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Results from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:
Detailed Tables

190327
Table 3.1A – Perceived Great Risk of Harm Associated with Substance Use and Perceived Availability of Substances among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Specific Substance Risk/Availability Aged 12+
(2017)
Aged 12+
(2018)
Aged 12-17
(2017)
Aged 12-17
(2018)
Aged 18+
(2017)
Aged 18+
(2018)
Aged 18-25
(2017)
Aged 18-25
(2018)
Aged 26+
(2017)
Aged 26+
(2018)
PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK1                    
Cigarettes                    
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day 193,606 195,014 16,502a 15,974 177,104 179,039 22,701 22,827 154,403 156,212
Marijuana                    
Smoke Once a Month 69,813a 67,271 5,956a 5,533 63,856 61,738 4,180 4,038 59,676 57,699
Smoke Once or Twice a Week 85,335a 82,311 9,201a 8,486 76,134 73,826 5,233 5,185 70,902a 68,641
Cocaine                    
Use Once a Month 190,719 191,507 13,467a 13,094 177,252 178,414 21,346 21,046 155,906 157,367
Use Once or Twice a Week 232,451 232,872 19,421 19,263 213,029 213,609 28,242a 27,763 184,787 185,845
Heroin                    
Try Once or Twice 230,901 231,827 15,986a 15,538 214,915 216,289 27,951 27,723 186,964a 188,566
Use Once or Twice a Week 252,940 253,644 20,290a 20,003 232,651a 233,641 31,805a 31,332 200,846a 202,309
LSD                    
Try Once or Twice 180,615 178,852 11,622a 11,071 168,994 167,781 17,380a 16,644 151,614 151,137
Use Once or Twice a Week 219,168a 217,280 16,507a 15,956 202,661 201,324 24,030a 23,323 178,631 178,000
Alcohol                    
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week 120,217 121,787 10,656 10,550 109,561 111,237 12,934 12,645 96,627 98,593
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day 185,738 185,462 15,981 15,723 169,757 169,738 21,553 21,403 148,204 148,335
PERCEIVED AVAILABILITY2                    
Fairly or Very Easy to Obtain                    
Marijuana 159,365a 162,424 11,107 11,086 148,259a 151,338 25,153 24,875 123,106a 126,463
Cocaine 57,401 56,897 3,034a 2,790 54,367 54,107 8,893 8,866 45,474 45,241
Crack 47,848 46,820 2,677 2,512 45,171 44,309 5,214 5,081 39,957 39,228
Heroin 43,678 42,862 1,995 1,921 41,683 40,941 5,107a 4,777 36,576 36,164
LSD 35,493 36,560 2,891 2,767 32,603 33,793 6,679 6,899 25,923 26,894
Approached in the Past Month by Someone Selling Drugs 15,468 15,613 2,704 2,546 12,765 13,067 4,876a 4,499 7,889 8,568
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded from the respective analyses.
2 Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded from the respective analyses.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.1B – Perceived Great Risk of Harm Associated with Substance Use and Perceived Availability of Substances among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Specific Substance Risk/Availability Aged 12+
(2017)
Aged 12+
(2018)
Aged 12-17
(2017)
Aged 12-17
(2018)
Aged 18+
(2017)
Aged 18+
(2018)
Aged 18-25
(2017)
Aged 18-25
(2018)
Aged 26+
(2017)
Aged 26+
(2018)
PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK1                    
Cigarettes                    
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day 71.6 71.8 67.2a 65.3 72.1 72.5 66.6 67.5 73.0 73.2
Marijuana                    
Smoke Once a Month 26.1a 25.0 24.4a 22.8 26.3a 25.2 12.3 12.0 28.5a 27.3
Smoke Once or Twice a Week 31.9a 30.6 37.7a 34.9 31.4a 30.2 15.4 15.4 34.0a 32.5
Cocaine                    
Use Once a Month 71.3 71.2 55.6a 54.2 72.9 72.9 63.0 62.7 74.5 74.5
Use Once or Twice a Week 86.8 86.5 80.1 79.6 87.5 87.2 83.3 82.6 88.2 87.9
Heroin                    
Try Once or Twice 86.4 86.2 66.3a 64.5 88.3 88.4 82.6 82.5 89.3 89.3
Use Once or Twice a Week 94.5 94.3 84.0 83.0 95.6 95.4 93.9 93.3 95.8 95.7
LSD                    
Try Once or Twice 68.2a 67.1 49.6a 47.5 70.0a 69.0 51.8a 49.9 72.9a 72.0
Use Once or Twice a Week 82.7a 81.5 70.4a 68.4 83.9a 82.8 71.7a 70.0 85.9a 84.8
Alcohol                    
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week 44.6 45.0 43.6 43.2 44.7 45.1 37.9 37.5 45.8 46.4
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day 68.9 68.5 65.2 64.4 69.2 68.9 63.2 63.4 70.2 69.7
PERCEIVED AVAILABILITY2                    
Fairly or Very Easy to Obtain                    
Marijuana 61.0 61.7 46.1 46.0 62.5 63.3 74.6 74.2 60.5 61.5
Cocaine 22.4 22.0 12.8a 11.7 23.4 23.0 26.8 26.8 22.8 22.4
Crack 18.7 18.2 11.3 10.6 19.5 18.9 15.8 15.4 20.1 19.5
Heroin 17.1 16.6 8.4 8.1 18.0 17.5 15.4 14.5 18.4 18.0
LSD 13.9 14.2 12.4 11.9 14.1 14.5 20.2 20.9 13.1 13.4
Approached in the Past Month by Someone Selling Drugs 5.7 5.7 10.9 10.3 5.2 5.3 14.2a 13.2 3.7 4.0
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded from the respective analyses.
2 Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded from the respective analyses.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.2A – Perceived Great Risk of Harm Associated with Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic CIGARETTES ALCOHOL
Smoke One or More Packs
Per Day
Have Five or More Drinks
Once or Twice a Week
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly
Every Day
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 16,502a 15,974 10,656 10,550 15,981 15,723
AGE GROUP            
12-13 4,999 4,891 3,326 3,327 4,962 4,969
14-15 5,598 5,400 3,677 3,516 5,459 5,208
16-17 5,905 5,684 3,653 3,706 5,561 5,546
GENDER            
Male 8,175a 7,908 5,077 4,947 7,652 7,486
Female 8,327a 8,067 5,579 5,603 8,330 8,238
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 12,468a 12,036 7,873 7,832 12,074 11,929
White 8,672 8,422 4,941 4,883 8,248 8,057
Black or African American 2,123 2,039 1,768 1,790 2,163 2,132
AIAN 66 87 60 65 81 90
NHOPI * * * * * *
Asian 978 965 691 744 963 1,100
Two or More Races 560 487 367 313 541 499
Hispanic or Latino 4,034 3,939 2,783 2,718 3,907 3,794
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 9,767a 9,121 6,375 6,152 9,592 9,087
Small Metro 4,523 4,695 2,805 3,037 4,286a 4,638
Nonmetro 2,212 2,159 1,476 1,361 2,104 1,999
Urbanized 950 914 634 569 908 839
Less Urbanized 1,106 1,055 725 635 1,054 965
Completely Rural 156 189 117 157 142 196
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.2B – Perceived Great Risk of Harm Associated with Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic CIGARETTES ALCOHOL
Smoke One or More Packs
Per Day
Have Five or More Drinks
Once or Twice a Week
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly
Every Day
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 67.2a 65.3 43.6 43.2 65.2 64.4
AGE GROUP            
12-13 65.6 64.0 43.9 43.7 65.3 65.1
14-15 66.8 65.1 44.0 42.4 65.2a 62.8
16-17 69.1a 66.8 42.8 43.6 65.2 65.2
GENDER            
Male 65.3 63.5 40.8 39.9 61.4 60.4
Female 69.2a 67.2 46.4 46.7 69.2 68.5
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 66.8a 65.0 42.3 42.4 64.8 64.4
White 67.0 65.8 38.2 38.2 63.8 62.9
Black or African American 63.8 62.1 53.9 54.7 65.7 65.1
AIAN 42.9a 56.5 38.7 41.7 52.3 57.6
NHOPI * * * * * *
Asian 75.0a 68.1 52.9 53.0 74.1 77.6
Two or More Races 66.9 63.0 43.8 40.8 64.6 64.9
Hispanic or Latino 68.5 66.4 47.5 45.9 66.5 64.1
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 68.6 66.7 44.9 45.1 67.5 66.5
Small Metro 66.6a 64.2 41.5 41.5 63.3 63.3
Nonmetro 62.9 62.4 42.0 39.6 60.0 58.0
Urbanized 63.5 64.6 42.6 40.7 60.9 60.0
Less Urbanized 63.5 62.4 41.7 37.6 60.7 57.0
Completely Rural 55.3 53.1 41.2 44.4 50.4 54.6
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.3A – Perceived Great Risk of Harm Associated with Marijuana and Cocaine Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic MARIJUANA COCAINE
Smoke Once a Month Smoke Once or Twice
a Week
Use Once a Month Use Once or Twice
a Week
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 5,956a 5,533 9,201a 8,486 13,467a 13,094 19,421 19,263
AGE GROUP                
12-13 2,611 2,470 3,938 3,678 3,472 3,474 5,529 5,501
14-15 1,960a 1,746 3,139a 2,762 4,535 4,315 6,657 6,609
16-17 1,386 1,317 2,124 2,045 5,460 5,305 7,235 7,153
GENDER                
Male 2,848 2,699 4,365a 4,019 6,999a 6,692 9,905 9,725
Female 3,108a 2,834 4,836a 4,467 6,468 6,402 9,517 9,538
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 4,502a 4,221 7,016a 6,585 10,136 9,948 14,948 14,749
White 3,019 2,784 4,963a 4,594 6,884 6,817 10,604 10,384
Black or African American 841 804 1,048 1,036 1,972 1,920 2,467 2,500
AIAN 30 32 35 45 79 87 105 114
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 413 460 677 685 701 670 1,055 1,083
Two or More Races 172a 117 260a 205 458 420 659 618
Hispanic or Latino 1,454 1,312 2,185a 1,900 3,331 3,146 4,473 4,513
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 3,361 3,141 5,330a 4,792 7,816a 7,269 11,250 10,722
Small Metro 1,639 1,559 2,539 2,422 3,659 3,864 5,355a 5,764
Nonmetro 956a 832 1,331 1,272 1,992 1,961 2,816 2,777
Urbanized 400a 307 542 498 867 781 1,194 1,140
Less Urbanized 477 432 661 635 976 983 1,391 1,359
Completely Rural 80 94 128 139 148 196 231 278
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.3B – Perceived Great Risk of Harm Associated with Marijuana and Cocaine Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic MARIJUANA COCAINE
Smoke Once a Month Smoke Once or Twice
a Week
Use Once a Month Use Once or Twice
a Week
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 24.4a 22.8 37.7a 34.9 55.6a 54.2 80.1 79.6
AGE GROUP                
12-13 34.8 32.8 52.4a 48.7 46.6 46.3 74.2 73.1
14-15 23.5a 21.1 37.6a 33.5 54.8 52.6 80.2 80.4
16-17 16.2 15.5 24.9 24.1 64.4 62.8 85.2 84.6
GENDER                
Male 22.9 21.9 35.1a 32.5 56.8a 54.5 80.2 79.1
Female 26.0a 23.7 40.4a 37.4 54.5 53.9 80.0 80.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 24.3a 23.0 37.8a 35.8 55.1 54.4 81.1 80.5
White 23.5 21.9 38.6a 36.1 53.9 53.9 82.9 82.0
Black or African American 25.7 24.5 31.9 31.6 60.4 59.0 75.4 76.8
AIAN 19.4 20.8 22.6 28.9 51.3 56.5 68.5 74.1
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 31.6 33.1 51.8 49.4 54.6 48.4 82.5 77.8
Two or More Races 20.7a 15.4 31.4 26.8 55.2 55.7 79.9 81.8
Hispanic or Latino 24.8 22.2 37.3a 32.2 57.4a 53.5 76.8 76.8
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 23.8 23.1 37.6a 35.2 55.7 53.8 79.9 79.2
Small Metro 24.3a 21.5 37.7a 33.3 54.7 53.5 80.0 79.6
Nonmetro 27.4a 24.3 38.1 37.0 57.2 57.3 80.9 81.1
Urbanized 26.9a 22.0 36.5 35.5 58.5 56.0 80.6 81.5
Less Urbanized 27.7 25.6 38.4 37.7 56.7 58.5 80.9 80.9
Completely Rural 28.5 26.6 45.4 39.3 52.9 56.4 82.0 80.4
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.4A – Perceived Great Risk of Harm Associated with Heroin and LSD Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic HEROIN LSD
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 15,986a 15,538 20,290a 20,003 11,622a 11,071 16,507a 15,956
AGE GROUP                
12-13 4,014 3,942 5,629 5,499 3,220 3,099 4,661 4,506
14-15 5,410 5,181 6,975 6,881 3,949a 3,670 5,691 5,493
16-17 6,562 6,416 7,685 7,623 4,452 4,303 6,154 5,957
GENDER                
Male 8,330 8,097 10,426a 10,221 6,010a 5,751 8,393a 8,089
Female 7,656 7,441 9,864 9,783 5,612a 5,320 8,114a 7,867
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 12,102a 11,702 15,687a 15,316 8,695a 8,318 12,755a 12,203
White 8,361 8,114 11,172 10,854 5,801 5,601 9,022 8,576
Black or African American 2,247 2,152 2,506 2,548 1,790 1,704 2,090 2,075
AIAN 88 92 112 117 62 63 87 84
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 786 790 1,097 1,109 596 605 916 924
Two or More Races 565 516 727 632 399a 321 573 496
Hispanic or Latino 3,884 3,836 4,603 4,687 2,926 2,754 3,752 3,753
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 9,296a 8,650 11,758 11,201 6,614a 6,096 9,580a 8,911
Small Metro 4,398 4,622 5,600 5,967 3,216 3,255 4,528 4,657
Nonmetro 2,292 2,266 2,932 2,835 1,792 1,720 2,399 2,388
Urbanized 988 930 1,243 1,175 758 672 1,017 980
Less Urbanized 1,128 1,111 1,445 1,374 894 875 1,181 1,175
Completely Rural 176 225 244 286 140 174 201 234
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.4B – Perceived Great Risk of Harm Associated with Heroin and LSD Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic HEROIN LSD
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 66.3a 64.5 84.0 83.0 49.6a 47.5 70.4a 68.4
AGE GROUP                
12-13 54.4 53.0 76.0a 73.7 46.0 44.1 66.5a 63.6
14-15 65.5 63.3 84.4 83.9 49.0a 46.3 70.7 69.5
16-17 77.4 75.9 90.7 90.3 53.1 51.6 73.4 71.3
GENDER                
Male 67.9 66.3 84.9 83.5 50.3a 48.3 70.2a 67.9
Female 64.6 62.8 83.2 82.5 48.8a 46.7 70.6 68.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 66.0a 64.2 85.4a 84.0 48.8a 47.2 71.6a 69.1
White 65.6 64.3 87.5a 86.0 47.1 45.9 73.1a 70.0
Black or African American 69.0 66.4 77.1 78.5 55.9 54.6 65.7 66.8
AIAN 57.8 62.2 73.6 79.1 41.3 43.8 58.0 58.5
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 62.2 57.4 86.7a 80.5 48.4 45.4 74.2 69.0
Two or More Races 68.3 68.5 87.9 83.8 49.5 44.1 71.5 67.9
Hispanic or Latino 67.3 65.5 79.8 80.0 52.0a 48.6 66.8 66.1
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 66.5a 64.2 84.0 83.1 48.6 46.8 70.4a 68.2
Small Metro 66.0 64.3 84.0 82.9 49.7a 46.9 70.0a 66.8
Nonmetro 66.0 66.3 84.4 83.0 53.1 51.9 71.4 72.0
Urbanized 67.0 66.8 84.2 84.6 52.8 50.1 71.0 72.9
Less Urbanized 65.7 66.2 84.2 81.9 53.8 53.4 71.4 71.9
Completely Rural 62.6 64.6 86.9 81.6 50.6 51.7 72.9 68.9
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.5A – Perceived That Obtaining Specific Illicit Drugs Would Be Fairly or Very Easy among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic Marijuana
(2017)
Marijuana
(2018)
Cocaine
(2017)
Cocaine
(2018)
Crack
(2017)
Crack
(2018)
Heroin
(2017)
Heroin
(2018)
LSD
(2017)
LSD
(2018)
TOTAL 11,107 11,086 3,034a 2,790 2,677 2,512 1,995 1,921 2,891 2,767
AGE GROUP                    
12-13 1,436 1,494 582 544 611 541 440 422 344 337
14-15 3,881 3,953 947 883 946 867 634 638 881 821
16-17 5,789 5,640 1,506 1,363 1,120 1,103 920 860 1,666 1,610
GENDER                    
Male 5,347 5,359 1,225 1,240 1,044 1,096 842 873 1,327 1,325
Female 5,759 5,727 1,809a 1,550 1,633a 1,415 1,152 1,047 1,564 1,443
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 8,418 8,349 2,257a 2,062 2,044 1,901 1,548 1,493 2,112 2,068
White 6,098 6,096 1,626 1,503 1,450 1,345 1,123 1,087 1,609 1,598
Black or African American 1,382 1,356 366 346 353 358 263 242 278 239
AIAN 65 46 * 7 12 5 7 5 10 7
NHOPI * * * * * * * * * *
Asian 436 414 125 110 115 113 80 83 104 124
Two or More Races 406 401 107 90 114a 76 74 72 109 90
Hispanic or Latino 2,688 2,737 778 728 633 611 446 427 778 699
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 6,588 6,324 1,739 1,537 1,480 1,382 1,101 1,029 1,725 1,569
Small Metro 2,966a 3,304 837 889 731 778 528 604 782 857
Nonmetro 1,553 1,458 458a 364 467a 351 366a 288 383 341
Urbanized 691 647 200 167 207 152 157 111 184 158
Less Urbanized 745 686 214 161 213 160 168 143 159 148
Completely Rural 116 124 45 36 47 38 41 33 40 34
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.5B – Perceived That Obtaining Specific Illicit Drugs Would Be Fairly or Very Easy among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic Marijuana
(2017)
Marijuana
(2018)
Cocaine
(2017)
Cocaine
(2018)
Crack
(2017)
Crack
(2018)
Heroin
(2017)
Heroin
(2018)
LSD
(2017)
LSD
(2018)
TOTAL 46.1 46.0 12.8a 11.7 11.3 10.6 8.4 8.1 12.4 11.9
AGE GROUP                    
12-13 19.5 20.1 8.0 7.4 8.4 7.4 6.1 5.8 4.9 4.8
14-15 47.0 48.2 11.6 11.0 11.6 10.8 7.8 7.9 11.0 10.4
16-17 68.3 66.7 18.1 16.4 13.5 13.3 11.1 10.4 20.1 19.4
GENDER                    
Male 43.5 43.7 10.1 10.3 8.6 9.1 7.0 7.3 11.1 11.2
Female 48.6 48.3 15.5a 13.3 14.1a 12.2 9.9 9.0 13.7 12.6
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 45.9 45.9 12.5 11.5 11.3 10.7 8.6 8.4 11.9 11.8
White 48.0 48.5 13.0 12.1 11.6 10.9 9.0 8.8 13.1 13.2
Black or African American 42.4 42.0 11.4 10.9 11.0 11.3 8.2 7.7 8.7 7.6
AIAN 42.4 30.6 * 4.8 7.7 3.6 4.4 3.6 6.5 5.0
NHOPI * * * * * * * * * *
Asian 34.2 29.9 9.9 8.2 9.2 8.5 6.4 6.2 8.5 9.7
Two or More Races 49.4 52.2 13.2 11.8 14.2 10.1 9.1 9.6 13.7 12.0
Hispanic or Latino 46.4 46.4 13.6 12.5 11.1 10.5 7.8 7.3 13.9 12.1
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 47.0 47.0 12.6 11.6 10.7 10.5 8.0 7.8 12.7 12.1
Small Metro 44.5 45.8 12.7 12.4 11.2 10.9 8.1 8.5 12.2 12.2
Nonmetro 45.1 42.8 13.5a 10.9 13.8a 10.5 10.8a 8.6 11.5 10.3
Urbanized 47.2 46.7 13.8 12.3 14.3 11.2 10.8 8.2 13.0 11.9
Less Urbanized 43.8 41.2 12.7 9.8 12.7 9.8 10.1 8.7 9.7 9.2
Completely Rural 42.2 34.9 16.5 10.4 17.1 11.0 14.9 9.6 14.5 9.9
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.6A – Youths Felt That Parents Would Strongly Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana Once
or Twice
Using Marijuana Once a
Month or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 23,066a 22,864 20,914a 20,564 21,655a 21,415 22,367a 22,047
AGE GROUP                
12-13 7,311 7,274 7,182 7,148 7,311 7,258 7,194 7,154
14-15 7,944 7,817 7,216 6,998 7,462 7,301 7,740 7,544
16-17 7,811 7,774 6,516 6,418 6,883 6,855 7,432 7,349
GENDER                
Male 11,633a 11,505 10,611a 10,416 10,942a 10,786 11,205a 11,015
Female 11,433 11,359 10,303 10,149 10,713 10,629 11,162 11,032
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 17,525a 17,371 15,758a 15,497 16,391 16,219 17,021a 16,731
White 12,217 12,039 10,824 10,580 11,321 11,197 11,826 11,553
Black or African American 3,040 3,005 2,823 2,770 2,895 2,821 3,007 2,941
AIAN 135 141 118 136 122 134 124 141
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 1,253 1,373 1,216 1,331 1,240 1,347 1,200 1,307
Two or More Races 784 729 687 605 714 646 763 707
Hispanic or Latino 5,542 5,494 5,155 5,068 5,264 5,196 5,345 5,316
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 13,487 12,875 12,115 11,543 12,616 12,012 13,077 12,441
Small Metro 6,336a 6,819 5,721 6,101 5,904a 6,383 6,167 6,553
Nonmetro 3,243 3,170 3,078 2,921 3,136 3,020 3,124 3,052
Urbanized 1,388 1,309 1,290 1,177 1,318 1,229 1,358 1,258
Less Urbanized 1,599 1,542 1,542 1,436 1,567 1,478 1,520 1,489
Completely Rural 255 319 246 308 251 314 246 304
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Parents' Feelings data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.6B – Youths Felt That Parents Would Strongly Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana Once
or Twice
Using Marijuana Once a
Month or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 93.8 93.6 85.1 84.3 88.1 87.7 91.0 90.3
AGE GROUP                
12-13 95.3 94.9 93.7 93.3 95.5 94.7 93.9 93.4
14-15 94.7 94.7 85.9 84.9 88.9 88.5 92.1 91.2
16-17 91.6 91.3 76.5 75.6 80.8 80.7 87.2 86.5
GENDER                
Male 93.2 92.8 85.0 84.3 87.7 87.3 89.8 89.0
Female 94.5 94.4 85.1 84.3 88.6 88.2 92.2 91.5
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 93.6 93.8 84.2 83.9 87.6 87.8 91.0 90.4
White 94.0 94.0 83.3 82.7 87.2 87.5 91.1 90.2
Black or African American 91.6 91.7 84.9 84.7 87.1 86.4 90.6 89.7
AIAN 86.3 90.7 77.0a 87.2 79.3 86.0 80.2 90.1
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 96.1 96.7 93.7 95.1 95.6 96.2 92.7 93.5
Two or More Races 93.8 94.2 82.1 78.8 85.3 83.9 91.0 91.1
Hispanic or Latino 94.4 93.0 87.8 85.7 89.7 87.7 90.9 89.8
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 94.4 94.2 84.8 84.6 88.4 88.0 91.6 91.1
Small Metro 93.4 93.4 84.2 83.7 87.0 87.5 90.8 89.7
Nonmetro 92.4 91.6 87.6a 84.6 89.2 87.4 88.8 88.2
Urbanized 92.6 92.6 86.2 83.7 88.1 87.1 90.6 89.1
Less Urbanized 92.5 91.5 88.8a 85.1 90.1 87.5 87.5 88.1
Completely Rural 90.1 88.6 87.6 86.1 89.3 87.8 87.6 85.7
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Parents' Feelings data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.7A – Youths Felt That Close Friends Would Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana Once
or Twice
Using Marijuana Once a
Month or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 22,525a 22,315 19,069a 18,754 19,525a 19,158 21,754 21,655
AGE GROUP                
12-13 7,234 7,196 7,068 7,027 7,152 7,121 7,218 7,216
14-15 7,697 7,587 6,601 6,459 6,809 6,597 7,442 7,304
16-17 7,594 7,532 5,399 5,268 5,564 5,440 7,095 7,135
GENDER                
Male 11,286 11,178 9,575 9,470 9,767 9,588 10,838 10,831
Female 11,240 11,138 9,493 9,284 9,758 9,571 10,916 10,824
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 17,211a 16,987 14,512a 14,224 14,889a 14,552 16,624 16,456
White 12,013 11,774 9,975 9,729 10,302 10,040 11,563 11,402
Black or African American 2,987 2,949 2,571 2,498 2,588 2,499 2,871 2,846
AIAN 127 143 109 126 114 126 132 142
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 1,212 1,336 1,130 1,225 1,152 1,223 1,218 1,291
Two or More Races 772 704 633 579 639 595 741 696
Hispanic or Latino 5,314 5,329 4,557 4,530 4,636 4,606 5,130 5,199
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 13,096 12,556 10,971 10,450 11,270 10,692 12,700 12,214
Small Metro 6,259 6,643 5,249 5,561 5,344 5,697 5,988a 6,430
Nonmetro 3,170 3,116 2,849 2,742 2,911 2,769 3,066 3,011
Urbanized 1,366 1,264 1,211 1,095 1,225 1,109 1,329 1,231
Less Urbanized 1,550 1,530 1,408 1,347 1,451 1,357 1,497 1,464
Completely Rural 254 322 230 300 236 303 240 316
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.7B – Youths Felt That Close Friends Would Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana Once
or Twice
Using Marijuana Once a
Month or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 92.0 91.6 78.0 77.1 79.9a 78.7 89.0 89.0
AGE GROUP                
12-13 94.9 94.2 93.0 92.0 94.0 93.1 94.8 94.4
14-15 92.0 92.0 79.1 78.3 81.7 80.2 89.1 88.7
16-17 89.4 88.9 63.6 62.3 65.5 64.4 83.6 84.4
GENDER                
Male 90.9 90.5 77.3 76.8 78.8 77.8 87.4 87.9
Female 93.2 92.8 78.8 77.3 80.9 79.7 90.6 90.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 92.4 91.9 78.0 77.1 80.0 78.9 89.4 89.2
White 92.7 92.1 77.1 76.2 79.6 78.7 89.4 89.4
Black or African American 90.8 90.0 78.2 76.3 78.8 76.2 87.5 86.9
AIAN 83.5a 93.2 70.9 81.8 74.3 82.4 86.3 92.8
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 94.5 95.1 87.9 88.4 89.6 88.0 94.7 92.8
Two or More Races 92.2 91.2 75.8 74.4 76.5 76.7 88.9 89.8
Hispanic or Latino 90.8 90.6 78.1 76.9 79.4 78.2 87.7 88.2
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 92.2 92.2 77.3 76.9 79.4 78.7 89.5 89.8
Small Metro 92.4 91.2 77.7 76.3 79.1 78.2 88.6 88.2
Nonmetro 90.5 90.1 81.5 79.3 83.1a 80.2 87.5 87.2
Urbanized 91.6 89.9 81.1 77.8 82.0 78.8 88.9 87.7
Less Urbanized 89.6 90.4 81.6 79.6 83.9a 80.2 86.7 86.5
Completely Rural 90.4 89.9 82.7 84.2 84.0 85.1 85.5 88.6
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.8A – Youths Strongly Disapproved or Somewhat Disapproved of Peers' Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana Once
or Twice
Using Marijuana Once a
Month or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 23,081a 22,873 19,391 19,117 19,427a 19,110 22,246 22,119
AGE GROUP                
12-13 7,399 7,350 7,203 7,160 7,202 7,100 7,344 7,283
14-15 7,874 7,734 6,659 6,528 6,669 6,552 7,616 7,478
16-17 7,808 7,789 5,529 5,430 5,556 5,458 7,285 7,358
GENDER                
Male 11,649 11,549 9,890 9,789 9,897 9,757 11,171 11,136
Female 11,432 11,323 9,501 9,328 9,530 9,353 11,075 10,982
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 17,602a 17,349 14,732a 14,488 14,818a 14,535 16,979a 16,775
White 12,294 12,074 10,128 9,900 10,222 10,012 11,839 11,665
Black or African American 3,063 2,966 2,669 2,575 2,631 2,517 2,925 2,841
AIAN 129 * 119 * 112 * 133 *
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 1,226 1,363 1,097 1,241 1,132 1,232 1,223 1,334
Two or More Races 783 728 628 583 626 574 760 715
Hispanic or Latino 5,479 5,524 4,659 4,629 4,609 4,575 5,267 5,343
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 13,457 12,868 11,137 10,667 11,177 10,622 12,966 12,452
Small Metro 6,378a 6,813 5,360 5,671 5,348 5,696 6,164a 6,601
Nonmetro 3,246 3,192 2,894 2,779 2,901 2,792 3,115 3,065
Urbanized 1,390 1,299 1,212 1,091 1,217 1,095 1,348 1,244
Less Urbanized 1,598 1,566 1,443 1,390 1,450 1,399 1,516 1,506
Completely Rural 258 327 239 298 234 299 252 315
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Feelings about Peers data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.8B – Youths Strongly Disapproved or Somewhat Disapproved of Peers' Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana Once
or Twice
Using Marijuana Once a
Month or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 93.8 93.4 78.8 78.2 79.0 78.2 90.4 90.4
AGE GROUP                
12-13 96.3 95.4 93.8 93.1 93.8a 92.3 95.6a 94.6
14-15 93.7 93.6 79.3 79.0 79.5 79.3 90.7 90.3
16-17 91.7 91.5 64.9 63.9 65.2 64.3 85.5 86.6
GENDER                
Male 93.3 93.0 79.2 79.0 79.3 78.7 89.4 89.7
Female 94.3 93.8 78.5 77.4 78.7 77.6 91.4 91.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 94.1 93.5 78.8 78.2 79.2 78.5 90.8 90.5
White 94.6 94.1 78.0 77.3 78.8 78.1 91.1 91.0
Black or African American 92.4a 90.3 80.6 78.5 79.4 76.9 88.3 86.6
AIAN 83.0 * 76.7 * 72.3 * 85.7 *
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 94.7 96.5 84.8 87.9 87.2 87.3 94.4 94.3
Two or More Races 93.4 93.4 74.8 74.8 74.5 73.7 90.4 91.8
Hispanic or Latino 92.9 93.2 79.0 78.3 78.3 77.3 89.3 90.0
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 94.2 94.0 78.0 78.0 78.3 77.7 90.8 90.9
Small Metro 93.7 93.0 78.8 77.6 78.7 77.9 90.4 90.1
Nonmetro 92.4 92.1 82.5 80.3 82.7 80.6 88.8 88.5
Urbanized 92.9 91.8 80.8 77.3 81.2 77.5 89.9 88.2
Less Urbanized 92.0 92.5 83.5 82.2 84.0 82.5 87.9 88.8
Completely Rural 91.9 91.5 84.7 83.7 82.9 83.6 88.8 88.4
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Feelings about Peers data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.9A – Participated in a Prevention Program or Group in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PREVENTION PROGRAM OR GROUP
Problem-Solving, Communication
Skills, or Self-Esteem Group
Violence Prevention Program Pregnancy or Sexually
Transmitted Disease Prevention
Program
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 6,093 6,297 2,752 2,880 1,744 1,745
AGE GROUP            
12-13 2,129 2,092 1,183 1,222 470 451
14-15 2,037 2,213 931 943 695 730
16-17 1,927 1,992 638 715 579 564
GENDER            
Male 2,977 3,148 1,463 1,499 918 901
Female 3,116 3,148 1,289 1,381 826 845
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 4,738 4,789 2,022 2,197 1,259 1,325
White 3,092 3,107 1,134 1,225 741 763
Black or African American 983 918 612 651 380 356
AIAN 41 47 32 31 14 25
NHOPI * * * * * *
Asian 399 484 147 198 72 103
Two or More Races 192 209 91 83 45 71
Hispanic or Latino 1,355a 1,507 730 683 484 420
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 3,598 3,551 1,578 1,600 979 931
Small Metro 1,671a 1,874 761 872 476 543
Nonmetro 824 872 413 409 289 272
Urbanized 339 354 162 146 127 114
Less Urbanized 421 416 219 208 148 122
Completely Rural 65a 103 33 54 13a 36
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Prevention Program or Group Participation data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.9B – Participated in a Prevention Program or Group in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PREVENTION PROGRAM OR GROUP
Problem-Solving, Communication
Skills, or Self-Esteem Group
Violence Prevention Program Pregnancy or Sexually
Transmitted Disease Prevention
Program
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 25.3 26.2 11.2 11.8 7.1 7.1
AGE GROUP            
12-13 28.8 28.4 15.5 15.9 6.1 5.8
14-15 24.6a 27.1 11.1 11.4 8.3 8.8
16-17 22.8 23.6 7.5 8.4 6.8 6.6
GENDER            
Male 24.3 25.7 11.7 12.1 7.4 7.2
Female 26.3 26.7 10.7 11.5 6.8 7.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 25.8 26.4 10.8a 11.9 6.7 7.1
White 24.3 24.9 8.8 9.6 5.7 6.0
Black or African American 29.8 28.2 18.4 19.8 11.4 10.8
AIAN 27.1 30.4 20.3 20.2 9.1 15.6
NHOPI * * * * * *
Asian 31.0 35.1 11.3 14.0 5.6 7.3
Two or More Races 23.5 27.2 11.0 10.7 5.4a 9.2
Hispanic or Latino 23.5 25.6 12.4 11.4 8.2 7.0
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 25.7 26.4 11.1 11.7 6.9 6.8
Small Metro 25.0 26.2 11.2 12.0 7.0 7.4
Nonmetro 23.8 25.6 11.8 11.8 8.2 7.8
Urbanized 23.0 25.5 10.8 10.4 8.4 8.0
Less Urbanized 24.6 25.0 12.6 12.3 8.5 7.2
Completely Rural 23.4 29.4 11.8 15.0 4.7 10.3
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Prevention Program or Group Participation data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.10A – Participated in a Substance Use Program or Exposed to Substance Use Prevention Message in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE PROGRAM OR PREVENTION MESSAGE
Participated in Alcohol,
Tobacco, or Drug
Prevention Program
Outside of School
Participated in Program
or Meeting to Help Deal
with Drug or Alcohol Use
Saw or Heard Alcohol or
Drug Prevention Message
from Sources Outside
School
Talked to Parents about
Dangers of Tobacco,
Alcohol, or Drug Use
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 2,607 2,653 824 888 17,505 17,212 13,753 13,906
AGE GROUP                
12-13 928 976 267 280 5,060 5,089 4,208 4,381
14-15 841 913 293 321 6,074 5,967 4,777 4,803
16-17 838 763 265 287 6,371 6,157 4,768 4,723
GENDER                
Male 1,431 1,430 482 478 8,627 8,518 6,838 6,858
Female 1,175 1,222 342 411 8,878 8,694 6,915 7,049
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 1,920 2,011 615 684 13,415a 13,031 10,467 10,508
White 1,153 1,232 389 399 9,473 9,159 7,609 7,677
Black or African American 505 484 173 203 2,209 2,123 1,573 1,513
AIAN 22 32 * 10 112 104 71 92
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 151 178 21 44 946 1,034 717 758
Two or More Races 75 79 19 27 602 558 446 421
Hispanic or Latino 687 642 209 205 4,090 4,181 3,286 3,398
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 1,456 1,442 473 507 10,289a 9,694 8,146 8,015
Small Metro 730 787 221 250 4,811 5,158 3,711 4,007
Nonmetro 421 424 130 132 2,405 2,360 1,896 1,885
Urbanized 162 172 46 50 1,029 987 824 793
Less Urbanized 237 212 74 69 1,174 1,146 933 919
Completely Rural 22 40 10 12 202 228 139 173
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Substance Use Program Participation or Prevention Message Exposure data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.10B – Participated in a Substance Use Program or Exposed to Substance Use Prevention Message in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE PROGRAM OR PREVENTION MESSAGE
Participated in Alcohol,
Tobacco, or Drug
Prevention Program
Outside of School
Participated in Program
or Meeting to Help Deal
with Drug or Alcohol Use
Saw or Heard Alcohol or
Drug Prevention Message
from Sources Outside
School
Talked to Parents about
Dangers of Tobacco,
Alcohol, or Drug Use
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 10.6 10.8 3.4 3.6 71.6 70.5 56.3 57.0
AGE GROUP                
12-13 12.1 12.7 3.5 3.6 66.8 66.3 55.4 57.4
14-15 10.0 11.0 3.5 3.9 72.5 72.3 57.3 58.1
16-17 9.8 9.0 3.1 3.4 74.8a 72.6 56.3 55.6
GENDER                
Male 11.5 11.5 3.9 3.8 69.5 68.8 55.0 55.3
Female 9.7 10.1 2.8 3.4 73.7 72.3 57.7 58.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 10.3 10.9 3.3 3.7 72.1a 70.6 56.3 57.1
White 8.9 9.6 3.0 3.1 73.3 71.8 59.0 60.4
Black or African American 15.1 14.7 5.2 6.2 66.8 64.7 47.8 46.1
AIAN 14.1 20.8 * 6.5 71.6 66.8 45.7 60.3
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 11.7 12.6 1.6 3.2 73.7 72.9 55.1 54.1
Two or More Races 9.0 10.1 2.2 3.5 73.4 72.1 53.5 55.0
Hispanic or Latino 11.6 10.7 3.6 3.4 69.7 70.4 56.3 56.7
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 10.2 10.5 3.3 3.7 72.4 70.9 57.5 58.5
Small Metro 10.8 10.8 3.3 3.4 71.4 70.8 55.0 55.2
Nonmetro 12.0 12.2 3.7 3.8 68.4 68.4 54.2 54.6
Urbanized 10.8 12.2 3.1 3.6 69.0 70.2 55.1 56.3
Less Urbanized 13.6 12.5 4.2 4.1 67.4 68.0 54.0 54.4
Completely Rural 7.7 11.1 3.7 3.4 71.9 63.6 50.1 49.2
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Substance Use Program Participation or Prevention Message Exposure data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.11A – Participated in a Physical Delinquent Behavior in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PHYSICAL DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Got into a Serious Fight
at School or Work
Took Part in a
Group-Against-Group Fight
Attacked Someone with the Intent
to Seriously Hurt Them
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 4,036 4,004 2,800 2,696 1,150 1,123
AGE GROUP            
12-13 1,452 1,403 951 991 331 391
14-15 1,421 1,466 973 913 429 376
16-17 1,162 1,135 876 793 391 355
GENDER            
Male 2,474 2,491 1,540 1,473 702 712
Female 1,562 1,513 1,260 1,224 447 410
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 3,016 3,030 2,106 2,031 847 863
White 1,834 1,753 1,325 1,227 446 456
Black or African American 834 873 501 510 294 268
AIAN 34 37 21 22 11 11
NHOPI * * * * * *
Asian 135 168 115 140 44 82
Two or More Races 157 172 112 110 45 42
Hispanic or Latino 1,020 974 694 666 303 260
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 2,274 2,174 1,599 1,518 666 632
Small Metro 1,129 1,251 747 775 308 325
Nonmetro 633 578 454 404 176 166
Urbanized 271 251 189 179 85 70
Less Urbanized 309 259 230 183 81 67
Completely Rural 53 69 34 42 10 29
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.11B – Participated in a Physical Delinquent Behavior in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PHYSICAL DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Got into a Serious Fight
at School or Work
Took Part in a
Group-Against-Group Fight
Attacked Someone with the Intent
to Seriously Hurt Them
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 16.4 16.2 11.3 10.9 4.6 4.5
AGE GROUP            
12-13 18.7 18.0 12.3 12.7 4.2 5.0
14-15 16.9 17.6 11.6 11.0 5.1 4.5
16-17 13.6 13.3 10.3 9.3 4.6 4.2
GENDER            
Male 19.7 19.9 12.3 11.8 5.6 5.7
Female 12.9 12.5 10.4 10.1 3.7 3.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 16.1 16.3 11.2 10.9 4.5 4.6
White 14.1 13.6 10.2 9.6 3.4 3.5
Black or African American 25.0 26.4 15.0 15.4 8.7 8.1
AIAN 22.1 23.7 13.6 13.7 6.9 6.8
NHOPI * * * * * *
Asian 10.3 11.7 8.8 9.8 3.4 5.7
Two or More Races 18.9 22.2 13.4 14.2 5.3 5.4
Hispanic or Latino 17.2 16.1 11.7 11.0 5.1 4.3
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 15.9 15.7 11.2 11.0 4.6 4.6
Small Metro 16.5 17.0 10.9 10.5 4.5 4.4
Nonmetro 17.9 16.6 12.8 11.6 5.0 4.8
Urbanized 18.0 17.6 12.6 12.6 5.7 4.9
Less Urbanized 17.7 15.3 13.2 10.8 4.6 3.9
Completely Rural 18.7 19.1 12.1 11.8 3.4 7.9
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.12A – Participated in a Nonphysical Delinquent Behavior in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic NONPHYSICAL DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Carried a Handgun Sold Illegal Drugs Stole or Tried to Steal Anything
Worth More Than $50
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 1,144 1,044 528 471 754a 639
AGE GROUP            
12-13 234 258 34 36 145 136
14-15 406 363 162 133 265 233
16-17 504 422 332 301 344 271
GENDER            
Male 854 803 356 325 440 401
Female 290 241 171 146 314a 238
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 931 859 401 361 562 504
White 749 657 302 263 344 331
Black or African American 102 111 59 57 146 106
AIAN 7 7 1 5 2 4
NHOPI * * * * * *
Asian 17 28 14 14 36 32
Two or More Races 49 54 20 20 28 26
Hispanic or Latino 213 185 127 109 192a 135
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 520 493 326 251 492a 338
Small Metro 368 307 136 152 189 229
Nonmetro 256 244 66 68 73 72
Urbanized 94 77 26 29 31 32
Less Urbanized 127 124 32 29 26 33
Completely Rural 35 44 8 10 17 8
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.12B – Participated in a Nonphysical Delinquent Behavior in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic NONPHYSICAL DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Carried a Handgun Sold Illegal Drugs Stole or Tried to Steal Anything
Worth More Than $50
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 4.6 4.2 2.1 1.9 3.0a 2.6
AGE GROUP            
12-13 3.0 3.3 0.4 0.5 1.9 1.7
14-15 4.8 4.4 1.9 1.6 3.1 2.8
16-17 5.9 5.0 3.9 3.5 4.0a 3.2
GENDER            
Male 6.8 6.4 2.8 2.6 3.5 3.2
Female 2.4 2.0 1.4 1.2 2.6a 2.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 5.0 4.6 2.1 1.9 3.0 2.7
White 5.7 5.1 2.3 2.0 2.6 2.6
Black or African American 3.0 3.3 1.8 1.7 4.3 3.2
AIAN 4.4 4.2 0.9 3.3 1.6 2.7
NHOPI * * * * * *
Asian 1.3 2.0 1.1 1.0 2.7 2.2
Two or More Races 5.9 7.0 2.4 2.5 3.3 3.3
Hispanic or Latino 3.6 3.1 2.1 1.8 3.2a 2.2
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 3.6 3.6 2.3 1.8 3.4a 2.4
Small Metro 5.4a 4.2 2.0 2.1 2.8 3.1
Nonmetro 7.2 7.0 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.1
Urbanized 6.2 5.4 1.7 2.0 2.0 2.2
Less Urbanized 7.3 7.3 1.8 1.7 1.5 1.9
Completely Rural 12.3 12.1 3.0 2.8 5.8 2.2
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.13A – Selected Risk and Protective Factors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic RISK FACTORS PROTECTIVE FACTORS
Youth Argued with at
Least One Parent 10 or
More Times
in the Past Year
Youth Was Approached
by Someone Selling
Drugs in the Past Month
Youth Had Someone to
Talk to about Problems1
Youth Attended 25 or
More Religious Services
in the Past Year
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 4,581 4,416 2,704 2,546 23,129a 22,976 6,524a 6,170
AGE GROUP                
12-13 1,196 1,115 322 304 7,316 7,269 1,929 1,813
14-15 1,655 1,616 906 843 7,855 7,756 2,362 2,164
16-17 1,730 1,685 1,476 1,399 7,958 7,951 2,233 2,193
GENDER                
Male 1,902 1,777 1,433 1,364 11,831 11,739 3,087 2,973
Female 2,679 2,639 1,270 1,182 11,298 11,237 3,437a 3,197
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 3,536 3,429 1,930 1,807 17,658a 17,439 5,307 5,056
White 2,692 2,655 1,345 1,205 12,341 12,097 3,824 3,759
Black or African American 357 333 362 385 3,064 3,050 813 711
AIAN 19 15 21 12 148 148 27 *
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 274 257 82 102 1,222 1,339 402 361
Two or More Races 170 152 107 95 779 717 198 178
Hispanic or Latino 1,045 987 774 739 5,472 5,538 1,216 1,114
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 2,672 2,583 1,641 1,558 13,373 12,873 3,607a 3,226
Small Metro 1,300 1,299 723 707 6,426 6,836 1,848 1,980
Nonmetro 609 534 340 281 3,330 3,267 1,068 964
Urbanized 293 236 170 143 1,429 1,332 420 372
Less Urbanized 270 246 152 118 1,636 1,595 543 472
Completely Rural 47 52 18 21 265 340 105 119
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Risk or Protective Factors data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.13B – Selected Risk and Protective Factors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic RISK FACTORS PROTECTIVE FACTORS
Youth Argued with at
Least One Parent 10 or
More Times
in the Past Year
Youth Was Approached
by Someone Selling
Drugs in the Past Month
Youth Had Someone to
Talk to about Problems1
Youth Attended 25 or
More Religious Services
in the Past Year
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 18.8 18.1 10.9 10.3 95.1 95.0 27.1a 25.7
AGE GROUP                
12-13 15.7 14.5 4.1 3.9 95.9 95.3 26.2 24.4
14-15 19.8 19.6 10.7 10.0 95.0 94.8 28.6 26.5
16-17 20.4 19.8 17.2 16.3 94.5 95.0 26.4 26.0
GENDER                
Male 15.4 14.3 11.3 10.8 95.5 95.4 25.3 24.4
Female 22.3 22.0 10.4 9.7 94.7 94.6 28.9 27.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 19.0 18.6 10.2 9.6 95.4 95.4 29.0 27.8
White 20.9 20.9 10.3 9.3 96.1 95.8 30.0 29.9
Black or African American 10.7 10.1 10.7 11.5 93.4 94.5 25.2 22.1
AIAN 12.3 10.1 13.5 7.4 95.4 95.4 17.5 *
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 21.3 18.1 6.2 7.1 94.3 95.2 31.7 26.0
Two or More Races 20.7 19.7 12.7 12.1 94.3 94.3 24.2 23.4
Hispanic or Latino 17.9 16.5 13.0 12.2 94.2 93.7 21.2 19.1
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 18.9 18.9 11.4 11.2 94.8 95.0 25.8 24.0
Small Metro 19.2 17.9 10.5 9.6 95.5 94.8 27.8 27.6
Nonmetro 17.3 15.5 9.5 8.0 95.7 95.6 31.0 28.3
Urbanized 19.5 16.8 11.2 10.0 96.5 95.5 28.7 26.9
Less Urbanized 15.6 14.6 8.6 6.9 95.2 95.4 32.0 28.4
Completely Rural 16.6 14.7 6.2 5.6 94.7 96.8 38.0 33.9
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Risk or Protective Factors data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.14A – Youths Agreed or Strongly Agreed with Statements about Religious Beliefs among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STATEMENTS ABOUT RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
Religious Beliefs Are a Very
Important Part of Youth's Life
Religious Beliefs Influence Youth's
Decision Making in Life
It Is Important for Friends to
Share Religious Beliefs
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 17,181a 16,565 15,454a 14,701 7,197a 6,602
AGE GROUP            
12-13 5,812 5,651 5,297 5,058 2,454 2,351
14-15 5,918a 5,544 5,208 4,932 2,475a 2,236
16-17 5,450 5,370 4,949 4,711 2,267a 2,016
GENDER            
Male 8,563a 8,298 7,772a 7,376 3,687 3,465
Female 8,618a 8,268 7,682a 7,326 3,510a 3,137
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 12,890a 12,376 11,580a 11,084 5,509a 5,138
White 8,587 8,237 7,657 7,317 3,692 3,450
Black or African American 2,633 2,526 2,425 2,286 1,236a 1,064
AIAN 107 * 88 91 55 47
NHOPI * * * * * *
Asian 951 965 864 897 311 389
Two or More Races 535 471 476 431 175 156
Hispanic or Latino 4,291 4,189 3,874a 3,617 1,688a 1,465
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 9,799a 9,112 8,786a 8,075 3,781a 3,325
Small Metro 4,766 4,937 4,284 4,347 2,054 2,049
Nonmetro 2,616 2,516 2,384 2,280 1,362 1,228
Urbanized 1,077 956 965 851 554 454
Less Urbanized 1,321 1,279 1,219 1,180 688 627
Completely Rural 218 281 200 249 120 147
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Religious Beliefs data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.14B – Youths Agreed or Strongly Agreed with Statements about Religious Beliefs among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STATEMENTS ABOUT RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
Religious Beliefs Are a Very
Important Part of Youth's Life
Religious Beliefs Influence Youth's
Decision Making in Life
It Is Important for Friends to
Share Religious Beliefs
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 71.0a 68.9 63.9a 61.2 30.0a 27.7
AGE GROUP            
12-13 78.0a 75.6 70.9a 68.0 33.4 32.0
14-15 71.5a 67.9 63.0a 60.5 30.1a 27.5
16-17 64.5 63.8 58.6a 56.0 26.9a 24.0
GENDER            
Male 69.7 68.2 63.3a 60.7 30.3 28.6
Female 72.4a 69.6 64.6a 61.8 29.7a 26.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 70.1a 67.8 63.0a 60.9 30.2a 28.3
White 67.1a 65.1 59.8 58.0 29.0 27.4
Black or African American 81.3 79.0 74.8a 71.3 38.5a 33.4
AIAN 70.9 * 58.4 60.3 37.2 32.0
NHOPI * * * * * *
Asian 73.9 69.1 68.0 64.8 24.9 28.6
Two or More Races 66.2 61.8 58.7 56.4 21.7 20.4
Hispanic or Latino 74.1 72.3 66.9a 62.3 29.4a 25.5
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 69.7a 67.7 62.6a 60.1 27.2a 24.9
Small Metro 71.6a 68.6 64.2a 60.6 31.0a 28.7
Nonmetro 75.4 74.0 68.7 67.0 39.4 36.3
Urbanized 72.6 69.2 65.0 61.6 37.7 33.0
Less Urbanized 77.4 76.6 71.5 70.5 40.3 37.8
Completely Rural 78.3 80.4 71.9 72.4 43.5 42.5
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Religious Beliefs data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.15A – Parents Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific Behaviors in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
Parents Made Youth Do
Chores around the House
Parents Limited Amount
of Time Youth
Watched TV
Parents Let Youth
Know He or She Had
Done a Good Job
Parents Let Youth Know
They Were Proud of
Something He or She
Had Done
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 21,958 21,930 10,062 10,157 21,194 21,127 21,104 21,079
AGE GROUP                
12-13 6,869 6,949 4,011 4,064 6,974 7,084 7,009 7,082
14-15 7,534 7,456 3,367 3,420 7,205 7,113 7,186 7,113
16-17 7,555 7,524 2,684 2,672 7,016 6,930 6,909 6,885
GENDER                
Male 11,194 11,142 5,083 5,257 11,006 10,998 10,988 10,997
Female 10,764 10,788 4,979 4,900 10,188 10,129 10,116 10,082
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 16,604 16,445 7,375 7,539 16,247 16,092 16,162 16,063
White 11,483 11,270 4,868 5,029 11,402 11,139 11,349 11,124
Black or African American 3,061 3,070 1,421 1,319 2,881 2,879 2,848 2,913
AIAN 139 148 45 68 134 138 134 137
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 1,083 1,195 706 764 1,037 1,187 1,022 1,166
Two or More Races 731 685 293 318 714 666 712 641
Hispanic or Latino 5,354a 5,485 2,687 2,618 4,947 5,035 4,942 5,017
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 12,711 12,189 6,053 5,917 12,318 11,819 12,286 11,847
Small Metro 6,048a 6,611 2,703 2,930 5,808a 6,325 5,792a 6,252
Nonmetro 3,199 3,130 1,307 1,310 3,068 2,983 3,026 2,979
Urbanized 1,382 1,279 553 530 1,291 1,197 1,294 1,183
Less Urbanized 1,565 1,521 654 641 1,528 1,458 1,487 1,469
Completely Rural 251 330 100 140 249 328 245 327
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Parental Involvement data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.15B – Parents Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific Behaviors in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
Parents Made Youth Do
Chores around the House
Parents Limited Amount
of Time Youth
Watched TV
Parents Let Youth
Know He or She Had
Done a Good Job
Parents Let Youth Know
They Were Proud of
Something He or She
Had Done
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 88.8 89.0 40.9 41.4 85.8 85.8 85.4 85.5
AGE GROUP                
12-13 88.4 89.1 52.0 52.5 89.9 90.8 90.1 90.6
14-15 89.5 89.5 40.2 41.2 85.6 85.7 85.4 85.6
16-17 88.6 88.4 31.5 31.4 82.2 81.2 81.0 80.7
GENDER                
Male 89.2 89.0 40.7 42.2 87.7 88.0 87.5 87.9
Female 88.4 89.0 41.1 40.6 83.8 83.4 83.2 83.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 88.3 88.4 39.4 40.6 86.5 86.4 86.1 86.3
White 88.0 87.7 37.5 39.3 87.6 86.7 87.2 86.6
Black or African American 91.6 92.9 42.6 40.0 85.9 87.1 84.9a 88.0
AIAN 88.5 94.3 29.1a 45.0 85.9 90.1 85.4 86.2
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 83.1 84.5 54.7 53.9 79.3 82.8 78.3 81.6
Two or More Races 87.4 87.8 35.3 40.9 85.8 85.3 85.5 82.5
Hispanic or Latino 90.3 90.9 45.5 43.7 83.4 83.7 83.1 83.1
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 88.6 88.3 42.4 43.0 85.8 85.6 85.6 85.7
Small Metro 88.4 89.9 39.7 40.1 85.2 86.1 84.9 85.1
Nonmetro 90.3 89.9 37.1 37.8 86.7 85.9 85.6 85.7
Urbanized 91.5 89.7 36.8 37.3 85.7 84.1 85.6 83.1
Less Urbanized 89.6 89.8 37.7 37.9 87.4 86.0 85.4 86.6
Completely Rural 88.9 91.4 35.4 39.1 87.8 92.6 86.4 91.8
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Parental Involvement data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.16A – Measures of Student Characteristics in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS
Participated in One or
Fewer Activities1
Drug or Alcohol Prevention
Messages Were Seen or
Heard in School
Youth Liked a Lot or
Kind of Liked Going to
School
Grade Average for Last
Completed Period Was "D"
or Lower2
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 3,178 3,394 16,506 16,443 18,497 18,129 914 876
AGE GROUP                
12-13 800 904 5,072 5,148 5,873 5,803 245 188
14-15 1,034 1,121 6,007 5,938 6,397 6,146 339 347
16-17 1,344 1,369 5,427 5,357 6,227 6,180 329 341
GENDER                
Male 1,775 1,916 8,166 8,117 9,476 9,140 568 582
Female 1,403 1,478 8,340 8,326 9,021 8,989 345 294
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 2,278 2,353 12,735 12,624 13,903 13,571 640 560
White 1,548 1,709 8,940 8,827 9,480 9,141 403 382
Black or African American 462 400 2,077 2,039 2,518 2,519 169a 116
AIAN 35 22 89 113 117 117 12 20
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 130 97 951 1,082 1,086 1,181 9 5
Two or More Races 89 113 593 518 622 557 42 31
Hispanic or Latino 900 1,041 3,771 3,819 4,594 4,558 273 316
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 1,789 1,800 9,688 9,302 10,847 10,305 464 445
Small Metro 945a 1,089 4,543 4,865 5,082 5,340 286 300
Nonmetro 444 506 2,275 2,276 2,569 2,484 164 131
Urbanized 203 216 953 932 1,091 1,026 68 71
Less Urbanized 211 243 1,140 1,113 1,272 1,217 84a 51
Completely Rural 30 46 182 232 206 241 12 9
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Student Characteristics data were excluded from the respective analyses.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
2 Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.16B – Measures of Student Characteristics in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS
Participated in One or
Fewer Activities1
Drug or Alcohol Prevention
Messages Were Seen or
Heard in School
Youth Liked a Lot or
Kind of Liked Going to
School
Grade Average for Last
Completed Period Was "D"
or Lower2
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 13.4a 14.5 70.4 70.7 78.0 76.9 4.1 4.0
AGE GROUP                
12-13 11.0 12.4 70.8 71.8 80.5 79.3 3.7 2.8
14-15 12.7 14.1 74.5 74.8 78.5 76.6 4.4 4.5
16-17 16.3 16.7 66.1 65.7 75.2 75.2 4.1 4.3
GENDER                
Male 14.9 16.2 69.1 69.2 79.1a 77.0 5.0 5.2
Female 12.0 12.7 71.7 72.1 76.7 76.9 3.1 2.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 12.6 13.2 71.3 71.4 76.8 75.9 3.7 3.3
White 12.3a 13.7 71.7 71.5 75.1a 73.3 3.4 3.2
Black or African American 14.8 13.1 66.9 67.0 80.3 81.6 5.7a 4.0
AIAN 23.2 14.7 59.2a 77.3 78.1 79.3 8.2 14.5
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 10.3 7.2 76.6 81.1 85.8 87.4 0.7 0.4
Two or More Races 11.0 15.1 73.9 70.0 76.3 74.0 5.5 4.4
Hispanic or Latino 16.0 18.4 67.7 68.3 81.6 80.3 5.2 5.9
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 13.0 13.7 70.9 71.3 78.5 77.9 3.5 3.6
Small Metro 14.5 15.5 70.6 69.8 77.8 75.7 4.6 4.5
Nonmetro 13.2 15.4 68.2 70.1 76.2 75.5 5.1 4.2
Urbanized 14.1 16.1 66.7 70.2 75.8 76.1 5.0 5.6
Less Urbanized 12.7 15.1 69.5 70.3 76.5 75.8 5.3a 3.3
Completely Rural 11.3 14.0 68.0 69.0 76.5 71.6 4.6 2.8
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Student Characteristics data were excluded from the respective analyses.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
2 Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
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Table 3.17A – Adults Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific School-Related Behaviors in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic ADULT INVOLVEMENT
Teacher Let Youth Know
He or She Was Doing a
Good Job with School Work
Parents Checked That
Youth Did Homework
Parents Provided Help
with Homework
Parents Limited Time
Youth Went Out with
Friends on a School Night
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 17,960 17,677 19,081 19,051 18,693 18,520 15,434 15,189
AGE GROUP                
12-13 6,042 5,973 6,454 6,513 6,431 6,498 4,929 4,931
14-15 6,149 5,950 6,680 6,609 6,577 6,358 5,349 5,198
16-17 5,769 5,755 5,947 5,929 5,686 5,664 5,156 5,059
GENDER                
Male 9,182 9,143 9,891 9,872 9,456 9,424 7,484 7,490
Female 8,778 8,534 9,189 9,179 9,237 9,096 7,949 7,699
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 13,611 13,319 14,538 14,427 14,554 14,290 11,547 11,391
White 9,232 9,005 9,984 9,938 10,334 10,047 7,978 7,773
Black or African American 2,576 2,547 2,675 2,573 2,484 2,492 2,106 2,121
AIAN 118 118 129 129 116 131 80 101
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 1,014 1,060 988 1,119 898 969 811 860
Two or More Races 607 530 679 602 644 586 521 478
Hispanic or Latino 4,349 4,358 4,543 4,624 4,139 4,230 3,887 3,798
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 10,612 10,032 11,118 10,621 10,775 10,213 9,015a 8,462
Small Metro 4,811a 5,171 5,247a 5,743 5,186a 5,631 4,169a 4,531
Nonmetro 2,537 2,474 2,715 2,687 2,733 2,675 2,249 2,196
Urbanized 1,068 990 1,150 1,091 1,143 1,088 949 878
Less Urbanized 1,260 1,215 1,352 1,323 1,364 1,313 1,124 1,086
Completely Rural 210 270 214 272 226 275 176 232
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Adult Involvement data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.17B – Adults Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific School-Related Behaviors in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic ADULT INVOLVEMENT
Teacher Let Youth Know
He or She Was Doing a
Good Job with School Work
Parents Checked That
Youth Did Homework
Parents Provided Help
with Homework
Parents Limited Time
Youth Went Out with
Friends on a School Night
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 75.8 75.2 80.7 81.1 79.2 78.9 66.3 65.7
AGE GROUP                
12-13 82.9 81.9 88.8 89.2 88.3 89.0 70.2 69.8
14-15 75.5 74.3 82.2 82.6 81.1 79.6 66.6 65.8
16-17 69.7 70.1 72.1 72.4 69.2 69.3 62.8 61.9
GENDER                
Male 76.7 77.2 83.0 83.4 79.4 79.8 64.0 64.4
Female 74.8 73.2 78.4 78.7 78.9 78.0 68.6 66.9
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 75.3 74.6 80.6 80.9 80.8 80.3 65.0 64.8
White 73.3 72.4 79.3 79.9 82.2 80.8 64.3 63.4
Black or African American 82.0 82.7 85.5 83.7 79.5 81.2 68.6 69.7
AIAN 79.0 82.1 86.6 88.8 78.1a 89.4 54.4a 72.0
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 80.3 78.7 78.5 83.0 71.7 72.3 65.4 65.1
Two or More Races 74.5 70.5 83.8 81.3 79.4 78.9 65.1 64.8
Hispanic or Latino 77.1 77.0 81.2 81.6 74.0 74.8 70.4 68.4
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 76.8 76.0 80.7 80.5 78.4 77.5 66.5 65.0
Small Metro 73.8 73.7 80.6 81.8 79.7 80.3 65.1 65.7
Nonmetro 75.4 75.2 80.9 81.9 81.4 81.6 67.8 68.1
Urbanized 74.2 73.5 80.2 81.0 79.7 80.8 67.2 66.5
Less Urbanized 76.1 75.6 81.8 82.7 82.4 82.0 68.6 68.8
Completely Rural 77.9 80.3 79.6 81.8 84.7 82.6 66.6 71.2
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Adult Involvement data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.18A – Youths Perceived That All or Most Students in Grade Level Use Specific Substances among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE OF STUDENTS IN GRADE LEVEL
Smoke Cigarettes Use Marijuana Drink Alcoholic Beverages Get Drunk at Least Once a
Week
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 2,616 2,441 5,952 6,166 6,912 6,758 2,349a 2,143
AGE GROUP                
12-13 271 265 330 333 364 350 74 86
14-15 972 868 1,975 2,040 2,177 2,195 675 600
16-17 1,373 1,308 3,647 3,793 4,370 4,213 1,601 1,456
GENDER                
Male 994 887 2,474 2,603 2,822 2,672 898 874
Female 1,622 1,554 3,477 3,563 4,090 4,086 1,451a 1,269
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 1,881 1,866 4,303 4,461 5,214 5,059 1,789a 1,531
White 1,269 1,308 2,800 2,959 3,860 3,716 1,267a 1,081
Black or African American 419 372 1,042 1,014 803 781 334 300
AIAN 34 25 40 36 36 32 14 13
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 57 89 166 190 239 284 60 61
Two or More Races 89 62 238 236 252 218 98 71
Hispanic or Latino 734a 575 1,649 1,705 1,698 1,699 561 612
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 1,307 1,172 3,500 3,555 3,962 3,762 1,322 1,169
Small Metro 834 800 1,770 1,886 1,875 1,990 668 637
Nonmetro 474 469 681 725 1,074 1,006 359 336
Urbanized 192 191 345 361 471 412 148 144
Less Urbanized 246 248 301 329 536 514 183 170
Completely Rural 36 31 35 35 67 80 29 23
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months, or reported that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Substance Use in Grade Level data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.
190327
Table 3.18B – Youths Perceived That All or Most Students in Grade Level Use Specific Substances among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2017 and 2018
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE OF STUDENTS IN GRADE LEVEL
Smoke Cigarettes Use Marijuana Drink Alcoholic Beverages Get Drunk at Least Once a
Week
2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018 2017 2018
TOTAL 11.5 10.8 26.3 27.5 30.6 30.1 10.5 9.7
AGE GROUP                
12-13 3.9 3.8 4.9 4.9 5.3 5.1 1.1 1.3
14-15 12.4 11.2 25.4 26.7 28.0 28.6 8.8 8.0
16-17 17.1 16.5 45.5 47.8 54.7 53.1 20.3 18.7
GENDER                
Male 8.7 7.8 21.7 23.1 24.8 23.7 8.0 7.9
Female 14.4 13.9 31.0 31.9 36.4 36.4 13.1a 11.6
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 10.9 10.9 25.0 26.2 30.3 29.6 10.5a 9.1
White 10.5 10.9 23.3 24.8 32.1 31.1 10.6a 9.1
Black or African American 14.0 12.6 35.2 34.4 27.2 26.6 11.4 10.5
AIAN 23.4 17.8 27.9 26.4 25.2 23.3 9.9 9.7
NHOPI * * * * * * * *
Asian 4.8 7.0 14.0 15.3 20.0 22.1 5.1 5.0
Two or More Races 11.3 8.9 30.5 33.2 32.2 30.7 12.7 10.2
Hispanic or Latino 13.6a 10.6 30.5 31.7 31.5 31.5 10.6 11.7
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 9.9 9.3 26.6 28.3 30.1 29.9 10.2 9.5
Small Metro 13.4 11.9 28.5 28.2 30.2 29.6 10.9 9.6
Nonmetro 14.6 14.8 21.2 23.1 33.3 31.8 11.3 10.8
Urbanized 13.9 14.6 25.0 28.0 34.2 31.7 10.9 11.3
Less Urbanized 15.4 16.0 19.0 21.4 33.7 33.2 11.6 11.1
Completely Rural 14.2 9.6 14.1 11.0 25.8 25.0 11.6 7.1
* = low precision; -- = not available; da = does not apply; nc = not comparable due to methodological changes; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months, or reported that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Substance Use in Grade Level data were excluded from the respective analyses.
a The difference between this estimate and the 2018 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level. Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2017 and 2018.

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