
Indiana 2.30 2.15 0.175 5.97 5.55 0.393 8.97 7.88 0.175 0.33 0.40 0.170 1.59 1.52 0.530
Iowa 1.66b 1.83 0.076 4.31 4.45 0.748 7.90 7.77 0.850 0.21a 0.31 0.015 1.25 1.40 0.141
Kansas 1.85 1.89 0.711 5.01 4.74 0.577 7.28 6.48 0.258 0.26a 0.48 0.000 1.29 1.39 0.403
Kentucky 1.63a 1.83 0.037 4.62 5.04 0.348 6.48 7.17 0.296 0.23 0.31 0.105 1.12 1.28 0.108
Louisiana 1.74 1.66 0.384 4.46 4.68 0.633 7.80a 6.45 0.050 0.24 0.28 0.310 1.29 1.15 0.148
Maine 2.50 2.31 0.138 7.45a 6.29 0.036 10.31 9.58 0.459 0.42 0.48 0.458 1.61 1.60 0.980
Maryland 2.33 2.24 0.472 6.12 5.93 0.721 9.86 10.13 0.783 0.38 0.46 0.233 1.62 1.59 0.796
Massachusetts 2.56 2.80 0.115 6.82 6.49 0.575 10.16 10.85 0.508 0.43a 0.72 0.002 1.83b 2.15 0.055
Michigan 2.23 2.29 0.535 5.79 5.74 0.899 8.17 8.06 0.851 0.35a 0.54 0.000 1.54 1.65 0.286
Minnesota 1.84a 2.19 0.008 4.39a 5.41 0.050 8.36 8.86 0.562 0.29a 0.40 0.048 1.37 1.58 0.102
Mississippi 1.48 1.56 0.336 4.41 4.45 0.921 5.92 6.39 0.446 0.18 0.19 0.890 1.02 1.09 0.409
Missouri 2.08 2.18 0.389 5.62 5.12 0.297 9.06 9.59 0.527 0.28 0.36 0.161 1.46b 1.66 0.099
Montana 2.30a 2.91 0.000 6.19 7.02 0.161 8.67a 10.46 0.040 0.38a 0.63 0.001 1.58a 2.11 0.000
Nebraska 1.52a 1.87 0.006 3.51b 4.32 0.079 7.13 8.49 0.117 0.22 0.29 0.137 1.19a 1.45 0.042
Nevada 2.26 2.23 0.798 6.28 6.83 0.372 9.85a 7.66 0.011 0.39a 0.58 0.010 1.56 1.45 0.366
New Hampshire 2.84 2.70 0.354 6.82b 5.92 0.089 10.88 10.98 0.922 0.47 0.46 0.951 2.00 2.04 0.827
New Jersey 1.74 1.72 0.894 4.99 4.50 0.210 7.83 8.18 0.627 0.30 0.35 0.253 1.22 1.28 0.554
New Mexico 2.01a 2.50 0.000 6.71 6.99 0.640 6.90a 8.79 0.020 0.36a 0.60 0.001 1.21a 1.69 0.000
New York 2.02 2.04 0.796 5.43 5.58 0.630 8.63 8.54 0.881 0.36 0.42 0.194 1.50 1.50 0.978
North Carolina 1.88 1.86 0.869 5.35 5.10 0.539 7.81 7.27 0.394 0.27a 0.37 0.026 1.28 1.31 0.785
North Dakota 1.83b 2.06 0.057 4.91 4.61 0.506 6.68b 7.88 0.097 0.26 0.34 0.120 1.38a 1.69 0.023
Ohio 1.86 1.91 0.590 4.90 5.14 0.506 7.92 8.04 0.837 0.27 0.30 0.517 1.31 1.33 0.872
Oklahoma 1.80 1.83 0.745 5.62a 4.59 0.039 6.03 5.78 0.694 0.27a 0.50 0.000 1.14b 1.33 0.063
Oregon 2.48 2.67 0.158 6.85 6.46 0.505 9.74 10.18 0.616 0.45a 0.66 0.028 1.69b 1.96 0.062
Pennsylvania 1.76 1.80 0.675 4.74 4.56 0.596 7.65 8.08 0.475 0.29 0.35 0.226 1.28 1.35 0.424
Rhode Island 2.50b 2.77 0.061 6.71 7.23 0.382 10.32 9.57 0.435 0.39a 0.68 0.001 1.78 2.00 0.151
South Carolina 1.91a 1.73 0.050 5.82a 4.81 0.023 8.06 7.68 0.602 0.26 0.32 0.234 1.28 1.25 0.762
South Dakota 1.66a 1.94 0.010 4.45 4.75 0.499 7.17 7.32 0.835 0.24a 0.45 0.000 1.20a 1.46 0.022
Tennessee 1.55 1.64 0.312 4.46 4.96 0.265 6.71 6.53 0.770 0.22 0.27 0.204 1.09 1.11 0.800
Texas 1.65a 1.50 0.043 4.87 4.52 0.244 6.08 5.50 0.181 0.23 0.18 0.147 1.08 0.97 0.117
Utah 1.38a 1.63 0.036 3.05 3.47 0.323 4.93 5.71 0.235 0.18a 0.29 0.046 1.05b 1.26 0.097
Vermont 2.86 3.08 0.206 6.97 6.53 0.436 13.02 12.40 0.637 0.45a 0.70 0.027 2.10 2.41 0.126
Virginia 1.90 1.86 0.678 5.03 4.92 0.790 8.10 7.61 0.439 0.29 0.33 0.447 1.38 1.34 0.678
Washington 2.30 2.44 0.291 5.96 5.39 0.277 9.00 8.54 0.573 0.41a 0.74 0.000 1.63b 1.88 0.073
West Virginia 1.71 1.73 0.815 5.66 5.53 0.789 7.97 7.41 0.466 0.23 0.28 0.337 1.13 1.16 0.808
Wisconsin 2.12 2.27 0.166 6.05 5.91 0.792 8.24 8.68 0.580 0.31a 0.44 0.026 1.43 1.62 0.104
Wyoming 1.81 1.93 0.250 5.33 4.96 0.447 7.22 7.66 0.532 0.26a 0.41 0.007 1.21b 1.42 0.061
170925
Table 4 – Cocaine Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(2015-2016)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(2015-2016)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 1.76b 1.84 0.093 0.64 0.58 0.262 4.98a 5.46 0.007 1.35 1.39 0.453 1.88b 1.97 0.072
Northeast 2.18 2.26 0.357 0.66 0.58 0.308 6.06a 6.67 0.034 1.71 1.73 0.846 2.32 2.42 0.321
Midwest 1.43 1.51 0.203 0.54 0.55 0.940 4.22 4.40 0.306 1.07 1.14 0.341 1.53 1.61 0.207
South 1.56 1.60 0.501 0.57b 0.45 0.060 4.32a 4.75 0.012 1.22 1.22 0.995 1.67 1.72 0.392
West 2.05b 2.22 0.092 0.85 0.81 0.725 5.88a 6.61 0.022 1.53 1.64 0.361 2.18b 2.36 0.086
Alabama 1.22 1.21 0.887 0.41 0.33 0.267 3.20 2.96 0.439 0.99 1.02 0.810 1.31 1.30 0.933
Alaska 2.00 2.12 0.505 0.65b 0.89 0.074 4.79b 5.83 0.062 1.64 1.61 0.895 2.15 2.26 0.589
Arizona 2.29 2.07 0.278 0.85 0.79 0.663 6.92 6.22 0.279 1.67 1.52 0.464 2.44 2.20 0.282
Arkansas 1.07 1.23 0.124 0.48 0.47 0.823 2.89 3.15 0.377 0.84 1.01 0.134 1.13 1.31 0.119
California 2.16b 2.42 0.084 0.94 0.75 0.220 5.91a 7.16 0.014 1.63 1.80 0.335 2.28b 2.59 0.065
Colorado 2.75 2.42 0.123 0.98 1.01 0.853 8.62 8.18 0.535 1.97 1.62 0.109 2.93 2.56 0.113
Connecticut 2.43 2.48 0.819 0.67 0.62 0.692 7.60b 9.07 0.060 1.80 1.62 0.410 2.60 2.66 0.811
Delaware 2.21 1.93 0.121 0.56 0.41 0.164 6.36 6.10 0.676 1.73 1.46 0.125 2.37 2.08 0.135
District of Columbia 3.19 3.46 0.389 0.34b 0.18 0.061 5.60 6.75 0.110 2.88 3.00 0.721 3.35 3.64 0.376
Florida 1.90a 1.63 0.026 0.65b 0.45 0.051 5.91 5.35 0.199 1.45b 1.22 0.088 2.02a 1.73 0.033
Georgia 1.72 1.90 0.182 0.51a 0.36 0.047 3.85a 4.61 0.026 1.51 1.64 0.382 1.86 2.08 0.147
Hawaii 1.89 1.98 0.657 0.76 0.84 0.665 5.21 5.01 0.695 1.50 1.65 0.491 1.99 2.08 0.682
Idaho 1.04b 1.26 0.056 0.57a 0.83 0.027 3.59 3.84 0.539 0.67b 0.88 0.055 1.09b 1.31 0.089
Illinois 1.80 1.74 0.620 0.60 0.53 0.446 4.81 4.92 0.758 1.45 1.36 0.526 1.93 1.87 0.648
Indiana 1.24 1.32 0.482 0.51 0.53 0.841 3.91 3.94 0.936 0.86 0.96 0.370 1.32 1.41 0.487
Iowa 1.06 1.19 0.241 0.47 0.58 0.190 3.63 3.75 0.752 0.67 0.80 0.198 1.12 1.25 0.276
Kansas 1.18 1.24 0.639 0.61 0.63 0.827 3.59 3.83 0.545 0.82 0.84 0.790 1.24 1.30 0.648
Kentucky 1.59 1.65 0.687 0.56 0.59 0.766 4.74 5.09 0.457 1.19 1.21 0.896 1.69 1.75 0.698
Louisiana 1.74 1.69 0.775 0.44a 0.29 0.050 3.61a 4.41 0.049 1.57 1.40 0.333 1.88 1.84 0.838
Maine 1.79 1.82 0.795 0.65b 0.86 0.071 6.41 6.44 0.965 1.27 1.30 0.858 1.88 1.91 0.888
Maryland 1.51b 1.80 0.056 0.46 0.36 0.231 3.66a 5.26 0.000 1.28 1.42 0.380 1.61a 1.94 0.048
Massachusetts 2.45 2.80 0.113 0.71 0.73 0.851 7.28a 9.07 0.015 1.79 1.94 0.513 2.61 2.99 0.113
Michigan 1.24b 1.45 0.061 0.44 0.44 0.994 3.56 3.79 0.470 0.94b 1.17 0.060 1.33b 1.55 0.060
Minnesota 1.52b 1.77 0.076 0.57 0.70 0.154 4.85 5.53 0.144 1.10 1.30 0.144 1.62b 1.88 0.087
Mississippi 1.00a 1.27 0.027 0.36 0.25 0.115 1.83a 2.66 0.001 0.94 1.16 0.113 1.08a 1.38 0.021
Missouri 1.35 1.29 0.662 0.49 0.48 0.890 4.12 3.90 0.601 0.98 0.95 0.808 1.43 1.37 0.662
Montana 1.49a 1.80 0.036 0.62a 1.08 0.002 4.65a 5.71 0.047 1.06 1.25 0.207 1.57b 1.87 0.064
Nebraska 1.37 1.40 0.797 0.56 0.62 0.464 3.99 4.48 0.251 1.00 0.95 0.677 1.46 1.49 0.830
Nevada 1.46a 1.84 0.015 0.72 0.66 0.605 4.16 4.82 0.135 1.14a 1.53 0.016 1.54a 1.96 0.013
New Hampshire 3.07 2.78 0.228 0.83 1.13 0.117 10.54 10.84 0.743 2.13b 1.69 0.054 3.28 2.93 0.182
New Jersey 1.72 1.93 0.170 0.60 0.55 0.641 4.55a 6.63 0.000 1.42 1.38 0.806 1.83 2.06 0.159
New Mexico 1.92 1.88 0.811 0.82 0.96 0.424 5.93 5.42 0.405 1.38 1.40 0.916 2.04 1.98 0.753
New York 2.54 2.37 0.330 0.73a 0.45 0.015 6.29 5.77 0.268 2.10 2.01 0.663 2.71 2.55 0.396
North Carolina 1.80 1.88 0.558 0.53b 0.39 0.091 5.12 5.67 0.188 1.40 1.45 0.752 1.93 2.03 0.498
North Dakota 1.18 1.23 0.691 0.56a 0.81 0.038 3.45 3.84 0.362 0.74 0.72 0.814 1.24 1.27 0.811
Ohio 1.45b 1.66 0.069 0.50 0.48 0.781 4.24 4.86 0.110 1.11 1.29 0.140 1.54b 1.78 0.065
Oklahoma 1.11a 1.40 0.009 0.50 0.53 0.652 3.58b 4.17 0.085 0.75a 1.03 0.014 1.17a 1.50 0.009
Oregon 2.14b 2.51 0.082 0.80 1.00 0.224 6.81b 7.96 0.098 1.57 1.83 0.208 2.27b 2.64 0.096
Pennsylvania 1.62b 1.87 0.054 0.54 0.56 0.807 4.71 5.22 0.205 1.24b 1.48 0.087 1.72b 1.99 0.055
Rhode Island 2.52 2.79 0.217 0.74 0.84 0.431 7.64b 8.90 0.076 1.77 1.88 0.580 2.68 2.96 0.233
South Carolina 1.63 1.69 0.663 0.50a 0.34 0.041 4.42a 5.31 0.037 1.30 1.26 0.795 1.74 1.82 0.596
South Dakota 1.02b 1.22 0.063 0.49a 0.75 0.004 3.15 3.65 0.143 0.71 0.85 0.176 1.08b 1.27 0.097
Tennessee 1.52 1.69 0.186 0.54 0.49 0.399 4.22 4.66 0.247 1.19 1.35 0.227 1.62 1.81 0.172
Texas 1.41 1.41 0.985 0.70 0.57 0.257 4.19 4.69 0.160 1.00 0.93 0.531 1.50 1.51 0.919
Utah 0.87a 1.28 0.004 0.40a 0.81 0.006 2.73b 3.53 0.071 0.53a 0.85 0.013 0.94a 1.34 0.008
Vermont 2.67 3.02 0.146 0.81 1.14 0.102 9.33 10.83 0.107 1.70 1.84 0.526 2.83 3.18 0.179
Virginia 1.24b 1.48 0.065 0.46 0.43 0.710 3.50a 4.31 0.041 0.95 1.15 0.158 1.31b 1.59 0.059
Washington 1.84 1.94 0.555 0.67 0.79 0.362 5.39 5.75 0.504 1.40 1.47 0.707 1.95 2.05 0.597
West Virginia 1.54 1.55 0.981 0.59 0.70 0.195 5.32 5.29 0.938 1.07 1.08 0.969 1.63 1.62 0.964
Wisconsin 1.59 1.38 0.153 0.72 0.68 0.711 4.96 4.34 0.206 1.13 0.97 0.255 1.68 1.45 0.154
Wyoming 1.07a 1.42 0.017 0.56a 0.98 0.007 3.74a 4.81 0.046 0.68b 0.91 0.073 1.12a 1.47 0.030
170925
Table 5 – Heroin Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(2015-2016)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(2015-2016)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 0.33 0.33 0.858 0.10 0.07 0.112 0.69 0.64 0.358 0.29 0.31 0.455 0.35 0.36 0.760
Northeast 0.54 0.46 0.205 0.13 0.08 0.301 0.98 0.81 0.198 0.52 0.45 0.356 0.58 0.50 0.223
Midwest 0.31 0.33 0.686 0.10 0.08 0.518 0.74 0.65 0.375 0.26 0.30 0.392 0.33 0.35 0.638
South 0.26 0.28 0.453 0.08 0.07 0.816 0.56 0.58 0.802 0.23 0.26 0.430 0.28 0.30 0.431
West 0.29 0.32 0.489 0.11 0.05 0.108 0.65 0.59 0.587 0.25 0.30 0.260 0.31 0.34 0.400
Alabama 0.27 0.31 0.376 0.08a 0.01 0.038 0.64 0.68 0.770 0.23 0.29 0.393 0.29 0.35 0.307
Alaska 1.23 0.75 0.164 0.08 0.09 0.925 0.91 1.33 0.132 1.45b 0.73 0.099 1.36 0.82 0.164
Arizona 0.55 0.45 0.392 0.20a 0.03 0.006 0.90 0.88 0.934 0.54 0.43 0.476 0.59 0.50 0.469
Arkansas 0.17 0.20 0.368 0.07 0.05 0.636 0.42 0.45 0.798 0.13 0.18 0.375 0.18 0.22 0.323
California 0.20 0.24 0.337 0.09 0.04 0.255 0.55 0.43 0.283 0.15 0.23 0.113 0.21 0.26 0.276
Colorado 0.38 0.35 0.552 0.13a 0.03 0.013 0.95b 0.66 0.089 0.32 0.34 0.833 0.41 0.38 0.668
Connecticut 0.87 0.71 0.413 0.10 0.07 0.595 1.07 1.21 0.595 0.93 0.70 0.362 0.95 0.77 0.417
Delaware 1.05 0.73 0.127 0.15 0.09 0.459 1.29 1.49 0.628 1.11b 0.68 0.091 1.13 0.79 0.131
District of Columbia 0.61 0.44 0.361 0.04 0.02 0.461 0.23 0.23 0.940 0.73 0.51 0.360 0.65 0.47 0.364
Florida 0.22 0.24 0.727 0.07b 0.22 0.054 0.60 0.58 0.865 0.18 0.19 0.892 0.24 0.24 0.976
Georgia 0.15 0.17 0.651 0.06 0.03 0.340 0.38 0.35 0.727 0.12 0.15 0.493 0.16 0.18 0.583
Hawaii 0.22 0.24 0.695 0.10a 0.01 0.012 0.42 0.72 0.143 0.20 0.20 0.927 0.23 0.26 0.595
Idaho 0.27 0.33 0.274 0.10 0.09 0.822 0.61 0.64 0.834 0.24 0.31 0.306 0.29 0.35 0.253
Illinois 0.33b 0.25 0.071 0.11b 0.04 0.086 0.68b 0.49 0.095 0.31 0.24 0.255 0.36b 0.27 0.093
Indiana 0.28a 0.43 0.001 0.11 0.07 0.424 0.78 0.86 0.585 0.21a 0.40 0.003 0.30a 0.47 0.000
Iowa 0.13b 0.20 0.067 0.06 0.06 0.947 0.42 0.51 0.487 0.08b 0.16 0.079 0.13a 0.21 0.047
Kansas 0.14a 0.27 0.003 0.07 0.08 0.855 0.45 0.55 0.384 0.10a 0.24 0.010 0.15a 0.29 0.002
Kentucky 0.55 0.47 0.327 0.17a 0.04 0.018 0.97 0.86 0.597 0.52 0.45 0.512 0.59 0.51 0.399
Louisiana 0.16 0.22 0.198 0.05 0.06 0.820 0.33 0.39 0.477 0.14 0.20 0.298 0.17 0.23 0.190
Maine 0.58 0.48 0.281 0.17a 0.02 0.005 1.21 1.15 0.792 0.54 0.43 0.407 0.62 0.52 0.334
Maryland 0.88a 0.54 0.036 0.16 0.11 0.516 1.10 0.86 0.356 0.93b 0.54 0.057 0.95a 0.58 0.037
Massachusetts 0.23a 0.36 0.009 0.08 0.03 0.150 0.65 0.66 0.963 0.18a 0.35 0.013 0.25a 0.39 0.006
Michigan 0.37 0.35 0.813 0.12 0.09 0.640 0.78 0.63 0.298 0.33 0.34 0.866 0.39 0.38 0.839
Minnesota 0.35 0.29 0.246 0.11b 0.03 0.054 0.84 0.72 0.432 0.30 0.25 0.497 0.37 0.32 0.302
Mississippi 0.15b 0.22 0.095 0.05 0.01 0.112 0.33 0.43 0.278 0.13 0.21 0.174 0.16b 0.24 0.074
Missouri 0.24b 0.33 0.085 0.08 0.05 0.300 0.64 0.68 0.726 0.20 0.30 0.146 0.26b 0.36 0.069
Montana 0.17a 0.32 0.003 0.07 0.10 0.629 0.56 0.78 0.167 0.12a 0.27 0.022 0.18a 0.34 0.003
Nebraska 0.21 0.24 0.380 0.08 0.12 0.472 0.61 0.49 0.360 0.16 0.22 0.246 0.22 0.26 0.412
Nevada 0.33 0.33 0.983 0.14b 0.05 0.076 0.70 0.74 0.819 0.30 0.30 0.960 0.35 0.36 0.916
New Hampshire 0.62 0.87 0.134 0.22 0.14 0.498 1.90 1.90 0.993 0.46 0.79 0.102 0.66 0.94 0.118
New Jersey 0.68 0.51 0.127 0.16 0.09 0.295 1.30 0.92 0.161 0.65 0.50 0.281 0.73 0.55 0.139
New Mexico 0.18a 0.37 0.004 0.08 0.17 0.256 0.40a 0.82 0.011 0.16a 0.32 0.043 0.20a 0.39 0.005
New York 0.52 0.42 0.169 0.11 0.08 0.516 0.79 0.63 0.246 0.52 0.42 0.278 0.56 0.45 0.178
North Carolina 0.20a 0.34 0.006 0.06 0.04 0.419 0.52 0.71 0.142 0.16a 0.32 0.032 0.21a 0.37 0.005
North Dakota 0.21b 0.32 0.071 0.08 0.12 0.486 0.42 0.62 0.116 0.18 0.27 0.228 0.22b 0.33 0.073
Ohio 0.38 0.41 0.604 0.11 0.11 0.975 0.92 0.78 0.348 0.32 0.38 0.398 0.41 0.44 0.607
Oklahoma 0.21b 0.31 0.063 0.08 0.06 0.586 0.50 0.66 0.193 0.18 0.28 0.159 0.23b 0.33 0.052
Oregon 0.35b 0.47 0.062 0.13 0.09 0.546 0.85 0.92 0.680 0.29b 0.44 0.096 0.37b 0.50 0.053
Pennsylvania 0.55 0.44 0.145 0.15 0.11 0.533 1.13 0.84 0.152 0.50 0.41 0.316 0.59 0.47 0.154
Rhode Island 0.41 0.44 0.624 0.14 0.09 0.436 0.97 0.74 0.175 0.33 0.42 0.312 0.43 0.47 0.582
South Carolina 0.28 0.24 0.411 0.08 0.07 0.738 0.56 0.54 0.824 0.25 0.21 0.498 0.30 0.26 0.417
South Dakota 0.27b 0.36 0.089 0.09 0.10 0.760 0.59 0.81 0.115 0.23 0.31 0.280 0.29b 0.39 0.086
Tennessee 0.26 0.26 0.969 0.09 0.05 0.355 0.61 0.59 0.855 0.22 0.23 0.846 0.27 0.28 0.907
Texas 0.11a 0.20 0.008 0.05 0.04 0.708 0.39 0.44 0.632 0.07a 0.19 0.008 0.12a 0.22 0.005
Utah 0.22a 0.31 0.038 0.09 0.06 0.413 0.45 0.49 0.733 0.19a 0.31 0.046 0.24a 0.34 0.027
Vermont 0.77b 0.56 0.065 0.18 0.15 0.685 1.47 1.19 0.339 0.72 0.49 0.127 0.83b 0.59 0.066
Virginia 0.36 0.38 0.769 0.11a 0.01 0.021 0.80 0.76 0.822 0.32 0.35 0.584 0.38 0.41 0.651
Washington 0.40 0.46 0.419 0.15 0.08 0.238 0.86 0.81 0.762 0.36 0.44 0.334 0.43 0.49 0.368
West Virginia 0.36a 0.57 0.014 0.12a 0.02 0.026 0.82a 1.27 0.037 0.31b 0.52 0.061 0.38a 0.62 0.010
Wisconsin 0.32 0.30 0.718 0.12 0.14 0.724 0.90 0.66 0.112 0.24 0.26 0.715 0.34 0.32 0.671
Wyoming 0.36 0.33 0.835 0.05 0.09 0.413 0.35a 0.76 0.006 0.40 0.29 0.521 0.39 0.35 0.810
170925
Table 6 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(2015-2016)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(2015-2016)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 52.18a 51.21 0.000 10.58a 9.40 0.000 58.96a 57.75 0.002 56.04a 55.10 0.001 56.46a 55.48 0.000
Northeast 56.66 56.02 0.135 12.57a 10.95 0.000 64.17 63.92 0.731 60.30 59.67 0.225 60.85 60.27 0.210
Midwest 54.36 54.36 0.989 10.30 9.82 0.107 61.88 61.60 0.635 58.48 58.56 0.862 58.97 59.00 0.955
South 48.85a 47.48 0.000 9.74a 8.71 0.000 56.16a 54.56 0.003 52.42a 51.03 0.000 52.95a 51.53 0.000
West 52.07a 50.67 0.000 10.76a 9.06 0.000 56.92a 54.76 0.002 56.30a 55.01 0.007 56.39a 54.98 0.001
Alabama 43.94a 40.79 0.003 8.76 8.08 0.385 51.99 50.76 0.508 46.83a 43.06 0.005 47.57a 44.16 0.003
Alaska 54.98a 52.72 0.038 11.04 10.23 0.475 62.57b 58.93 0.055 59.45 57.24 0.114 59.95a 57.50 0.041
Arizona 51.19 50.94 0.820 10.45a 7.95 0.004 56.38 54.01 0.195 55.47 55.78 0.822 55.60 55.53 0.949
Arkansas 41.81 40.14 0.137 9.34 8.93 0.610 51.60 49.43 0.225 44.20 42.45 0.222 45.26 43.45 0.139
California 51.54a 49.74 0.004 10.92a 9.08 0.002 56.85a 54.10 0.010 55.58a 53.88 0.029 55.77a 53.91 0.006
Colorado 59.22 57.53 0.118 12.55a 10.16 0.013 67.56a 63.75 0.024 63.39 62.10 0.341 63.99 62.33 0.159
Connecticut 60.33 59.09 0.268 13.61a 11.21 0.016 67.18 67.37 0.916 64.76 63.34 0.310 65.09 63.91 0.332
Delaware 53.85 52.04 0.110 10.36 9.05 0.108 62.37a 57.10 0.002 57.29 55.96 0.342 57.99 56.11 0.128
District of Columbia 69.07 68.65 0.682 13.18a 9.70 0.001 74.21 73.63 0.742 71.86 71.64 0.862 72.27 71.98 0.788
Florida 54.83b 53.43 0.065 10.72a 9.15 0.009 58.85 57.50 0.248 58.76 57.30 0.117 58.77b 57.33 0.079
Georgia 48.90a 45.88 0.002 8.93a 6.90 0.005 55.06 53.90 0.453 53.15a 49.67 0.005 53.43a 50.30 0.004
Hawaii 46.60a 43.98 0.050 10.55 9.10 0.108 55.52b 52.01 0.068 49.04 46.44 0.108 49.91b 47.15 0.057
Idaho 44.54 44.62 0.949 10.25 8.93 0.128 47.50 47.92 0.820 48.93 49.13 0.892 48.72 48.95 0.856
Illinois 54.25 53.41 0.259 9.88 9.66 0.734 60.53 60.76 0.855 58.66 57.53 0.229 58.93 57.99 0.250
Indiana 50.44 50.48 0.972 10.06 9.32 0.390 59.71 59.42 0.867 54.01 54.18 0.904 54.87 54.97 0.937
Iowa 56.01 57.42 0.234 10.16 9.42 0.407 66.44 65.17 0.448 59.73 61.86 0.153 60.75 62.36 0.212
Kansas 52.55a 55.46 0.008 10.45 10.27 0.830 59.33 58.72 0.722 56.88a 60.83 0.004 57.26a 60.50 0.007
Kentucky 42.63 40.94 0.141 8.24 9.35 0.199 50.69 50.84 0.932 45.39 43.06 0.103 46.14 44.16 0.115
Louisiana 50.03 50.36 0.765 10.75 10.55 0.822 57.93 55.58 0.178 53.57 54.42 0.545 54.22 54.59 0.763
Maine 60.41a 56.97 0.005 12.47 11.71 0.444 66.34 64.86 0.416 64.39a 60.35 0.006 64.62a 60.89 0.005
Maryland 58.38a 55.88 0.021 12.09a 9.73 0.013 62.62 62.32 0.867 63.07a 60.18 0.030 63.01a 60.47 0.031
Massachusetts 57.91 59.17 0.245 12.21 11.31 0.373 69.15 69.57 0.808 60.89 62.48 0.237 62.11 63.53 0.225
Michigan 53.89 53.24 0.417 10.69 10.39 0.676 60.77 59.58 0.334 57.96 57.30 0.507 58.37 57.63 0.387
Minnesota 59.40 59.65 0.816 10.71 10.38 0.712 65.64 66.47 0.623 64.23 64.42 0.879 64.42 64.71 0.801
Mississippi 39.52a 36.94 0.022 8.78 7.69 0.151 46.93 46.68 0.893 42.22a 39.03 0.026 42.94a 40.18 0.025
Missouri 50.78 51.39 0.584 9.83 9.91 0.918 59.32 59.04 0.875 54.27 55.07 0.562 54.99 55.63 0.598
Montana 57.93 57.49 0.695 9.90 11.05 0.207 61.56 61.98 0.799 62.62 61.82 0.564 62.47 61.84 0.607
Nebraska 57.43 58.92 0.161 8.88 8.99 0.897 62.82 62.44 0.839 62.68 64.70 0.130 62.70 64.36 0.154
Nevada 52.81 50.92 0.112 13.67 12.28 0.196 56.81b 53.25 0.057 56.85 55.08 0.224 56.84 54.85 0.120
New Hampshire 63.63 63.54 0.933 13.12 11.49 0.107 68.92 69.23 0.851 68.27 68.17 0.938 68.36 68.31 0.969
New Jersey 56.67a 53.56 0.002 13.88a 10.55 0.000 63.69 61.28 0.126 60.63a 57.40 0.011 61.03a 57.91 0.005
New Mexico 47.02 48.47 0.204 9.40 9.91 0.530 55.79 54.35 0.447 50.25 52.30 0.154 51.06 52.59 0.218
New York 54.60 54.65 0.936 12.57b 11.37 0.080 61.51 62.60 0.362 58.01 57.99 0.987 58.51 58.65 0.862
North Carolina 45.84 44.34 0.110 8.19 7.25 0.183 55.77 53.47 0.134 48.75 47.32 0.224 49.74 48.17 0.126
North Dakota 58.79 59.98 0.241 11.85 11.94 0.928 70.20 68.68 0.387 61.51 63.43 0.135 63.11 64.37 0.252
Ohio 52.56 51.90 0.408 10.33a 8.89 0.020 61.18 59.93 0.302 56.28 55.75 0.596 56.97 56.33 0.473
Oklahoma 46.04a 42.34 0.001 10.22b 8.71 0.085 57.68a 51.94 0.002 48.58a 44.99 0.011 49.95a 46.02 0.002
Oregon 58.85 58.72 0.909 11.68b 9.95 0.053 63.02 62.80 0.897 63.31 63.28 0.982 63.28 63.22 0.964
Pennsylvania 56.56 55.78 0.331 11.34b 10.02 0.061 63.95 62.27 0.184 60.32 59.72 0.543 60.82 60.07 0.383
Rhode Island 59.37 61.03 0.130 13.23 12.10 0.269 65.22 67.35 0.242 63.25 65.05 0.184 63.56 65.40 0.117
South Carolina 46.17 45.36 0.471 8.87 8.57 0.699 58.59 56.53 0.246 48.44 47.78 0.632 49.88 48.99 0.463
South Dakota 58.02 58.85 0.455 10.38 10.66 0.771 67.10 64.72 0.159 62.30 63.76 0.286 63.02 63.90 0.464
Tennessee 43.44 42.83 0.590 8.17 7.94 0.775 51.08 49.58 0.435 46.37 45.84 0.700 47.04 46.36 0.582
Texas 47.90 47.14 0.235 9.96b 8.86 0.053 54.86b 52.66 0.057 52.03 51.58 0.571 52.48 51.74 0.299
Utah 31.31 29.83 0.176 5.44 5.25 0.835 34.77 37.41 0.242 35.04b 32.37 0.061 34.99 33.29 0.169
Vermont 60.67 60.17 0.688 13.16 12.86 0.778 70.65 69.00 0.343 63.80 63.39 0.785 64.82 64.22 0.654
Virginia 51.77 52.02 0.783 10.65 10.20 0.564 60.66 61.60 0.539 55.06 55.28 0.846 55.86 56.17 0.758
Washington 57.26 55.80 0.195 10.65a 8.86 0.036 58.45 57.37 0.558 62.39 60.80 0.261 61.84 60.34 0.219
West Virginia 41.28 40.71 0.623 9.97 10.70 0.429 56.06 54.37 0.349 42.29 41.77 0.716 44.08 43.39 0.586
Wisconsin 60.36 60.86 0.633 11.25 10.90 0.682 66.26 68.59 0.174 65.19 65.45 0.839 65.34 65.90 0.626
Wyoming 54.32a 52.00 0.039 10.72 9.73 0.381 62.15 61.28 0.650 58.15b 55.45 0.051 58.73a 56.28 0.045
170925
Table 7 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Individuals Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2014-2015)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2015-2016)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 21.57a 19.83 0.000
Northeast 25.98a 23.98 0.000
Midwest 22.00a 20.92 0.008
South 19.66a 18.39 0.000
West 21.01a 18.18 0.000
Alabama 18.19 17.32 0.324
Alaska 23.91b 22.08 0.071
Arizona 19.25a 16.74 0.011
Arkansas 16.65b 15.18 0.093
California 21.21a 17.87 0.000
Colorado 24.83a 21.48 0.002
Connecticut 27.67 26.24 0.185
Delaware 23.46a 21.03 0.013
District of Columbia 31.34a 26.93 0.001
Florida 21.20 20.64 0.410
Georgia 18.12a 15.73 0.002
Hawaii 20.57a 18.19 0.026
Idaho 16.80 16.74 0.951
Illinois 21.46 20.56 0.241
Indiana 20.97 20.89 0.938
Iowa 24.57a 19.07 0.000
Kansas 21.41 20.78 0.490
Kentucky 17.91 19.57 0.104
Louisiana 23.73 22.73 0.313
Maine 25.68 24.83 0.407
Maryland 23.50b 21.61 0.057
Massachusetts 29.63 29.24 0.781
Michigan 21.21 20.96 0.763
Minnesota 23.01 21.57 0.127
Mississippi 17.73b 16.02 0.054
Missouri 20.22 20.88 0.482
Montana 21.31 22.04 0.457
Nebraska 21.63 20.86 0.387
Nevada 23.67a 21.34 0.030
New Hampshire 27.78 28.06 0.777
New Jersey 25.97a 21.18 0.000
New Mexico 19.40 20.80 0.136
New York 24.72b 23.24 0.051
North Carolina 16.96 15.97 0.226
North Dakota 31.34 31.69 0.774
Ohio 22.09a 19.86 0.002
Oklahoma 19.63b 18.04 0.073
Oregon 23.57a 20.33 0.000
Pennsylvania 24.79a 22.43 0.002
Rhode Island 28.02a 24.94 0.004
South Carolina 19.39 19.77 0.674
South Dakota 25.57a 23.58 0.049
Tennessee 17.66 17.34 0.733
Texas 19.49a 17.29 0.000
Utah 10.75 10.71 0.971
Vermont 30.60 28.86 0.144
Virginia 20.87 19.63 0.137
Washington 22.67a 18.43 0.000
West Virginia 21.89 22.57 0.496
Wisconsin 23.86 22.44 0.128
Wyoming 21.59 21.76 0.865
170925
Table 8 – Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(2015-2016)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(2015-2016)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., snuff, dip, chewing tobacco, or "snus"), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 24.56a 23.72 0.000 6.50a 5.66 0.000 34.02a 31.48 0.000 25.14a 24.58 0.015 26.42a 25.56 0.000
Northeast 23.30 22.75 0.127 6.22a 5.39 0.001 32.89b 31.65 0.054 23.62 23.21 0.357 24.92 24.38 0.169
Midwest 27.39a 26.56 0.011 7.68a 6.68 0.000 38.61a 35.22 0.000 27.90 27.52 0.362 29.46a 28.62 0.020
South 26.24a 25.43 0.003 6.67a 5.91 0.001 35.33a 32.37 0.000 27.11 26.65 0.204 28.29a 27.46 0.006
West 20.29a 19.18 0.001 5.35a 4.52 0.001 28.78a 26.69 0.000 20.65a 19.68 0.017 21.86a 20.70 0.001
Alabama 30.46b 28.79 0.087 7.78 7.65 0.874 42.27a 36.26 0.000 31.21 30.09 0.368 32.80b 30.96 0.086
Alaska 31.51b 29.64 0.061 9.87 9.68 0.848 42.61a 37.95 0.007 32.30 30.78 0.238 33.96b 31.89 0.061
Arizona 22.51 21.60 0.295 6.18a 4.35 0.002 31.23 30.19 0.521 23.09 22.29 0.466 24.28 23.44 0.380
Arkansas 34.05a 31.40 0.011 9.67a 7.40 0.008 41.50a 36.64 0.009 35.83b 33.50 0.078 36.64a 33.95 0.019
California 17.94a 16.98 0.044 4.29 3.91 0.241 25.84a 23.10 0.002 18.20 17.49 0.229 19.36a 18.32 0.047
Colorado 24.92a 21.16 0.000 7.02a 4.64 0.000 36.39a 32.83 0.042 25.12a 21.16 0.000 26.75a 22.83 0.000
Connecticut 21.88 22.25 0.715 6.39 5.40 0.108 35.71 33.85 0.317 21.47 22.33 0.499 23.46 23.95 0.661
Delaware 26.35a 22.55 0.000 6.77a 4.68 0.000 37.20a 29.86 0.000 26.76a 23.37 0.005 28.21a 24.24 0.000
District of Columbia 24.77a 22.43 0.012 5.01 4.35 0.182 30.75 28.28 0.138 24.88a 22.46 0.033 25.89a 23.45 0.013
Florida 22.65a 20.59 0.001 5.17 4.44 0.105 29.75a 26.37 0.001 23.40a 21.39 0.010 24.21a 22.00 0.001
Georgia 26.02 24.76 0.115 6.10 5.82 0.653 35.21a 31.56 0.009 27.07 26.10 0.341 28.28 26.90 0.120
Hawaii 19.21 18.32 0.304 5.09b 4.04 0.059 28.22 25.73 0.122 19.31 18.72 0.582 20.50 19.61 0.346
Idaho 22.03 21.04 0.272 7.15b 5.70 0.084 31.66 31.23 0.808 22.50 21.50 0.378 23.84 22.90 0.350
Illinois 23.94b 22.76 0.070 5.93 6.04 0.840 34.27a 31.53 0.024 24.43 23.35 0.193 25.84b 24.51 0.064
Indiana 30.83a 28.72 0.037 9.05 7.73 0.123 42.65a 37.35 0.002 31.55 29.89 0.198 33.22a 31.01 0.048
Iowa 26.97 27.73 0.435 9.12a 6.54 0.001 37.25 37.94 0.694 27.30 28.48 0.354 28.81 29.92 0.305
Kansas 24.70 24.62 0.929 7.75a 5.86 0.010 34.60 32.22 0.155 25.14 25.71 0.634 26.60 26.71 0.913
Kentucky 34.47 34.28 0.871 10.40 9.61 0.418 44.58 43.43 0.526 35.66 35.71 0.971 36.93 36.80 0.917
Louisiana 31.06 30.58 0.626 7.92 7.94 0.981 39.93a 35.74 0.014 32.41 32.52 0.934 33.53 32.99 0.614
Maine 24.47 24.18 0.782 8.43 8.32 0.911 38.26b 35.17 0.072 24.18 24.26 0.953 25.87 25.55 0.774
Maryland 23.79b 22.04 0.055 6.05 5.57 0.428 33.98 31.95 0.245 24.21 22.38 0.102 25.56b 23.67 0.060
Massachusetts 20.76 20.46 0.740 5.98a 4.79 0.043 32.06 31.03 0.553 20.38 20.30 0.940 22.12 21.89 0.814
Michigan 27.19 26.78 0.565 7.57b 6.63 0.085 37.86a 34.00 0.001 27.74 27.96 0.813 29.23 28.84 0.621
Minnesota 25.28b 23.60 0.067 6.68 5.63 0.123 35.55 33.82 0.282 25.86 24.11 0.134 27.20b 25.45 0.083
Mississippi 31.79 30.70 0.299 8.92 8.11 0.370 38.62a 35.01 0.046 33.56 32.88 0.612 34.33 33.20 0.327
Missouri 30.80 29.51 0.204 9.28 8.45 0.349 44.22a 38.91 0.002 31.14 30.46 0.600 33.01 31.66 0.226
Montana 27.37 28.82 0.179 9.50 10.13 0.521 40.70 38.90 0.279 27.14 29.22 0.123 29.06 30.57 0.198
Nebraska 27.29 26.33 0.318 7.47a 5.20 0.006 37.69a 33.89 0.033 27.97 27.69 0.822 29.45 28.63 0.444
Nevada 24.76 23.47 0.177 6.94a 5.51 0.025 32.72a 28.56 0.017 25.65 24.81 0.482 26.60 25.30 0.216
New Hampshire 24.94 24.31 0.524 8.40b 6.97 0.085 39.58a 36.02 0.047 24.42 24.31 0.929 26.49 25.90 0.585
New Jersey 20.74b 19.25 0.065 5.33 4.64 0.154 30.95 30.27 0.650 21.00b 19.31 0.090 22.31b 20.73 0.075
New Mexico 24.15 25.01 0.391 6.26a 4.81 0.017 35.47 34.50 0.577 24.46 25.93 0.243 26.07 27.17 0.320
New York 23.17b 22.04 0.060 5.70a 4.89 0.033 29.47 28.26 0.275 24.00 22.85 0.125 24.80b 23.62 0.073
North Carolina 25.73 25.99 0.745 5.96 5.89 0.903 35.77 35.79 0.991 26.46 26.82 0.719 27.78 28.07 0.745
North Dakota 30.36 28.98 0.139 9.83a 7.51 0.010 42.38a 38.37 0.022 29.98 29.33 0.581 32.24 30.94 0.196
Ohio 30.22 29.61 0.399 7.86 6.94 0.130 42.54a 39.07 0.007 30.93 30.81 0.898 32.55 31.95 0.449
Oklahoma 32.12 30.95 0.268 10.22a 7.31 0.003 42.71a 35.50 0.000 33.06 33.19 0.921 34.51 33.53 0.401
Oregon 22.53 22.75 0.801 7.01 6.18 0.251 34.16 34.41 0.883 22.41 22.73 0.765 23.99 24.28 0.757
Pennsylvania 26.54 26.96 0.559 7.24 6.36 0.102 37.54 36.17 0.249 26.89 27.74 0.338 28.36 28.89 0.499
Rhode Island 23.45 24.16 0.478 5.86 6.17 0.647 34.58 33.62 0.601 23.29 24.34 0.397 25.05 25.77 0.505
South Carolina 28.49 27.98 0.602 7.11 7.37 0.734 40.56 38.97 0.375 28.98 28.57 0.743 30.62 30.00 0.573
South Dakota 28.05 29.08 0.301 9.20 8.32 0.370 41.55 39.58 0.245 28.00 29.80 0.155 30.02 31.25 0.261
Tennessee 28.66b 30.41 0.084 7.85 7.48 0.638 39.75b 36.40 0.061 29.31a 32.13 0.028 30.79b 32.73 0.080
Texas 23.12 23.10 0.973 5.74a 4.42 0.002 31.14a 28.86 0.036 24.13 24.71 0.444 25.22 25.35 0.845
Utah 15.39 15.45 0.942 3.70 3.36 0.613 19.63 21.30 0.334 16.49 16.22 0.787 17.06 17.15 0.913
Vermont 27.42 27.99 0.584 8.13 8.59 0.619 42.38 43.90 0.463 26.78 27.16 0.774 29.10 29.65 0.625
Virginia 25.04 23.81 0.128 6.06 5.63 0.485 34.37 32.30 0.142 25.68 24.52 0.252 26.92 25.61 0.137
Washington 22.09a 19.97 0.017 6.32 5.38 0.142 31.00 29.79 0.455 22.46a 20.05 0.030 23.65a 21.38 0.020
West Virginia 37.40 38.25 0.479 12.55 12.38 0.875 50.84a 44.33 0.001 37.93 40.01 0.173 39.62 40.57 0.468
Wisconsin 25.37 25.44 0.943 7.96a 6.21 0.016 36.14a 32.18 0.015 25.64 26.58 0.444 27.13 27.38 0.820
Wyoming 31.00a 28.61 0.021 10.59a 8.09 0.007 42.10 40.21 0.279 31.53b 29.11 0.065 33.06a 30.69 0.037
170925
Table 9 – Cigarette Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(2015-2016)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(2015-2016)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 20.12a 19.23 0.000 4.53a 3.80 0.000 27.54a 25.12 0.000 20.74a 20.09 0.003 21.72a 20.81 0.000
Northeast 19.13a 18.46 0.046 4.37a 3.44 0.000 26.89a 24.93 0.002 19.48 19.05 0.314 20.53b 19.87 0.071
Midwest 22.50a 21.31 0.000 5.55a 4.70 0.000 30.61a 27.66 0.000 23.20a 22.26 0.013 24.28a 23.04 0.000
South 21.41a 20.57 0.001 4.50a 3.88 0.000 28.57a 25.95 0.000 22.28b 21.71 0.099 23.19a 22.31 0.002
West 16.66a 15.82 0.004 3.75a 3.13 0.003 23.72a 21.72 0.001 17.02b 16.35 0.079 18.01a 17.13 0.007
Alabama 24.25b 22.65 0.099 5.34 4.83 0.389 34.00a 27.51 0.000 24.89 23.98 0.460 26.20 24.48 0.105
Alaska 24.64 23.35 0.192 6.02 7.20 0.145 35.38a 30.46 0.004 25.09 24.19 0.483 26.74 25.16 0.147
Arizona 19.23 17.98 0.141 4.15a 2.94 0.004 25.33 23.81 0.334 20.10 18.87 0.250 20.87 19.59 0.171
Arkansas 27.81a 25.90 0.045 6.35b 5.30 0.090 32.28 29.90 0.173 29.73 27.79 0.110 30.10b 28.09 0.055
California 14.82 14.30 0.222 3.09 2.66 0.134 21.90a 19.32 0.004 15.00 14.84 0.761 16.05 15.50 0.241
Colorado 19.71a 16.76 0.000 4.84a 3.44 0.003 29.65a 25.62 0.017 19.80a 16.86 0.003 21.23a 18.12 0.000
Connecticut 17.56 17.95 0.653 4.50a 3.54 0.021 30.39b 27.43 0.071 17.03 18.10 0.333 18.89 19.40 0.593
Delaware 22.46a 19.03 0.000 4.85a 3.22 0.000 31.48a 23.53 0.000 22.95a 20.07 0.008 24.13a 20.53 0.000
District of Columbia 19.87b 18.36 0.061 3.02a 2.05 0.002 23.86 21.72 0.148 20.21 18.79 0.157 20.83b 19.28 0.068
Florida 18.89a 16.62 0.000 3.56a 2.93 0.043 23.66a 20.36 0.001 19.75a 17.46 0.002 20.26a 17.82 0.000
Georgia 20.37 19.72 0.379 3.76 3.73 0.946 26.61 25.15 0.284 21.50 20.91 0.534 22.26 21.53 0.373
Hawaii 16.53a 14.86 0.037 3.13 2.98 0.705 23.98 22.86 0.481 16.79b 14.92 0.063 17.76a 15.93 0.037
Idaho 17.71 17.17 0.533 5.04 4.49 0.366 23.99 24.66 0.694 18.45 17.71 0.512 19.26 18.71 0.574
Illinois 20.44a 18.74 0.007 4.40 3.93 0.208 28.80a 26.46 0.048 21.02a 19.28 0.028 22.14a 20.29 0.008
Indiana 25.91a 22.82 0.001 6.74b 5.60 0.084 35.13a 28.32 0.000 26.75a 24.06 0.028 28.01a 24.70 0.002
Iowa 21.27 21.54 0.763 5.99a 4.60 0.025 28.75 29.66 0.596 21.79 22.14 0.758 22.85 23.28 0.655
Kansas 18.93 18.83 0.904 4.77 3.91 0.126 24.75 23.75 0.534 19.75 19.90 0.889 20.52 20.49 0.979
Kentucky 28.79 28.27 0.630 7.77b 6.51 0.088 37.23 35.74 0.418 29.89 29.63 0.845 30.94 30.49 0.702
Louisiana 26.44 25.84 0.535 5.82 5.65 0.790 33.60a 29.82 0.029 27.78 27.67 0.929 28.65 27.98 0.536
Maine 20.71 19.97 0.446 6.12 6.29 0.818 29.53 28.52 0.542 20.95 20.15 0.498 21.99 21.15 0.424
Maryland 19.07 17.78 0.115 3.93 3.46 0.234 25.71 24.05 0.306 19.76 18.44 0.195 20.58 19.20 0.124
Massachusetts 16.66 16.71 0.958 4.11a 3.00 0.011 25.91 23.76 0.191 16.40 16.95 0.599 17.81 17.95 0.878
Michigan 22.31 22.09 0.735 5.17 4.58 0.162 28.83b 26.86 0.073 23.27 23.37 0.906 24.09 23.88 0.770
Minnesota 19.50 18.59 0.289 4.69 4.19 0.339 26.81 25.47 0.402 20.09 19.21 0.408 21.02 20.07 0.307
Mississippi 25.34 24.12 0.210 5.59 5.08 0.451 31.20b 28.23 0.077 26.88 25.88 0.426 27.54 26.23 0.223
Missouri 25.09a 22.98 0.019 6.95 6.06 0.214 35.67a 30.61 0.005 25.49 23.74 0.119 26.96a 24.71 0.022
Montana 19.65 20.95 0.167 6.29 7.08 0.318 28.78 27.70 0.478 19.61 21.36 0.139 20.92 22.25 0.191
Nebraska 21.95 21.20 0.398 5.10a 3.93 0.031 27.92 26.28 0.329 23.04 22.52 0.640 23.78 23.09 0.477
Nevada 21.25 19.76 0.126 4.40a 3.43 0.026 27.51a 23.03 0.007 22.29 21.17 0.365 22.99 21.42 0.143
New Hampshire 19.70 19.16 0.543 5.92 5.04 0.157 30.47b 27.46 0.067 19.49 19.35 0.895 20.99 20.45 0.581
New Jersey 16.69 15.82 0.221 3.51b 2.90 0.086 24.71 25.05 0.803 17.02 15.93 0.228 18.03 17.12 0.245
New Mexico 20.32 20.28 0.966 4.11a 2.95 0.009 30.09 28.80 0.492 20.68 21.01 0.785 22.05 22.13 0.943
New York 19.55a 18.08 0.009 4.13a 3.14 0.001 25.24a 22.22 0.005 20.26b 19.00 0.072 20.99a 19.46 0.012
North Carolina 21.17 21.31 0.861 4.35 3.74 0.176 29.37 28.40 0.507 21.85 22.27 0.674 22.92 23.12 0.811
North Dakota 23.93a 21.88 0.021 7.31b 5.96 0.052 31.27a 26.64 0.004 24.17 22.62 0.178 25.46a 23.33 0.027
Ohio 25.26a 23.79 0.042 5.98a 4.93 0.034 33.72a 30.98 0.034 26.22 24.89 0.141 27.27b 25.74 0.052
Oklahoma 25.50 24.61 0.378 6.18a 4.78 0.032 34.03a 28.74 0.002 26.48 26.44 0.975 27.61 26.78 0.454
Oregon 18.00 18.21 0.807 5.25b 4.33 0.091 26.99 27.34 0.837 17.99 18.29 0.774 19.20 19.49 0.752
Pennsylvania 21.55 21.47 0.907 5.03a 3.91 0.006 29.58 28.06 0.197 22.07 22.34 0.749 23.11 23.11 0.990
Rhode Island 19.18 19.19 0.989 4.38 3.69 0.140 27.31 24.92 0.164 19.27 19.79 0.646 20.52 20.58 0.955
South Carolina 23.42 22.59 0.412 4.69 4.91 0.693 34.05a 30.13 0.022 23.83 23.40 0.733 25.28 24.33 0.392
South Dakota 22.16 23.53 0.163 6.63 7.17 0.496 32.69 31.67 0.556 22.23 24.14 0.121 23.79 25.25 0.176
Tennessee 22.75a 24.78 0.036 5.32 5.07 0.671 30.33 29.32 0.585 23.57a 26.36 0.022 24.53a 26.78 0.035
Texas 19.13 18.60 0.327 3.91a 2.90 0.001 26.34a 23.86 0.013 19.99 19.87 0.872 20.97 20.49 0.421
Utah 13.44 13.43 0.982 3.34 2.85 0.358 16.99 18.63 0.336 14.43 14.09 0.726 14.88 14.92 0.965
Vermont 21.98 22.33 0.725 6.20 6.23 0.964 33.55 35.63 0.290 21.58 21.62 0.974 23.36 23.70 0.745
Virginia 20.11 19.52 0.415 3.92 3.77 0.721 28.12 26.72 0.303 20.65 20.15 0.588 21.72 21.08 0.420
Washington 17.51a 15.89 0.043 4.10 3.61 0.276 23.73 23.08 0.675 18.04b 16.12 0.057 18.83a 17.07 0.045
West Virginia 29.77 29.79 0.985 8.29 7.84 0.597 40.10a 35.80 0.020 30.41 31.14 0.579 31.68 31.75 0.955
Wisconsin 20.60 20.51 0.924 5.90a 4.33 0.007 29.13a 24.34 0.004 20.93 21.79 0.461 22.10 22.15 0.959
Wyoming 24.24a 21.73 0.008 7.76a 5.88 0.008 31.24 29.36 0.270 25.00a 22.34 0.026 25.90a 23.34 0.012
170925
Table 10 – Alcohol Use Disorder in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2014-2015)
12+
(2015-2016)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(2015-2016)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Alcohol Use Disorder is defined as meeting criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse. Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 6.14a 5.73 0.000 2.62a 2.23 0.000 11.61a 10.80 0.000 5.64a 5.31 0.002 6.51a 6.09 0.000
Northeast 6.39a 6.01 0.030 2.72a 2.28 0.005 12.31 11.69 0.162 5.82 5.49 0.125 6.73a 6.36 0.050
Midwest 6.25a 5.90 0.019 2.52 2.29 0.110 12.45a 11.66 0.025 5.66 5.37 0.116 6.64a 6.28 0.027
South 5.76a 5.25 0.000 2.52a 2.08 0.001 10.61a 9.86 0.012 5.34a 4.87 0.004 6.09a 5.58 0.000
West 6.47b 6.14 0.060 2.78a 2.38 0.033 11.88a 10.85 0.010 5.99 5.80 0.380 6.86b 6.53 0.092
Alabama 4.64 4.16 0.188 2.17 1.67 0.127 9.65 9.08 0.536 4.10 3.64 0.324 4.90 4.42 0.230
Alaska 7.43 6.82 0.197 2.55 2.59 0.906 12.30b 10.45 0.080 7.16 6.72 0.462 7.99 7.30 0.193
Arizona 6.66a 5.34 0.002 2.90b 2.28 0.098 12.36 11.46 0.416 6.15a 4.68 0.005 7.06a 5.66 0.002
Arkansas 4.88 4.98 0.787 2.76b 2.14 0.080 9.64 9.82 0.852 4.34 4.52 0.695 5.11 5.28 0.668
California 6.55 6.40 0.563 2.73 2.33 0.151 11.85b 10.64 0.057 6.07 6.15 0.811 6.95 6.82 0.651
Colorado 7.47a 6.41 0.025 3.20 2.60 0.138 12.56 11.53 0.362 7.13b 6.00 0.057 7.91a 6.79 0.033
Connecticut 6.90 6.78 0.815 2.74 2.82 0.862 13.00 11.34 0.155 6.40 6.50 0.876 7.32 7.18 0.797
Delaware 5.88 6.13 0.568 2.42 2.08 0.283 12.46b 10.54 0.076 5.20 5.89 0.184 6.21 6.51 0.524
District of Columbia 8.22 8.53 0.577 2.44 1.88 0.129 12.85 13.17 0.793 7.65 8.03 0.572 8.55 8.91 0.545
Florida 5.91 5.63 0.366 2.69b 2.20 0.056 10.30 9.94 0.605 5.60 5.36 0.535 6.19 5.93 0.431
Georgia 5.48a 4.48 0.006 2.18b 1.73 0.093 10.55a 8.76 0.038 5.03a 4.11 0.043 5.86a 4.79 0.009
Hawaii 5.37 5.01 0.353 2.48 2.35 0.701 10.67 9.86 0.458 4.86 4.58 0.549 5.64 5.25 0.368
Idaho 6.05 5.54 0.192 2.98 2.56 0.275 11.89 10.70 0.249 5.48 5.09 0.429 6.42 5.90 0.237
Illinois 6.05 5.60 0.165 2.42 2.25 0.526 12.07 10.91 0.146 5.49 5.14 0.370 6.43 5.96 0.179
Indiana 5.94 5.36 0.154 2.65b 2.07 0.096 12.48 11.44 0.337 5.21 4.71 0.322 6.30 5.72 0.194
Iowa 6.36 6.42 0.884 2.57 2.46 0.761 13.00 11.95 0.356 5.63 5.91 0.599 6.75 6.83 0.867
Kansas 5.98a 5.08 0.023 2.51 2.36 0.720 12.38 11.96 0.716 5.27a 4.19 0.029 6.37a 5.38 0.027
Kentucky 5.61 5.38 0.567 2.36 2.08 0.350 10.14 10.04 0.923 5.25 5.00 0.631 5.95 5.71 0.610
Louisiana 6.59 6.51 0.858 2.43 2.60 0.663 10.54 10.02 0.581 6.42 6.40 0.966 7.04 6.93 0.828
Maine 5.33 5.68 0.386 2.52 2.42 0.782 12.07 11.61 0.683 4.69 5.21 0.301 5.57 5.97 0.382
Maryland 6.57 5.95 0.198 2.56b 1.99 0.087 11.25 11.45 0.866 6.28 5.54 0.229 6.97 6.34 0.237
Massachusetts 6.70b 7.52 0.097 2.98 2.56 0.279 12.58 12.93 0.784 6.07b 7.11 0.093 7.04b 7.97 0.086
Michigan 5.66 5.75 0.760 2.63 2.36 0.311 11.49 10.83 0.378 5.02 5.30 0.498 5.97 6.10 0.713
Minnesota 6.33 5.72 0.119 2.20 2.16 0.883 13.33 12.22 0.342 5.70 5.11 0.219 6.75 6.09 0.124
Mississippi 5.15 4.56 0.126 2.17b 1.68 0.087 8.90 8.39 0.586 4.86 4.25 0.219 5.48 4.88 0.161
Missouri 6.14 5.80 0.409 2.28 2.21 0.828 12.57 11.75 0.446 5.53 5.24 0.578 6.54 6.17 0.418
Montana 6.95 7.24 0.551 2.60 2.91 0.460 14.09 14.65 0.628 6.25 6.51 0.662 7.37 7.65 0.594
Nebraska 6.85a 5.88 0.029 2.33 2.43 0.779 13.25b 11.12 0.074 6.28b 5.38 0.100 7.34a 6.25 0.029
Nevada 6.25a 5.33 0.025 3.02 2.59 0.304 11.71 11.04 0.543 5.79a 4.79 0.049 6.58a 5.61 0.032
New Hampshire 7.20a 6.02 0.016 2.68 2.28 0.253 14.12b 12.01 0.085 6.59b 5.47 0.062 7.62a 6.36 0.019
New Jersey 5.72a 4.83 0.015 3.24a 2.19 0.005 11.42 11.24 0.859 5.15a 4.18 0.028 5.97a 5.10 0.031
New Mexico 6.82 6.98 0.716 2.59 2.76 0.680 12.05 11.56 0.653 6.46 6.74 0.616 7.28 7.43 0.746
New York 6.41 6.07 0.265 2.51 2.21 0.254 11.59 11.16 0.548 5.95 5.64 0.396 6.77 6.43 0.297
North Carolina 5.29b 4.65 0.081 2.08b 1.62 0.061 10.89a 9.01 0.019 4.75 4.31 0.333 5.62 4.96 0.103
North Dakota 7.06 6.96 0.812 2.96 2.82 0.720 13.19 12.74 0.691 6.15 6.17 0.968 7.44 7.34 0.831
Ohio 6.47 6.07 0.254 2.45 2.16 0.279 11.66 11.59 0.934 6.11 5.65 0.291 6.89 6.47 0.285
Oklahoma 6.18b 5.45 0.087 2.11 2.09 0.965 11.04 9.73 0.169 5.84 5.13 0.199 6.63b 5.82 0.089
Oregon 6.92 7.07 0.758 3.05 2.79 0.535 12.48 11.94 0.651 6.49 6.78 0.606 7.29 7.46 0.731
Pennsylvania 6.45a 5.62 0.008 2.53b 2.12 0.098 13.26 11.99 0.138 5.79a 5.00 0.036 6.82a 5.95 0.011
Rhode Island 6.98 6.84 0.783 2.86 2.32 0.187 13.83 11.98 0.143 6.16 6.39 0.713 7.36 7.25 0.843
South Carolina 5.94 5.75 0.644 2.56 2.11 0.143 10.50 10.88 0.722 5.57 5.35 0.649 6.27 6.11 0.717
South Dakota 7.39 7.27 0.796 2.63 2.87 0.573 14.55 12.96 0.186 6.72 6.82 0.868 7.89 7.73 0.759
Tennessee 5.29 5.05 0.521 2.18 1.85 0.268 10.43 10.22 0.843 4.81 4.59 0.626 5.61 5.38 0.574
Texas 5.95a 5.10 0.001 2.98a 2.38 0.036 10.70 9.69 0.147 5.50a 4.65 0.008 6.31a 5.43 0.002
Utah 4.79 4.28 0.152 2.26 1.87 0.292 9.85 8.74 0.288 4.08 3.69 0.383 5.15 4.62 0.190
Vermont 6.95 6.80 0.753 2.75 2.60 0.668 15.50 15.21 0.839 5.89 5.75 0.814 7.32 7.16 0.764
Virginia 5.76 5.70 0.861 2.19 2.08 0.706 11.43 10.85 0.539 5.23 5.28 0.917 6.12 6.06 0.880
Washington 5.68 5.73 0.913 2.74 2.30 0.210 11.57 10.70 0.410 5.07 5.32 0.630 5.97 6.06 0.849
West Virginia 5.49a 4.47 0.015 2.87b 2.14 0.069 11.46 11.09 0.740 4.87a 3.73 0.025 5.73a 4.68 0.022
Wisconsin 7.33 7.16 0.709 3.06 2.63 0.297 14.57 14.03 0.665 6.64 6.56 0.888 7.76 7.62 0.772
Wyoming 6.36 6.54 0.683 2.94 2.86 0.861 13.15 12.83 0.788 5.62 5.94 0.542 6.71 6.92 0.673
170925
Table 11 – Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 18+
2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Serious mental illness (SMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder, assessed by the Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition—Research Version—Axis I Disorders (MHSS-SCID), which is based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). SMI includes individuals with diagnoses resulting in serious functional impairment. For details, see Section B of the "2015-2016 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 4.05 4.13 0.376 4.92a 5.46 0.001 3.91 3.91 0.996
Northeast 3.94 4.07 0.345 5.15 5.56 0.109 3.74 3.83 0.564
Midwest 4.36 4.37 0.897 5.33a 5.94 0.008 4.19 4.11 0.591
South 4.00 4.05 0.703 4.54a 5.03 0.008 3.91 3.89 0.856
West 3.96 4.09 0.383 4.98a 5.62 0.011 3.78 3.82 0.794
Alabama 4.64 4.23 0.274 4.97 5.07 0.861 4.59 4.09 0.261
Alaska 4.02 4.53 0.126 5.75a 7.17 0.026 3.69 4.04 0.364
Arizona 4.33 4.04 0.404 5.06 5.52 0.435 4.21 3.79 0.305
Arkansas 5.27 5.45 0.637 5.16 5.98 0.141 5.29 5.36 0.870
California 3.53 3.61 0.690 4.47 5.05 0.122 3.36 3.36 0.986
Colorado 4.27 4.61 0.301 5.27a 6.65 0.031 4.10 4.27 0.653
Connecticut 3.46 3.59 0.682 5.01 5.44 0.481 3.21 3.28 0.828
Delaware 3.75 4.23 0.127 5.03 5.91 0.172 3.55 3.97 0.237
District of Columbia 3.63 3.92 0.354 4.70 5.38 0.219 3.41 3.61 0.570
Florida 3.61 3.56 0.822 4.33b 5.06 0.055 3.51 3.35 0.558
Georgia 3.99 4.17 0.568 4.12 4.49 0.442 3.96 4.11 0.687
Hawaii 3.59 3.18 0.247 4.34 4.70 0.487 3.48 2.96 0.204
Idaho 4.57 4.98 0.277 5.64b 6.70 0.090 4.38 4.69 0.490
Illinois 3.53 3.74 0.439 4.50b 5.20 0.093 3.37 3.49 0.679
Indiana 4.81 4.93 0.744 5.71 6.49 0.268 4.65 4.66 0.983
Iowa 4.15 3.93 0.500 5.25 5.59 0.580 3.96 3.63 0.400
Kansas 4.08 4.37 0.401 4.97b 5.91 0.098 3.91 4.09 0.667
Kentucky 5.08 5.25 0.671 4.93 5.89 0.128 5.11 5.14 0.940
Louisiana 4.53 4.53 0.996 4.60 4.97 0.487 4.51 4.45 0.880
Maine 5.06b 4.35 0.073 5.39 5.62 0.714 5.01b 4.18 0.066
Maryland 3.05 3.41 0.192 4.66 5.14 0.392 2.79 3.14 0.282
Massachusetts 3.86 4.32 0.135 5.09 6.08 0.128 3.64 4.02 0.291
Michigan 4.33 4.44 0.696 5.39 5.83 0.337 4.15 4.21 0.860
Minnesota 4.33 4.25 0.802 5.45 5.96 0.422 4.15 3.98 0.640
Mississippi 4.14 3.92 0.564 3.92 4.46 0.290 4.17 3.82 0.421
Missouri 4.68 4.17 0.173 5.56 5.53 0.969 4.53 3.94 0.170
Montana 5.19 5.34 0.694 5.73a 6.99 0.041 5.10 5.08 0.964
Nebraska 4.43 4.17 0.444 5.69 5.69 0.994 4.21 3.90 0.439
Nevada 4.41 4.21 0.586 5.38 5.76 0.546 4.26 3.98 0.499
New Hampshire 5.42 5.07 0.430 7.55 8.24 0.452 5.08 4.57 0.309
New Jersey 3.62 3.57 0.859 5.49 5.36 0.827 3.34 3.30 0.908
New Mexico 4.47 4.43 0.909 4.46 5.09 0.297 4.47 4.32 0.719
New York 3.90 4.08 0.484 4.75 5.24 0.231 3.76 3.88 0.664
North Carolina 4.67 4.72 0.894 4.49 4.42 0.897 4.70 4.77 0.874
North Dakota 3.90 4.03 0.653 5.18 5.89 0.245 3.61 3.63 0.966
Ohio 5.22 5.13 0.769 5.94 6.78 0.147 5.10 4.87 0.492
Oklahoma 4.33 4.60 0.429 5.02 5.41 0.491 4.20 4.45 0.533
Oregon 4.73 5.19 0.248 6.81 7.84 0.165 4.40 4.79 0.396
Pennsylvania 4.01 4.20 0.472 5.39 5.57 0.689 3.79 3.98 0.532
Rhode Island 4.51 4.24 0.480 5.13 5.71 0.326 4.39 3.97 0.348
South Carolina 4.08 3.98 0.771 4.68 4.79 0.843 3.98 3.85 0.741
South Dakota 4.13 4.12 0.970 4.83 5.61 0.170 4.00 3.86 0.699
Tennessee 4.36 4.98 0.112 4.82 5.62 0.190 4.29 4.87 0.184
Texas 3.34 3.26 0.717 4.22 4.80 0.132 3.18 2.98 0.426
Utah 4.55b 5.20 0.061 6.12 6.77 0.391 4.19 4.84 0.108
Vermont 4.88 5.32 0.298 5.32 6.27 0.149 4.80 5.16 0.468
Virginia 4.45 4.60 0.618 5.32 5.62 0.609 4.30 4.43 0.705
Washington 4.43 4.80 0.337 5.85 5.95 0.868 4.21 4.62 0.351
West Virginia 5.41 5.18 0.610 5.30 6.22 0.153 5.43 5.03 0.436
Wisconsin 3.99 4.24 0.457 5.28 6.21 0.178 3.77 3.91 0.718
Wyoming 4.41 4.62 0.534 5.76 6.73 0.140 4.18 4.27 0.816
170925
Table 12 – Any Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Any mental illness (AMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder, assessed by the Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition—Research Version—Axis I Disorders (MHSS-SCID), which is based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). For details, see Section B of the "2015-2016 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 18.01 18.07 0.679 20.89a 21.89 0.001 17.52 17.44 0.669
Northeast 17.76 17.86 0.743 22.00 22.58 0.279 17.07 17.10 0.930
Midwest 18.34 18.01 0.253 21.43b 22.25 0.073 17.81 17.30 0.116
South 17.82 17.95 0.612 19.31a 20.50 0.001 17.57 17.53 0.895
West 18.18 18.48 0.316 22.03a 23.21 0.027 17.51 17.67 0.640
Alabama 18.85 18.47 0.657 18.78 20.07 0.301 18.86 18.20 0.505
Alaska 18.11a 20.01 0.021 24.93 27.17 0.138 16.80a 18.70 0.045
Arizona 18.32 17.52 0.321 19.58 20.65 0.411 18.10 16.99 0.236
Arkansas 19.77 21.02 0.176 21.50 22.88 0.336 19.48 20.71 0.256
California 17.04 17.15 0.811 20.70b 22.21 0.067 16.38 16.26 0.806
Colorado 19.55 20.05 0.558 24.26 25.63 0.352 18.75 19.11 0.714
Connecticut 17.42 18.00 0.458 21.34 23.48 0.142 16.78 17.11 0.720
Delaware 18.51 17.71 0.345 20.97 21.60 0.646 18.11 17.11 0.302
District of Columbia 17.95 18.82 0.256 19.31 21.11 0.169 17.67 18.35 0.453
Florida 16.77 17.30 0.367 19.01b 20.57 0.076 16.44 16.84 0.552
Georgia 17.42 17.74 0.650 19.90 18.88 0.357 16.99 17.55 0.498
Hawaii 15.91 15.55 0.636 20.03 21.10 0.449 15.28 14.74 0.532
Idaho 20.41 21.62 0.181 23.90 25.08 0.434 19.82 21.03 0.238
Illinois 16.16 15.73 0.455 19.03 19.43 0.682 15.68 15.12 0.392
Indiana 20.56 19.95 0.476 24.31 24.86 0.716 19.90 19.08 0.419
Iowa 17.10 17.72 0.417 19.27 21.52 0.106 16.72 17.04 0.714
Kansas 17.52 18.17 0.410 19.19 21.42 0.106 17.22 17.58 0.696
Kentucky 21.30 22.08 0.404 19.78 21.20 0.332 21.55 22.23 0.535
Louisiana 18.42 17.31 0.170 17.30 16.91 0.748 18.62 17.38 0.184
Maine 19.16b 17.62 0.077 23.21 21.87 0.354 18.61 17.04 0.117
Maryland 16.62 16.59 0.973 21.14 21.77 0.658 15.89 15.78 0.894
Massachusetts 18.99 19.34 0.668 21.81 24.09 0.127 18.50 18.51 0.993
Michigan 18.07 17.33 0.229 22.10 21.87 0.817 17.38 16.55 0.255
Minnesota 18.78 18.24 0.488 22.58 24.49 0.192 18.17 17.24 0.305
Mississippi 17.95 17.49 0.607 16.41 17.19 0.542 18.23 17.55 0.510
Missouri 17.99 18.03 0.957 20.97 19.43 0.260 17.49 17.80 0.751
Montana 19.97 20.57 0.490 24.13 25.39 0.373 19.28 19.79 0.614
Nebraska 18.19 18.39 0.811 20.00b 22.75 0.074 17.87 17.61 0.782
Nevada 17.91 18.33 0.603 20.74 22.05 0.354 17.48 17.77 0.751
New Hampshire 21.67a 19.36 0.013 28.01 26.10 0.246 20.68a 18.30 0.024
New Jersey 16.19 15.50 0.312 20.62 20.29 0.797 15.52 14.78 0.332
New Mexico 19.93 19.19 0.399 21.26 23.51 0.140 19.70 18.46 0.223
New York 17.22 17.54 0.565 22.30 22.32 0.983 16.36 16.74 0.540
North Carolina 19.48 18.98 0.512 20.92 21.46 0.632 19.24 18.58 0.451
North Dakota 16.78 17.06 0.718 21.85 21.25 0.665 15.65 16.14 0.564
Ohio 20.20 19.72 0.450 22.49b 24.18 0.098 19.82 19.01 0.263
Oklahoma 19.18 18.93 0.766 20.58 21.43 0.528 18.93 18.50 0.652
Oregon 21.47 22.61 0.224 27.21 28.37 0.483 20.59 21.74 0.283
Pennsylvania 18.21 18.76 0.352 21.89 22.65 0.445 17.62 18.16 0.438
Rhode Island 20.50 19.23 0.132 22.01 23.60 0.291 20.22b 18.43 0.068
South Carolina 17.52 18.12 0.486 18.89b 21.43 0.081 17.29 17.59 0.763
South Dakota 17.57 17.83 0.746 20.90 21.97 0.404 16.99 17.11 0.897
Tennessee 19.85 19.63 0.795 20.40 21.79 0.345 19.76 19.28 0.614
Texas 15.98 16.04 0.912 17.92b 19.41 0.089 15.63 15.42 0.717
Utah 20.48a 22.27 0.026 24.06 25.20 0.479 19.66a 21.61 0.038
Vermont 20.27 20.85 0.537 23.37a 28.30 0.005 19.73 19.55 0.873
Virginia 19.18 19.96 0.284 20.56a 23.98 0.005 18.94 19.30 0.669
Washington 19.68 20.72 0.254 26.63 25.34 0.404 18.56 19.99 0.177
West Virginia 20.89 20.90 0.991 20.88 21.96 0.425 20.89 20.75 0.891
Wisconsin 18.75 18.51 0.757 22.42 24.00 0.286 18.15 17.61 0.546
Wyoming 19.51 19.46 0.952 23.37 23.71 0.821 18.85 18.76 0.920
170925
Table 13 – Received Mental Health Services in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Mental Health Services are defined as having received inpatient treatment/counseling or outpatient treatment/counseling or having used prescription medication for problems with emotions, nerves, or mental health. Respondents were not to include treatment for drug or alcohol use.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 14.51 14.28 0.167 11.80a 12.28 0.046 14.96b 14.61 0.059
Northeast 15.52 15.74 0.480 13.09 13.59 0.212 15.91 16.08 0.639
Midwest 15.81 15.75 0.837 13.44a 14.36 0.016 16.21 15.99 0.478
South 13.79 13.52 0.228 10.84 11.18 0.234 14.28 13.91 0.144
West 13.68a 13.06 0.020 10.88 11.21 0.381 14.17a 13.37 0.011
Alabama 14.58a 12.98 0.032 12.07b 10.60 0.088 15.00b 13.38 0.064
Alaska 13.77 13.54 0.735 13.78 13.38 0.748 13.77 13.57 0.805
Arizona 13.37a 11.87 0.040 9.47 10.44 0.270 14.05a 12.12 0.025
Arkansas 15.54 15.54 0.993 13.47 12.89 0.607 15.89 15.97 0.923
California 12.02 11.59 0.271 9.16 9.51 0.550 12.54 11.95 0.204
Colorado 16.10 15.86 0.738 13.20 14.38 0.286 16.59 16.10 0.568
Connecticut 16.98 17.05 0.940 14.14 15.28 0.379 17.44 17.33 0.913
Delaware 16.30 15.06 0.122 12.88 12.18 0.492 16.85 15.50 0.147
District of Columbia 15.00 15.18 0.810 13.36 12.90 0.673 15.35 15.65 0.728
Florida 12.07 12.75 0.204 9.88 10.09 0.737 12.39 13.12 0.230
Georgia 12.67 12.03 0.310 9.46 9.43 0.967 13.23 12.48 0.312
Hawaii 9.87 9.03 0.196 8.09 8.91 0.348 10.14 9.04 0.138
Idaho 17.72 16.64 0.189 15.78 16.47 0.573 18.05 16.67 0.148
Illinois 14.01 13.64 0.509 11.70 12.44 0.326 14.39 13.84 0.394
Indiana 16.22 15.36 0.300 13.86 13.97 0.927 16.63 15.61 0.288
Iowa 15.74 16.75 0.196 13.35 14.91 0.170 16.16 17.07 0.320
Kansas 15.99a 14.20 0.023 14.44 13.92 0.631 16.27a 14.25 0.029
Kentucky 17.84 17.94 0.903 13.61b 15.45 0.098 18.54 18.35 0.855
Louisiana 13.56 13.35 0.758 11.00 10.71 0.744 14.01 13.80 0.794
Maine 19.48 19.37 0.918 17.10 17.37 0.837 19.80 19.64 0.892
Maryland 14.19 13.66 0.474 12.33 13.61 0.227 14.49 13.67 0.343
Massachusetts 17.87 18.86 0.257 14.92 16.59 0.145 18.38 19.25 0.398
Michigan 15.76 16.12 0.541 13.74 14.95 0.143 16.10 16.31 0.759
Minnesota 17.39a 19.08 0.042 15.46 17.41 0.134 17.70b 19.35 0.084
Mississippi 13.08 11.98 0.159 10.69 9.53 0.173 13.52 12.41 0.233
Missouri 15.33 15.70 0.648 11.73 12.28 0.593 15.93 16.27 0.722
Montana 17.61 16.48 0.205 15.11 16.61 0.177 18.03 16.46 0.136
Nebraska 14.75 15.93 0.140 12.26a 15.80 0.001 15.19 15.95 0.419
Nevada 12.32 11.63 0.326 9.07 8.96 0.902 12.82 12.03 0.329
New Hampshire 21.13 20.72 0.693 19.59 20.55 0.521 21.37 20.75 0.599
New Jersey 13.52 12.67 0.223 12.07 11.82 0.791 13.74 12.80 0.241
New Mexico 14.80a 12.95 0.013 10.27 10.60 0.741 15.58a 13.35 0.010
New York 14.09 14.47 0.456 11.68 12.10 0.542 14.50 14.86 0.537
North Carolina 15.91 16.01 0.875 12.30 12.69 0.662 16.50 16.55 0.952
North Dakota 14.82 14.48 0.651 12.38 12.92 0.605 15.38 14.82 0.550
Ohio 16.96 16.50 0.453 14.07 15.07 0.259 17.43 16.73 0.323
Oklahoma 15.66 15.13 0.498 12.65 13.28 0.543 16.19 15.45 0.423
Oregon 17.77 17.52 0.768 15.56 16.00 0.689 18.10 17.75 0.715
Pennsylvania 15.98 16.35 0.577 13.28 13.06 0.786 16.41 16.86 0.555
Rhode Island 18.40 18.96 0.537 14.76 16.54 0.148 19.08 19.40 0.762
South Carolina 14.58 14.42 0.826 12.37 13.42 0.308 14.94 14.58 0.668
South Dakota 15.62 14.95 0.397 13.15 14.67 0.153 16.06 15.00 0.252
Tennessee 16.78a 15.10 0.032 12.95 12.88 0.944 17.40a 15.46 0.031
Texas 11.51 10.97 0.246 8.34 8.91 0.322 12.10 11.35 0.169
Utah 16.64 15.72 0.233 14.69 15.70 0.424 17.09 15.73 0.141
Vermont 19.18 20.39 0.201 16.75a 22.34 0.001 19.61 20.05 0.681
Virginia 15.74 16.54 0.246 12.70 13.97 0.178 16.24 16.95 0.370
Washington 17.08 16.37 0.394 15.24 13.49 0.133 17.38 16.83 0.570
West Virginia 18.26 17.01 0.152 14.40 13.88 0.647 18.83 17.47 0.175
Wisconsin 16.57 16.07 0.537 15.10 15.55 0.717 16.81 16.15 0.486
Wyoming 15.37b 13.98 0.065 13.89 13.20 0.606 15.62b 14.11 0.087
170925
Table 14 – Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Respondents were asked, "At any time in the past 12 months, did you seriously think about trying to kill yourself?" If they answered "Yes," they were categorized as having serious thoughts of suicide in the past year.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 3.99 4.04 0.544 7.88a 8.57 0.000 3.34 3.30 0.613
Northeast 3.93 4.03 0.447 8.15b 8.81 0.052 3.24 3.26 0.882
Midwest 4.14 4.14 0.994 8.08a 8.66 0.035 3.48 3.38 0.447
South 3.86 3.84 0.828 7.40a 8.06 0.008 3.27 3.15 0.285
West 4.12 4.30 0.223 8.25a 9.09 0.012 3.41 3.48 0.627
Alabama 4.02 3.57 0.120 7.76 7.27 0.530 3.40 2.96 0.172
Alaska 4.68 5.15 0.173 9.97b 11.76 0.053 3.66 3.94 0.447
Arizona 4.34 4.01 0.292 8.06 8.92 0.275 3.70 3.18 0.123
Arkansas 4.41 4.47 0.852 7.43 8.60 0.135 3.90 3.78 0.729
California 3.80 3.96 0.403 7.68b 8.54 0.099 3.11 3.17 0.779
Colorado 4.47 4.88 0.212 8.56 9.56 0.213 3.78 4.10 0.375
Connecticut 3.49 3.76 0.340 7.59 8.56 0.239 2.82 2.98 0.602
Delaware 4.03 4.35 0.262 8.33 9.13 0.322 3.34 3.62 0.347
District of Columbia 4.18 4.22 0.906 7.26 7.93 0.337 3.54 3.46 0.818
Florida 3.59 3.34 0.228 7.33 8.12 0.143 3.04b 2.67 0.081
Georgia 4.03 3.94 0.744 6.92 7.02 0.874 3.53 3.41 0.709
Hawaii 3.88 3.79 0.803 7.96 8.99 0.169 3.25 3.03 0.576
Idaho 4.39 4.84 0.244 8.05b 9.36 0.099 3.76 4.08 0.457
Illinois 3.89 3.89 0.996 7.58 8.45 0.134 3.27 3.14 0.592
Indiana 4.17 4.58 0.203 8.03 9.12 0.197 3.49 3.78 0.390
Iowa 3.93 3.94 0.981 8.13 8.74 0.467 3.18 3.08 0.725
Kansas 4.14b 4.72 0.070 7.91b 9.34 0.054 3.45 3.88 0.217
Kentucky 4.66 5.08 0.222 7.89b 9.36 0.073 4.12 4.38 0.489
Louisiana 4.19 4.24 0.853 7.37 7.78 0.568 3.63 3.64 0.970
Maine 4.10 3.74 0.265 8.02 7.68 0.677 3.57 3.22 0.303
Maryland 3.65 3.82 0.542 7.74 8.23 0.516 3.00 3.13 0.656
Massachusetts 3.88 3.97 0.766 7.62 8.49 0.241 3.23 3.19 0.881
Michigan 4.14 3.91 0.364 8.35 8.35 0.993 3.41 3.16 0.356
Minnesota 4.07 4.15 0.785 8.21 8.79 0.454 3.41 3.41 0.984
Mississippi 4.13 3.78 0.253 6.97 7.72 0.293 3.62 3.08 0.125
Missouri 3.92 3.47 0.118 7.67 7.18 0.530 3.29 2.86 0.154
Montana 4.95 5.29 0.378 8.96b 10.47 0.059 4.29 4.45 0.713
Nebraska 4.18 4.42 0.416 8.27 8.12 0.853 3.45 3.76 0.316
Nevada 4.45 4.29 0.651 8.56 8.90 0.678 3.82 3.60 0.579
New Hampshire 4.94 5.01 0.862 10.56 10.26 0.773 4.06 4.18 0.754
New Jersey 3.78 3.58 0.424 8.10 8.47 0.591 3.13 2.85 0.292
New Mexico 4.08 4.28 0.578 7.93 8.88 0.260 3.42 3.50 0.829
New York 3.85 3.94 0.694 8.00 8.82 0.166 3.15 3.13 0.910
North Carolina 4.20 4.23 0.917 7.28 7.71 0.534 3.69 3.67 0.952
North Dakota 3.95 4.17 0.432 8.01 8.47 0.540 3.04 3.24 0.509
Ohio 4.64 4.47 0.499 8.52 9.27 0.273 4.01 3.70 0.264
Oklahoma 3.97 3.77 0.488 7.74 7.54 0.782 3.31 3.12 0.538
Oregon 4.37b 5.07 0.058 10.09 11.52 0.103 3.49 4.09 0.133
Pennsylvania 4.10 4.41 0.224 8.64 9.05 0.521 3.38 3.69 0.267
Rhode Island 4.42 4.49 0.831 8.62 9.55 0.314 3.65 3.57 0.818
South Carolina 3.73 3.73 0.980 6.87 7.25 0.612 3.21 3.17 0.910
South Dakota 3.66 3.82 0.607 7.33 7.47 0.845 3.02 3.19 0.616
Tennessee 4.26 4.55 0.404 7.59 8.33 0.361 3.72 3.94 0.539
Texas 3.46 3.51 0.825 7.28a 8.38 0.042 2.76 2.62 0.520
Utah 5.25 5.62 0.316 9.95 10.49 0.572 4.18 4.52 0.386
Vermont 4.59a 5.48 0.028 7.94a 10.34 0.007 4.01 4.64 0.167
Virginia 3.94 3.96 0.923 8.06 8.57 0.484 3.25 3.21 0.895
Washington 4.54 4.73 0.608 9.49 9.67 0.816 3.75 3.96 0.619
West Virginia 4.23 4.31 0.824 7.69 8.72 0.210 3.71 3.66 0.882
Wisconsin 4.18 4.41 0.447 8.30 9.41 0.186 3.50 3.59 0.788
Wyoming 4.14 4.14 0.994 8.37 8.66 0.716 3.42 3.39 0.920
170925
Table 15 – Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2014-2015)
18+
(2015-2016)
18+
(P Value)
12-17
(2014-2015)
12-17
(2015-2016)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2014-2015)
18-25
(2015-2016)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2014-2015)
26+
(2015-2016)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Major depressive episode (MDE) is defined as in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when an individual experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms. For details, see Section B of the "2015-2016 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
NOTE: There are minor wording differences in the questions in the adult and adolescent MDE modules. Therefore, data from youths aged 12 to 17 were not combined with data from adults aged 18 or older to produce an estimate for those aged 12 or older.
a Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
Total U.S. 6.64 6.70 0.551 11.93a 12.63 0.002 9.79a 10.59 0.000 6.11 6.06 0.671
Northeast 6.82 6.80 0.936 11.68 12.13 0.249 10.56 11.08 0.190 6.21 6.11 0.633
Midwest 6.87 6.89 0.894 12.12a 13.53 0.000 10.23a 11.01 0.016 6.31 6.20 0.556
South 6.52 6.60 0.604 11.51 11.90 0.188 9.09a 9.91 0.002 6.09 6.05 0.805
West 6.47 6.61 0.421 12.59b 13.32 0.083 9.94a 10.89 0.016 5.87 5.88 0.930
Alabama 6.81 6.66 0.735 10.97 11.18 0.820 8.61 9.99 0.140 6.51 6.12 0.418
Alaska 6.73 7.39 0.145 12.40a 15.22 0.012 11.68 12.85 0.226 5.77 6.40 0.222
Arizona 6.77 6.03 0.124 13.20 11.68 0.159 8.46 8.61 0.868 6.48b 5.60 0.097
Arkansas 7.78 8.13 0.474 12.72 13.05 0.756 10.27 10.60 0.738 7.36 7.72 0.521
California 5.90 6.04 0.601 12.28 12.93 0.297 9.57b 10.65 0.071 5.24 5.23 0.970
Colorado 7.25 7.62 0.401 13.73 14.59 0.427 10.47a 12.66 0.039 6.71 6.78 0.882
Connecticut 6.77 6.84 0.875 11.49 12.52 0.317 10.28 11.73 0.150 6.21 6.05 0.727
Delaware 6.39 6.52 0.761 11.47 11.94 0.630 9.88 10.34 0.609 5.83 5.94 0.829
District of Columbia 6.60 7.28 0.113 9.96 9.91 0.949 9.92b 11.88 0.072 5.91 6.34 0.365
Florida 5.95 6.12 0.605 11.88 12.84 0.166 8.84a 10.40 0.011 5.53 5.52 0.964
Georgia 6.43 6.72 0.469 10.08 10.14 0.942 9.10 9.39 0.707 5.96 6.26 0.508
Hawaii 5.65 5.37 0.510 9.87 10.99 0.268 8.31 9.43 0.232 5.24 4.78 0.327
Idaho 7.14 7.62 0.277 13.03a 15.93 0.009 10.94 11.17 0.825 6.49 7.02 0.277
Illinois 5.98 5.62 0.259 11.20b 12.46 0.098 9.06 9.54 0.496 5.46 4.97 0.162
Indiana 7.89 7.69 0.691 14.64 14.70 0.955 12.01 12.37 0.736 7.16 6.87 0.598
Iowa 6.41 6.69 0.506 11.87a 14.09 0.039 8.95b 10.82 0.062 5.96 5.96 0.991
Kansas 7.01 7.21 0.665 11.18 12.53 0.183 9.83 10.91 0.258 6.49 6.54 0.930
Kentucky 7.60 7.55 0.918 11.05 11.72 0.462 10.31 11.05 0.426 7.15 6.97 0.745
Louisiana 6.83 6.49 0.456 11.00 10.15 0.365 8.42 7.79 0.440 6.55 6.27 0.586
Maine 7.88 7.21 0.177 12.51b 14.25 0.086 12.13 12.28 0.899 7.30 6.53 0.158
Maryland 6.02b 6.71 0.095 11.03 12.69 0.111 10.21 11.41 0.244 5.36 5.97 0.176
Massachusetts 7.29 7.48 0.667 12.37 13.72 0.208 11.29 12.55 0.295 6.59 6.60 0.972
Michigan 6.57 6.84 0.411 11.80b 13.27 0.054 10.37 11.34 0.195 5.92 6.08 0.658
Minnesota 7.36 7.02 0.435 12.55 13.39 0.400 9.83 11.12 0.196 6.97 6.37 0.214
Mississippi 5.88 6.04 0.693 11.08 10.78 0.763 8.02 8.28 0.762 5.49 5.65 0.737
Missouri 6.62 6.99 0.456 11.49a 14.28 0.005 9.67 10.35 0.491 6.11 6.43 0.555
Montana 6.92b 7.79 0.057 11.42a 13.56 0.031 9.29a 11.45 0.019 6.53 7.19 0.188
Nebraska 7.21 6.96 0.581 12.25 12.97 0.492 10.84 11.04 0.852 6.56 6.23 0.514
Nevada 6.93 7.35 0.366 13.94 15.66 0.137 9.65 10.73 0.281 6.51 6.84 0.520
New Hampshire 8.71 7.98 0.187 13.43 13.40 0.970 13.21 13.17 0.974 8.00 7.17 0.170
New Jersey 6.47 6.13 0.406 10.32 10.39 0.933 10.18 10.05 0.885 5.91 5.55 0.413
New Mexico 6.59 6.71 0.796 11.50 12.61 0.277 8.59 9.36 0.430 6.25 6.27 0.970
New York 6.52 6.68 0.589 11.92 11.91 0.985 10.12 10.65 0.444 5.91 6.02 0.735
North Carolina 7.47 7.07 0.309 12.35 11.70 0.480 9.62 9.05 0.480 7.12 6.75 0.406
North Dakota 6.37 6.80 0.332 10.47 11.25 0.398 9.47 10.33 0.384 5.68 6.03 0.468
Ohio 7.74 7.85 0.778 11.85a 13.98 0.005 11.18 11.50 0.663 7.19 7.26 0.858
Oklahoma 6.83 7.50 0.135 12.57 13.53 0.366 9.45 10.29 0.386 6.36 7.02 0.198
Oregon 7.51 7.89 0.438 14.33 15.66 0.236 11.61 13.41 0.112 6.88 7.05 0.761
Pennsylvania 6.89 6.83 0.847 11.64 12.33 0.336 10.83 11.02 0.778 6.26 6.17 0.799
Rhode Island 7.08 7.23 0.739 13.03 13.72 0.536 9.81 11.17 0.200 6.57 6.52 0.925
South Carolina 6.48 6.52 0.925 10.96 10.83 0.881 8.67 9.06 0.662 6.12 6.11 0.992
South Dakota 6.11b 6.86 0.070 9.90a 11.79 0.045 9.25b 10.90 0.068 5.56 6.16 0.195
Tennessee 6.97 7.06 0.829 10.92 12.13 0.212 9.58 11.12 0.118 6.54 6.41 0.780
Texas 5.68 5.68 0.987 11.53 11.95 0.521 8.15 9.11 0.106 5.23 5.05 0.577
Utah 7.02b 7.78 0.079 11.97b 13.81 0.093 10.21 10.74 0.612 6.29b 7.12 0.086
Vermont 7.93 7.60 0.509 12.06 12.45 0.703 10.45 12.10 0.144 7.49 6.82 0.223
Virginia 7.93 7.94 0.987 12.47 12.56 0.919 10.58 11.88 0.135 7.49 7.29 0.679
Washington 7.50 7.68 0.726 12.54 13.23 0.540 12.52 12.10 0.712 6.70 6.98 0.624
West Virginia 8.29 8.26 0.963 13.26 13.90 0.553 10.61 11.76 0.289 7.95 7.75 0.751
Wisconsin 6.56 6.74 0.680 13.64 14.45 0.415 10.61 11.97 0.208 5.89 5.88 0.980
Wyoming 7.51 7.54 0.944 13.31 15.00 0.160 10.80b 12.71 0.066 6.95 6.69 0.619

Methodology Used to Estimate the Bayes Significance Level for the Null Hypothesis of
No Change between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 Population Percentages

Comparisons between the state population percentages displayed in Tables 1 to 15 in this document are based on the 2014 through 2016 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs). The moving average state estimates for the overlapping 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 time periods were obtained from independent applications of the survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes (SWHB) methodology; that is, the 2015-2016 models were fit independently of the previously fitted 2014-2015 models. This independent analysis approach was followed because there was no desire to revise the previously published 2014-2015 estimates. New predictors were used in the 2015-2016 small area estimation (SAE) models due to a large number of new outcomes being included; therefore, a decision was made to perform a new variable selection.1 The age group-specific fixed predictor variables were defined at five levels (namely, the person level, census block group level, tract level, county level, and state level). Also, each age group model had 51 state-level random effects and 250 "within-state" area-level random effects.1

To estimate change in state population percentages, let pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a denote the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 prevalence rates, respectively, for state-s and age group-a. The change between pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a is defined in terms of the log-odds ratio (lor sub s and a) as opposed to the simple difference because the posterior distribution of the lor sub s and a is closer to Gaussian than the posterior distribution of the simple difference (Pi 2 sub s and a minus pi 1 sub s and a represents the simple difference between the 2015-2016 and 2014-2015 prevalence rates.). The log odds ratio, lor sub s and a is defined as

Equation 1,     D


where ln denotes the natural logarithm. The p value given is computed to test the null hypothesis of no change (i.e., Pi 2 sub s and a is equal to pi 1 sub s and a. or equivalently Log-odds ratio lor sub s and a is equal to zero.). An estimate of log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a is given by

Equation 2,     D


where the p 1 sub s and a represents the previously published 2014-2015 state estimates and the p 2 sub s and a represents the 2015-2016 state estimates. To compute the variance of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, that is, variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, let Theta 1 hat equal the ratio of p 1 sub s and a and 1 minus p 1 sub s and a and Theta 2 hat equal the ratio of p 2 sub s and a and 1 minus p 2 sub s and a, then


Equation 3,     D


where covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation 4.     D

Note that variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat used here to calculate variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a are the same variances used in calculating the previously published 2014-2015 Bayesian confidence intervals and the 2015-2016 Bayesian confidence intervals, respectively.

The correlation between natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat was obtained by simultaneously modeling the 2014, 2015, and 2016 NSDUH data. Note that these models used the same predictors employed in the 2015-2016 SAE model for all 3 years. This simultaneous modeling approach was adopted based on the results of the validation study2 conducted for measuring change in the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 state population percentages. For this simultaneous model, four age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 to 34, and 35 or older) by 3 years (2014, 2015, and 2016), that is, 12 subpopulation-specific models, were fitted, each with its own set of fixed and random effects. In this case, the general covariance matrices for the state and within-state random effects were 12 × 12 matrices corresponding to the 12 element (age group × year) vectors of random effects. Note that the survey-weighted, Bernoulli-type log likelihood employed in the SWHB methodology was appropriate for this simultaneous model because the 12 age group × year subpopulations were nonoverlapping. The correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat was approximated by the correlation calculated using the posterior distributions of the natural logarithm of pi 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 1 sub s and a and the natural logarithm of pi 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 2 sub s and a from the simultaneous model. Note that, for past year heroin use, the above-mentioned model did not converge. A different model that is based on simultaneous modeling of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 data where 2015 data are repeated twice is used to obtain the correlations between 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 past year heroin use estimates. This overlapping year model simultaneously fits eight subpopulation-specific models (i.e., four age groups × two overlapping time points, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016). Based on previous validation studies, this model is shown to underestimate the correlations,3 resulting in more conservative tests, meaning that there may be fewer significant differences that were able to be detected for past year heroin use.

To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero.), it is assumed that the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio lor is normal with Mean is equal to estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a. and Variance is equal to variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a.. With the null value (Log-odds ratio lor sub zero equals zero.), the Bayes p value or significance level for the null hypothesis of no difference is The p value is equal to 2 times the probability of realizing a standard normal variate greater than or equal to the absolute value of a quantity z., where capital Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, divided by the square root of the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a., and absolute value of quantity z denotes the absolute value of quantity z. This Bayesian significance level (or p value) for the null value of log-odds ratio lor, say log-odds ratio lor sub zero, is defined following Rubin4 as the posterior probability for the collection of the log-odds ratio lor values that are less likely or have smaller posterior density d of the log-odds ratio lor than the null (no change) value log-odds ratio lor sub zero. That is, The p value of log-odds ratio lor sub zero is equal to the probability of d of the log-odds ratio lor when it is less than or equal to d of the log-odds ratio lor sub zero.. With the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio lor approximately normal, the p value of log-odds ratio lor sub zero is given by the above expression.

Endnotes

1 For details, see Section B in the "2015-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.

2 See Appendix E, Section E.2, of the following report: Wright, D. (2003). State estimates of substance use from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume II. Individual state tables and technical appendices (HHS Publication No. SMA 03-3826, NHSDA Series H-20). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

3 See Appendix E, Section E.1, of the report referenced in footnote 2.

4 See the following reference: Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys (Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics: Applied Probability and Statistics). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Long Descriptions for Equations

Long description, Equation 1: The log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is pi 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 2 sub s and a. The denominator of the ratio is pi 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 1 sub s and a.

Long description end. Return to Equation 1.

Long description, Equation 2: The estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is p 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus p 2 sub s and a. The denominator of the ratio is p 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus p 1 sub s and a, where p 1 sub s and a represents the 2014-2015 state estimates and p 2 sub s and a represents the 2015-2016 state estimates.

Long description end. Return to Equation 2.

Long description, Equation 3: Variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, is a function of three quantities: q1, q2, and q3. It is expressed as the sum of q1 and q2 minus q3. Quantity q1 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat, quantity q2 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat, and quantity q3 is 2 times the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.

Long description end. Return to Equation 3.

Long description, Equation 4: The covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat is equal to the correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat multiplied by the square root of the product of the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.

Long description end. Return to Equation 4.

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