National Survey on Drug Use and Health:
Comparison of 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 Population Percentages
(50 States and the District of Columbia)

180919
Table 1 – Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2016-2017)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2016-2017)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 10.88a 14.50 0.000 13.37a 12.19 0.000 29.31a 33.91 0.000 7.38a 11.61 0.000 10.61a 14.73 0.000
Northeast 11.95a 15.10 0.000 14.22a 12.29 0.001 34.64a 37.92 0.001 7.84a 11.77 0.000 11.71a 15.36 0.000
Midwest 10.36a 13.88 0.000 12.84 12.74 0.820 28.53a 33.63 0.000 6.90a 10.74 0.000 10.08a 14.00 0.000
South 9.59a 12.25 0.000 12.06a 10.99 0.014 25.38a 30.28 0.000 6.62a 9.49 0.000 9.32a 12.38 0.000
West 12.55a 18.17 0.000 15.26a 13.58 0.010 31.83a 36.86 0.000 8.69a 15.62 0.000 12.25a 18.64 0.000
Alabama 8.49a 10.54 0.008 10.11 9.67 0.741 22.60b 26.35 0.085 5.89a 8.08 0.009 8.31a 10.63 0.005
Alaska 16.25a 22.73 0.000 15.89 16.51 0.735 35.51 39.44 0.147 12.67a 20.74 0.000 16.29a 23.43 0.000
Arizona 10.89a 13.85 0.003 14.28a 11.05 0.045 29.42 29.75 0.898 7.29a 11.55 0.000 10.50a 14.14 0.001
Arkansas 10.78a 12.60 0.047 12.33 10.87 0.315 27.59 27.09 0.832 7.85a 10.43 0.011 10.61a 12.78 0.027
California 12.91a 17.39 0.000 15.12b 13.30 0.074 32.15a 36.53 0.004 8.91a 14.63 0.000 12.65a 17.81 0.000
Colorado 15.12a 24.86 0.000 18.55 16.97 0.424 38.59a 48.81 0.000 10.79a 21.88 0.000 14.76a 25.65 0.000
Connecticut 12.56a 16.22 0.000 15.91 14.73 0.519 37.10a 45.21 0.004 8.25a 11.68 0.003 12.20a 16.37 0.000
Delaware 11.82a 14.80 0.003 15.53 13.48 0.235 35.92 37.20 0.629 7.35a 11.60 0.000 11.43a 14.92 0.001
District of Columbia 14.34a 26.35 0.000 14.59 14.60 0.995 33.16a 53.20 0.000 10.11a 21.90 0.000 14.33a 27.01 0.000
Florida 10.12a 13.69 0.000 12.94 13.46 0.620 26.58a 35.77 0.000 7.38a 10.69 0.000 9.85a 13.71 0.000
Georgia 11.03 11.64 0.496 12.69b 10.39 0.098 26.60 29.91 0.150 8.15 8.73 0.556 10.84 11.78 0.328
Hawaii 12.06 13.14 0.363 14.45b 11.43 0.091 31.14 27.14 0.140 8.74b 11.39 0.053 11.82 13.29 0.249
Idaho 10.66a 12.62 0.030 13.44 12.00 0.362 28.30 28.40 0.968 7.15a 10.09 0.003 10.32a 12.70 0.015
Illinois 10.54a 13.83 0.000 13.33 13.34 0.998 27.95a 35.26 0.000 7.01a 10.42 0.000 10.22a 13.88 0.000
Indiana 10.28a 14.42 0.000 12.90 13.31 0.798 27.22a 33.87 0.008 7.08a 11.16 0.000 9.99a 14.54 0.000
Iowa 7.68a 11.39 0.000 11.72 10.22 0.307 20.54a 30.88 0.000 4.90a 8.05 0.000 7.25a 11.51 0.000
Kansas 9.39a 11.93 0.003 12.12 11.76 0.815 25.63 28.87 0.180 6.00a 8.93 0.002 9.09a 11.95 0.002
Kentucky 8.83a 12.86 0.000 10.91 11.94 0.496 24.66b 28.74 0.087 6.10a 10.39 0.000 8.61a 12.95 0.000
Louisiana 8.52a 12.23 0.000 9.76 9.92 0.905 23.23a 28.98 0.014 5.51a 9.76 0.000 8.37a 12.48 0.000
Maine 13.55a 21.94 0.000 14.20 15.81 0.364 39.68a 45.67 0.030 9.85a 19.36 0.000 13.49a 22.46 0.000
Maryland 10.69a 15.48 0.000 13.73 13.76 0.988 30.32a 39.47 0.001 6.98a 12.00 0.000 10.36a 15.65 0.000
Massachusetts 14.57a 19.96 0.000 16.44 16.39 0.978 40.19b 44.93 0.094 9.81a 16.03 0.000 14.39a 20.28 0.000
Michigan 12.20a 16.69 0.000 14.21 14.15 0.959 32.33a 38.00 0.001 8.51a 13.41 0.000 11.97a 16.94 0.000
Minnesota 10.37a 13.71 0.000 11.29 12.95 0.268 29.92 32.75 0.257 6.92a 10.78 0.000 10.27a 13.78 0.000
Mississippi 7.88a 11.40 0.000 9.92 10.69 0.576 20.36a 26.78 0.004 5.30a 8.82 0.000 7.64a 11.48 0.000
Missouri 9.73a 13.75 0.000 11.54 11.81 0.857 27.19b 31.87 0.064 6.62a 11.03 0.000 9.53a 13.95 0.000
Montana 12.23a 19.53 0.000 15.50 15.91 0.815 34.96a 40.51 0.033 8.04a 16.57 0.000 11.90a 19.86 0.000
Nebraska 9.25a 11.51 0.005 10.87 12.04 0.433 24.63a 30.55 0.013 6.12a 8.06 0.027 9.07a 11.46 0.006
Nevada 11.09a 16.82 0.000 16.45 14.37 0.244 28.98a 35.81 0.011 7.74a 14.34 0.000 10.49a 17.06 0.000
New Hampshire 14.87a 18.62 0.002 16.56 15.44 0.537 41.83 43.17 0.637 10.55a 15.15 0.001 14.69a 18.90 0.002
New Jersey 9.19a 12.04 0.000 11.63 10.28 0.337 30.00a 35.36 0.033 5.67a 8.77 0.001 8.93a 12.21 0.000
New Mexico 10.95a 17.51 0.000 16.83 15.62 0.516 29.23 33.63 0.104 6.82a 15.09 0.000 10.30a 17.71 0.000
New York 12.82a 14.50 0.008 14.87a 11.88 0.004 36.36 36.10 0.878 8.34a 11.26 0.000 12.61a 14.74 0.002
North Carolina 10.46b 12.06 0.051 13.41a 10.48 0.029 28.35 29.70 0.544 7.20a 9.47 0.015 10.14a 12.23 0.019
North Dakota 8.29a 10.95 0.001 9.42 10.27 0.535 23.06 24.99 0.416 4.85a 8.13 0.000 8.18a 11.02 0.001
Ohio 10.08a 13.76 0.000 12.97 12.17 0.418 29.54a 34.53 0.001 6.52a 10.65 0.000 9.77a 13.92 0.000
Oklahoma 10.19a 12.09 0.040 12.69 11.31 0.389 25.06 29.15 0.103 7.16a 9.26 0.038 9.91a 12.18 0.022
Oregon 14.41a 26.51 0.000 18.34 17.01 0.485 37.33a 47.57 0.000 10.40a 24.36 0.000 14.01a 27.38 0.000
Pennsylvania 10.04a 13.21 0.000 12.87a 10.36 0.019 28.78a 33.74 0.003 6.62a 10.34 0.000 9.75a 13.47 0.000
Rhode Island 14.34a 20.76 0.000 16.31 15.27 0.572 39.48 43.67 0.159 9.39a 17.21 0.000 14.14a 21.24 0.000
South Carolina 9.36a 11.09 0.045 11.75 10.57 0.406 25.58 28.27 0.250 6.40a 8.48 0.030 9.10a 11.14 0.027
South Dakota 8.96a 12.35 0.000 12.05 12.51 0.774 25.67 29.11 0.148 5.55a 9.48 0.000 8.62a 12.33 0.000
Tennessee 9.61a 13.38 0.000 10.52 11.68 0.407 26.28a 32.11 0.015 6.95a 10.61 0.000 9.52a 13.55 0.000
Texas 8.31a 10.55 0.000 11.24b 9.61 0.073 22.03a 26.19 0.002 5.29a 7.88 0.000 7.95a 10.67 0.000
Utah 7.18a 10.40 0.000 9.73 9.20 0.699 17.70a 23.74 0.009 4.13a 7.64 0.000 6.83a 10.58 0.000
Vermont 15.95a 23.84 0.000 16.67 17.88 0.540 45.25 50.08 0.101 11.09a 19.86 0.000 15.88a 24.34 0.000
Virginia 9.75a 11.78 0.011 13.80a 10.35 0.014 27.03b 30.99 0.076 6.32a 8.87 0.004 9.33a 11.92 0.003
Washington 12.81a 22.49 0.000 15.24 14.97 0.877 34.11a 42.12 0.003 9.08a 20.30 0.000 12.55a 23.21 0.000
West Virginia 9.60a 12.91 0.000 12.05 10.70 0.354 26.63 28.80 0.379 6.88a 10.81 0.000 9.37a 13.10 0.000
Wisconsin 10.65a 12.70 0.023 13.71 12.61 0.481 31.13 30.13 0.691 6.82a 9.84 0.003 10.33a 12.71 0.013
Wyoming 9.88a 12.15 0.012 14.19 11.75 0.145 27.24 29.33 0.401 6.27a 9.46 0.001 9.43a 12.19 0.004
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
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Table 2 – Marijuana Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2016-2017)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2016-2017)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 6.40a 9.23 0.000 7.03a 6.46 0.020 17.42a 21.45 0.000 4.42a 7.56 0.000 6.33a 9.51 0.000
Northeast 7.14a 9.83 0.000 7.94a 6.76 0.005 21.45a 24.86 0.000 4.63a 7.77 0.000 7.06a 10.12 0.000
Midwest 6.07a 8.76 0.000 7.03b 6.40 0.057 16.57a 20.83 0.000 4.14a 7.04 0.000 5.97a 9.00 0.000
South 5.47a 7.47 0.000 6.06 5.78 0.360 15.21a 18.44 0.000 3.76a 5.91 0.000 5.41a 7.65 0.000
West 7.57a 11.98 0.000 7.86 7.42 0.357 18.43a 24.18 0.000 5.56a 10.51 0.000 7.54a 12.45 0.000
Alabama 5.04a 6.37 0.021 5.70 5.26 0.622 14.49 16.48 0.279 3.35a 4.86 0.018 4.97a 6.48 0.014
Alaska 11.52a 15.81 0.001 9.14 8.84 0.820 25.16 26.27 0.665 9.30a 14.97 0.000 11.81a 16.59 0.000
Arizona 6.70a 8.38 0.041 7.28 6.31 0.359 17.08 19.09 0.342 4.86a 6.85 0.036 6.63a 8.59 0.028
Arkansas 6.11a 8.19 0.003 6.73 5.81 0.344 16.16 15.96 0.916 4.40a 7.21 0.001 6.04a 8.44 0.002
California 7.67a 11.33 0.000 7.70 6.93 0.282 18.67a 24.07 0.000 5.57a 9.70 0.000 7.67a 11.78 0.000
Colorado 9.77a 16.43 0.000 10.17 9.02 0.399 24.18a 31.74 0.004 7.31a 14.81 0.000 9.72a 17.18 0.000
Connecticut 7.26a 10.59 0.000 8.35 7.91 0.728 22.56a 30.35 0.004 4.70a 7.69 0.002 7.14a 10.86 0.000
Delaware 6.97a 9.95 0.000 7.54 7.45 0.937 22.67 23.73 0.663 4.29a 8.17 0.000 6.91a 10.18 0.000
District of Columbia 8.46a 17.17 0.000 7.50 8.26 0.549 19.59a 34.85 0.000 6.07a 14.32 0.000 8.54a 17.67 0.000
Florida 5.80a 8.65 0.000 6.31 7.48 0.102 15.21a 22.39 0.000 4.35a 6.88 0.000 5.75a 8.75 0.000
Georgia 6.06 6.74 0.261 5.50 5.39 0.889 15.87 18.38 0.159 4.46 4.95 0.471 6.12 6.89 0.243
Hawaii 8.46 8.17 0.763 7.72 6.54 0.344 19.15 17.45 0.456 6.84 7.06 0.848 8.54 8.31 0.832
Idaho 5.89a 7.62 0.012 7.50 6.34 0.270 14.13 16.07 0.301 4.21a 6.40 0.006 5.69a 7.78 0.005
Illinois 5.91a 8.81 0.000 7.29 6.89 0.603 16.23a 23.51 0.000 3.86a 6.66 0.000 5.76a 9.01 0.000
Indiana 6.08a 9.29 0.000 7.24 6.51 0.478 16.48a 20.70 0.045 4.17a 7.65 0.000 5.95a 9.59 0.000
Iowa 4.48a 6.65 0.000 6.88b 5.11 0.067 11.62a 17.29 0.002 2.92a 4.93 0.001 4.23a 6.80 0.000
Kansas 5.02a 6.62 0.013 5.97 5.16 0.383 13.04 16.04 0.102 3.40a 5.12 0.018 4.91a 6.78 0.007
Kentucky 4.81a 7.77 0.000 5.27 6.01 0.441 14.25b 17.38 0.099 3.27a 6.41 0.000 4.76a 7.95 0.000
Louisiana 5.14a 7.60 0.000 4.82 5.67 0.357 15.19b 18.80 0.062 3.26a 5.99 0.000 5.18a 7.80 0.000
Maine 9.81a 15.81 0.000 8.43 9.89 0.283 26.13a 34.38 0.002 7.69a 13.89 0.000 9.94a 16.31 0.000
Maryland 5.66a 10.68 0.000 7.01 7.13 0.919 17.03a 26.24 0.000 3.56a 8.71 0.000 5.51a 11.04 0.000
Massachusetts 8.74a 13.38 0.000 9.09 8.91 0.885 24.84a 30.27 0.034 5.84a 10.94 0.000 8.70a 13.78 0.000
Michigan 7.52a 11.61 0.000 7.88 7.73 0.843 18.99a 24.24 0.000 5.52a 9.95 0.000 7.48a 12.00 0.000
Minnesota 5.98a 7.71 0.012 5.58 5.81 0.805 17.10 19.12 0.321 4.13a 6.13 0.012 6.02a 7.91 0.012
Mississippi 4.54a 6.96 0.000 5.02 5.05 0.981 11.72a 15.79 0.022 3.15a 5.67 0.000 4.48a 7.17 0.000
Missouri 5.94a 8.42 0.001 5.74 5.80 0.950 16.91 18.57 0.424 4.15a 7.08 0.001 5.96a 8.68 0.001
Montana 8.12a 13.01 0.000 8.78 8.80 0.987 21.99 25.13 0.171 5.72a 11.52 0.000 8.05a 13.40 0.000
Nebraska 5.36a 7.70 0.000 6.09 6.00 0.926 14.70a 18.76 0.043 3.50a 5.96 0.001 5.28a 7.89 0.000
Nevada 7.00a 11.81 0.000 8.96 8.82 0.910 18.34a 25.86 0.001 5.06a 10.11 0.000 6.78a 12.11 0.000
New Hampshire 9.62a 12.90 0.002 9.66 8.64 0.427 27.28 28.93 0.522 6.91a 10.86 0.001 9.61a 13.28 0.001
New Jersey 5.04a 7.15 0.000 6.16 5.16 0.267 17.42a 22.34 0.018 2.99a 5.12 0.002 4.92a 7.35 0.000
New Mexico 6.54a 11.96 0.000 9.25 9.74 0.724 15.74a 24.39 0.000 4.49a 10.19 0.000 6.24a 12.20 0.000
New York 7.73a 9.47 0.001 8.50a 6.75 0.019 23.09 23.35 0.856 4.87a 7.50 0.000 7.65a 9.72 0.000
North Carolina 6.30a 7.92 0.016 7.19 6.04 0.216 16.85 19.04 0.239 4.49a 6.40 0.015 6.21a 8.12 0.009
North Dakota 4.67a 6.44 0.005 5.06 4.99 0.935 10.65a 14.50 0.028 3.30a 4.93 0.021 4.64a 6.57 0.004
Ohio 5.96a 8.58 0.000 7.63b 6.33 0.070 17.26a 21.27 0.004 3.89a 6.83 0.000 5.77a 8.81 0.000
Oklahoma 5.60b 6.90 0.067 6.23 5.38 0.395 14.18 16.80 0.186 3.96b 5.39 0.072 5.53a 7.06 0.044
Oregon 9.29a 19.23 0.000 8.66 10.35 0.208 23.87a 33.15 0.000 7.11a 18.07 0.000 9.36a 20.04 0.000
Pennsylvania 5.81a 8.23 0.000 7.19a 5.59 0.024 17.08a 21.38 0.002 3.80a 6.48 0.000 5.67a 8.47 0.000
Rhode Island 10.04a 15.75 0.000 9.09 9.49 0.771 27.14b 31.86 0.086 6.94a 13.51 0.000 10.13a 16.30 0.000
South Carolina 5.91 6.66 0.259 5.55 5.47 0.935 16.88 18.38 0.445 4.16 4.97 0.279 5.95 6.77 0.246
South Dakota 5.14a 7.13 0.003 6.61 5.94 0.521 13.55a 18.25 0.014 3.44a 5.40 0.010 4.98a 7.26 0.002
Tennessee 5.42a 8.00 0.000 5.19 5.75 0.529 16.64 19.49 0.154 3.72a 6.44 0.000 5.44a 8.23 0.000
Texas 4.74a 5.98 0.001 6.11a 4.86 0.042 13.45 14.63 0.293 2.91a 4.59 0.000 4.58a 6.11 0.000
Utah 3.60a 6.25 0.000 4.78 4.71 0.930 8.21a 14.71 0.000 2.27a 4.63 0.000 3.44a 6.47 0.000
Vermont 10.85a 18.64 0.000 9.73 10.75 0.488 30.56a 38.80 0.004 7.75a 15.91 0.000 10.96a 19.30 0.000
Virginia 5.33a 6.96 0.007 6.33 5.48 0.363 15.70 18.47 0.121 3.45a 5.28 0.006 5.23a 7.10 0.003
Washington 7.21a 15.30 0.000 7.74 8.96 0.321 17.19a 26.48 0.000 5.53a 14.28 0.000 7.15a 15.90 0.000
West Virginia 5.50a 7.59 0.002 5.74 5.45 0.746 17.46 16.94 0.796 3.74a 6.44 0.000 5.47a 7.78 0.001
Wisconsin 6.19a 7.89 0.016 7.20 5.91 0.214 17.49 18.82 0.496 4.16a 6.33 0.007 6.09a 8.09 0.008
Wyoming 5.42a 7.10 0.011 7.55b 5.76 0.091 15.50 16.50 0.611 3.37a 5.77 0.002 5.19a 7.24 0.004
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
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Table 3 – First Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and State: Average Annual Initiation Estimates (Expressed as Percentages of the At Risk Population) and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2016-2017)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2016-2017)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 1.75a 2.03 0.000 5.74a 5.22 0.001 7.09a 7.98 0.002 0.13a 0.45 0.000 1.07a 1.48 0.000
Northeast 1.80a 2.17 0.000 5.92a 5.34 0.032 7.96a 9.06 0.023 0.13a 0.53 0.000 1.12a 1.65 0.000
Midwest 1.79a 2.21 0.000 5.57 5.51 0.783 7.41a 8.74 0.000 0.12a 0.46 0.000 1.12a 1.62 0.000
South 1.56a 1.70 0.019 5.22a 4.75 0.017 6.34 6.59 0.398 0.12a 0.35 0.000 0.95a 1.20 0.000
West 2.00a 2.33 0.001 6.57a 5.66 0.003 7.38a 8.89 0.002 0.14a 0.57 0.000 1.18a 1.73 0.000
Alabama 1.38 1.55 0.257 4.47 3.91 0.357 5.53 6.30 0.374 0.12a 0.35 0.000 0.87a 1.18 0.027
Alaska 2.30a 3.22 0.002 6.35 7.09 0.394 7.33 8.96 0.210 0.17a 1.05 0.000 1.34a 2.31 0.000
Arizona 1.72 1.87 0.447 6.10a 4.32 0.014 6.58 6.83 0.816 0.12a 0.53 0.000 0.95a 1.43 0.004
Arkansas 1.56 1.60 0.778 5.15 4.61 0.401 6.99 5.62 0.155 0.12a 0.33 0.000 0.95 1.10 0.277
California 2.06 2.12 0.606 6.66a 5.60 0.021 7.39 8.43 0.141 0.14a 0.45 0.000 1.23a 1.54 0.012
Colorado 2.45a 3.99 0.000 8.11 7.89 0.825 9.23a 15.56 0.001 0.17a 1.09 0.000 1.38a 3.14 0.000
Connecticut 2.14a 2.72 0.017 7.09 6.65 0.611 8.98 10.92 0.169 0.14a 0.70 0.000 1.23a 1.99 0.000
Delaware 2.13 2.05 0.705 6.67 5.66 0.222 9.55 8.22 0.302 0.14a 0.49 0.000 1.32 1.46 0.446
District of Columbia 2.33a 3.99 0.000 7.25 7.35 0.918 8.38a 14.57 0.000 0.24a 1.36 0.000 1.68a 3.54 0.000
Florida 1.39a 1.69 0.004 5.35 5.70 0.428 6.22a 7.73 0.027 0.10a 0.37 0.000 0.83a 1.15 0.001
Georgia 1.87 1.67 0.241 5.46 4.47 0.116 6.90 6.33 0.521 0.17a 0.33 0.007 1.17 1.18 0.929
Hawaii 1.71 1.93 0.303 6.42 5.87 0.545 7.57 8.87 0.325 0.11a 0.44 0.005 1.01b 1.36 0.062
Idaho 1.86 2.01 0.457 5.50 4.68 0.243 7.18 7.18 0.998 0.13a 0.42 0.000 1.14b 1.46 0.069
Illinois 1.74a 2.10 0.005 5.65 5.84 0.705 6.85a 8.45 0.031 0.12a 0.41 0.000 1.07a 1.47 0.001
Indiana 1.76a 2.43 0.001 5.81 6.03 0.783 7.37 8.83 0.208 0.11a 0.48 0.000 1.05a 1.73 0.000
Iowa 1.55a 1.92 0.044 5.34a 4.05 0.047 5.97a 8.43 0.016 0.10a 0.40 0.000 0.95a 1.56 0.000
Kansas 1.72b 2.06 0.088 5.65 4.98 0.356 6.85 7.63 0.464 0.10a 0.49 0.000 1.06a 1.54 0.006
Kentucky 1.48a 1.85 0.032 5.46 5.16 0.675 6.09 6.74 0.485 0.14a 0.38 0.000 0.86a 1.29 0.002
Louisiana 1.33 1.58 0.111 3.89 4.53 0.286 5.53 5.81 0.753 0.12a 0.33 0.000 0.91 1.08 0.206
Maine 1.73a 2.53 0.000 5.43 6.24 0.278 8.97 10.62 0.250 0.14a 0.70 0.000 1.09a 1.87 0.000
Maryland 1.81b 2.15 0.100 5.61 5.88 0.734 8.20 8.99 0.537 0.12a 0.51 0.000 1.17b 1.52 0.058
Massachusetts 2.27a 3.42 0.000 7.13 7.88 0.411 9.69a 13.10 0.044 0.16a 0.87 0.000 1.42a 2.60 0.000
Michigan 2.10a 2.46 0.020 5.97 6.02 0.926 8.72 8.91 0.826 0.13a 0.58 0.000 1.33a 1.80 0.001
Minnesota 1.77a 2.45 0.001 4.85 5.67 0.246 7.89b 10.12 0.071 0.12a 0.52 0.000 1.20a 1.85 0.001
Mississippi 1.34a 1.76 0.011 4.09 4.84 0.237 5.22b 6.83 0.072 0.11a 0.27 0.002 0.88a 1.24 0.015
Missouri 1.64a 2.21 0.005 5.11 4.93 0.783 7.12 8.95 0.116 0.12a 0.47 0.000 1.02a 1.72 0.000
Montana 2.04a 2.78 0.002 6.67 6.53 0.869 9.79 10.95 0.424 0.13a 0.67 0.000 1.25a 2.09 0.000
Nebraska 1.54a 2.27 0.000 4.48 5.20 0.277 6.32a 9.72 0.003 0.10a 0.39 0.000 1.05a 1.73 0.000
Nevada 1.85b 2.21 0.087 7.16 6.31 0.318 6.55b 8.52 0.092 0.15a 0.55 0.000 0.91a 1.50 0.000
New Hampshire 2.25a 2.83 0.030 6.29 6.37 0.918 10.53 11.37 0.599 0.15a 0.57 0.000 1.44a 2.13 0.005
New Jersey 1.50b 1.78 0.089 4.89 4.23 0.289 7.69 8.54 0.449 0.10a 0.39 0.000 0.96a 1.38 0.006
New Mexico 2.06a 2.80 0.004 7.84 7.54 0.764 8.01 9.54 0.268 0.12a 0.72 0.000 1.09a 1.90 0.000
New York 1.81 2.02 0.101 6.05b 5.21 0.065 7.38 8.16 0.295 0.13a 0.51 0.000 1.12a 1.53 0.001
North Carolina 1.69 1.81 0.447 6.24a 4.93 0.050 6.67 6.90 0.805 0.13a 0.41 0.000 0.96a 1.30 0.017
North Dakota 1.56b 1.89 0.083 4.28 3.79 0.410 6.59 7.46 0.416 0.08a 0.42 0.000 1.15a 1.61 0.018
Ohio 1.78a 2.10 0.014 5.59 5.37 0.620 7.47b 8.80 0.085 0.13a 0.39 0.000 1.10a 1.51 0.001
Oklahoma 1.47a 1.88 0.025 4.87 4.66 0.771 5.77 6.64 0.363 0.11a 0.47 0.000 0.91a 1.37 0.003
Oregon 2.42a 3.18 0.010 7.87 6.85 0.265 9.63b 12.36 0.080 0.19a 0.87 0.000 1.39a 2.45 0.000
Pennsylvania 1.61b 1.83 0.092 5.37a 4.39 0.033 7.47 7.99 0.528 0.10a 0.41 0.000 1.01a 1.40 0.001
Rhode Island 2.27b 2.79 0.054 7.20 6.51 0.428 9.16 10.10 0.525 0.16a 0.81 0.000 1.40a 2.17 0.002
South Carolina 1.46 1.64 0.275 4.77 4.55 0.729 6.41 6.85 0.650 0.12a 0.35 0.000 0.93b 1.18 0.071
South Dakota 1.59 1.84 0.167 5.17 4.65 0.451 6.70 7.02 0.752 0.09a 0.42 0.000 1.01a 1.37 0.022
Tennessee 1.26a 1.68 0.006 4.11 4.77 0.268 6.00 6.37 0.690 0.12a 0.31 0.000 0.81a 1.16 0.012
Texas 1.59 1.54 0.702 5.20a 4.21 0.016 5.86 5.56 0.598 0.11a 0.27 0.001 0.95 1.06 0.248
Utah 1.29a 1.70 0.029 3.94 3.19 0.197 3.64a 6.10 0.004 0.10a 0.36 0.001 0.82a 1.40 0.001
Vermont 2.47a 3.35 0.005 7.37 7.25 0.894 11.93 12.14 0.908 0.15a 0.88 0.000 1.56a 2.60 0.000
Virginia 1.90 1.82 0.647 5.98a 4.52 0.025 7.59 7.06 0.582 0.13a 0.41 0.000 1.20 1.35 0.341
Washington 1.94a 2.91 0.000 5.68 5.81 0.870 8.53 10.30 0.200 0.16a 1.02 0.000 1.24a 2.36 0.000
West Virginia 1.27 1.52 0.101 5.33 4.61 0.284 5.76 5.95 0.836 0.12a 0.33 0.000 0.72a 1.05 0.010
Wisconsin 1.92 2.16 0.241 6.16 5.56 0.433 8.39 8.34 0.964 0.12a 0.50 0.000 1.17a 1.57 0.032
Wyoming 1.92 1.87 0.800 6.47a 4.45 0.006 7.70 7.28 0.708 0.11a 0.50 0.000 1.15 1.42 0.127
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Average annual initiation of marijuana (%) = 100 × {[X1 ÷ (0.5 × X1 + X2)] ÷ 2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of individuals who never used marijuana (with the at-risk population defined as 0.5 × X1 + X2). Both of the computation components, X1 and X2, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach. The age group shown is based on a respondent's age at the time of the interview, not his or her age at first use. For details, see Section B of the "2016-2017 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
180919
Table 4 – Cocaine Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2016-2017)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2016-2017)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 2.01 2.03 0.770 1.11a 0.53 0.000 5.46b 5.88 0.092 1.53 1.59 0.543 2.11 2.19 0.373
Northeast 2.38 2.34 0.793 1.11a 0.53 0.000 6.68 6.69 0.998 1.81 1.85 0.846 2.52 2.51 0.982
Midwest 1.82 1.77 0.660 1.06a 0.51 0.000 5.12 5.22 0.767 1.34 1.34 0.998 1.90 1.90 0.978
South 1.81 1.75 0.529 0.98a 0.42 0.000 4.64 4.99 0.250 1.44 1.39 0.653 1.90 1.89 0.873
West 2.21b 2.49 0.077 1.35a 0.71 0.000 6.08a 7.24 0.018 1.62 1.92 0.116 2.31a 2.67 0.038
Alabama 1.38 1.62 0.390 0.76a 0.36 0.012 3.44 3.84 0.618 1.11 1.41 0.354 1.45 1.75 0.338
Alaska 2.99 2.32 0.175 1.45a 0.71 0.012 7.38 5.76 0.204 2.39 1.95 0.449 3.18 2.50 0.218
Arizona 2.33 2.11 0.562 1.38a 0.66 0.006 6.91 5.85 0.409 1.68 1.67 0.977 2.44 2.27 0.678
Arkansas 1.43 1.48 0.859 0.89a 0.51 0.046 3.52 3.75 0.769 1.16 1.23 0.835 1.49 1.58 0.764
California 2.12a 2.71 0.015 1.39a 0.69 0.002 5.57a 7.99 0.002 1.56b 2.05 0.074 2.20a 2.91 0.008
Colorado 3.28 2.68 0.199 1.37a 0.79 0.049 8.94 8.32 0.675 2.56 1.98 0.247 3.47 2.87 0.239
Connecticut 2.05b 2.74 0.082 1.26a 0.60 0.007 6.25 8.36 0.101 1.49 2.08 0.187 2.14b 2.95 0.065
Delaware 2.36 2.02 0.370 0.91a 0.37 0.002 6.40 6.20 0.865 1.87 1.58 0.492 2.52 2.18 0.423
District of Columbia 3.76 4.34 0.468 0.43b 0.22 0.085 5.14 7.00 0.104 3.76 4.10 0.725 4.01 4.57 0.511
Florida 1.80 1.96 0.506 1.05a 0.45 0.000 4.70a 6.22 0.031 1.46 1.52 0.806 1.88 2.09 0.398
Georgia 1.51 1.74 0.446 0.81a 0.34 0.001 3.93 4.45 0.518 1.20 1.46 0.438 1.60 1.89 0.371
Hawaii 1.76 1.88 0.751 1.25b 0.58 0.052 4.39 5.22 0.444 1.40 1.55 0.712 1.81 1.99 0.650
Idaho 1.31 1.37 0.796 1.24a 0.66 0.040 4.52 4.24 0.770 0.75 0.99 0.318 1.31 1.45 0.597
Illinois 1.91 1.94 0.888 0.99a 0.48 0.001 4.64 5.84 0.103 1.53 1.49 0.860 2.01 2.09 0.757
Indiana 1.66 1.90 0.417 1.09a 0.55 0.011 4.97 5.72 0.479 1.18 1.41 0.471 1.72 2.05 0.333
Iowa 1.11 1.43 0.153 1.11a 0.55 0.016 3.64 4.53 0.319 0.66 0.99 0.177 1.11 1.52 0.102
Kansas 1.52 1.58 0.827 1.11a 0.55 0.011 4.97 4.89 0.939 0.94 1.13 0.486 1.57 1.70 0.670
Kentucky 1.36 1.60 0.370 1.02a 0.54 0.023 4.37 4.74 0.698 0.93 1.21 0.327 1.40 1.70 0.292
Louisiana 2.34a 1.43 0.008 0.84a 0.28 0.000 4.77 3.69 0.223 2.08a 1.19 0.026 2.51a 1.55 0.012
Maine 2.30 1.86 0.186 1.13b 0.70 0.081 7.67 6.62 0.410 1.69 1.33 0.318 2.42 1.96 0.213
Maryland 1.57 2.11 0.133 0.87a 0.35 0.002 4.03a 6.20 0.036 1.24 1.69 0.279 1.64 2.29 0.116
Massachusetts 2.45 3.05 0.151 1.18a 0.64 0.018 7.16 9.35 0.124 1.76 2.22 0.299 2.58 3.27 0.133
Michigan 2.00 1.70 0.182 1.05a 0.44 0.000 5.74 4.75 0.167 1.49 1.33 0.538 2.11 1.82 0.258
Minnesota 1.77 1.70 0.826 1.12a 0.57 0.012 5.14 4.79 0.727 1.27 1.35 0.806 1.84 1.82 0.961
Mississippi 1.36 1.29 0.793 0.63a 0.24 0.007 3.15 2.90 0.730 1.14 1.15 0.971 1.45 1.41 0.888
Missouri 2.01 1.59 0.165 1.00a 0.47 0.006 5.74 4.44 0.205 1.52 1.26 0.431 2.12 1.71 0.215
Montana 2.32 1.91 0.194 1.17 0.89 0.335 7.60 5.81 0.163 1.58 1.39 0.567 2.44 2.00 0.210
Nebraska 1.57 1.68 0.684 1.10a 0.60 0.023 4.61 5.65 0.290 1.06 1.11 0.849 1.62 1.80 0.555
Nevada 2.34 2.33 0.989 1.50a 0.62 0.001 6.72 5.83 0.454 1.79 2.02 0.591 2.43 2.50 0.859
New Hampshire 2.75 2.20 0.150 1.23 0.89 0.222 8.97 8.81 0.921 1.98b 1.32 0.077 2.91 2.32 0.159
New Jersey 1.73 1.87 0.654 1.04a 0.49 0.006 4.93 6.48 0.139 1.33 1.34 0.963 1.81 2.01 0.556
New Mexico 2.17 2.02 0.668 1.30b 0.74 0.053 6.55 5.58 0.435 1.47 1.59 0.763 2.26 2.15 0.774
New York 2.66 2.46 0.466 1.09a 0.44 0.000 7.31b 5.79 0.051 2.02 2.13 0.723 2.83 2.65 0.551
North Carolina 2.10 1.86 0.449 0.93a 0.40 0.002 4.90 5.17 0.765 1.79 1.51 0.429 2.22 2.01 0.542
North Dakota 1.22 1.51 0.247 1.05b 0.61 0.097 3.78 4.68 0.351 0.68 0.96 0.248 1.24 1.60 0.200
Ohio 1.49 1.76 0.170 1.02a 0.50 0.001 4.51 5.17 0.315 1.05 1.37 0.171 1.54 1.89 0.113
Oklahoma 1.50 1.70 0.463 1.14a 0.48 0.002 4.70 5.39 0.505 0.97 1.22 0.366 1.54 1.83 0.336
Oregon 2.63 2.98 0.381 1.23 1.01 0.461 8.04 8.86 0.563 1.95 2.30 0.419 2.77 3.16 0.375
Pennsylvania 2.27 1.98 0.310 1.08a 0.54 0.001 5.86 5.57 0.713 1.82 1.58 0.456 2.39 2.12 0.375
Rhode Island 3.89a 2.66 0.022 1.28a 0.70 0.028 9.39 7.68 0.273 3.17a 1.97 0.039 4.15a 2.84 0.025
South Carolina 2.75b 1.95 0.057 0.83a 0.38 0.010 4.97 5.95 0.341 2.62a 1.50 0.020 2.95b 2.10 0.068
South Dakota 1.17 1.14 0.864 0.95 0.56 0.114 3.91 3.45 0.587 0.71 0.82 0.627 1.20 1.20 0.999
Tennessee 1.57 1.87 0.306 0.93a 0.50 0.018 4.31 5.26 0.317 1.23 1.49 0.422 1.64 2.01 0.256
Texas 1.89a 1.47 0.032 1.16a 0.46 0.000 5.09 4.42 0.303 1.40 1.08 0.151 1.98b 1.59 0.073
Utah 1.43 1.71 0.293 1.16b 0.69 0.076 4.14 4.67 0.579 0.80 1.23 0.122 1.47 1.85 0.205
Vermont 3.01 3.50 0.301 1.22 0.93 0.343 10.17 12.24 0.253 2.05 2.23 0.701 3.19 3.72 0.304
Virginia 1.75 1.93 0.567 1.02a 0.43 0.001 4.95 5.26 0.732 1.30 1.57 0.444 1.83 2.08 0.474
Washington 2.08 2.33 0.477 1.20b 0.70 0.051 6.24 6.52 0.813 1.51 1.87 0.377 2.17 2.49 0.423
West Virginia 2.51a 1.65 0.010 1.05b 0.61 0.051 7.65a 5.07 0.031 1.93b 1.26 0.060 2.65a 1.75 0.013
Wisconsin 2.71b 2.02 0.051 1.19a 0.58 0.008 7.27 6.19 0.398 2.13b 1.50 0.095 2.87b 2.16 0.071
Wyoming 1.46 1.59 0.622 1.13 0.83 0.280 5.25 4.83 0.682 0.83 1.17 0.273 1.49 1.67 0.558
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
180919
Table 5 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2016-2017)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2016-2017)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 51.74 51.21 0.156 14.79a 9.54 0.000 61.45a 56.74 0.000 54.80 55.22 0.362 55.78 55.43 0.389
Northeast 56.57 56.44 0.863 16.68a 10.64 0.000 67.33a 63.24 0.001 59.59 60.30 0.420 60.71 60.71 0.998
Midwest 54.26 54.36 0.876 15.24a 10.09 0.000 65.07a 60.78 0.000 57.42 58.62 0.123 58.55 58.92 0.604
South 47.74 47.13 0.323 13.75a 9.05 0.000 57.62a 52.87 0.000 50.43 50.79 0.624 51.47 51.07 0.571
West 51.78 50.99 0.289 14.56a 9.08 0.000 59.40a 54.43 0.000 55.40 55.43 0.975 56.01 55.29 0.379
Alabama 42.94 41.98 0.609 12.70a 8.88 0.003 54.41 50.18 0.115 44.84 44.56 0.904 46.22 45.34 0.669
Alaska 54.52 51.61 0.122 14.22a 10.10 0.005 60.50b 55.68 0.085 59.37 56.35 0.196 59.54 56.25 0.113
Arizona 51.15 50.40 0.701 14.80a 8.26 0.000 59.35a 52.61 0.014 54.60 55.20 0.804 55.29 54.83 0.831
Arkansas 43.29b 39.89 0.076 15.34a 8.92 0.000 55.94a 48.15 0.004 44.80 42.35 0.300 46.36 43.17 0.130
California 50.65 50.45 0.860 14.11a 8.95 0.000 59.79a 53.66 0.000 53.99 54.85 0.522 54.92 54.68 0.838
Colorado 62.22 59.48 0.130 20.22a 9.75 0.000 69.51a 62.66 0.009 66.11 64.79 0.552 66.60 64.49 0.287
Connecticut 59.32 60.21 0.655 18.56a 11.42 0.000 67.86 67.03 0.753 63.08 64.73 0.498 63.73 65.05 0.544
Delaware 56.32a 51.38 0.017 16.35a 8.38 0.000 68.53a 54.78 0.000 59.18 55.51 0.151 60.52a 55.42 0.024
District of Columbia 61.55a 66.79 0.005 15.63a 8.42 0.000 71.82 69.71 0.416 63.53a 70.17 0.004 65.04a 70.08 0.011
Florida 51.41 51.80 0.752 15.30a 9.86 0.000 56.91 56.43 0.789 54.58 55.30 0.629 54.88 55.44 0.677
Georgia 48.89a 44.78 0.022 13.56a 7.76 0.000 58.18a 50.71 0.003 52.19 48.65 0.115 53.06a 48.94 0.040
Hawaii 48.23 45.13 0.130 11.64a 8.13 0.012 57.21 55.13 0.487 50.95 47.54 0.165 51.81 48.46 0.132
Idaho 45.71 46.47 0.682 12.91a 9.07 0.004 52.50 49.44 0.260 49.19 51.25 0.376 49.68 50.99 0.524
Illinois 54.33 54.53 0.870 15.16a 10.33 0.000 64.88a 59.68 0.005 57.60 59.02 0.343 58.72 59.12 0.766
Indiana 48.06 49.89 0.337 14.41a 9.21 0.000 57.94 59.83 0.491 50.82 53.32 0.284 51.85 54.29 0.243
Iowa 56.70 58.44 0.343 17.34a 9.68 0.000 69.06b 64.91 0.093 59.43b 63.21 0.099 60.87 63.46 0.200
Kansas 53.92b 57.20 0.085 15.93a 10.27 0.000 66.34a 59.53 0.009 56.66a 62.94 0.008 58.18a 62.42 0.042
Kentucky 38.74 39.80 0.581 12.21 10.25 0.159 50.64 49.27 0.610 40.10 41.74 0.483 41.52 42.79 0.542
Louisiana 48.24 50.12 0.312 15.26a 10.19 0.001 61.67a 54.27 0.005 50.16b 54.34 0.070 52.02 54.33 0.258
Maine 55.07 56.16 0.600 14.57a 11.24 0.025 65.34 64.29 0.680 58.08 59.37 0.606 58.97 59.96 0.660
Maryland 54.24 53.30 0.652 14.02a 9.48 0.002 61.74 59.08 0.337 58.09 57.41 0.788 58.62 57.64 0.663
Massachusetts 61.54 61.36 0.922 16.89a 12.72 0.016 72.39 70.51 0.450 64.83 64.91 0.972 65.97 65.73 0.906
Michigan 54.65 53.18 0.234 14.56a 10.76 0.000 63.73a 58.90 0.005 58.39 57.21 0.438 59.17 57.45 0.206
Minnesota 60.95 57.93 0.106 14.70a 9.78 0.001 68.13 65.46 0.283 65.51 62.46 0.187 65.90 62.87 0.141
Mississippi 40.39 38.22 0.259 12.70a 7.65 0.000 52.99a 44.24 0.002 41.96 41.12 0.727 43.68 41.58 0.325
Missouri 50.15 50.93 0.693 13.92a 10.80 0.031 61.01b 55.78 0.057 52.95 54.87 0.429 54.09 55.00 0.676
Montana 59.07 57.53 0.445 21.39a 12.82 0.000 69.07b 64.38 0.059 61.95 61.26 0.779 62.97 61.69 0.558
Nebraska 53.59a 58.34 0.012 13.81a 10.21 0.011 64.98 62.94 0.434 56.67a 63.73 0.003 57.99a 63.60 0.007
Nevada 54.47a 48.25 0.003 15.29a 9.63 0.000 60.32a 49.94 0.000 58.63a 52.45 0.016 58.85a 52.14 0.004
New Hampshire 63.98 63.12 0.632 17.83a 11.30 0.000 74.97a 69.33 0.025 67.91 67.56 0.871 68.85 67.80 0.590
New Jersey 54.18 53.13 0.598 15.17a 10.87 0.003 64.96a 59.91 0.046 57.37 56.99 0.877 58.39 57.37 0.643
New Mexico 47.59 48.98 0.469 15.62a 10.32 0.001 57.11 53.37 0.172 50.05 53.04 0.209 51.15 53.09 0.355
New York 55.72 54.73 0.415 16.83a 9.85 0.000 66.32a 62.07 0.015 58.57 58.29 0.849 59.75 58.82 0.482
North Carolina 47.45b 44.43 0.086 12.83a 8.81 0.001 58.35a 49.57 0.001 49.98 47.85 0.319 51.15 48.09 0.111
North Dakota 57.80 59.70 0.304 18.98a 10.97 0.000 71.80b 67.58 0.088 59.46b 63.52 0.084 61.71 64.20 0.217
Ohio 51.67 51.06 0.630 14.99a 9.13 0.000 65.37a 58.68 0.000 54.08 54.80 0.643 55.67 55.33 0.806
Oklahoma 45.62 44.79 0.672 13.86a 8.88 0.001 59.12a 52.60 0.020 47.31 48.05 0.764 49.13 48.72 0.851
Oregon 59.77 58.49 0.500 17.75a 10.54 0.000 66.69 62.70 0.113 63.58 62.88 0.758 64.00 62.86 0.580
Pennsylvania 55.06 56.42 0.290 16.73a 10.06 0.000 66.31a 60.30 0.002 57.81b 60.79 0.055 59.01 60.73 0.219
Rhode Island 59.91 60.15 0.897 18.29a 11.01 0.000 71.17 67.96 0.210 62.78 63.88 0.637 64.10 64.49 0.848
South Carolina 45.89 45.33 0.776 12.45a 8.65 0.003 53.32 53.32 0.998 48.82 48.23 0.804 49.46 48.91 0.801
South Dakota 57.81 59.47 0.377 15.85a 11.27 0.003 70.66a 64.44 0.012 60.93 64.59 0.116 62.41 64.57 0.293
Tennessee 41.06 43.68 0.156 11.39b 9.01 0.059 53.40 50.52 0.292 42.77b 46.63 0.089 44.18 47.16 0.142
Texas 48.42 47.12 0.234 14.09a 8.77 0.000 58.49a 51.65 0.000 51.52 51.74 0.872 52.63 51.72 0.455
Utah 28.11 29.25 0.542 6.73 5.77 0.436 32.09 36.17 0.198 30.72 31.76 0.664 30.98 32.54 0.457
Vermont 60.28 62.09 0.365 18.40a 13.62 0.006 73.56 70.91 0.288 62.87 65.34 0.313 64.37 66.16 0.408
Virginia 50.79 52.31 0.395 13.10a 9.62 0.005 60.21 58.85 0.573 53.83 56.16 0.288 54.75 56.53 0.363
Washington 56.13 55.23 0.636 14.03a 10.05 0.005 60.77 60.41 0.892 60.54 59.42 0.628 60.58 59.55 0.621
West Virginia 38.17 39.73 0.446 13.23a 10.10 0.024 53.45 53.31 0.958 38.66 40.78 0.390 40.53 42.38 0.405
Wisconsin 61.78 61.60 0.923 18.62a 10.73 0.000 71.81 68.43 0.155 65.42 66.42 0.666 66.34 66.71 0.859
Wyoming 54.21a 49.88 0.033 17.06a 9.68 0.000 62.33b 57.76 0.089 57.41 53.37 0.106 58.15b 53.97 0.060
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
180919
Table 6 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Individuals Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2008-2009)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2016-2017)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(P Value)
Total U.S. 26.83a 19.50 0.000
Northeast 30.69a 22.91 0.000
Midwest 27.60a 21.36 0.000
South 25.18a 17.83 0.000
West 25.76a 18.09 0.000
Alabama 23.65a 18.36 0.001
Alaska 25.51a 19.53 0.001
Arizona 24.59a 17.63 0.000
Arkansas 23.06a 15.57 0.000
California 25.24a 17.90 0.000
Colorado 32.89a 20.73 0.000
Connecticut 31.02a 23.92 0.000
Delaware 32.60a 17.47 0.000
District of Columbia 31.66a 24.17 0.001
Florida 26.62a 20.26 0.000
Georgia 24.21a 15.65 0.000
Hawaii 23.87a 16.73 0.000
Idaho 23.93a 16.94 0.000
Illinois 28.38a 20.67 0.000
Indiana 23.50a 20.16 0.046
Iowa 29.93a 21.72 0.000
Kansas 28.91a 20.59 0.000
Kentucky 23.65a 19.63 0.016
Louisiana 29.69a 19.51 0.000
Maine 26.61 24.13 0.142
Maryland 26.66a 19.12 0.000
Massachusetts 32.97 31.78 0.536
Michigan 26.72a 22.47 0.000
Minnesota 27.61a 22.63 0.003
Mississippi 24.28a 13.92 0.000
Missouri 24.24b 21.05 0.055
Montana 34.33a 24.66 0.000
Nebraska 26.45a 20.72 0.001
Nevada 24.63a 17.08 0.000
New Hampshire 34.84a 25.45 0.000
New Jersey 27.22a 20.97 0.000
New Mexico 25.80a 19.04 0.000
New York 32.01a 20.64 0.000
North Carolina 22.42a 17.58 0.001
North Dakota 36.44a 28.14 0.000
Ohio 28.41a 20.14 0.000
Oklahoma 25.90a 16.13 0.000
Oregon 31.36a 20.83 0.000
Pennsylvania 29.02a 20.92 0.000
Rhode Island 34.78a 25.70 0.000
South Carolina 21.88a 17.90 0.008
South Dakota 32.31a 23.23 0.000
Tennessee 20.16a 16.99 0.038
Texas 26.46a 16.99 0.000
Utah 14.34 12.11 0.192
Vermont 36.53a 28.12 0.000
Virginia 25.83a 18.45 0.000
Washington 27.00a 18.70 0.000
West Virginia 22.75 20.38 0.152
Wisconsin 30.83a 23.26 0.000
Wyoming 30.54a 21.56 0.000
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
180919
Table 7 – Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2016-2017)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2016-2017)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 28.06a 22.99 0.000 11.64a 5.10 0.000 41.53a 29.52 0.000 27.85a 24.04 0.000 29.86a 24.80 0.000
Northeast 26.45a 21.91 0.000 11.37a 4.59 0.000 41.23a 29.91 0.000 25.78a 22.50 0.000 28.01a 23.52 0.000
Midwest 30.55a 25.69 0.000 13.24a 5.91 0.000 46.33a 32.75 0.000 30.06a 26.90 0.000 32.45a 27.73 0.000
South 29.54a 24.66 0.000 11.53a 5.46 0.000 41.69a 30.60 0.000 29.79a 26.02 0.000 31.51a 26.65 0.000
West 24.67a 18.74 0.000 10.55a 4.12 0.000 37.12a 24.68 0.000 24.31a 19.50 0.000 26.27a 20.24 0.000
Alabama 32.94b 30.12 0.076 13.26a 7.90 0.000 45.41a 35.28 0.000 33.33 31.91 0.472 35.08 32.38 0.123
Alaska 29.41b 26.68 0.088 13.46a 8.69 0.001 44.60a 34.77 0.000 28.91 27.67 0.536 31.40 28.69 0.128
Arizona 25.71a 21.19 0.003 10.17a 3.60 0.000 39.80a 27.99 0.000 25.39b 22.22 0.091 27.48a 23.04 0.009
Arkansas 35.26a 30.69 0.009 14.99a 7.52 0.000 47.74a 33.90 0.000 35.81 33.01 0.197 37.48a 33.14 0.024
California 22.79a 16.23 0.000 9.47a 3.45 0.000 34.37a 20.56 0.000 22.43a 17.02 0.000 24.35a 17.53 0.000
Colorado 27.37a 20.15 0.000 13.30a 4.66 0.000 43.67a 32.03 0.000 26.37a 20.03 0.000 28.84a 21.71 0.000
Connecticut 25.34a 21.24 0.008 11.01a 4.13 0.000 41.49a 31.68 0.000 24.58 21.52 0.105 26.89a 22.94 0.020
Delaware 30.13a 21.77 0.000 13.07a 4.02 0.000 45.53a 27.74 0.000 29.65a 22.80 0.000 31.92a 23.44 0.000
District of Columbia 27.62a 23.55 0.015 9.48a 3.71 0.000 34.96a 28.77 0.016 27.66b 23.86 0.060 28.99a 24.66 0.014
Florida 26.78a 20.49 0.000 10.61a 4.62 0.000 38.36a 25.51 0.000 26.85a 21.36 0.000 28.33a 21.86 0.000
Georgia 28.86a 24.08 0.001 11.68a 5.45 0.000 40.80a 30.46 0.000 29.20a 25.45 0.036 30.89a 26.17 0.003
Hawaii 22.31a 17.11 0.000 9.93a 3.41 0.000 37.26a 25.14 0.000 21.32a 17.40 0.025 23.51a 18.34 0.001
Idaho 26.80a 22.65 0.004 10.75a 5.99 0.000 39.73a 32.96 0.007 26.82a 23.29 0.049 28.75a 24.67 0.011
Illinois 29.01a 22.44 0.000 12.45a 5.21 0.000 44.24a 29.09 0.000 28.44a 23.45 0.000 30.87a 24.23 0.000
Indiana 31.88a 26.80 0.001 13.97a 6.43 0.000 46.31a 33.29 0.000 31.80b 28.26 0.064 33.89a 29.00 0.004
Iowa 30.23a 26.39 0.013 12.41a 5.01 0.000 44.08a 37.22 0.006 30.01 27.05 0.129 32.12a 28.59 0.038
Kansas 30.69a 24.75 0.000 13.11a 5.37 0.000 47.46a 31.73 0.000 29.91b 26.05 0.051 32.67a 26.91 0.001
Kentucky 38.08a 33.73 0.016 16.82a 9.61 0.000 52.70a 40.64 0.000 38.37 35.45 0.186 40.31a 36.18 0.036
Louisiana 30.67 30.20 0.769 10.72a 6.90 0.001 41.06a 34.52 0.011 31.40 32.34 0.639 32.96 32.65 0.865
Maine 29.82a 24.21 0.001 12.13a 7.90 0.001 47.65a 35.21 0.000 29.28a 24.30 0.015 31.52a 25.59 0.001
Maryland 23.84a 19.10 0.001 9.04a 4.45 0.000 35.70a 26.10 0.000 23.72a 19.69 0.026 25.46a 20.54 0.003
Massachusetts 25.06a 20.70 0.003 10.50a 4.31 0.000 41.42a 29.16 0.000 23.85 20.97 0.105 26.50a 22.17 0.006
Michigan 30.47a 26.18 0.000 12.88a 5.52 0.000 45.86a 30.32 0.000 30.17b 27.91 0.094 32.45a 28.26 0.000
Minnesota 27.59a 22.77 0.001 12.49a 5.24 0.000 47.57a 34.44 0.000 26.07b 23.01 0.075 29.20a 24.57 0.003
Mississippi 31.60 31.32 0.867 12.10a 7.62 0.000 43.29a 33.81 0.000 32.19 33.95 0.394 33.92 33.93 0.994
Missouri 32.65a 27.07 0.001 14.57a 7.27 0.000 47.19a 31.33 0.000 32.55b 28.71 0.054 34.62a 29.08 0.002
Montana 31.17a 27.11 0.013 15.59a 8.33 0.000 49.20a 38.20 0.000 30.03 27.36 0.181 32.78a 28.86 0.028
Nebraska 29.00b 26.34 0.097 12.29a 4.96 0.000 42.14a 35.90 0.016 28.71 27.40 0.510 30.85 28.68 0.222
Nevada 28.44a 24.12 0.010 11.98a 4.61 0.000 40.40a 27.75 0.000 28.78 25.84 0.155 30.28a 26.09 0.023
New Hampshire 28.12a 22.47 0.000 12.55a 6.38 0.000 45.16a 33.53 0.000 27.40a 22.43 0.007 29.76a 23.92 0.000
New Jersey 24.81a 20.78 0.007 9.81a 4.14 0.000 38.34a 29.89 0.000 24.58b 21.34 0.081 26.42a 22.45 0.017
New Mexico 26.72 25.08 0.281 12.82a 4.76 0.000 42.62a 31.42 0.000 25.62 26.56 0.618 28.26 27.24 0.542
New York 24.57a 19.64 0.000 10.73a 3.72 0.000 39.13a 26.09 0.000 23.64a 20.27 0.004 26.00a 21.09 0.000
North Carolina 31.32a 24.78 0.000 12.01a 5.88 0.000 43.70a 33.90 0.000 31.72a 25.58 0.000 33.38a 26.71 0.000
North Dakota 30.37a 26.66 0.020 13.46a 6.99 0.000 46.39a 35.27 0.000 28.87 27.07 0.365 32.07a 28.47 0.038
Ohio 32.29a 28.75 0.001 14.11a 6.85 0.000 49.54a 36.60 0.000 31.76 30.09 0.207 34.27a 30.99 0.005
Oklahoma 34.82a 28.81 0.001 13.78a 6.19 0.000 48.56a 33.92 0.000 35.07b 30.83 0.056 37.14a 31.28 0.003
Oregon 30.12a 23.11 0.000 14.94a 5.50 0.000 45.09a 32.31 0.000 29.56a 23.57 0.001 31.65a 24.71 0.000
Pennsylvania 30.97a 26.48 0.000 13.84a 5.88 0.000 45.29a 34.60 0.000 30.67a 27.43 0.014 32.74a 28.39 0.000
Rhode Island 26.34a 22.31 0.011 10.30a 4.90 0.000 41.51a 28.22 0.000 25.41 23.06 0.224 27.95a 23.84 0.018
South Carolina 31.30a 26.94 0.008 11.78a 6.73 0.000 44.29a 34.25 0.000 31.59b 28.09 0.081 33.37a 28.92 0.013
South Dakota 31.32 29.08 0.163 14.94a 8.36 0.000 49.54a 39.09 0.000 30.16 29.94 0.914 33.12 31.27 0.295
Tennessee 33.55a 29.89 0.028 12.46a 7.11 0.000 46.98a 36.05 0.000 34.05 31.56 0.222 35.77a 32.18 0.050
Texas 27.05a 22.55 0.000 10.01a 3.75 0.000 38.36a 27.24 0.000 27.41a 24.38 0.009 29.15a 24.81 0.000
Utah 18.44a 15.24 0.020 6.72a 3.61 0.002 24.94b 20.35 0.074 18.80 16.10 0.120 20.02a 16.87 0.041
Vermont 27.61 26.56 0.530 12.66a 7.50 0.000 44.28 42.76 0.584 26.58 25.62 0.635 29.07 28.16 0.617
Virginia 27.48a 21.29 0.000 11.74a 5.06 0.000 41.54a 30.23 0.000 27.03a 21.71 0.002 29.13a 22.89 0.000
Washington 26.86a 20.53 0.000 11.87a 5.46 0.000 41.46a 28.07 0.000 26.35a 21.03 0.002 28.44a 21.97 0.000
West Virginia 38.41 37.92 0.796 16.88a 9.45 0.000 54.20a 43.82 0.000 38.44 39.97 0.500 40.43 40.46 0.987
Wisconsin 30.21a 25.23 0.002 12.88a 5.51 0.000 45.41a 32.32 0.000 29.79b 26.36 0.081 32.04a 27.20 0.006
Wyoming 34.32a 26.98 0.000 18.41a 6.62 0.000 49.70a 38.59 0.000 33.58a 27.54 0.004 36.01a 29.06 0.000
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., snuff, dip, chewing tobacco, or "snus"), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
180919
Table 8 – Cigarette Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2016-2017)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2016-2017)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 23.63a 18.47 0.000 9.09a 3.29 0.000 35.80a 22.90 0.000 23.40a 19.54 0.000 25.23a 20.01 0.000
Northeast 22.40a 17.54 0.000 8.82a 2.94 0.000 35.95a 22.38 0.000 21.75a 18.34 0.000 23.81a 18.90 0.000
Midwest 25.66a 20.61 0.000 10.45a 4.04 0.000 39.92a 25.03 0.000 25.16a 21.88 0.000 27.33a 22.32 0.000
South 24.80a 19.78 0.000 9.12a 3.44 0.000 35.96a 23.74 0.000 24.92a 21.11 0.000 26.52a 21.48 0.000
West 20.86a 15.18 0.000 7.97a 2.63 0.000 31.69a 20.10 0.000 20.62a 15.86 0.000 22.32a 16.46 0.000
Alabama 26.82a 23.46 0.024 10.40a 4.80 0.000 38.16a 25.60 0.000 26.98 25.32 0.369 28.60a 25.36 0.047
Alaska 24.21a 19.65 0.001 9.37a 5.98 0.002 38.26a 27.57 0.000 23.78a 20.11 0.038 26.07a 21.18 0.002
Arizona 21.97a 16.92 0.000 8.70a 2.33 0.000 33.07a 21.92 0.000 21.85a 17.88 0.016 23.48a 18.45 0.001
Arkansas 30.28a 24.65 0.001 12.05a 4.86 0.000 42.83a 27.38 0.000 30.56b 26.64 0.053 32.28a 26.74 0.002
California 19.28a 13.34 0.000 7.05a 2.08 0.000 29.58a 17.04 0.000 19.02a 14.06 0.000 20.71a 14.49 0.000
Colorado 22.33a 15.82 0.000 9.69a 3.22 0.000 36.42a 25.51 0.000 21.52a 15.72 0.000 23.65a 17.09 0.000
Connecticut 21.47a 16.84 0.001 8.67a 2.49 0.000 36.51a 23.71 0.000 20.69b 17.38 0.058 22.85a 18.27 0.003
Delaware 25.41a 18.36 0.000 9.74a 2.56 0.000 39.95a 21.69 0.000 24.90a 19.56 0.004 27.05a 19.84 0.000
District of Columbia 23.85a 18.70 0.001 6.30a 1.78 0.000 30.11a 22.42 0.001 24.08a 19.12 0.007 25.17a 19.65 0.001
Florida 22.66a 16.68 0.000 8.30a 2.76 0.000 32.61a 19.08 0.000 22.76a 17.72 0.000 24.03a 17.89 0.000
Georgia 24.48a 18.90 0.000 8.95a 3.43 0.000 35.71a 23.29 0.000 24.72a 20.20 0.007 26.32a 20.64 0.000
Hawaii 20.24a 13.62 0.000 7.60a 2.63 0.000 34.07a 22.95 0.000 19.46a 13.45 0.000 21.47a 14.61 0.000
Idaho 23.14a 18.24 0.000 9.05a 4.35 0.000 35.00a 27.15 0.001 23.07a 18.72 0.009 24.85a 19.92 0.001
Illinois 24.93a 18.19 0.000 10.01a 3.13 0.000 38.97a 23.57 0.000 24.37a 19.13 0.000 26.60a 19.75 0.000
Indiana 26.78a 21.37 0.000 10.84a 4.55 0.000 40.95a 24.26 0.000 26.49b 23.00 0.063 28.58a 23.18 0.001
Iowa 24.90a 20.97 0.007 10.17a 3.70 0.000 37.13a 28.58 0.001 24.58 21.71 0.109 26.46a 22.75 0.020
Kansas 25.04a 19.68 0.000 10.80a 3.43 0.000 39.71a 23.90 0.000 24.19b 21.06 0.080 26.63a 21.49 0.001
Kentucky 31.94a 26.66 0.001 12.44a 5.88 0.000 44.22a 31.46 0.000 32.38a 28.33 0.045 33.98a 28.77 0.004
Louisiana 26.54b 23.92 0.081 8.41a 4.36 0.000 36.03a 27.11 0.000 27.20 25.79 0.456 28.62 25.98 0.112
Maine 25.64a 20.16 0.000 9.72a 6.17 0.001 42.51a 27.60 0.000 25.03a 20.50 0.016 27.17a 21.35 0.001
Maryland 19.82a 15.70 0.003 7.61a 2.68 0.000 31.15a 19.79 0.000 19.45b 16.56 0.092 21.15a 16.99 0.007
Massachusetts 20.99a 16.57 0.001 7.63a 2.66 0.000 34.67a 21.12 0.000 20.13b 17.25 0.078 22.32a 17.82 0.002
Michigan 26.12a 21.63 0.000 10.34a 3.68 0.000 39.79a 23.56 0.000 25.87a 23.42 0.049 27.89a 23.44 0.000
Minnesota 23.49a 18.26 0.000 9.72a 3.82 0.000 41.01a 25.90 0.000 22.22a 18.76 0.037 24.96a 19.74 0.000
Mississippi 26.35 24.55 0.229 9.66a 4.71 0.000 36.57a 26.43 0.000 26.82 26.79 0.984 28.34 26.73 0.335
Missouri 26.31a 21.33 0.001 10.98a 5.20 0.000 39.48a 24.06 0.000 26.09b 22.79 0.072 27.98a 22.97 0.002
Montana 24.75a 20.53 0.005 11.24a 6.03 0.000 39.49a 28.45 0.000 23.91b 20.83 0.096 26.14a 21.88 0.009
Nebraska 24.27a 20.81 0.015 9.36a 3.68 0.000 36.05a 26.25 0.000 24.00 22.05 0.274 25.91a 22.69 0.040
Nevada 24.45a 19.54 0.002 9.44a 2.78 0.000 33.92a 22.33 0.000 24.97a 21.06 0.047 26.13a 21.22 0.005
New Hampshire 23.36a 17.68 0.000 10.23a 4.87 0.000 39.18a 25.55 0.000 22.53a 17.80 0.005 24.74a 18.84 0.000
New Jersey 20.88a 16.67 0.002 7.59a 2.50 0.000 35.13a 24.00 0.000 20.33b 17.21 0.057 22.32a 18.09 0.004
New Mexico 22.74b 20.06 0.061 10.06a 2.74 0.000 36.12a 25.33 0.000 21.95 21.34 0.736 24.15 21.91 0.157
New York 21.30a 16.16 0.000 8.21a 2.41 0.000 34.38a 19.30 0.000 20.55a 17.10 0.002 22.66a 17.41 0.000
North Carolina 26.45a 20.08 0.000 9.16a 3.45 0.000 37.96a 25.55 0.000 26.73a 21.19 0.001 28.30a 21.79 0.000
North Dakota 24.70a 20.23 0.002 10.42a 5.22 0.000 36.38a 25.49 0.000 23.86 20.82 0.103 26.14a 21.61 0.005
Ohio 26.71a 22.89 0.000 10.93a 4.71 0.000 41.85a 28.04 0.000 26.23 24.22 0.109 28.43a 24.74 0.001
Oklahoma 28.24a 22.91 0.001 11.31a 4.36 0.000 41.18a 26.63 0.000 28.10b 24.66 0.082 30.11a 24.94 0.003
Oregon 25.01a 18.69 0.000 10.32a 3.74 0.000 37.51a 26.59 0.000 24.78a 19.06 0.001 26.49a 20.05 0.000
Pennsylvania 25.69a 20.55 0.000 11.13a 3.71 0.000 38.72a 25.32 0.000 25.30a 21.61 0.004 27.19a 22.11 0.000
Rhode Island 22.58a 17.66 0.001 7.93a 2.97 0.000 35.37a 21.15 0.000 21.93b 18.56 0.060 24.05a 18.95 0.001
South Carolina 26.94a 21.85 0.000 9.52a 4.42 0.000 37.73a 25.15 0.000 27.33a 23.31 0.025 28.80a 23.56 0.001
South Dakota 25.04b 22.56 0.085 11.43a 6.48 0.000 39.83a 29.34 0.000 24.14 23.40 0.682 26.53 24.26 0.152
Tennessee 28.20a 23.40 0.001 9.69a 4.72 0.000 39.48a 27.56 0.000 28.71a 24.91 0.044 30.14a 25.27 0.003
Texas 22.51a 18.33 0.000 8.17a 2.41 0.000 33.64a 22.38 0.000 22.51a 19.87 0.016 24.27a 20.25 0.000
Utah 16.42a 13.34 0.012 5.39a 2.66 0.001 22.29b 17.78 0.053 16.83b 14.20 0.098 17.91a 14.84 0.027
Vermont 22.31 20.55 0.246 8.73a 5.75 0.005 38.02b 33.38 0.098 21.29 19.77 0.415 23.64 21.79 0.265
Virginia 23.23a 17.02 0.000 9.56a 3.36 0.000 35.65a 23.78 0.000 22.79a 17.50 0.001 24.66a 18.37 0.000
Washington 22.91a 16.50 0.000 8.89a 3.40 0.000 35.68a 21.96 0.000 22.56a 17.11 0.001 24.38a 17.76 0.000
West Virginia 30.76 29.93 0.638 13.14a 6.42 0.000 47.13a 33.51 0.000 30.30 31.81 0.485 32.42 32.03 0.839
Wisconsin 25.74a 20.23 0.000 10.57a 3.85 0.000 40.34a 23.46 0.000 25.15b 21.61 0.053 27.35a 21.88 0.001
Wyoming 26.58a 19.95 0.000 12.60a 4.48 0.000 39.19a 29.28 0.000 26.09a 20.29 0.002 28.06a 21.52 0.000
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
180919
Table 9 – Alcohol Use Disorder in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(2016-2017)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2016-2017)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 7.42a 5.46 0.000 4.76a 1.87 0.000 16.76a 10.35 0.000 6.16a 5.09 0.000 7.72a 5.82 0.000
Northeast 7.42a 5.61 0.000 4.73a 1.82 0.000 17.81a 10.98 0.000 5.99a 5.17 0.010 7.70a 5.97 0.000
Midwest 7.84a 5.82 0.000 5.14a 1.99 0.000 18.24a 11.47 0.000 6.39a 5.35 0.000 8.13a 6.22 0.000
South 6.90a 4.99 0.000 4.14a 1.67 0.000 15.18a 9.28 0.000 5.86a 4.69 0.000 7.20a 5.33 0.000
West 7.86a 5.77 0.000 5.37a 2.11 0.000 16.97a 10.54 0.000 6.54a 5.42 0.001 8.14a 6.15 0.000
Alabama 6.40a 4.51 0.003 4.12a 1.54 0.000 13.75a 7.93 0.000 5.45 4.30 0.117 6.65a 4.81 0.007
Alaska 8.06b 6.57 0.066 5.31a 2.21 0.000 16.94a 11.26 0.002 6.80 6.35 0.644 8.40 7.06 0.128
Arizona 7.73a 5.49 0.002 5.40a 1.85 0.000 18.24a 11.31 0.000 6.26 4.97 0.120 8.00a 5.88 0.007
Arkansas 6.75a 5.38 0.040 4.90a 2.12 0.000 15.57a 9.32 0.000 5.54 5.14 0.594 6.95b 5.73 0.088
California 7.87a 5.51 0.000 5.27a 2.01 0.000 16.36a 9.90 0.000 6.61a 5.18 0.006 8.18a 5.87 0.000
Colorado 8.97a 6.30 0.001 6.32a 2.07 0.000 21.03a 12.23 0.000 7.28 5.83 0.101 9.25a 6.73 0.002
Connecticut 8.64a 6.10 0.002 5.92a 2.68 0.000 19.92a 11.18 0.000 7.19 5.68 0.105 8.93a 6.44 0.004
Delaware 7.88a 6.15 0.025 4.86a 1.79 0.000 18.98a 10.09 0.000 6.40 6.03 0.684 8.19a 6.56 0.048
District of Columbia 9.26 9.08 0.851 3.04b 1.97 0.085 17.04b 13.62 0.070 8.10 8.67 0.626 9.73 9.48 0.805
Florida 6.93a 5.29 0.000 4.33a 2.03 0.000 14.60a 9.95 0.000 6.08a 4.97 0.042 7.18a 5.57 0.001
Georgia 6.68a 4.42 0.000 3.38a 1.27 0.000 15.02a 7.83 0.000 5.72a 4.26 0.039 7.07a 4.78 0.000
Hawaii 7.58a 5.23 0.004 5.83a 2.15 0.000 16.34a 11.26 0.008 6.38b 4.72 0.072 7.75a 5.51 0.009
Idaho 7.14b 5.90 0.075 5.16a 2.31 0.000 16.35a 10.39 0.000 5.79 5.65 0.862 7.37 6.33 0.167
Illinois 7.58a 6.25 0.009 4.32a 2.39 0.000 17.59a 12.16 0.000 6.19 5.76 0.463 7.94a 6.65 0.018
Indiana 6.99a 5.24 0.007 5.01a 1.58 0.000 17.00a 10.69 0.000 5.57 4.75 0.261 7.22a 5.63 0.024
Iowa 8.64a 7.08 0.045 6.67a 2.25 0.000 19.79a 14.25 0.003 6.92 6.39 0.550 8.85 7.58 0.127
Kansas 8.06a 5.52 0.000 5.68a 2.39 0.000 19.37a 11.27 0.000 6.27b 4.91 0.087 8.33a 5.87 0.001
Kentucky 5.98 4.94 0.115 3.83a 1.61 0.000 14.21a 8.95 0.001 4.95 4.68 0.724 6.20 5.28 0.191
Louisiana 7.02 6.16 0.241 3.63a 2.26 0.039 14.96a 10.03 0.003 5.95 6.00 0.955 7.40 6.57 0.292
Maine 6.76 5.62 0.112 4.06a 2.26 0.008 17.72a 10.50 0.000 5.52 5.29 0.774 7.01 5.91 0.147
Maryland 7.05a 5.37 0.020 3.70a 1.44 0.000 15.17a 10.46 0.006 6.10 5.04 0.203 7.42a 5.76 0.033
Massachusetts 7.42 7.12 0.703 4.74a 2.18 0.001 18.97a 14.10 0.018 5.68 6.44 0.390 7.68 7.56 0.887
Michigan 7.63a 5.49 0.000 4.90a 1.81 0.000 16.79a 9.64 0.000 6.43a 5.22 0.039 7.93a 5.86 0.000
Minnesota 9.20a 5.06 0.000 5.77a 1.70 0.000 21.08a 10.94 0.000 7.60a 4.53 0.000 9.56a 5.41 0.000
Mississippi 6.29a 4.42 0.003 3.68a 1.25 0.000 13.24a 7.91 0.000 5.38 4.23 0.115 6.60a 4.77 0.007
Missouri 7.63a 5.33 0.001 5.15a 1.86 0.000 17.62a 9.49 0.000 6.29 5.06 0.112 7.90a 5.68 0.003
Montana 9.78a 7.65 0.016 8.23a 3.72 0.000 24.59a 13.85 0.000 7.49 7.08 0.689 9.94a 8.01 0.041
Nebraska 8.50a 5.80 0.000 5.65a 2.17 0.000 19.05a 12.54 0.001 6.88a 5.06 0.035 8.81a 6.19 0.001
Nevada 7.61a 5.66 0.009 5.40a 2.33 0.000 16.76a 11.75 0.006 6.53 5.16 0.107 7.86a 6.00 0.019
New Hampshire 7.50b 6.13 0.071 5.09a 1.98 0.000 19.31a 12.94 0.002 5.98 5.52 0.587 7.75 6.51 0.127
New Jersey 6.61a 4.71 0.002 3.71a 1.54 0.000 15.87a 11.11 0.002 5.54a 4.13 0.047 6.93a 5.03 0.004
New Mexico 8.64a 6.01 0.001 6.64a 2.22 0.000 18.71a 10.87 0.000 7.05 5.68 0.129 8.86a 6.42 0.004
New York 7.88a 5.67 0.000 5.31a 1.79 0.000 18.10a 9.80 0.000 6.36 5.41 0.101 8.15a 6.02 0.000
North Carolina 6.27a 4.38 0.001 3.40a 1.31 0.000 14.65a 7.34 0.000 5.28 4.28 0.141 6.58a 4.69 0.003
North Dakota 8.38a 6.55 0.019 5.29a 2.07 0.000 20.61a 12.49 0.000 6.03 5.83 0.812 8.69a 6.97 0.037
Ohio 7.62a 5.60 0.000 5.19a 1.71 0.000 17.80a 11.41 0.000 6.26b 5.13 0.051 7.89a 5.99 0.000
Oklahoma 7.55a 5.90 0.020 4.96a 1.97 0.000 16.78a 9.93 0.000 6.21 5.71 0.542 7.84a 6.33 0.049
Oregon 8.54 7.46 0.192 6.33a 2.94 0.000 18.71a 12.49 0.001 7.22 7.18 0.966 8.76 7.87 0.312
Pennsylvania 6.91a 4.97 0.000 4.21a 1.50 0.000 17.07a 10.32 0.000 5.56b 4.52 0.053 7.18a 5.29 0.000
Rhode Island 8.26b 6.74 0.060 4.86a 2.25 0.001 18.03a 12.48 0.004 6.84 6.17 0.478 8.60b 7.13 0.090
South Carolina 7.90a 5.43 0.001 3.98a 1.57 0.000 16.24a 11.44 0.004 7.03a 4.93 0.016 8.32a 5.80 0.002
South Dakota 9.68a 7.51 0.015 6.74a 3.47 0.002 23.35a 13.57 0.000 7.59 6.99 0.558 10.00a 7.94 0.032
Tennessee 6.18a 4.82 0.031 3.28a 1.66 0.004 14.18a 9.42 0.003 5.30 4.46 0.249 6.48a 5.14 0.048
Texas 6.98a 4.58 0.000 4.63a 1.60 0.000 14.76a 9.06 0.000 5.85a 4.20 0.001 7.26a 4.94 0.000
Utah 6.07b 4.89 0.057 3.31a 1.75 0.009 12.42a 8.92 0.027 4.96 4.52 0.546 6.44 5.33 0.103
Vermont 7.84 7.26 0.467 4.92a 2.53 0.003 20.15b 16.03 0.056 6.16 6.20 0.966 8.12 7.65 0.582
Virginia 8.04a 5.49 0.000 5.07a 1.90 0.000 19.44a 10.77 0.000 6.47b 5.05 0.062 8.35a 5.84 0.000
Washington 7.08 6.09 0.168 4.74a 2.29 0.001 16.26a 10.55 0.001 5.88 5.82 0.940 7.32 6.45 0.256
West Virginia 6.54a 4.44 0.002 4.45a 1.67 0.000 15.43a 9.28 0.000 5.48a 4.02 0.049 6.73a 4.69 0.004
Wisconsin 8.06 6.96 0.154 5.43a 2.27 0.000 19.67a 14.44 0.006 6.43 6.28 0.862 8.34 7.43 0.272
Wyoming 8.51a 6.34 0.005 6.96a 2.68 0.000 19.54a 11.90 0.000 6.75 5.88 0.320 8.67a 6.71 0.017
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Alcohol Use Disorder is defined as meeting criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse. Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
180919
Table 10 – Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 3.70a 4.38 0.000 3.55a 6.68 0.000 3.72b 4.01 0.057
Northeast 3.64a 4.16 0.023 3.65a 6.58 0.000 3.64 3.78 0.588
Midwest 4.00a 4.64 0.002 3.79a 7.09 0.000 4.04 4.24 0.395
South 3.59a 4.31 0.000 3.28a 6.25 0.000 3.64b 4.00 0.079
West 3.63a 4.43 0.001 3.66a 7.05 0.000 3.62 3.99 0.159
Alabama 3.57a 4.80 0.032 3.44a 5.95 0.001 3.59 4.62 0.116
Alaska 3.49a 5.02 0.010 3.11a 8.53 0.000 3.56 4.43 0.185
Arizona 3.84 4.13 0.607 3.72a 6.37 0.002 3.86 3.76 0.887
Arkansas 4.74 5.44 0.315 3.99a 6.65 0.002 4.86 5.25 0.624
California 3.20a 3.94 0.036 3.62a 6.61 0.000 3.12 3.48 0.358
Colorado 4.65 5.08 0.532 3.67a 8.67 0.000 4.81 4.49 0.672
Connecticut 3.52 4.16 0.249 3.53a 7.43 0.000 3.51 3.63 0.847
Delaware 3.55a 4.90 0.023 3.49a 7.70 0.000 3.56 4.48 0.156
District of Columbia 3.06a 4.43 0.012 3.00a 6.25 0.000 3.07 4.08 0.108
Florida 3.64 3.83 0.614 3.39a 6.41 0.000 3.67 3.48 0.640
Georgia 3.39b 4.35 0.092 2.78a 5.83 0.000 3.49 4.09 0.338
Hawaii 3.11 3.49 0.466 3.89a 6.76 0.003 2.98 3.04 0.922
Idaho 4.75 5.81 0.121 3.74a 7.90 0.000 4.93 5.47 0.487
Illinois 3.62 4.14 0.199 3.51a 6.41 0.000 3.64 3.77 0.776
Indiana 4.71 5.19 0.476 4.02a 7.85 0.000 4.82 4.72 0.895
Iowa 3.83 4.59 0.171 3.76a 6.99 0.000 3.84 4.16 0.607
Kansas 3.51a 4.79 0.027 3.78a 7.17 0.000 3.46 4.37 0.160
Kentucky 4.18a 5.58 0.042 3.42a 7.53 0.000 4.30 5.26 0.209
Louisiana 3.59a 4.72 0.043 3.49a 5.47 0.009 3.61 4.60 0.121
Maine 4.00 4.60 0.326 4.33a 7.71 0.000 3.95 4.19 0.723
Maryland 3.28 3.90 0.222 3.46a 6.48 0.000 3.25 3.51 0.644
Massachusetts 3.73b 4.76 0.086 3.21a 7.46 0.000 3.82 4.29 0.480
Michigan 3.98 4.56 0.174 4.12a 6.64 0.000 3.96 4.21 0.607
Minnesota 4.37 4.24 0.831 3.84a 7.33 0.000 4.46 3.75 0.276
Mississippi 3.43a 4.64 0.039 2.99a 5.94 0.000 3.51 4.41 0.168
Missouri 4.09 4.91 0.183 3.58a 6.85 0.000 4.18 4.59 0.544
Montana 3.95a 5.18 0.049 3.98a 7.75 0.000 3.95 4.77 0.235
Nebraska 3.57 4.30 0.169 3.59a 6.58 0.000 3.57 3.89 0.588
Nevada 4.37 4.28 0.891 3.81a 6.49 0.002 4.45 3.96 0.494
New Hampshire 3.75a 5.28 0.014 3.98a 8.90 0.000 3.72 4.72 0.140
New Jersey 3.35 3.67 0.516 3.77a 6.31 0.002 3.29 3.28 0.995
New Mexico 3.45 4.39 0.107 3.61a 6.29 0.001 3.42 4.08 0.314
New York 3.84 3.83 0.977 3.80a 5.87 0.000 3.85 3.50 0.429
North Carolina 3.63b 4.66 0.075 3.02a 6.27 0.000 3.73 4.41 0.293
North Dakota 3.25a 4.61 0.008 3.36a 7.39 0.000 3.23 4.03 0.163
Ohio 4.10b 4.95 0.060 3.69a 7.60 0.000 4.17 4.53 0.470
Oklahoma 3.97 4.99 0.106 4.07a 7.04 0.002 3.95 4.64 0.332
Oregon 4.23b 5.37 0.087 3.82a 8.32 0.000 4.30 4.93 0.385
Pennsylvania 3.31a 4.44 0.006 3.43a 6.66 0.000 3.29b 4.10 0.079
Rhode Island 5.38 4.52 0.237 4.29a 7.07 0.005 5.58b 4.06 0.059
South Carolina 3.57 4.36 0.166 3.26a 6.12 0.000 3.62 4.09 0.461
South Dakota 3.19a 4.44 0.015 3.44a 7.48 0.000 3.14 3.93 0.170
Tennessee 3.80a 5.19 0.026 3.25a 7.12 0.000 3.89 4.89 0.147
Texas 3.33 3.76 0.226 3.08a 5.90 0.000 3.37 3.38 0.984
Utah 4.64a 6.18 0.025 3.78a 9.51 0.000 4.86 5.43 0.466
Vermont 3.78a 5.41 0.014 3.97a 7.78 0.000 3.75b 5.00 0.096
Virginia 3.34 4.01 0.184 3.55a 5.99 0.001 3.30 3.70 0.482
Washington 3.78a 5.37 0.011 3.55a 7.01 0.000 3.82b 5.12 0.062
West Virginia 4.87 5.69 0.283 3.66a 7.55 0.000 5.04 5.41 0.659
Wisconsin 4.12 4.88 0.197 4.16a 7.53 0.000 4.11 4.45 0.605
Wyoming 4.20 4.84 0.301 3.49a 7.66 0.000 4.32 4.39 0.920
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Serious mental illness (SMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder, assessed by the Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition—Research Version—Axis I Disorders (MHSS-SCID), which is based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). SMI includes individuals with diagnoses resulting in serious functional impairment. For details, see Section B of the "2016-2017 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012 and October 2013).
180919
Table 11 – Any Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 17.92a 18.57 0.022 18.25a 23.93 0.000 17.86 17.69 0.584
Northeast 18.18 18.01 0.748 18.61a 24.10 0.000 18.10b 17.03 0.079
Midwest 18.36 18.78 0.350 19.22a 24.92 0.000 18.21 17.76 0.377
South 17.33a 18.18 0.039 17.06a 22.47 0.000 17.38 17.49 0.810
West 18.23a 19.41 0.041 18.88a 25.19 0.000 18.12 18.45 0.610
Alabama 17.44b 19.95 0.068 16.53a 21.52 0.006 17.59 19.69 0.180
Alaska 16.72a 20.32 0.010 15.79a 27.34 0.000 16.90 19.14 0.156
Arizona 17.15 18.02 0.543 18.31a 22.39 0.044 16.95 17.30 0.833
Arkansas 19.60 20.73 0.442 19.89a 24.46 0.021 19.55 20.11 0.736
California 17.44 18.18 0.388 18.49a 24.75 0.000 17.23 17.06 0.860
Colorado 18.95 19.86 0.530 17.74a 27.72 0.000 19.15 18.58 0.726
Connecticut 17.87 18.18 0.829 19.35a 25.56 0.003 17.64 16.98 0.685
Delaware 17.75 18.65 0.529 18.41a 23.52 0.009 17.64 17.93 0.860
District of Columbia 17.99a 21.17 0.029 17.44a 23.89 0.001 18.12 20.65 0.138
Florida 16.99 17.54 0.538 16.69a 22.74 0.000 17.03 16.83 0.844
Georgia 16.50 18.07 0.219 16.16a 21.26 0.003 16.56 17.53 0.501
Hawaii 17.52 16.27 0.378 19.54 22.94 0.111 17.20 15.36 0.247
Idaho 19.51a 25.03 0.000 19.37a 27.79 0.000 19.54a 24.57 0.004
Illinois 16.68 16.76 0.932 17.19a 22.82 0.000 16.59 15.78 0.445
Indiana 20.37 20.90 0.720 20.62a 27.45 0.001 20.33 19.75 0.730
Iowa 17.23 19.02 0.175 18.24a 25.26 0.000 17.05 17.90 0.570
Kansas 17.24b 19.71 0.072 17.89a 24.72 0.001 17.13 18.81 0.280
Kentucky 19.23a 22.29 0.042 17.78a 22.83 0.007 19.46 22.21 0.105
Louisiana 17.46 19.11 0.223 16.81 19.67 0.120 17.59 19.02 0.357
Maine 19.25 19.01 0.866 19.59a 26.59 0.001 19.20 17.99 0.450
Maryland 16.86 16.94 0.952 17.72a 23.18 0.006 16.72 15.99 0.631
Massachusetts 18.01b 20.57 0.073 18.31a 26.23 0.000 17.95 19.59 0.311
Michigan 18.63 18.34 0.759 19.81a 24.05 0.001 18.43 17.39 0.327
Minnesota 18.94 18.21 0.590 19.72a 28.73 0.000 18.81 16.55 0.138
Mississippi 16.95 19.04 0.144 17.28 19.70 0.195 16.89 18.92 0.214
Missouri 19.11 20.05 0.516 21.43 23.27 0.386 18.72 19.52 0.624
Montana 19.18 19.78 0.670 19.20a 26.11 0.000 19.17 18.77 0.803
Nebraska 17.56 17.88 0.811 17.25a 24.79 0.000 17.63 16.64 0.511
Nevada 20.59 18.87 0.260 20.46a 24.82 0.038 20.60 18.01 0.128
New Hampshire 18.35 19.15 0.558 19.88a 26.70 0.001 18.11 17.98 0.931
New Jersey 17.65 16.19 0.283 18.52 20.96 0.171 17.51 15.48 0.184
New Mexico 17.85 17.73 0.930 18.04a 24.08 0.002 17.82 16.68 0.474
New York 18.35 17.61 0.419 18.27a 23.63 0.000 18.37b 16.63 0.098
North Carolina 17.74 18.02 0.829 16.43a 22.32 0.001 17.95 17.34 0.670
North Dakota 15.46a 18.30 0.029 15.32a 23.90 0.000 15.50 17.15 0.272
Ohio 18.41 19.85 0.136 18.75a 25.42 0.000 18.36 18.97 0.576
Oklahoma 20.33 20.02 0.838 20.56 23.59 0.154 20.28 19.40 0.611
Oregon 19.55a 23.59 0.011 20.51a 27.85 0.001 19.40a 22.95 0.046
Pennsylvania 17.83 17.98 0.870 18.55a 24.38 0.000 17.71 16.99 0.512
Rhode Island 23.53a 19.59 0.015 22.77 24.76 0.380 23.67a 18.67 0.007
South Carolina 16.95 18.56 0.253 16.99a 23.73 0.000 16.94 17.76 0.607
South Dakota 16.40 17.70 0.330 16.94a 23.75 0.000 16.31 16.68 0.809
Tennessee 19.12 19.24 0.935 17.43a 23.90 0.001 19.38 18.50 0.582
Texas 16.47 16.32 0.859 16.11a 21.62 0.000 16.54 15.37 0.224
Utah 21.78 23.47 0.250 21.53a 28.99 0.001 21.85 22.24 0.822
Vermont 18.66 19.84 0.407 19.42a 30.05 0.000 18.53 18.06 0.771
Virginia 16.33b 18.78 0.052 18.33a 25.39 0.000 15.99 17.72 0.221
Washington 19.85b 22.81 0.063 20.00a 24.81 0.023 19.82 22.51 0.138
West Virginia 20.00b 22.89 0.070 21.21 23.96 0.194 19.83 22.73 0.104
Wisconsin 19.96 18.54 0.321 22.43 25.53 0.139 19.55 17.40 0.180
Wyoming 20.24 20.25 0.996 20.38a 26.55 0.002 20.22 19.25 0.568
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Any mental illness (AMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder, assessed by the Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition—Research Version—Axis I Disorders (MHSS-SCID), which is based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). For details, see Section B of the "2016-2017 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012 and October 2013).
180919
Table 12 – Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 3.73a 4.19 0.000 6.42a 9.64 0.000 3.26 3.31 0.759
Northeast 3.73 3.99 0.246 6.64a 9.50 0.000 3.24 3.11 0.590
Midwest 4.10 4.35 0.215 6.79a 9.98 0.000 3.64 3.41 0.291
South 3.41a 4.03 0.000 5.91a 9.24 0.000 2.99 3.20 0.261
West 3.87a 4.45 0.013 6.66a 10.07 0.000 3.36 3.52 0.531
Alabama 3.73 3.89 0.784 6.42a 8.71 0.032 3.28 3.11 0.785
Alaska 3.76a 5.34 0.011 6.00a 13.26 0.000 3.34 4.01 0.317
Arizona 3.98 4.02 0.950 6.60a 9.28 0.019 3.54 3.15 0.546
Arkansas 4.11 4.59 0.406 6.67a 9.83 0.005 3.69 3.73 0.947
California 3.39b 4.04 0.052 6.53a 9.68 0.000 2.79 3.09 0.418
Colorado 4.30b 5.41 0.100 6.14a 11.25 0.000 4.00 4.46 0.532
Connecticut 3.95 4.05 0.871 6.61a 10.03 0.003 3.53 3.08 0.487
Delaware 3.02a 4.16 0.029 6.09a 9.61 0.001 2.51 3.35 0.136
District of Columbia 4.47 4.11 0.557 5.73a 8.55 0.005 4.18 3.24 0.181
Florida 3.54 3.49 0.893 6.10a 9.38 0.000 3.16 2.69 0.229
Georgia 2.80a 4.38 0.001 5.26a 8.73 0.000 2.38a 3.65 0.016
Hawaii 3.81 4.08 0.662 7.53b 10.08 0.055 3.21 3.26 0.947
Idaho 4.76 5.60 0.205 7.07a 10.59 0.004 4.35 4.78 0.567
Illinois 4.28 3.87 0.334 6.31a 9.33 0.000 3.91a 2.98 0.047
Indiana 4.21 5.04 0.180 6.56a 11.05 0.000 3.82 3.99 0.799
Iowa 4.01 4.69 0.239 6.44a 10.58 0.000 3.59 3.64 0.934
Kansas 3.60a 4.87 0.025 6.42a 10.29 0.001 3.07 3.90 0.190
Kentucky 3.96 4.71 0.215 6.28a 10.47 0.000 3.60 3.78 0.790
Louisiana 3.11a 4.25 0.029 5.84a 8.07 0.030 2.58b 3.62 0.071
Maine 4.56 3.99 0.351 7.07a 9.98 0.012 4.21 3.19 0.122
Maryland 3.41 4.00 0.266 6.51a 9.04 0.022 2.89 3.23 0.554
Massachusetts 3.93 4.57 0.288 5.99a 10.07 0.000 3.57 3.63 0.927
Michigan 4.26 3.99 0.503 7.67a 9.33 0.040 3.69 3.10 0.192
Minnesota 3.67 4.52 0.130 6.59a 10.17 0.002 3.18 3.63 0.456
Mississippi 3.29 4.01 0.162 6.35a 8.54 0.035 2.72 3.22 0.380
Missouri 3.87 4.04 0.773 6.34a 9.75 0.002 3.47 3.11 0.561
Montana 4.35 4.91 0.382 6.85a 11.26 0.000 3.93 3.90 0.965
Nebraska 3.91 4.05 0.798 6.04a 9.21 0.003 3.51 3.13 0.535
Nevada 4.41 4.62 0.771 6.71a 10.40 0.003 4.07 3.78 0.701
New Hampshire 3.40a 4.89 0.011 6.82a 10.87 0.001 2.88b 3.97 0.084
New Jersey 3.28 3.41 0.785 6.97a 9.14 0.042 2.71 2.56 0.759
New Mexico 4.15 4.01 0.817 6.85b 8.78 0.083 3.65 3.23 0.522
New York 3.82 3.68 0.716 6.62a 9.22 0.001 3.32 2.79 0.207
North Carolina 3.55b 4.57 0.061 5.80a 9.67 0.000 3.18 3.77 0.328
North Dakota 3.56b 4.57 0.063 5.39a 10.07 0.000 3.14 3.43 0.628
Ohio 4.25 4.56 0.482 6.90a 10.09 0.000 3.82 3.68 0.771
Oklahoma 3.53 4.10 0.305 6.31a 9.03 0.016 3.02 3.25 0.700
Oregon 4.43 5.18 0.266 6.64a 11.01 0.000 4.08 4.32 0.758
Pennsylvania 3.52b 4.28 0.052 6.73a 9.30 0.002 2.99 3.51 0.230
Rhode Island 5.11 4.78 0.641 6.79a 10.62 0.001 4.79 3.73 0.167
South Carolina 3.51 4.11 0.275 6.21a 9.27 0.004 3.07 3.31 0.684
South Dakota 4.23 4.40 0.768 7.18a 9.85 0.018 3.70 3.48 0.730
Tennessee 3.26a 4.50 0.021 5.64a 9.29 0.000 2.90 3.74 0.158
Texas 3.27 3.72 0.177 5.42a 9.31 0.000 2.86 2.72 0.694
Utah 5.39 5.99 0.392 7.49a 12.23 0.001 4.85 4.60 0.754
Vermont 4.49 5.31 0.231 7.04a 11.29 0.001 4.07 4.27 0.795
Virginia 3.31b 4.20 0.067 6.25a 9.26 0.003 2.80 3.40 0.272
Washington 4.56 5.06 0.457 7.18a 10.08 0.013 4.14 4.30 0.831
West Virginia 4.29 4.75 0.488 7.28a 10.01 0.022 3.86 3.99 0.864
Wisconsin 4.05 4.60 0.334 7.90a 10.87 0.016 3.40 3.57 0.783
Wyoming 4.52 4.39 0.836 6.32a 10.57 0.000 4.20 3.41 0.243
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Respondents were asked, "At any time in the past 12 months, did you seriously think about trying to kill yourself?" If they answered "Yes," they were categorized as having serious thoughts of suicide in the past year.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
180919
Table 13 – Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(2016-2017)
18+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(2016-2017)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(2016-2017)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(2016-2017)
26+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 6.53a 6.89 0.032 8.22a 13.01 0.000 8.21a 11.95 0.000 6.24 6.07 0.367
Northeast 6.42 6.76 0.274 7.92a 12.14 0.000 8.06a 11.77 0.000 6.15 5.96 0.579
Midwest 6.72a 7.24 0.039 8.35a 13.93 0.000 8.50a 12.61 0.000 6.41 6.35 0.832
South 6.44 6.66 0.339 8.07a 12.39 0.000 7.79a 10.91 0.000 6.22 5.98 0.374
West 6.57 7.05 0.116 8.53a 13.79 0.000 8.67a 13.11 0.000 6.19 6.05 0.685
Alabama 6.35 7.24 0.263 7.99a 11.90 0.001 7.35a 10.47 0.012 6.19 6.72 0.553
Alaska 5.86a 7.69 0.024 7.70a 14.27 0.000 7.31a 13.28 0.000 5.59 6.76 0.191
Arizona 6.94 6.53 0.616 8.99a 13.06 0.003 8.88 10.62 0.212 6.61 5.86 0.404
Arkansas 7.86 8.19 0.718 9.03a 13.36 0.001 8.98a 12.24 0.019 7.67 7.53 0.888
California 6.05 6.48 0.341 8.14a 13.23 0.000 8.50a 13.14 0.000 5.58 5.36 0.655
Colorado 7.56 7.70 0.866 9.16a 13.89 0.000 8.40a 15.01 0.000 7.41 6.51 0.342
Connecticut 5.95 6.97 0.177 8.03a 13.16 0.000 8.11a 13.10 0.000 5.61 5.98 0.651
Delaware 6.43 7.07 0.419 7.86a 11.58 0.002 8.55a 11.82 0.020 6.08 6.37 0.741
District of Columbia 5.93a 7.89 0.013 6.93a 10.49 0.004 7.39a 12.25 0.001 5.60 7.04 0.105
Florida 6.40 6.20 0.702 8.53a 13.09 0.000 7.93a 11.15 0.000 6.17 5.52 0.267
Georgia 6.26 6.90 0.395 7.88a 11.44 0.002 7.65a 10.48 0.016 6.02 6.30 0.742
Hawaii 6.15 5.67 0.540 8.08a 11.97 0.007 8.68b 11.22 0.088 5.74 4.91 0.321
Idaho 7.47 8.32 0.321 8.90a 16.22 0.000 9.19a 14.15 0.001 7.16 7.35 0.843
Illinois 6.17 6.30 0.803 7.48a 14.00 0.000 7.93a 11.59 0.000 5.85 5.44 0.498
Indiana 8.14 7.98 0.858 9.25a 13.77 0.001 8.51a 13.52 0.001 8.08 7.02 0.287
Iowa 5.87a 7.73 0.013 8.07a 14.10 0.000 7.75a 12.94 0.000 5.54 6.80 0.134
Kansas 6.61 7.58 0.239 8.58a 13.84 0.000 8.38a 11.87 0.012 6.29 6.81 0.567
Kentucky 7.14 7.87 0.395 8.42a 11.94 0.006 7.98a 12.09 0.002 7.00 7.19 0.847
Louisiana 5.75b 7.17 0.063 7.67a 10.76 0.011 6.97 8.80 0.125 5.51 6.90 0.115
Maine 6.81 7.48 0.411 8.08a 15.07 0.000 8.78a 15.31 0.000 6.53 6.44 0.917
Maryland 6.17 6.93 0.335 7.31a 12.91 0.000 8.18a 12.93 0.001 5.83 6.02 0.831
Massachusetts 6.77 7.56 0.323 8.03a 13.60 0.000 8.51a 14.11 0.000 6.47 6.44 0.976
Michigan 6.65 7.13 0.371 8.21a 13.87 0.000 9.15a 11.85 0.004 6.23 6.34 0.852
Minnesota 7.55 6.77 0.337 8.60a 13.56 0.000 8.87a 15.20 0.000 7.33a 5.44 0.036
Mississippi 5.80 7.02 0.103 7.26a 11.56 0.000 6.60a 10.08 0.004 5.66 6.49 0.321
Missouri 7.03 7.96 0.277 8.91a 14.57 0.000 9.15b 11.87 0.054 6.68 7.33 0.499
Montana 6.76 7.94 0.141 9.07a 14.07 0.000 8.85a 13.90 0.000 6.41 6.99 0.516
Nebraska 6.31 6.64 0.644 8.20a 13.01 0.000 7.59a 11.60 0.002 6.07 5.76 0.704
Nevada 6.88 6.74 0.862 7.38a 14.97 0.000 8.89a 12.79 0.007 6.58 5.86 0.428
New Hampshire 7.61 8.29 0.457 8.80a 13.91 0.000 8.88a 14.23 0.000 7.41 7.37 0.967
New Jersey 5.98 6.05 0.918 7.35a 11.17 0.001 8.12 10.03 0.125 5.65 5.46 0.814
New Mexico 6.47 6.63 0.842 8.95a 14.88 0.000 8.56b 11.18 0.069 6.08 5.88 0.820
New York 6.64 6.49 0.767 8.22a 11.46 0.000 7.84a 10.70 0.001 6.42 5.80 0.286
North Carolina 6.85 6.72 0.867 8.43a 12.03 0.002 8.07b 10.35 0.056 6.65 6.15 0.553
North Dakota 6.26 7.10 0.265 9.03a 12.13 0.014 7.21a 11.86 0.000 6.05 6.13 0.929
Ohio 6.18a 7.56 0.010 8.31a 14.35 0.000 8.16a 12.63 0.000 5.85 6.76 0.137
Oklahoma 7.40 7.75 0.692 8.04a 13.86 0.000 9.47 11.81 0.117 7.03 7.06 0.976
Oregon 7.44 8.49 0.242 10.18a 16.34 0.000 9.83a 15.16 0.001 7.07 7.49 0.670
Pennsylvania 5.92 6.82 0.103 7.54a 12.23 0.000 7.64a 12.13 0.000 5.64 6.01 0.547
Rhode Island 9.34b 7.41 0.052 9.35a 13.30 0.005 10.87 12.06 0.468 9.05a 6.57 0.026
South Carolina 7.02 6.76 0.750 8.90a 12.31 0.006 8.43b 10.70 0.072 6.79 6.15 0.487
South Dakota 5.71 6.73 0.159 8.47a 12.56 0.003 6.90a 13.06 0.000 5.50 5.66 0.846
Tennessee 6.83 7.18 0.657 8.53a 12.79 0.001 7.19a 12.34 0.000 6.78 6.37 0.635
Texas 5.97 5.76 0.648 7.49a 12.19 0.000 7.25a 9.89 0.001 5.73 5.02 0.176
Utah 7.51b 9.06 0.061 8.43a 15.48 0.000 8.37a 14.95 0.000 7.29 7.75 0.632
Vermont 6.52 7.60 0.172 8.10a 12.83 0.000 9.43a 14.33 0.001 6.04 6.43 0.657
Virginia 6.30 6.77 0.512 8.78a 13.22 0.000 8.57a 12.35 0.003 5.92 5.88 0.966
Washington 7.19 8.52 0.145 9.39a 13.98 0.001 9.07a 12.50 0.022 6.88 7.91 0.318
West Virginia 7.77 8.52 0.423 8.39a 14.05 0.000 8.81a 13.06 0.004 7.62 7.86 0.816
Wisconsin 7.28 7.50 0.778 8.83a 13.66 0.000 9.55a 13.99 0.003 6.89 6.44 0.614
Wyoming 7.37 7.15 0.785 8.50a 14.20 0.000 9.50a 12.85 0.018 6.99 6.25 0.411
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Major depressive episode (MDE) is defined as in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when an individual experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms. For details, see Section B of the "2016-2017 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
NOTE: There are minor wording differences in the questions in the adult and adolescent MDE modules. Therefore, data from youths aged 12 to 17 were not combined with data from adults aged 18 or older to produce an estimate for those aged 12 or older.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2016, and 2017 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).

Methodology Used to Estimate the Bayes Significance Level for the
Null Hypothesis of No Change between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 Population Percentages

Estimating P Values

To determine whether the differences between the 2008-20091 and 2016-2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) state prevalence rates are statistically significant, let pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a denote the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 prevalence rates, respectively, for state-s and age group-a. The difference between pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a is defined in terms of the log odds ratio (the log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a) as opposed to the simple difference because the posterior distribution of the log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a is closer to Gaussian than the posterior distribution of the simple difference (Pi 2 sub s and a minus pi 1 sub s and a represents the simple difference between the 2016-2017 and 2008-2009 prevalence rates.). The the log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a is defined as follows:

Equation 1.     D


In this equation, the ln denotes the natural logarithm. The p value given in each of the tables in this document (i.e., Tables 1 to 13) is computed to test the null hypothesis of no change (i.e., Pi 2 sub s and a is equal to pi 1 sub s and a. or equivalently, Log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a, is equal to zero.). An estimate of lor sub s and a is given by

Equation 2,     D


where p 1 sub s and a are the previously published 2008-2009 state estimates and p 2 sub s and a are the 2016-2017 state estimates presented in Tables 1 to 13 and elsewhere at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/. To compute the variance of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, that is, the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, let Theta 1 hat equal the ratio of p 1 sub s and a and 1 minus p 1 sub s and a and Theta 2 hat equal the ratio of p 2 sub s and a and 1 minus p 2 sub s and a, then

Equation 3,     D

where the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation 4.     D

Note that the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat used here to calculate the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a are the same variances used in calculating the previously published 2008-2009 Bayesian confidence intervals and the 2016-2017 Bayesian confidence intervals given here, respectively. The correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat is estimated using generalized correlations,2 which are described in detail in the next section.

To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero.) between the 2008-2009 and 2016-2017 state estimates, it is assumed that the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio lor is normal with Mean is equal to the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a. and Variance is equal to the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a.. With the null value of (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero.), the Bayes p value or significance level for the null hypothesis of no difference is The p value is equal to 2 times the probability of realizing a standard normal variate greater than or equal to the absolute value of a quantity z., where capital Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, divided by the square root of the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a., and absolute value of quantity z denotes the absolute value of quantity z. This Bayesian significance level (or p value) for the null value of log-odds ratio lor, say log-odds ratio lor sub zero, is defined following Rubin3 as the posterior probability for the collection of the log-odds ratio lor values that are less likely or have smaller posterior density d of the log-odds ratio lor than the null (no change) value log-odds ratio lor sub zero. That is, The p value of log-odds ratio lor sub zero is equal to the probability of d of the log-odds ratio lor when it is less than or equal to d of the log-odds ratio lor sub zero.. With the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio lor approximately normal, the p value of log-odds ratio lor sub zero is given by the above expression.

Estimating Generalized Correlations

The correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat for each substance use outcome measure by state by age group combination was estimated by taking the average of seven correlations for each outcome measure by state by age group, as follows:

The average of these seven correlations is henceforth referred to as a "generalized correlation."

The generalized correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat for any mental illness (AMI), serious mental illness (SMI), and suicidal thoughts by state and age group was estimated by taking the average of six correlations for each outcome by state by age group, as follows:

The generalized correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat for the fourth mental health measure—major depressive episode (MDE)—was estimated by taking the average of eight correlations for each outcome by age group by state, as follows:

Each of these individual sets of correlations was produced by simultaneously fitting 4 years of NSDUH data separately for each outcome measure. For example, to produce correlations between the 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 state estimates for past month marijuana use, four age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 to 34, and 35 or older) by two time periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008), that is, eight subpopulation-specific models, were fitted each with its own set of fixed and random effects. In this case, the general covariance matrices for the state and within-state random effects were 8 × 8 matrices corresponding to the eight element (age group × time period) vectors of random effects.

An unpublished study was conducted using 2002-2003 versus 2007-2008 data and 2002 2003 versus 2008-2009 data. When the actual (modeled) correlation was replaced by an average correlation of those 2 years, the p values of testing differences between estimates from both sets of comparisons were fairly similar. In most cases, they had the same conclusion of whether the test between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 and the test between 2002-2003 and 2008 2009 was statistically significant or not. Only a few tests changed their significance5 depending on which correlation (actual or the average) was used. For all of these cases where significance changed, the p values were close to 0.05 (i.e., borderline cases). Given these results, it was decided, starting in 2014-2015 and going forward, that generalized correlations could be used to estimate long-term change.

Endnotes

1 Note that in state small area estimation (SAE) documents prior to 2014-2015, 2002-2003 aggregated data were used as the baseline against which long-term changes for state-level estimates were compared. However, starting with 2014-2015 documents, 2008-2009 aggregated data are now used as the baseline so that mental health measures can also be included in long-term change testing.

2 In previous years (with the exception of 2002-2003 vs. 2011-2012), the correlations were produced by simultaneously modeling the 4 years of data instead of using the generalized correlations. For more information about simultaneous modeling, see the following document at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/: "NSDUH: Comparison of 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 Population Percentages."

3 See the following reference: Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys (Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics: Applied Probability and Statistics). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

4 Correlations were available for 2002-2003 versus 2009-2010 for NSDUH data that included falsified cases, as well as 2009-2010 data excluding falsified cases. For more details on falsification and the revision of 2006 to 2010 data, see Section A.7 of the "2010-2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/. Note that the correlations for 2002-2003 versus 2007-2008 and 2002-2003 versus 2008-2009 were also based on falsified data.

5 A total of 61 out of 9,632 tests across all outcomes, states, and age groups changed their conclusion from significant to nonsignificant and vice versa.

Long Descriptions for Equations

Long description, Equation 1: The log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is pi 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 2 sub s and a. The denominator of the ratio is pi 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 1 sub s and a.

Long description end. Return to Equation 1.

Long description, Equation 2: The estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is p 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus p 2 sub s and a. The denominator of the ratio is p 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus p 1 sub s and a, where p 1 sub s and a represents the 2008-2009 state estimates and p 2 sub s and a represents the 2016-2017 state estimates.

Long description end. Return to Equation 2.

Long description, Equation 3: Variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, is a function of three quantities: q1, q2, and q3. It is expressed as the sum of q1 and q2 minus q3. Quantity q1 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat, quantity q2 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat, and quantity q3 is 2 times the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.

Long description end. Return to Equation 3.

Long description, Equation 4: The covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat is equal to the correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat multiplied by the square root of the product of the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.

Long description end. Return to Equation 4.

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