National Survey on Drug Use and Health:
Comparison of 2008-2009 and 2018-2019
Population Percentages
(50 States and the District of Columbia)

NOTE: The methodology used to conduct significance testing for state population percentages between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs and to calculate p values is provided after Table 13.

200920
Table 1 – Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-
2009)
12+
(2018-
2019)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-
2009)
12-17
(2018-
2019)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 10.88a 16.71 0.000 13.37b 12.84 0.098 29.31a 35.09 0.000 7.38a 14.27 0.000 10.61a 17.10 0.000
Northeast 11.95a 17.70 0.000 14.22 13.30 0.140 34.64a 39.12 0.000 7.84a 14.88 0.000 11.71a 18.10 0.000
Midwest 10.36a 16.28 0.000 12.84 12.47 0.435 28.53a 35.45 0.000 6.90a 13.65 0.000 10.08a 16.67 0.000
South 9.59a 13.98 0.000 12.06b 11.19 0.053 25.38a 30.17 0.000 6.62a 11.79 0.000 9.32a 14.27 0.000
West 12.55a 20.70 0.000 15.26 15.50 0.725 31.83a 39.60 0.000 8.69a 18.31 0.000 12.25a 21.23 0.000
Alabama 8.49a 14.74 0.000 10.11 9.72 0.771 22.60a 30.01 0.001 5.89a 12.93 0.000 8.31a 15.24 0.000
Alaska 16.25a 24.97 0.000 15.89 17.75 0.323 35.51a 41.30 0.036 12.67a 23.33 0.000 16.29a 25.75 0.000
Arizona 10.89a 16.01 0.000 14.28 12.70 0.363 29.42 30.17 0.774 7.29a 14.11 0.000 10.50a 16.35 0.000
Arkansas 10.78a 13.53 0.004 12.33 11.20 0.444 27.59 26.25 0.588 7.85a 11.78 0.000 10.61a 13.78 0.002
California 12.91a 20.06 0.000 15.12 15.82 0.505 32.15a 40.40 0.000 8.91a 17.27 0.000 12.65a 20.48 0.000
Colorado 15.12a 26.32 0.000 18.55 17.60 0.643 38.59a 48.54 0.000 10.79a 23.86 0.000 14.76a 27.19 0.000
Connecticut 12.56a 19.05 0.000 15.91 14.08 0.311 37.10a 43.91 0.015 8.25a 15.64 0.000 12.20a 19.53 0.000
Delaware 11.82a 18.18 0.000 15.53 14.43 0.531 35.92a 41.57 0.038 7.35a 15.29 0.000 11.43a 18.53 0.000
District of Columbia 14.34a 27.42 0.000 14.59b 18.01 0.087 33.16a 49.84 0.000 10.11a 24.01 0.000 14.33a 27.95 0.000
Florida 10.12a 14.80 0.000 12.94 12.11 0.419 26.58a 32.76 0.000 7.38a 12.69 0.000 9.85a 15.03 0.000
Georgia 11.03a 15.00 0.000 12.69 11.22 0.292 26.60b 30.67 0.083 8.15a 12.92 0.000 10.84a 15.42 0.000
Hawaii 12.06a 15.77 0.003 14.45 11.92 0.166 31.14 29.57 0.562 8.74a 14.38 0.000 11.82a 16.12 0.001
Idaho 10.66a 14.03 0.000 13.44 12.04 0.376 28.30 28.99 0.775 7.15a 11.85 0.000 10.32a 14.27 0.000
Illinois 10.54a 16.38 0.000 13.33 13.55 0.852 27.95a 34.01 0.000 7.01a 13.96 0.000 10.22a 16.67 0.000
Indiana 10.28a 16.61 0.000 12.90 12.42 0.753 27.22a 35.14 0.002 7.08a 13.97 0.000 9.99a 17.06 0.000
Iowa 7.68a 12.43 0.000 11.72 11.61 0.938 20.54a 28.10 0.002 4.90a 9.80 0.000 7.25a 12.51 0.000
Kansas 9.39a 14.64 0.000 12.12 11.61 0.734 25.63b 29.96 0.082 6.00a 12.35 0.000 9.09a 14.98 0.000
Kentucky 8.83a 14.87 0.000 10.91 11.33 0.780 24.66a 29.67 0.035 6.10a 12.94 0.000 8.61a 15.22 0.000
Louisiana 8.52a 12.15 0.000 9.76 8.56 0.370 23.23b 27.57 0.057 5.51a 10.17 0.000 8.37a 12.53 0.000
Maine 13.55a 24.77 0.000 14.20b 17.53 0.081 39.68a 48.63 0.002 9.85a 22.42 0.000 13.49a 25.37 0.000
Maryland 10.69a 16.07 0.000 13.73 12.27 0.373 30.32a 40.05 0.001 6.98a 12.97 0.000 10.36a 16.45 0.000
Massachusetts 14.57a 22.16 0.000 16.44 16.03 0.828 40.19a 46.57 0.025 9.81a 18.67 0.000 14.39a 22.69 0.000
Michigan 12.20a 20.80 0.000 14.21 13.38 0.461 32.33a 44.14 0.000 8.51a 17.86 0.000 11.97a 21.52 0.000
Minnesota 10.37a 16.60 0.000 11.29 12.59 0.410 29.92a 38.75 0.001 6.92a 13.67 0.000 10.27a 17.02 0.000
Mississippi 7.88a 12.09 0.000 9.92 9.90 0.988 20.36a 24.62 0.044 5.30a 10.28 0.000 7.64a 12.33 0.000
Missouri 9.73a 14.91 0.000 11.54 11.35 0.897 27.19a 32.52 0.034 6.62a 12.58 0.000 9.53a 15.27 0.000
Montana 12.23a 20.06 0.000 15.50 15.98 0.785 34.96a 40.46 0.040 8.04a 17.36 0.000 11.90a 20.44 0.000
Nebraska 9.25a 14.35 0.000 10.87b 13.87 0.062 24.63a 34.47 0.000 6.12a 10.92 0.000 9.07a 14.41 0.000
Nevada 11.09a 23.94 0.000 16.45 16.76 0.868 28.98a 43.50 0.000 7.74a 22.04 0.000 10.49a 24.65 0.000
New Hampshire 14.87a 21.43 0.000 16.56 16.17 0.841 41.83 45.92 0.174 10.55a 18.31 0.000 14.69a 21.88 0.000
New Jersey 9.19a 13.73 0.000 11.63 11.48 0.914 30.00a 35.36 0.031 5.67a 10.87 0.000 8.93a 13.95 0.000
New Mexico 10.95a 20.48 0.000 16.83 18.66 0.351 29.23a 35.38 0.026 6.82a 18.34 0.000 10.30a 20.67 0.000
New York 12.82a 17.33 0.000 14.87b 13.09 0.093 36.36 38.49 0.185 8.34a 14.50 0.000 12.61a 17.70 0.000
North Carolina 10.46a 15.08 0.000 13.41 12.78 0.673 28.35 30.87 0.257 7.20a 12.89 0.000 10.14a 15.31 0.000
North Dakota 8.29a 12.64 0.000 9.42 9.44 0.990 23.06a 28.72 0.023 4.85a 9.90 0.000 8.18a 12.95 0.000
Ohio 10.08a 15.84 0.000 12.97 11.88 0.283 29.54a 35.81 0.000 6.52a 13.20 0.000 9.77a 16.24 0.000
Oklahoma 10.19a 15.37 0.000 12.69 11.17 0.344 25.06a 31.95 0.007 7.16a 13.14 0.000 9.91a 15.83 0.000
Oregon 14.41a 26.99 0.000 18.34 18.56 0.907 37.33a 47.28 0.000 10.40a 24.93 0.000 14.01a 27.74 0.000
Pennsylvania 10.04a 16.10 0.000 12.87 12.01 0.436 28.78a 33.69 0.005 6.62a 13.91 0.000 9.75a 16.48 0.000
Rhode Island 14.34a 23.31 0.000 16.31 16.21 0.955 39.48b 45.03 0.070 9.39a 20.30 0.000 14.14a 23.92 0.000
South Carolina 9.36a 14.46 0.000 11.75 11.27 0.747 25.58 27.52 0.438 6.40a 12.88 0.000 9.10a 14.77 0.000
South Dakota 8.96a 11.13 0.009 12.05 10.24 0.245 25.67 26.69 0.671 5.55a 8.67 0.000 8.62a 11.22 0.003
Tennessee 9.61a 13.68 0.000 10.52 10.65 0.926 26.28 29.45 0.184 6.95a 11.62 0.000 9.52a 13.98 0.000
Texas 8.31a 12.19 0.000 11.24 10.92 0.733 22.03a 26.22 0.002 5.29a 9.93 0.000 7.95a 12.35 0.000
Utah 7.18a 12.36 0.000 9.73 10.23 0.718 17.70a 25.71 0.001 4.13a 9.77 0.000 6.83a 12.66 0.000
Vermont 15.95a 27.04 0.000 16.67a 21.13 0.026 45.25a 52.18 0.019 11.09a 23.31 0.000 15.88a 27.52 0.000
Virginia 9.75a 12.23 0.003 13.80a 9.65 0.003 27.03a 32.96 0.012 6.32a 9.29 0.001 9.33a 12.48 0.000
Washington 12.81a 25.58 0.000 15.24 16.38 0.536 34.11a 45.50 0.000 9.08a 23.67 0.000 12.55a 26.45 0.000
West Virginia 9.60a 14.11 0.000 12.05 12.20 0.925 26.63a 33.09 0.010 6.88a 11.63 0.000 9.37a 14.28 0.000
Wisconsin 10.65a 14.62 0.000 13.71 12.01 0.278 31.13 32.63 0.552 6.82a 12.06 0.000 10.33a 14.88 0.000
Wyoming 9.88a 12.77 0.002 14.19 12.44 0.304 27.24 30.85 0.150 6.27a 10.07 0.000 9.43a 12.81 0.001
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
200920
Table 2 – Marijuana Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-
2009)
12+
(2018-
2019)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-
2009)
12-17
(2018-
2019)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 6.40a 10.80 0.000 7.03 7.02 0.953 17.42a 22.54 0.000 4.42a 9.39 0.000 6.33a 11.17 0.000
Northeast 7.14a 11.42 0.000 7.94 7.37 0.207 21.45a 24.88 0.000 4.63a 9.78 0.000 7.06a 11.79 0.000
Midwest 6.07a 10.28 0.000 7.03 6.64 0.261 16.57a 22.47 0.000 4.14a 8.74 0.000 5.97a 10.65 0.000
South 5.47a 8.87 0.000 6.06 6.13 0.828 15.21a 18.97 0.000 3.76a 7.62 0.000 5.41a 9.15 0.000
West 7.57a 13.87 0.000 7.86 8.54 0.178 18.43a 26.53 0.000 5.56a 12.49 0.000 7.54a 14.41 0.000
Alabama 5.04a 8.67 0.000 5.70 5.80 0.917 14.49a 18.34 0.036 3.35a 7.49 0.000 4.97a 8.96 0.000
Alaska 11.52a 17.25 0.000 9.14 8.54 0.663 25.16a 30.71 0.037 9.30a 16.25 0.000 11.81a 18.20 0.000
Arizona 6.70a 11.00 0.000 7.28 6.04 0.277 17.08b 20.80 0.089 4.86a 10.01 0.000 6.63a 11.51 0.000
Arkansas 6.11a 8.46 0.002 6.73 5.82 0.367 16.16 15.80 0.856 4.40a 7.60 0.000 6.04a 8.73 0.001
California 7.67a 13.47 0.000 7.70 8.85 0.149 18.67a 26.48 0.000 5.57a 11.91 0.000 7.67a 13.93 0.000
Colorado 9.77a 17.39 0.000 10.17 9.75 0.776 24.18a 34.39 0.000 7.31a 15.62 0.000 9.72a 18.15 0.000
Connecticut 7.26a 12.34 0.000 8.35 7.46 0.470 22.56b 27.22 0.071 4.70a 10.52 0.000 7.14a 12.81 0.000
Delaware 6.97a 12.26 0.000 7.54 8.26 0.576 22.67a 27.58 0.047 4.29a 10.53 0.000 6.91a 12.63 0.000
District of Columbia 8.46a 16.39 0.000 7.50 8.99 0.271 19.59a 30.73 0.000 6.07a 14.30 0.000 8.54a 16.80 0.000
Florida 5.80a 10.11 0.000 6.31 6.47 0.826 15.21a 21.45 0.000 4.35a 8.96 0.000 5.75a 10.42 0.000
Georgia 6.06a 9.20 0.000 5.50 6.04 0.553 15.87a 19.56 0.044 4.46a 7.91 0.000 6.12a 9.55 0.000
Hawaii 8.46 10.12 0.111 7.72 6.29 0.259 19.15 18.77 0.872 6.84a 9.38 0.038 8.54b 10.47 0.085
Idaho 5.89a 8.57 0.000 7.50 5.90 0.133 14.13a 18.21 0.039 4.21a 7.36 0.000 5.69a 8.89 0.000
Illinois 5.91a 10.38 0.000 7.29 7.01 0.731 16.23a 21.74 0.000 3.86a 9.00 0.000 5.76a 10.72 0.000
Indiana 6.08a 11.56 0.000 7.24 7.52 0.800 16.48a 25.63 0.000 4.17a 9.66 0.000 5.95a 11.98 0.000
Iowa 4.48a 6.70 0.000 6.88 5.71 0.265 11.62a 16.16 0.014 2.92a 5.18 0.001 4.23a 6.80 0.000
Kansas 5.02a 7.48 0.000 5.97 5.00 0.310 13.04 15.39 0.203 3.40a 6.42 0.000 4.91a 7.75 0.000
Kentucky 4.81a 9.75 0.000 5.27 6.18 0.363 14.25a 18.96 0.015 3.27a 8.71 0.000 4.76a 10.11 0.000
Louisiana 5.14a 7.74 0.000 4.82 4.99 0.849 15.19b 18.47 0.095 3.26a 6.39 0.000 5.18a 8.03 0.000
Maine 9.81a 17.58 0.000 8.43b 10.93 0.088 26.13a 35.12 0.001 7.69a 15.97 0.000 9.94a 18.13 0.000
Maryland 5.66a 10.99 0.000 7.01 7.07 0.963 17.03a 26.37 0.000 3.56a 9.16 0.000 5.51a 11.37 0.000
Massachusetts 8.74a 14.91 0.000 9.09 9.72 0.640 24.84a 31.01 0.021 5.84a 12.73 0.000 8.70a 15.36 0.000
Michigan 7.52a 13.80 0.000 7.88 7.42 0.582 18.99a 29.30 0.000 5.52a 12.02 0.000 7.48a 14.42 0.000
Minnesota 5.98a 9.96 0.000 5.58 6.53 0.353 17.10a 22.47 0.013 4.13a 8.44 0.000 6.02a 10.31 0.000
Mississippi 4.54a 7.88 0.000 5.02 5.68 0.478 11.72a 16.99 0.003 3.15a 6.65 0.000 4.48a 8.12 0.000
Missouri 5.94a 8.99 0.000 5.74 5.88 0.888 16.91b 20.73 0.068 4.15a 7.52 0.000 5.96a 9.30 0.000
Montana 8.12a 14.92 0.000 8.78 9.77 0.459 21.99a 29.85 0.001 5.72a 13.18 0.000 8.05a 15.40 0.000
Nebraska 5.36a 8.43 0.000 6.09 6.75 0.536 14.70a 21.24 0.001 3.50a 6.43 0.000 5.28a 8.62 0.000
Nevada 7.00a 16.10 0.000 8.96 9.67 0.611 18.34a 31.49 0.000 5.06a 14.69 0.000 6.78a 16.74 0.000
New Hampshire 9.62a 14.05 0.000 9.66 8.18 0.248 27.28 30.16 0.298 6.91a 12.25 0.000 9.61a 14.56 0.000
New Jersey 5.04a 8.99 0.000 6.16 6.69 0.598 17.42a 22.50 0.014 2.99a 7.30 0.000 4.92a 9.22 0.000
New Mexico 6.54a 12.43 0.000 9.25 9.83 0.685 15.74a 23.48 0.001 4.49a 10.99 0.000 6.24a 12.70 0.000
New York 7.73a 11.02 0.000 8.50 7.20 0.101 23.09 24.45 0.352 4.87a 9.35 0.000 7.65a 11.36 0.000
North Carolina 6.30a 9.16 0.000 7.19 6.87 0.748 16.85 19.41 0.163 4.49a 7.83 0.000 6.21a 9.39 0.000
North Dakota 4.67a 7.67 0.000 5.06 4.76 0.740 10.65a 17.10 0.000 3.30a 6.19 0.000 4.64a 7.95 0.000
Ohio 5.96a 10.22 0.000 7.63 6.45 0.125 17.26a 22.02 0.001 3.89a 8.82 0.000 5.77a 10.60 0.000
Oklahoma 5.60a 10.07 0.000 6.23 5.84 0.707 14.18a 19.22 0.014 3.96a 9.09 0.000 5.53a 10.54 0.000
Oregon 9.29a 18.69 0.000 8.66 10.74 0.131 23.87a 32.64 0.000 7.11a 17.49 0.000 9.36a 19.40 0.000
Pennsylvania 5.81a 9.83 0.000 7.19 6.11 0.152 17.08b 19.80 0.053 3.80a 8.73 0.000 5.67a 10.17 0.000
Rhode Island 10.04a 15.37 0.000 9.09 8.30 0.552 27.14 31.00 0.167 6.94a 13.40 0.000 10.13a 15.98 0.000
South Carolina 5.91a 9.17 0.000 5.55 6.56 0.306 16.88 18.34 0.470 4.16a 8.09 0.000 5.95a 9.42 0.000
South Dakota 5.14b 6.35 0.068 6.61 5.10 0.142 13.55 14.74 0.517 3.44a 5.13 0.024 4.98a 6.49 0.034
Tennessee 5.42a 8.75 0.000 5.19 5.70 0.590 16.64 18.22 0.418 3.72a 7.65 0.000 5.44a 9.05 0.000
Texas 4.74a 7.19 0.000 6.11 5.94 0.804 13.45b 15.51 0.076 2.91a 5.92 0.000 4.58a 7.34 0.000
Utah 3.60a 6.42 0.000 4.78 4.58 0.820 8.21a 14.50 0.000 2.27a 4.96 0.000 3.44a 6.68 0.000
Vermont 10.85a 19.74 0.000 9.73b 12.84 0.051 30.56a 38.99 0.002 7.75a 17.11 0.000 10.96a 20.30 0.000
Virginia 5.33a 7.89 0.000 6.33 5.41 0.339 15.70a 20.26 0.017 3.45a 6.25 0.000 5.23a 8.13 0.000
Washington 7.21a 17.75 0.000 7.74b 9.92 0.100 17.19a 31.80 0.000 5.53a 16.54 0.000 7.15a 18.49 0.000
West Virginia 5.50a 9.48 0.000 5.74 7.05 0.196 17.46 20.88 0.106 3.74a 8.12 0.000 5.47a 9.69 0.000
Wisconsin 6.19a 9.05 0.000 7.20 6.58 0.574 17.49 20.67 0.114 4.16a 7.48 0.000 6.09a 9.29 0.000
Wyoming 5.42a 7.38 0.003 7.55 5.88 0.122 15.50 17.73 0.270 3.37a 5.98 0.001 5.19a 7.53 0.001
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
200920
Table 3 – First Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and State: Average Annual Initiation Estimates (Expressed as Percentages of the At-#Risk Population) and P Values from Tests of Differences between Rates, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-
2009)
12+
(2018-
2019)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-
2009)
12-17
(2018-
2019)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 1.75a 2.31 0.000 5.74 5.70 0.809 7.09a 8.39 0.000 0.13a 0.67 0.000 1.07a 1.73 0.000
Northeast 1.80a 2.44 0.000 5.92 5.99 0.804 7.96a 9.82 0.000 0.13a 0.70 0.000 1.12a 1.87 0.000
Midwest 1.79a 2.48 0.000 5.57 5.55 0.908 7.41a 9.24 0.000 0.12a 0.69 0.000 1.12a 1.92 0.000
South 1.56a 1.92 0.000 5.22 5.08 0.504 6.34a 6.99 0.033 0.12a 0.52 0.000 0.95a 1.40 0.000
West 2.00a 2.78 0.000 6.57 6.65 0.799 7.38a 9.12 0.000 0.14a 0.91 0.000 1.18a 2.08 0.000
Alabama 1.38a 1.81 0.009 4.47 4.62 0.816 5.53 6.54 0.249 0.12a 0.51 0.000 0.87a 1.35 0.001
Alaska 2.30a 3.58 0.000 6.35 7.78 0.110 7.33a 10.11 0.041 0.17a 1.28 0.000 1.34a 2.62 0.000
Arizona 1.72a 2.43 0.002 6.10 6.00 0.902 6.58 7.38 0.476 0.12a 0.81 0.000 0.95a 1.78 0.000
Arkansas 1.56a 1.97 0.025 5.15 5.02 0.850 6.99 7.27 0.797 0.12a 0.51 0.000 0.95a 1.46 0.002
California 2.06a 2.66 0.000 6.66 6.83 0.748 7.39a 8.93 0.030 0.14a 0.84 0.000 1.23a 1.94 0.000
Colorado 2.45a 3.80 0.000 8.11 7.97 0.886 9.23a 12.49 0.043 0.17a 1.21 0.000 1.38a 2.88 0.000
Connecticut 2.14a 3.08 0.000 7.09 6.57 0.562 8.98b 11.64 0.065 0.14a 0.96 0.000 1.23a 2.43 0.000
Delaware 2.13b 2.60 0.056 6.67 7.12 0.613 9.55 9.35 0.885 0.14a 0.79 0.000 1.32a 1.84 0.017
District of Columbia 2.33a 3.96 0.000 7.25a 9.50 0.032 8.38b 11.37 0.058 0.24a 1.50 0.000 1.68a 3.22 0.000
Florida 1.39a 1.77 0.001 5.35 5.28 0.884 6.22b 7.48 0.054 0.10a 0.48 0.000 0.83a 1.29 0.000
Georgia 1.87 1.98 0.526 5.46 4.93 0.416 6.90 6.75 0.874 0.17a 0.53 0.000 1.17b 1.46 0.085
Hawaii 1.71 2.06 0.123 6.42 5.70 0.423 7.57 6.53 0.394 0.11a 0.74 0.000 1.01a 1.48 0.027
Idaho 1.86b 2.25 0.065 5.50 5.43 0.932 7.18 6.90 0.789 0.13a 0.60 0.000 1.14a 1.59 0.017
Illinois 1.74a 2.33 0.000 5.65 6.04 0.456 6.85 7.82 0.189 0.12a 0.68 0.000 1.07a 1.67 0.000
Indiana 1.76a 2.54 0.000 5.81 5.34 0.535 7.37 8.98 0.162 0.11a 0.72 0.000 1.05a 1.98 0.000
Iowa 1.55a 2.12 0.004 5.34 5.06 0.699 5.97 7.55 0.126 0.10a 0.54 0.000 0.95a 1.63 0.000
Kansas 1.72a 2.40 0.002 5.65 4.96 0.348 6.85 7.79 0.403 0.10a 0.73 0.000 1.06a 1.89 0.000
Kentucky 1.48a 2.18 0.000 5.46 5.03 0.555 6.09b 8.14 0.052 0.14a 0.62 0.000 0.86a 1.68 0.000
Louisiana 1.33a 1.74 0.012 3.89 4.33 0.468 5.53 6.79 0.176 0.12a 0.45 0.000 0.91a 1.31 0.007
Maine 1.73a 3.38 0.000 5.43a 7.71 0.007 8.97a 14.39 0.001 0.14a 1.09 0.000 1.09a 2.61 0.000
Maryland 1.81b 2.18 0.083 5.61 5.46 0.849 8.20 8.06 0.910 0.12a 0.64 0.000 1.17a 1.60 0.026
Massachusetts 2.27a 3.79 0.000 7.13 7.25 0.890 9.69a 15.27 0.002 0.16a 1.13 0.000 1.42a 3.17 0.000
Michigan 2.10a 3.18 0.000 5.97 6.30 0.516 8.72a 12.69 0.000 0.13a 0.93 0.000 1.33a 2.59 0.000
Minnesota 1.77a 2.49 0.001 4.85 5.13 0.689 7.89 9.58 0.179 0.12a 0.78 0.000 1.20a 1.98 0.000
Mississippi 1.34a 1.67 0.042 4.09 4.55 0.466 5.22 5.83 0.463 0.11a 0.37 0.000 0.88a 1.19 0.032
Missouri 1.64a 2.25 0.002 5.11 5.05 0.925 7.12 8.93 0.119 0.12a 0.57 0.000 1.02a 1.76 0.000
Montana 2.04a 3.33 0.000 6.67 7.46 0.352 9.79 11.70 0.217 0.13a 0.98 0.000 1.25a 2.52 0.000
Nebraska 1.54a 2.39 0.000 4.48a 6.29 0.013 6.32b 8.29 0.069 0.10a 0.56 0.000 1.05a 1.70 0.001
Nevada 1.85a 2.97 0.000 7.16 7.38 0.813 6.55a 10.66 0.002 0.15a 1.01 0.000 0.91a 2.15 0.000
New Hampshire 2.25a 3.50 0.000 6.29 7.68 0.110 10.53b 13.81 0.080 0.15a 1.01 0.000 1.44a 2.68 0.000
New Jersey 1.50a 1.90 0.017 4.89 5.22 0.625 7.69 8.59 0.427 0.10a 0.48 0.000 0.96a 1.39 0.005
New Mexico 2.06a 3.10 0.000 7.84 8.75 0.390 8.01 9.39 0.321 0.12a 0.88 0.000 1.09a 2.06 0.000
New York 1.81a 2.15 0.013 6.05 5.59 0.323 7.38 8.60 0.121 0.13a 0.63 0.000 1.12a 1.64 0.000
North Carolina 1.69a 2.10 0.021 6.24 6.14 0.897 6.67 6.46 0.824 0.13a 0.59 0.000 0.96a 1.41 0.004
North Dakota 1.56a 2.14 0.005 4.28 4.03 0.695 6.59b 8.75 0.065 0.08a 0.56 0.000 1.15a 1.85 0.001
Ohio 1.78a 2.44 0.000 5.59 5.39 0.664 7.47a 10.08 0.002 0.13a 0.63 0.000 1.10a 1.91 0.000
Oklahoma 1.47a 2.26 0.000 4.87 4.70 0.812 5.77a 8.19 0.027 0.11a 0.71 0.000 0.91a 1.80 0.000
Oregon 2.42a 3.36 0.003 7.87 7.16 0.440 9.63 11.66 0.193 0.19a 1.26 0.000 1.39a 2.64 0.000
Pennsylvania 1.61a 2.24 0.000 5.37 5.81 0.365 7.47 8.30 0.315 0.10a 0.63 0.000 1.01a 1.66 0.000
Rhode Island 2.27a 3.34 0.000 7.20 6.78 0.641 9.16 11.82 0.105 0.16a 1.09 0.000 1.40a 2.72 0.000
South Carolina 1.46b 1.75 0.096 4.77 5.07 0.669 6.41 6.11 0.754 0.12a 0.46 0.000 0.93a 1.23 0.047
South Dakota 1.59b 1.91 0.088 5.17 4.45 0.301 6.70 7.84 0.298 0.09a 0.50 0.000 1.01a 1.49 0.006
Tennessee 1.26a 1.87 0.000 4.11 4.94 0.196 6.00 7.04 0.297 0.12a 0.48 0.000 0.81a 1.38 0.000
Texas 1.59a 1.87 0.015 5.20 4.86 0.442 5.86 6.47 0.303 0.11a 0.48 0.000 0.95a 1.35 0.000
Utah 1.29a 1.84 0.004 3.94 3.68 0.675 3.64a 5.48 0.025 0.10a 0.50 0.000 0.82a 1.45 0.001
Vermont 2.47a 4.19 0.000 7.37b 9.31 0.060 11.93b 15.54 0.071 0.15a 1.14 0.000 1.56a 3.25 0.000
Virginia 1.90 1.89 0.973 5.98b 4.87 0.095 7.59 7.53 0.953 0.13a 0.53 0.000 1.20 1.42 0.192
Washington 1.94a 3.51 0.000 5.68 6.35 0.410 8.53a 11.45 0.048 0.16a 1.41 0.000 1.24a 2.93 0.000
West Virginia 1.27a 2.14 0.000 5.33 5.97 0.383 5.76a 8.43 0.009 0.12a 0.57 0.000 0.72a 1.55 0.000
Wisconsin 1.92a 2.35 0.046 6.16 5.38 0.296 8.39 8.35 0.972 0.12a 0.65 0.000 1.17a 1.81 0.001
Wyoming 1.92 2.22 0.159 6.47 5.49 0.213 7.70 7.78 0.944 0.11a 0.68 0.000 1.15a 1.64 0.013
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Average annual initiation of marijuana (%) = 100 × {[X1 ÷ (0.5 × X1 + X2)] ÷ 2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of individuals who never used marijuana (with the at-risk population defined as 0.5 × X1 + X2). Both of the computation components, X1 and X2, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach. The age group shown is based on a respondent's age at the time of the interview, not his or her age at first use. For details, see Section B of the "2018-2019 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
200920
Table 4 – Cocaine Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-
2009)
12+
(2018-
2019)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-
2009)
12-17
(2018-
2019)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 2.01 2.00 0.920 1.11a 0.42 0.000 5.46 5.54 0.747 1.53 1.63 0.267 2.11 2.16 0.554
Northeast 2.38 2.21 0.244 1.11a 0.38 0.000 6.68 6.35 0.465 1.81 1.77 0.796 2.52 2.38 0.394
Midwest 1.82 1.81 0.972 1.06a 0.43 0.000 5.12 5.07 0.882 1.34 1.45 0.427 1.90 1.95 0.673
South 1.81 1.65 0.103 0.98a 0.36 0.000 4.64 4.39 0.390 1.44 1.38 0.577 1.90 1.78 0.271
West 2.21a 2.58 0.018 1.35a 0.54 0.000 6.08a 7.18 0.019 1.62a 2.09 0.013 2.31a 2.79 0.006
Alabama 1.38 1.78 0.181 0.76a 0.31 0.004 3.44 4.13 0.392 1.11 1.58 0.179 1.45 1.93 0.154
Alaska 2.99b 2.05 0.053 1.45a 0.47 0.000 7.38b 5.09 0.066 2.39 1.78 0.284 3.18b 2.23 0.078
Arizona 2.33 1.82 0.150 1.38a 0.48 0.000 6.91 5.31 0.195 1.68 1.41 0.471 2.44 1.95 0.221
Arkansas 1.43 1.11 0.194 0.89a 0.36 0.005 3.52 3.05 0.558 1.16 0.89 0.336 1.49 1.19 0.275
California 2.12a 2.75 0.009 1.39a 0.52 0.000 5.57a 7.71 0.003 1.56a 2.21 0.022 2.20a 2.97 0.004
Colorado 3.28 4.12 0.121 1.37a 0.64 0.026 8.94 10.98 0.206 2.56 3.45 0.153 3.47 4.46 0.102
Connecticut 2.05 1.99 0.855 1.26a 0.37 0.000 6.25 6.21 0.972 1.49 1.50 0.977 2.14 2.15 0.987
Delaware 2.36 2.21 0.708 0.91a 0.31 0.001 6.40 6.63 0.850 1.87 1.79 0.866 2.52 2.39 0.775
District of Columbia 3.76 3.95 0.804 0.43 0.21 0.102 5.14 6.45 0.254 3.76 3.75 0.995 4.01 4.16 0.853
Florida 1.80 1.72 0.719 1.05a 0.36 0.000 4.70 5.07 0.570 1.46 1.41 0.868 1.88 1.84 0.887
Georgia 1.51 1.43 0.767 0.81a 0.25 0.000 3.93 3.41 0.486 1.20 1.26 0.847 1.60 1.56 0.913
Hawaii 1.76 2.41 0.105 1.25a 0.43 0.011 4.39 6.12 0.130 1.40 2.13 0.112 1.81b 2.59 0.081
Idaho 1.31 1.36 0.801 1.24a 0.57 0.018 4.52 4.01 0.588 0.75 1.04 0.235 1.31 1.46 0.580
Illinois 1.91 2.10 0.447 0.99a 0.40 0.000 4.64 4.77 0.861 1.53 1.88 0.237 2.01 2.27 0.350
Indiana 1.66 1.58 0.772 1.09a 0.50 0.005 4.97 4.63 0.735 1.18 1.19 0.961 1.72 1.69 0.920
Iowa 1.11 1.45 0.142 1.11a 0.47 0.006 3.64 4.51 0.335 0.66 1.03 0.138 1.11b 1.55 0.089
Kansas 1.52b 2.05 0.087 1.11a 0.54 0.018 4.97 5.11 0.898 0.94a 1.71 0.024 1.57b 2.21 0.061
Kentucky 1.36a 1.95 0.037 1.02a 0.45 0.006 4.37 4.61 0.798 0.93a 1.70 0.020 1.40a 2.10 0.026
Louisiana 2.34 1.81 0.151 0.84a 0.26 0.000 4.77 4.77 0.998 2.08 1.53 0.210 2.51 1.97 0.192
Maine 2.30 1.96 0.321 1.13a 0.56 0.013 7.67 7.25 0.762 1.69 1.42 0.472 2.42 2.08 0.372
Maryland 1.57 1.73 0.619 0.87a 0.27 0.000 4.03 4.41 0.677 1.24 1.50 0.504 1.64 1.88 0.534
Massachusetts 2.45 2.24 0.580 1.18a 0.42 0.001 7.16 6.98 0.890 1.76 1.63 0.741 2.58 2.40 0.673
Michigan 2.00 1.82 0.420 1.05a 0.37 0.000 5.74 5.93 0.802 1.49 1.31 0.490 2.11 1.96 0.552
Minnesota 1.77 2.14 0.250 1.12a 0.43 0.000 5.14 5.94 0.463 1.27 1.76 0.178 1.84 2.31 0.186
Mississippi 1.36 1.52 0.574 0.63a 0.25 0.009 3.15 3.45 0.684 1.14 1.36 0.508 1.45 1.66 0.511
Missouri 2.01a 1.33 0.019 1.00a 0.38 0.001 5.74 4.12 0.108 1.52b 1.00 0.099 2.12a 1.42 0.031
Montana 2.32 2.11 0.520 1.17a 0.61 0.034 7.60 6.92 0.599 1.58 1.53 0.892 2.44 2.25 0.599
Nebraska 1.57 1.70 0.622 1.10a 0.50 0.006 4.61 5.93 0.199 1.06 1.13 0.813 1.62 1.84 0.479
Nevada 2.34 2.74 0.307 1.50a 0.53 0.000 6.72 7.41 0.601 1.79 2.35 0.221 2.43 2.96 0.231
New Hampshire 2.75 2.63 0.790 1.23a 0.61 0.020 8.97 9.23 0.870 1.98 1.86 0.780 2.91 2.81 0.837
New Jersey 1.73 1.59 0.598 1.04a 0.32 0.000 4.93 4.77 0.870 1.33 1.27 0.858 1.81 1.71 0.754
New Mexico 2.17 1.87 0.402 1.30a 0.65 0.034 6.55 4.98 0.195 1.47 1.53 0.884 2.26 2.00 0.500
New York 2.66 2.52 0.615 1.09a 0.32 0.000 7.31 6.44 0.296 2.02 2.14 0.724 2.83 2.71 0.720
North Carolina 2.10 1.93 0.614 0.93a 0.33 0.000 4.90 5.17 0.769 1.79 1.62 0.640 2.22 2.10 0.723
North Dakota 1.22 1.44 0.379 1.05a 0.48 0.024 3.78 4.41 0.499 0.68 0.98 0.231 1.24 1.54 0.287
Ohio 1.49 1.74 0.220 1.02a 0.37 0.000 4.51 4.89 0.556 1.05 1.41 0.140 1.54 1.88 0.139
Oklahoma 1.50 1.63 0.645 1.14a 0.41 0.001 4.70 4.24 0.629 0.97 1.34 0.207 1.54 1.76 0.475
Oregon 2.63 2.89 0.502 1.23a 0.66 0.033 8.04 8.41 0.793 1.95 2.32 0.390 2.77 3.09 0.455
Pennsylvania 2.27 2.15 0.682 1.08a 0.43 0.000 5.86 6.35 0.542 1.82 1.71 0.723 2.39 2.31 0.797
Rhode Island 3.89a 2.24 0.001 1.28a 0.43 0.000 9.39b 6.66 0.066 3.17a 1.67 0.007 4.15a 2.40 0.002
South Carolina 2.75a 1.46 0.001 0.83a 0.28 0.000 4.97 4.06 0.353 2.62a 1.21 0.001 2.95a 1.58 0.001
South Dakota 1.17 1.10 0.717 0.95a 0.44 0.043 3.91 3.57 0.690 0.71 0.77 0.785 1.20 1.17 0.893
Tennessee 1.57 1.53 0.872 0.93a 0.36 0.001 4.31 3.57 0.394 1.23 1.35 0.710 1.64 1.64 0.991
Texas 1.89a 1.47 0.031 1.16a 0.44 0.000 5.09 4.12 0.122 1.40 1.16 0.267 1.98b 1.60 0.073
Utah 1.43 1.27 0.527 1.16a 0.52 0.021 4.14 3.65 0.581 0.80 0.88 0.738 1.47 1.38 0.760
Vermont 3.01 3.06 0.925 1.22b 0.68 0.051 10.17 9.09 0.495 2.05 2.25 0.670 3.19 3.25 0.900
Virginia 1.75 1.80 0.880 1.02a 0.31 0.000 4.95 5.20 0.789 1.30 1.43 0.687 1.83 1.94 0.736
Washington 2.08 2.26 0.605 1.20a 0.53 0.004 6.24 6.22 0.984 1.51 1.87 0.374 2.17 2.43 0.520
West Virginia 2.51a 1.60 0.006 1.05a 0.51 0.017 7.65a 4.76 0.013 1.93b 1.27 0.066 2.65a 1.70 0.009
Wisconsin 2.71b 2.04 0.065 1.19a 0.55 0.007 7.27 5.54 0.147 2.13 1.65 0.241 2.87b 2.19 0.088
Wyoming 1.46 1.66 0.462 1.13a 0.62 0.046 5.25 5.83 0.589 0.83 1.16 0.294 1.49 1.77 0.371
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
200920
Table 5 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-
2009)
12+
(2018-
2019)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-
2009)
12-17
(2018-
2019)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 51.74a 50.92 0.037 14.79a 9.19 0.000 61.45a 54.72 0.000 54.80 55.15 0.468 55.78b 55.09 0.099
Northeast 56.57a 53.97 0.001 16.68a 9.80 0.000 67.33a 58.93 0.000 59.59b 57.84 0.051 60.71a 57.98 0.001
Midwest 54.26 54.07 0.774 15.24a 9.62 0.000 65.07a 59.29 0.000 57.42 58.47 0.175 58.55 58.58 0.966
South 47.74 48.03 0.642 13.75a 8.89 0.000 57.62a 51.11 0.000 50.43a 52.18 0.016 51.47 52.03 0.413
West 51.78 50.55 0.105 14.56a 8.90 0.000 59.40a 53.30 0.000 55.40 54.99 0.651 56.01 54.76 0.136
Alabama 42.94 43.85 0.633 12.70a 8.22 0.000 54.41a 45.83 0.002 44.84 47.64 0.236 46.22 47.39 0.578
Alaska 54.52 51.83 0.149 14.22a 8.73 0.000 60.50a 53.48 0.012 59.37 57.00 0.303 59.54 56.53 0.142
Arizona 51.15 48.97 0.260 14.80a 7.91 0.000 59.35a 49.04 0.000 54.60 53.86 0.755 55.29 53.19 0.321
Arkansas 43.29 41.24 0.276 15.34a 8.41 0.000 55.94a 48.66 0.009 44.80 44.05 0.746 46.36 44.69 0.419
California 50.65 49.76 0.422 14.11a 8.87 0.000 59.79a 54.50 0.002 53.99 53.75 0.862 54.92 53.86 0.383
Colorado 62.22 60.03 0.230 20.22a 10.69 0.000 69.51a 62.49 0.007 66.11 65.30 0.716 66.60 64.92 0.400
Connecticut 59.32 60.03 0.721 18.56a 11.24 0.000 67.86 65.61 0.409 63.08 64.59 0.528 63.73 64.73 0.643
Delaware 56.32 56.44 0.954 16.35a 10.09 0.000 68.53a 59.09 0.000 59.18 60.93 0.485 60.52 60.71 0.930
District of Columbia 61.55a 65.97 0.019 15.63a 9.26 0.000 71.82 70.56 0.641 63.53a 68.93 0.018 65.04a 69.17 0.039
Florida 51.41 50.84 0.645 15.30a 9.10 0.000 56.91a 49.56 0.000 54.58 55.03 0.762 54.88 54.40 0.724
Georgia 48.89 47.24 0.353 13.56a 7.26 0.000 58.18a 46.80 0.000 52.19 52.45 0.904 53.06 51.65 0.475
Hawaii 48.23 46.13 0.287 11.64a 5.97 0.000 57.21a 50.13 0.018 50.95 49.69 0.595 51.81 49.75 0.337
Idaho 45.71 46.40 0.715 12.91a 7.94 0.000 52.50 49.48 0.266 49.19 51.24 0.381 49.68 50.99 0.529
Illinois 54.33 55.35 0.417 15.16a 8.55 0.000 64.88a 56.07 0.000 57.60a 60.74 0.041 58.72 60.11 0.313
Indiana 48.06 49.51 0.448 14.41a 9.16 0.000 57.94 55.79 0.436 50.82 53.47 0.256 51.85 53.80 0.350
Iowa 56.70 57.80 0.564 17.34a 11.38 0.000 69.06b 63.95 0.056 59.43 62.35 0.211 60.87 62.58 0.413
Kansas 53.92 52.43 0.442 15.93a 10.30 0.000 66.34a 58.66 0.005 56.66 56.81 0.953 58.18 57.08 0.605
Kentucky 38.74a 43.28 0.017 12.21b 9.62 0.060 50.64 48.20 0.362 40.10a 46.42 0.007 41.52a 46.66 0.013
Louisiana 48.24 48.03 0.912 15.26a 9.93 0.000 61.67a 52.53 0.001 50.16 51.92 0.460 52.02 52.00 0.993
Maine 55.07 55.77 0.730 14.57a 10.36 0.004 65.34b 60.07 0.053 58.08 59.44 0.577 58.97 59.52 0.802
Maryland 54.24 55.22 0.638 14.02a 9.06 0.000 61.74 57.44 0.141 58.09 60.07 0.436 58.62 59.74 0.625
Massachusetts 61.54 60.42 0.544 16.89a 10.83 0.000 72.39a 64.06 0.002 64.83 64.88 0.984 65.97 64.76 0.541
Michigan 54.65 53.57 0.375 14.56a 9.11 0.000 63.73 61.04 0.131 58.39 57.39 0.505 59.17 57.90 0.345
Minnesota 60.95 59.99 0.604 14.70a 11.03 0.015 68.13 65.24 0.268 65.51 64.99 0.816 65.90 65.02 0.664
Mississippi 40.39 38.75 0.384 12.70a 8.05 0.000 52.99a 41.68 0.000 41.96 42.18 0.928 43.68 42.10 0.450
Missouri 50.15 49.51 0.749 13.92a 9.19 0.001 61.01a 53.95 0.009 52.95 53.48 0.829 54.09 53.55 0.803
Montana 59.07 57.64 0.485 21.39a 11.64 0.000 69.07a 62.94 0.019 61.95 61.76 0.940 62.97 61.92 0.637
Nebraska 53.59 55.40 0.341 13.81a 9.97 0.007 64.98 60.76 0.111 56.67 60.36 0.120 57.99 60.41 0.248
Nevada 54.47 52.10 0.252 15.29a 9.28 0.000 60.32a 53.71 0.019 58.63 56.73 0.452 58.85 56.37 0.274
New Hampshire 63.98 62.54 0.443 17.83a 10.86 0.000 74.97a 68.89 0.021 67.91 66.75 0.606 68.85 67.03 0.371
New Jersey 54.18 52.83 0.496 15.17a 9.40 0.000 64.96a 58.64 0.014 57.37 56.89 0.845 58.39 57.11 0.559
New Mexico 47.59 45.04 0.193 15.62a 8.26 0.000 57.11a 48.25 0.002 50.05 48.99 0.664 51.15 48.89 0.294
New York 55.72a 50.90 0.000 16.83a 9.50 0.000 66.32a 56.07 0.000 58.57a 54.34 0.005 59.75a 54.57 0.000
North Carolina 47.45 49.31 0.293 12.83a 9.19 0.004 58.35 54.94 0.170 49.98 53.07 0.151 51.15 53.33 0.259
North Dakota 57.80 56.40 0.452 18.98a 9.42 0.000 71.80 67.76 0.128 59.46 59.62 0.944 61.71 60.93 0.700
Ohio 51.67 51.31 0.777 14.99a 9.63 0.000 65.37a 57.61 0.000 54.08 55.13 0.486 55.67 55.46 0.880
Oklahoma 45.62 44.48 0.566 13.86a 8.23 0.000 59.12a 51.80 0.010 47.31 47.87 0.821 49.13 48.43 0.751
Oregon 59.77 57.48 0.231 17.75a 10.70 0.000 66.69a 58.34 0.002 63.58 62.13 0.528 64.00 61.66 0.260
Pennsylvania 55.06a 52.35 0.045 16.73a 9.18 0.000 66.31a 56.15 0.000 57.81 56.31 0.357 59.01b 56.30 0.064
Rhode Island 59.91 58.58 0.490 18.29a 10.42 0.000 71.17b 66.17 0.065 62.78 62.17 0.795 64.10 62.75 0.516
South Carolina 45.89 48.42 0.202 12.45a 9.01 0.007 53.32 49.57 0.185 48.82 52.61 0.115 49.46 52.22 0.201
South Dakota 57.81b 54.38 0.070 15.85a 9.24 0.000 70.66a 59.82 0.000 60.93 59.09 0.433 62.41 59.19 0.121
Tennessee 41.06 43.94 0.130 11.39b 9.12 0.084 53.40 51.53 0.504 42.77b 46.74 0.086 44.18 47.38 0.125
Texas 48.42 47.64 0.481 14.09a 9.10 0.000 58.49a 50.79 0.000 51.52 52.45 0.503 52.63 52.20 0.730
Utah 28.11 29.16 0.575 6.73 5.67 0.406 32.09 32.49 0.900 30.72 32.49 0.465 30.98 32.47 0.481
Vermont 60.28 60.89 0.759 18.40a 13.58 0.005 73.56a 67.67 0.018 62.87 64.25 0.571 64.37 64.74 0.864
Virginia 50.79 51.14 0.845 13.10a 9.07 0.001 60.21 58.33 0.453 53.83 54.77 0.667 54.75 55.25 0.800
Washington 56.13 55.08 0.576 14.03a 9.96 0.004 60.77a 53.19 0.007 60.54 60.21 0.886 60.58 59.32 0.541
West Virginia 38.17 38.72 0.790 13.23a 9.61 0.013 53.45b 48.35 0.068 38.66 40.29 0.513 40.53 41.29 0.734
Wisconsin 61.78 59.93 0.333 18.62a 11.11 0.000 71.81a 66.35 0.025 65.42 64.49 0.693 66.34 64.75 0.443
Wyoming 54.21 51.99 0.262 17.06a 9.68 0.000 62.33 57.92 0.102 57.41 56.13 0.598 58.15 56.37 0.409
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
200920
Table 6 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Individuals Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2008-2009)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2018-2019)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(P Value)
Total U.S. 26.83a 18.67 0.000
Northeast 30.69a 20.33 0.000
Midwest 27.60a 20.87 0.000
South 25.18a 17.35 0.000
West 25.76a 17.69 0.000
Alabama 23.65a 15.53 0.000
Alaska 25.51a 16.54 0.000
Arizona 24.59a 16.53 0.000
Arkansas 23.06a 17.15 0.000
California 25.24a 17.64 0.000
Colorado 32.89a 22.22 0.000
Connecticut 31.02a 27.31 0.049
Delaware 32.60a 20.59 0.000
District of Columbia 31.66a 21.98 0.000
Florida 26.62a 18.69 0.000
Georgia 24.21a 14.39 0.000
Hawaii 23.87a 13.54 0.000
Idaho 23.93a 15.18 0.000
Illinois 28.38a 17.90 0.000
Indiana 23.50a 16.78 0.000
Iowa 29.93a 24.82 0.006
Kansas 28.91a 22.03 0.000
Kentucky 23.65a 18.14 0.001
Louisiana 29.69a 19.89 0.000
Maine 26.61a 22.44 0.020
Maryland 26.66a 16.43 0.000
Massachusetts 32.97a 24.11 0.000
Michigan 26.72a 21.95 0.000
Minnesota 27.61a 23.63 0.032
Mississippi 24.28a 16.00 0.000
Missouri 24.24a 20.46 0.030
Montana 34.33a 23.97 0.000
Nebraska 26.45a 22.61 0.032
Nevada 24.63a 17.59 0.000
New Hampshire 34.84a 23.15 0.000
New Jersey 27.22a 19.85 0.000
New Mexico 25.80a 16.17 0.000
New York 32.01a 18.74 0.000
North Carolina 22.42a 17.71 0.002
North Dakota 36.44a 25.79 0.000
Ohio 28.41a 21.23 0.000
Oklahoma 25.90a 17.80 0.000
Oregon 31.36a 20.76 0.000
Pennsylvania 29.02a 17.04 0.000
Rhode Island 34.78a 27.14 0.000
South Carolina 21.88a 16.84 0.003
South Dakota 32.31a 20.70 0.000
Tennessee 20.16b 17.11 0.058
Texas 26.46a 17.17 0.000
Utah 14.34a 9.94 0.013
Vermont 36.53a 31.66 0.023
Virginia 25.83a 18.44 0.000
Washington 27.00a 18.97 0.000
West Virginia 22.75a 18.61 0.017
Wisconsin 30.83a 23.20 0.000
Wyoming 30.54a 20.36 0.000
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
200920
Table 7 – Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-
2009)
12+
(2018-
2019)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-
2009)
12-17
(2018-
2019)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 28.06a 21.28 0.000 11.64a 4.01 0.000 41.53a 25.08 0.000 27.85a 22.68 0.000 29.86a 23.01 0.000
Northeast 26.45a 19.28 0.000 11.37a 3.59 0.000 41.23a 24.53 0.000 25.78a 20.12 0.000 28.01a 20.71 0.000
Midwest 30.55a 23.88 0.000 13.24a 4.50 0.000 46.33a 27.89 0.000 30.06a 25.51 0.000 32.45a 25.84 0.000
South 29.54a 23.38 0.000 11.53a 4.44 0.000 41.69a 26.75 0.000 29.79a 25.09 0.000 31.51a 25.31 0.000
West 24.67a 17.14 0.000 10.55a 3.19 0.000 37.12a 20.36 0.000 24.31a 18.26 0.000 26.27a 18.55 0.000
Alabama 32.94a 28.92 0.014 13.26a 5.31 0.000 45.41a 30.64 0.000 33.33 31.36 0.328 35.08a 31.27 0.033
Alaska 29.41a 23.15 0.000 13.46a 6.56 0.000 44.60a 25.80 0.000 28.91a 24.83 0.037 31.40a 24.96 0.000
Arizona 25.71a 18.84 0.000 10.17a 2.93 0.000 39.80a 21.49 0.000 25.39a 20.31 0.007 27.48a 20.47 0.000
Arkansas 35.26a 29.15 0.000 14.99a 5.47 0.000 47.74a 30.89 0.000 35.81b 31.76 0.056 37.48a 31.64 0.002
California 22.79a 14.10 0.000 9.47a 2.56 0.000 34.37a 17.04 0.000 22.43a 14.97 0.000 24.35a 15.26 0.000
Colorado 27.37a 20.64 0.000 13.30a 4.15 0.000 43.67a 26.24 0.000 26.37a 21.66 0.010 28.84a 22.28 0.000
Connecticut 25.34a 18.76 0.000 11.01a 3.04 0.000 41.49a 24.08 0.000 24.58a 19.66 0.010 26.89a 20.27 0.000
Delaware 30.13a 22.60 0.000 13.07a 4.04 0.000 45.53a 25.59 0.000 29.65a 24.12 0.005 31.92a 24.31 0.000
District of Columbia 27.62a 19.22 0.000 9.48a 3.69 0.000 34.96a 21.51 0.000 27.66a 19.84 0.000 28.99a 20.09 0.000
Florida 26.78a 19.51 0.000 10.61a 3.34 0.000 38.36a 20.42 0.000 26.85a 20.94 0.000 28.33a 20.89 0.000
Georgia 28.86a 21.32 0.000 11.68a 3.64 0.000 40.80a 21.97 0.000 29.20a 23.49 0.001 30.89a 23.28 0.000
Hawaii 22.31a 17.30 0.001 9.93a 2.20 0.000 37.26a 18.83 0.000 21.32 18.64 0.130 23.51a 18.66 0.002
Idaho 26.80a 19.69 0.000 10.75a 3.88 0.000 39.73a 23.65 0.000 26.82a 21.24 0.002 28.75a 21.58 0.000
Illinois 29.01a 20.15 0.000 12.45a 3.46 0.000 44.24a 21.78 0.000 28.44a 21.85 0.000 30.87a 21.85 0.000
Indiana 31.88a 28.18 0.022 13.97a 4.94 0.000 46.31a 33.10 0.000 31.80 30.24 0.434 33.89b 30.66 0.070
Iowa 30.23a 25.16 0.001 12.41a 4.95 0.000 44.08a 27.16 0.000 30.01 27.26 0.160 32.12a 27.24 0.005
Kansas 30.69a 24.52 0.000 13.11a 3.48 0.000 47.46a 25.55 0.000 29.91 27.08 0.178 32.67a 26.85 0.002
Kentucky 38.08a 31.19 0.000 16.82a 7.14 0.000 52.70a 35.11 0.000 38.37a 33.37 0.020 40.31a 33.61 0.000
Louisiana 30.67 28.57 0.196 10.72a 5.80 0.000 41.06a 30.14 0.000 31.40 31.06 0.868 32.96 30.94 0.262
Maine 29.82a 20.56 0.000 12.13a 5.18 0.000 47.65a 27.35 0.000 29.28a 21.13 0.000 31.52a 21.83 0.000
Maryland 23.84a 19.69 0.006 9.04a 3.46 0.000 35.70a 24.30 0.000 23.72 20.83 0.115 25.46a 21.28 0.011
Massachusetts 25.06a 17.97 0.000 10.50a 3.92 0.000 41.42a 22.20 0.000 23.85a 18.68 0.003 26.50a 19.19 0.000
Michigan 30.47a 24.00 0.000 12.88a 4.50 0.000 45.86a 28.75 0.000 30.17a 25.44 0.000 32.45a 25.90 0.000
Minnesota 27.59a 20.96 0.000 12.49a 4.48 0.000 47.57a 26.41 0.000 26.07a 22.07 0.023 29.20a 22.65 0.000
Mississippi 31.60 30.57 0.530 12.10a 7.08 0.000 43.29a 32.11 0.000 32.19 33.32 0.583 33.92 33.14 0.667
Missouri 32.65a 24.19 0.000 14.57a 5.09 0.000 47.19a 27.52 0.000 32.55a 25.88 0.001 34.62a 26.10 0.000
Montana 31.17b 28.32 0.091 15.59a 7.59 0.000 49.20a 39.79 0.001 30.03 28.78 0.542 32.78 30.25 0.168
Nebraska 29.00a 22.98 0.000 12.29a 4.04 0.000 42.14a 28.70 0.000 28.71a 24.43 0.035 30.85a 25.06 0.001
Nevada 28.44a 20.94 0.000 11.98a 3.47 0.000 40.40a 22.84 0.000 28.78a 22.65 0.003 30.28a 22.68 0.000
New Hampshire 28.12a 19.95 0.000 12.55a 3.97 0.000 45.16a 29.79 0.000 27.40a 20.08 0.000 29.76a 21.34 0.000
New Jersey 24.81a 16.03 0.000 9.81a 2.96 0.000 38.34a 21.38 0.000 24.58a 16.74 0.000 26.42a 17.32 0.000
New Mexico 26.72b 23.83 0.061 12.82a 5.08 0.000 42.62a 31.36 0.000 25.62 24.91 0.707 28.26 25.79 0.147
New York 24.57a 17.94 0.000 10.73a 3.18 0.000 39.13a 22.68 0.000 23.64a 18.72 0.000 26.00a 19.25 0.000
North Carolina 31.32a 24.74 0.000 12.01a 4.85 0.000 43.70a 28.09 0.000 31.72a 26.52 0.003 33.38a 26.73 0.000
North Dakota 30.37a 25.50 0.002 13.46a 5.44 0.000 46.39a 30.87 0.000 28.87 26.77 0.284 32.07a 27.44 0.007
Ohio 32.29a 27.00 0.000 14.11a 5.50 0.000 49.54a 33.06 0.000 31.76a 28.53 0.016 34.27a 29.14 0.000
Oklahoma 34.82a 29.65 0.003 13.78a 5.35 0.000 48.56a 35.42 0.000 35.07 31.79 0.136 37.14a 32.31 0.013
Oregon 30.12a 20.71 0.000 14.94a 4.49 0.000 45.09a 26.43 0.000 29.56a 21.55 0.000 31.65a 22.16 0.000
Pennsylvania 30.97a 23.98 0.000 13.84a 4.36 0.000 45.29a 29.77 0.000 30.67a 25.17 0.000 32.74a 25.77 0.000
Rhode Island 26.34a 20.37 0.000 10.30a 3.28 0.000 41.51a 25.32 0.000 25.41a 21.25 0.027 27.95a 21.85 0.000
South Carolina 31.30a 26.67 0.006 11.78a 5.72 0.000 44.29a 30.62 0.000 31.59 28.40 0.118 33.37a 28.69 0.010
South Dakota 31.32a 24.05 0.000 14.94a 5.90 0.000 49.54a 29.85 0.000 30.16a 25.35 0.013 33.12a 25.99 0.000
Tennessee 33.55a 26.88 0.000 12.46a 5.66 0.000 46.98a 33.18 0.000 34.05a 28.33 0.005 35.77a 28.97 0.000
Texas 27.05a 20.71 0.000 10.01a 3.59 0.000 38.36a 24.25 0.000 27.41a 22.48 0.000 29.15a 22.74 0.000
Utah 18.44a 14.19 0.002 6.72a 2.71 0.000 24.94a 17.28 0.002 18.80b 15.49 0.060 20.02a 15.81 0.007
Vermont 27.61a 22.50 0.002 12.66a 6.75 0.000 44.28a 31.64 0.000 26.58a 22.44 0.035 29.07a 23.78 0.003
Virginia 27.48a 21.59 0.000 11.74a 4.51 0.000 41.54a 30.55 0.000 27.03a 22.12 0.004 29.13a 23.25 0.000
Washington 26.86a 21.00 0.000 11.87a 3.75 0.000 41.46a 22.05 0.000 26.35a 22.70 0.043 28.44a 22.62 0.000
West Virginia 38.41a 33.77 0.014 16.88a 8.14 0.000 54.20a 40.01 0.000 38.44 35.47 0.192 40.43a 36.03 0.032
Wisconsin 30.21a 22.16 0.000 12.88a 3.81 0.000 45.41a 25.46 0.000 29.79a 23.74 0.002 32.04a 23.97 0.000
Wyoming 34.32a 27.49 0.000 18.41a 7.19 0.000 49.70a 38.14 0.000 33.58a 28.29 0.015 36.01a 29.59 0.001
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., snuff, dip, chewing tobacco, or snus), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
200920
Table 8 – Cigarette Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-
2009)
12+
(2018-
2019)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-
2009)
12-17
(2018-
2019)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 23.63a 16.91 0.000 9.09a 2.50 0.000 35.80a 18.34 0.000 23.40a 18.35 0.000 25.23a 18.35 0.000
Northeast 22.40a 15.43 0.000 8.82a 2.14 0.000 35.95a 17.65 0.000 21.75a 16.48 0.000 23.81a 16.63 0.000
Midwest 25.66a 18.96 0.000 10.45a 2.94 0.000 39.92a 20.37 0.000 25.16a 20.63 0.000 27.33a 20.59 0.000
South 24.80a 18.43 0.000 9.12a 2.79 0.000 35.96a 19.21 0.000 24.92a 20.15 0.000 26.52a 20.02 0.000
West 20.86a 13.79 0.000 7.97a 1.87 0.000 31.69a 15.69 0.000 20.62a 14.88 0.000 22.32a 14.99 0.000
Alabama 26.82a 22.72 0.007 10.40a 3.58 0.000 38.16a 21.91 0.000 26.98 25.05 0.303 28.60a 24.62 0.018
Alaska 24.21a 17.47 0.000 9.37a 3.85 0.000 38.26a 19.55 0.000 23.78a 18.86 0.004 26.07a 18.95 0.000
Arizona 21.97a 15.63 0.000 8.70a 1.81 0.000 33.07a 17.49 0.000 21.85a 16.98 0.003 23.48a 17.05 0.000
Arkansas 30.28a 22.55 0.000 12.05a 3.56 0.000 42.83a 22.42 0.000 30.56a 24.89 0.004 32.28a 24.55 0.000
California 19.28a 11.43 0.000 7.05a 1.23 0.000 29.58a 13.24 0.000 19.02a 12.33 0.000 20.71a 12.46 0.000
Colorado 22.33a 16.32 0.000 9.69a 3.01 0.000 36.42a 19.28 0.000 21.52a 17.38 0.013 23.65a 17.64 0.000
Connecticut 21.47a 13.90 0.000 8.67a 1.53 0.000 36.51a 15.82 0.000 20.69a 14.98 0.001 22.85a 15.10 0.000
Delaware 25.41a 17.46 0.000 9.74a 1.93 0.000 39.95a 17.84 0.000 24.90a 19.03 0.002 27.05a 18.89 0.000
District of Columbia 23.85a 16.28 0.000 6.30a 1.70 0.000 30.11a 16.60 0.000 24.08a 17.19 0.000 25.17a 17.10 0.000
Florida 22.66a 15.48 0.000 8.30a 2.10 0.000 32.61a 14.09 0.000 22.76a 16.94 0.000 24.03a 16.62 0.000
Georgia 24.48a 16.40 0.000 8.95a 2.21 0.000 35.71a 15.17 0.000 24.72a 18.43 0.000 26.32a 17.97 0.000
Hawaii 20.24a 14.10 0.000 7.60a 1.52 0.000 34.07a 15.27 0.000 19.46a 15.22 0.010 21.47a 15.23 0.000
Idaho 23.14a 15.62 0.000 9.05a 2.87 0.000 35.00a 17.44 0.000 23.07a 17.10 0.000 24.85a 17.15 0.000
Illinois 24.93a 16.26 0.000 10.01a 1.88 0.000 38.97a 16.16 0.000 24.37a 17.97 0.000 26.60a 17.73 0.000
Indiana 26.78a 22.45 0.003 10.84a 3.38 0.000 40.95a 25.12 0.000 26.49 24.37 0.238 28.58a 24.48 0.011
Iowa 24.90a 20.61 0.004 10.17a 3.87 0.000 37.13a 20.38 0.000 24.58 22.68 0.302 26.46a 22.34 0.011
Kansas 25.04a 18.27 0.000 10.80a 2.32 0.000 39.71a 16.92 0.000 24.19a 20.59 0.046 26.63a 20.04 0.000
Kentucky 31.94a 25.08 0.000 12.44a 4.67 0.000 44.22a 25.93 0.000 32.38a 27.31 0.010 33.98a 27.12 0.000
Louisiana 26.54a 22.07 0.003 8.41a 3.35 0.000 36.03a 22.05 0.000 27.20 24.32 0.127 28.62a 24.01 0.005
Maine 25.64a 17.24 0.000 9.72a 3.99 0.000 42.51a 21.06 0.000 25.03a 17.99 0.000 27.17a 18.34 0.000
Maryland 19.82a 14.85 0.000 7.61a 1.86 0.000 31.15a 16.07 0.000 19.45a 16.12 0.047 21.15a 16.12 0.001
Massachusetts 20.99a 14.47 0.000 7.63a 2.22 0.000 34.67a 16.70 0.000 20.13a 15.35 0.002 22.32a 15.54 0.000
Michigan 26.12a 19.04 0.000 10.34a 2.68 0.000 39.79a 19.69 0.000 25.87a 20.79 0.000 27.89a 20.63 0.000
Minnesota 23.49a 16.29 0.000 9.72a 2.99 0.000 41.01a 19.55 0.000 22.22a 17.36 0.003 24.96a 17.65 0.000
Mississippi 26.35 24.16 0.152 9.66a 4.19 0.000 36.57a 22.46 0.000 26.82 26.99 0.934 28.34 26.34 0.238
Missouri 26.31a 19.72 0.000 10.98a 3.41 0.000 39.48a 21.94 0.000 26.09a 21.26 0.008 27.98a 21.36 0.000
Montana 24.75a 20.83 0.011 11.24a 5.58 0.000 39.49a 28.79 0.000 23.91 21.24 0.161 26.14a 22.25 0.020
Nebraska 24.27a 17.99 0.000 9.36a 2.82 0.000 36.05a 20.47 0.000 24.00a 19.53 0.013 25.91a 19.67 0.000
Nevada 24.45a 16.96 0.000 9.44a 2.03 0.000 33.92a 16.41 0.000 24.97a 18.72 0.001 26.13a 18.44 0.000
New Hampshire 23.36a 14.64 0.000 10.23a 2.84 0.000 39.18a 20.78 0.000 22.53a 14.90 0.000 24.74a 15.66 0.000
New Jersey 20.88a 13.17 0.000 7.59a 1.56 0.000 35.13a 14.90 0.000 20.33a 14.23 0.000 22.32a 14.32 0.000
New Mexico 22.74a 19.30 0.019 10.06a 2.89 0.000 36.12a 23.87 0.000 21.95 20.56 0.447 24.15b 21.01 0.053
New York 21.30a 14.51 0.000 8.21a 1.75 0.000 34.38a 16.07 0.000 20.55a 15.57 0.000 22.66a 15.63 0.000
North Carolina 26.45a 19.83 0.000 9.16a 2.93 0.000 37.96a 19.26 0.000 26.73a 21.87 0.004 28.30a 21.52 0.000
North Dakota 24.70a 19.46 0.000 10.42a 4.01 0.000 36.38a 21.64 0.000 23.86b 20.83 0.100 26.14a 20.95 0.001
Ohio 26.71a 21.16 0.000 10.93a 3.76 0.000 41.85a 23.56 0.000 26.23a 22.79 0.005 28.43a 22.89 0.000
Oklahoma 28.24a 23.68 0.005 11.31a 4.27 0.000 41.18a 27.10 0.000 28.10 25.59 0.217 30.11a 25.80 0.017
Oregon 25.01a 15.93 0.000 10.32a 3.00 0.000 37.51a 20.69 0.000 24.78a 16.56 0.000 26.49a 17.09 0.000
Pennsylvania 25.69a 19.05 0.000 11.13a 2.93 0.000 38.72a 21.98 0.000 25.30a 20.30 0.000 27.19a 20.52 0.000
Rhode Island 22.58a 16.30 0.000 7.93a 1.99 0.000 35.37a 18.20 0.000 21.93a 17.43 0.011 24.05a 17.54 0.000
South Carolina 26.94a 21.26 0.000 9.52a 3.78 0.000 37.73a 22.03 0.000 27.33a 23.08 0.020 28.80a 22.94 0.000
South Dakota 25.04a 18.61 0.000 11.43a 4.07 0.000 39.83a 20.65 0.000 24.14a 20.08 0.020 26.53a 20.16 0.000
Tennessee 28.20a 20.72 0.000 9.69a 3.94 0.000 39.48a 24.06 0.000 28.71a 22.12 0.001 30.14a 22.37 0.000
Texas 22.51a 16.67 0.000 8.17a 2.19 0.000 33.64a 18.22 0.000 22.51a 18.42 0.000 24.27a 18.39 0.000
Utah 16.42a 11.45 0.000 5.39a 1.82 0.000 22.29a 13.28 0.000 16.83a 12.72 0.011 17.91a 12.81 0.000
Vermont 22.31a 17.55 0.001 8.73a 4.56 0.000 38.02a 24.68 0.000 21.29a 17.57 0.039 23.64a 18.60 0.002
Virginia 23.23a 16.51 0.000 9.56a 2.79 0.000 35.65a 21.32 0.000 22.79a 17.31 0.000 24.66a 17.85 0.000
Washington 22.91a 17.02 0.000 8.89a 2.43 0.000 35.68a 16.96 0.000 22.56a 18.60 0.019 24.38a 18.39 0.000
West Virginia 30.76a 25.86 0.004 13.14a 5.48 0.000 47.13a 30.72 0.000 30.30 27.22 0.134 32.42a 27.66 0.009
Wisconsin 25.74a 17.89 0.000 10.57a 2.55 0.000 40.34a 19.26 0.000 25.15a 19.42 0.001 27.35a 19.40 0.000
Wyoming 26.58a 20.00 0.000 12.60a 5.02 0.000 39.19a 28.03 0.000 26.09a 20.56 0.004 28.06a 21.55 0.000
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
200920
Table 9 – Alcohol Use Disorder in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2008-
2009)
12+
(2018-
2019)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-
2009)
12-17
(2018-
2019)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 7.42a 5.34 0.000 4.76a 1.64 0.000 16.76a 9.67 0.000 6.16a 5.09 0.000 7.72a 5.71 0.000
Northeast 7.42a 5.28 0.000 4.73a 1.68 0.000 17.81a 10.12 0.000 5.99a 4.92 0.001 7.70a 5.61 0.000
Midwest 7.84a 5.54 0.000 5.14a 1.72 0.000 18.24a 10.42 0.000 6.39a 5.21 0.000 8.13a 5.93 0.000
South 6.90a 4.75 0.000 4.14a 1.44 0.000 15.18a 8.45 0.000 5.86a 4.56 0.000 7.20a 5.09 0.000
West 7.86a 6.15 0.000 5.37a 1.85 0.000 16.97a 10.60 0.000 6.54b 5.95 0.092 8.14a 6.59 0.000
Alabama 6.40 5.33 0.105 4.12a 1.50 0.000 13.75a 9.16 0.002 5.45 5.18 0.721 6.65 5.71 0.191
Alaska 8.06 7.08 0.242 5.31a 1.86 0.000 16.94a 12.42 0.013 6.80 6.91 0.909 8.40 7.65 0.414
Arizona 7.73a 4.79 0.000 5.40a 1.71 0.000 18.24a 8.85 0.000 6.26a 4.49 0.030 8.00a 5.10 0.000
Arkansas 6.75a 4.89 0.006 4.90a 1.56 0.000 15.57a 8.17 0.000 5.54 4.78 0.319 6.95a 5.24 0.020
California 7.87a 6.28 0.000 5.27a 1.80 0.000 16.36a 10.51 0.000 6.61 6.12 0.374 8.18a 6.73 0.004
Colorado 8.97 8.16 0.354 6.32a 2.01 0.000 21.03a 13.88 0.000 7.28 7.97 0.493 9.25 8.77 0.614
Connecticut 8.64a 6.18 0.003 5.92a 1.83 0.000 19.92a 12.05 0.000 7.19 5.74 0.128 8.93a 6.60 0.010
Delaware 7.88a 6.16 0.028 4.86a 1.53 0.000 18.98a 10.87 0.000 6.40 5.98 0.648 8.19b 6.58 0.057
District of Columbia 9.26 9.00 0.798 3.04a 1.24 0.000 17.04a 11.86 0.004 8.10 9.00 0.453 9.73 9.44 0.785
Florida 6.93a 3.94 0.000 4.33a 1.26 0.000 14.60a 7.12 0.000 6.08a 3.78 0.000 7.18a 4.17 0.000
Georgia 6.68a 4.55 0.000 3.38a 1.36 0.000 15.02a 7.85 0.000 5.72b 4.42 0.063 7.07a 4.90 0.001
Hawaii 7.58b 5.93 0.051 5.83a 1.77 0.000 16.34a 12.45 0.043 6.38 5.51 0.369 7.75 6.31 0.109
Idaho 7.14a 5.41 0.012 5.16a 1.70 0.000 16.35a 10.18 0.000 5.79 5.15 0.410 7.37a 5.86 0.044
Illinois 7.58a 5.53 0.000 4.32a 1.53 0.000 17.59a 9.89 0.000 6.19 5.31 0.140 7.94a 5.93 0.000
Indiana 6.99a 5.59 0.040 5.01a 1.76 0.000 17.00a 10.25 0.000 5.57 5.28 0.706 7.22b 6.00 0.099
Iowa 8.64a 5.76 0.000 6.67a 2.19 0.000 19.79a 11.75 0.000 6.92a 5.15 0.039 8.85a 6.13 0.001
Kansas 8.06a 5.18 0.000 5.68a 1.90 0.000 19.37a 10.39 0.000 6.27b 4.69 0.051 8.33a 5.54 0.000
Kentucky 5.98 5.10 0.169 3.83a 1.69 0.000 14.21a 9.13 0.001 4.95 4.87 0.910 6.20 5.45 0.270
Louisiana 7.02b 5.60 0.054 3.63a 1.40 0.000 14.96a 8.67 0.000 5.95 5.63 0.709 7.40b 6.04 0.088
Maine 6.76 5.66 0.128 4.06a 2.14 0.002 17.72a 10.88 0.000 5.52 5.33 0.812 7.01 5.95 0.170
Maryland 7.05a 4.87 0.002 3.70a 1.38 0.000 15.17a 8.62 0.000 6.10b 4.71 0.089 7.42a 5.21 0.004
Massachusetts 7.42b 6.10 0.075 4.74a 1.75 0.000 18.97a 11.81 0.000 5.68 5.58 0.910 7.68 6.48 0.131
Michigan 7.63a 5.72 0.000 4.90a 1.64 0.000 16.79a 10.39 0.000 6.43b 5.43 0.099 7.93a 6.12 0.001
Minnesota 9.20a 5.65 0.000 5.77a 1.69 0.000 21.08a 11.50 0.000 7.60a 5.22 0.009 9.56a 6.06 0.000
Mississippi 6.29a 4.77 0.020 3.68a 1.37 0.000 13.24a 7.83 0.000 5.38 4.70 0.376 6.60a 5.15 0.042
Missouri 7.63a 5.21 0.000 5.15a 1.80 0.000 17.62a 9.46 0.000 6.29b 4.95 0.083 7.90a 5.56 0.002
Montana 9.78a 7.46 0.011 8.23a 2.51 0.000 24.59a 13.65 0.000 7.49 7.04 0.672 9.94a 7.92 0.040
Nebraska 8.50a 5.69 0.000 5.65a 1.85 0.000 19.05a 11.23 0.000 6.88b 5.23 0.064 8.81a 6.12 0.001
Nevada 7.61a 6.04 0.048 5.40a 1.84 0.000 16.76a 10.31 0.000 6.53 5.93 0.506 7.86 6.46 0.104
New Hampshire 7.50 6.47 0.208 5.09a 2.10 0.000 19.31a 14.39 0.022 5.98 5.74 0.789 7.75 6.85 0.307
New Jersey 6.61a 4.33 0.000 3.71a 1.49 0.000 15.87a 8.42 0.000 5.54a 4.07 0.035 6.93a 4.61 0.000
New Mexico 8.64a 5.35 0.000 6.64a 1.68 0.000 18.71a 10.51 0.000 7.05a 4.98 0.023 8.86a 5.73 0.000
New York 7.88a 5.16 0.000 5.31a 1.61 0.000 18.10a 9.28 0.000 6.36a 4.89 0.009 8.15a 5.48 0.000
North Carolina 6.27b 5.10 0.051 3.40a 1.47 0.000 14.65a 8.69 0.000 5.28 4.96 0.656 6.58b 5.46 0.087
North Dakota 8.38a 6.44 0.014 5.29a 2.36 0.000 20.61a 12.71 0.000 6.03 5.69 0.698 8.69a 6.83 0.029
Ohio 7.62a 5.14 0.000 5.19a 1.61 0.000 17.80a 9.47 0.000 6.26a 4.87 0.016 7.89a 5.49 0.000
Oklahoma 7.55a 5.47 0.003 4.96a 1.64 0.000 16.78a 10.03 0.000 6.21 5.19 0.206 7.84a 5.88 0.011
Oregon 8.54b 6.95 0.053 6.33a 2.35 0.000 18.71a 12.28 0.000 7.22 6.65 0.549 8.76 7.36 0.111
Pennsylvania 6.91a 5.08 0.000 4.21a 1.69 0.000 17.07a 10.10 0.000 5.56 4.68 0.116 7.18a 5.39 0.001
Rhode Island 8.26a 6.51 0.033 4.86a 1.78 0.000 18.03a 12.33 0.003 6.84 5.99 0.369 8.60b 6.92 0.057
South Carolina 7.90a 5.14 0.000 3.98a 1.43 0.000 16.24a 9.21 0.000 7.03a 4.95 0.021 8.32a 5.50 0.001
South Dakota 9.68a 5.93 0.000 6.74a 1.97 0.000 23.35a 11.86 0.000 7.59a 5.45 0.023 10.00a 6.36 0.000
Tennessee 6.18a 4.85 0.038 3.28a 1.63 0.001 14.18a 9.15 0.001 5.30 4.56 0.322 6.48b 5.17 0.059
Texas 6.98a 4.57 0.000 4.63a 1.43 0.000 14.76a 8.31 0.000 5.85a 4.36 0.003 7.26a 4.95 0.000
Utah 6.07a 4.16 0.003 3.31a 1.57 0.002 12.42a 7.67 0.002 4.96 3.83 0.122 6.44a 4.52 0.007
Vermont 7.84 6.84 0.219 4.92a 2.56 0.002 20.15a 12.28 0.000 6.16 6.31 0.868 8.12 7.18 0.282
Virginia 8.04a 5.06 0.000 5.07a 1.52 0.000 19.44a 9.40 0.000 6.47a 4.78 0.025 8.35a 5.41 0.000
Washington 7.08b 5.79 0.073 4.74a 2.01 0.000 16.26a 10.18 0.000 5.88 5.56 0.692 7.32 6.15 0.129
West Virginia 6.54a 4.14 0.000 4.45a 1.74 0.000 15.43a 8.76 0.000 5.48a 3.73 0.016 6.73a 4.35 0.001
Wisconsin 8.06a 6.10 0.009 5.43a 1.87 0.000 19.67a 12.08 0.000 6.43 5.63 0.350 8.34a 6.51 0.024
Wyoming 8.51a 6.39 0.007 6.96a 2.37 0.000 19.54a 12.48 0.000 6.75 5.94 0.372 8.67a 6.81 0.028
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Alcohol Use Disorder is defined as meeting criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse. Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
200920
Table 10 – Any Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 17.92a 19.86 0.000 18.25a 27.85 0.000 17.86a 18.60 0.020
Northeast 18.18a 19.45 0.019 18.61a 28.27 0.000 18.10 18.10 0.995
Midwest 18.36a 20.99 0.000 19.22a 29.79 0.000 18.21a 19.58 0.009
South 17.33a 18.74 0.001 17.06a 25.94 0.000 17.38 17.62 0.608
West 18.23a 20.95 0.000 18.88a 28.84 0.000 18.12a 19.70 0.015
Alabama 17.44a 21.29 0.008 16.53a 28.13 0.000 17.59 20.22 0.104
Alaska 16.72a 21.47 0.001 15.79a 31.90 0.000 16.90b 19.84 0.060
Arizona 17.15a 20.06 0.049 18.31a 28.50 0.000 16.95 18.70 0.295
Arkansas 19.60 20.34 0.618 19.89a 26.86 0.001 19.55 19.29 0.875
California 17.44a 19.49 0.018 18.49a 26.63 0.000 17.23 18.34 0.259
Colorado 18.95a 23.20 0.006 17.74a 34.28 0.000 19.15 21.47 0.178
Connecticut 17.87 18.85 0.511 19.35a 28.73 0.000 17.64 17.27 0.825
Delaware 17.75a 20.92 0.039 18.41a 30.47 0.000 17.64 19.58 0.257
District of Columbia 17.99a 22.83 0.001 17.44a 28.23 0.000 18.12a 21.85 0.029
Florida 16.99 17.23 0.794 16.69a 25.20 0.000 17.03 16.18 0.405
Georgia 16.50 17.88 0.287 16.16a 24.92 0.000 16.56 16.73 0.909
Hawaii 17.52 17.45 0.964 19.54a 26.99 0.001 17.20 16.22 0.550
Idaho 19.51a 22.48 0.042 19.37a 32.09 0.000 19.54 20.91 0.407
Illinois 16.68a 19.18 0.009 17.19a 28.57 0.000 16.59 17.71 0.297
Indiana 20.37 22.29 0.208 20.62a 30.10 0.000 20.33 20.96 0.711
Iowa 17.23 18.50 0.345 18.24a 26.76 0.000 17.05 17.06 0.996
Kansas 17.24a 20.56 0.020 17.89a 27.90 0.000 17.13 19.28 0.179
Kentucky 19.23a 22.54 0.029 17.78a 27.03 0.000 19.46 21.83 0.161
Louisiana 17.46a 21.21 0.008 16.81a 27.07 0.000 17.59b 20.29 0.091
Maine 19.25b 22.10 0.068 19.59a 32.25 0.000 19.20 20.81 0.344
Maryland 16.86 17.57 0.612 17.72a 28.18 0.000 16.72 16.01 0.651
Massachusetts 18.01a 21.15 0.033 18.31a 29.55 0.000 17.95 19.73 0.280
Michigan 18.63b 20.32 0.073 19.81a 28.42 0.000 18.43 19.00 0.585
Minnesota 18.94 20.53 0.265 19.72a 32.08 0.000 18.81 18.75 0.974
Mississippi 16.95a 20.16 0.026 17.28a 24.62 0.000 16.89 19.41 0.119
Missouri 19.11a 22.71 0.016 21.43a 31.06 0.000 18.72 21.40 0.107
Montana 19.18 20.81 0.273 19.20a 28.07 0.000 19.17 19.69 0.758
Nebraska 17.56a 20.30 0.047 17.25a 30.55 0.000 17.63 18.51 0.566
Nevada 20.59 21.97 0.401 20.46a 28.66 0.000 20.60 21.04 0.811
New Hampshire 18.35a 22.37 0.009 19.88a 33.17 0.000 18.11 20.77 0.117
New Jersey 17.65 16.37 0.351 18.52a 25.16 0.000 17.51 15.11 0.112
New Mexico 17.85a 21.39 0.021 18.04a 27.36 0.000 17.82 20.44 0.130
New York 18.35 19.52 0.221 18.27a 27.33 0.000 18.37 18.32 0.962
North Carolina 17.74 19.31 0.232 16.43a 26.78 0.000 17.95 18.15 0.891
North Dakota 15.46a 20.50 0.000 15.32a 29.07 0.000 15.50a 18.83 0.032
Ohio 18.41a 23.64 0.000 18.75a 32.06 0.000 18.36a 22.33 0.001
Oklahoma 20.33 22.54 0.161 20.56a 31.28 0.000 20.28 21.08 0.655
Oregon 19.55a 23.75 0.008 20.51a 32.60 0.000 19.40b 22.48 0.079
Pennsylvania 17.83b 19.70 0.060 18.55a 29.77 0.000 17.71 18.20 0.662
Rhode Island 23.53 22.38 0.499 22.77a 29.21 0.006 23.67 21.20 0.199
South Carolina 16.95b 19.43 0.089 16.99a 24.10 0.000 16.94 18.74 0.268
South Dakota 16.40 18.26 0.167 16.94a 29.14 0.000 16.31 16.46 0.921
Tennessee 19.12 19.40 0.848 17.43a 28.22 0.000 19.38 18.06 0.415
Texas 16.47 17.17 0.418 16.11a 23.24 0.000 16.54 16.11 0.654
Utah 21.78a 26.86 0.001 21.53a 33.94 0.000 21.85b 25.29 0.061
Vermont 18.66a 22.25 0.016 19.42a 30.31 0.000 18.53 20.87 0.158
Virginia 16.33b 18.58 0.079 18.33a 28.47 0.000 15.99 17.04 0.461
Washington 19.85a 23.43 0.025 20.00a 31.98 0.000 19.82 22.18 0.184
West Virginia 20.00a 24.62 0.005 21.21a 31.71 0.000 19.83a 23.62 0.036
Wisconsin 19.96 20.19 0.881 22.43a 29.19 0.001 19.55 18.76 0.644
Wyoming 20.24 22.56 0.139 20.38a 32.22 0.000 20.22 21.09 0.620
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Any mental illness (AMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder, as assessed by the Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition—Research Version—Axis I Disorders (MHSS-SCID), which is based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). As such, these estimates are based on indicators of AMI rather than direct measures of diagnostic status. For details, see Section B of the "2018-2019 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012 and October 2013).
200920
Table 11 – Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 3.70a 4.91 0.000 3.55a 8.14 0.000 3.72a 4.40 0.000
Northeast 3.64a 4.64 0.000 3.65a 8.14 0.000 3.64b 4.10 0.078
Midwest 4.00a 5.29 0.000 3.79a 9.05 0.000 4.04a 4.68 0.009
South 3.59a 4.74 0.000 3.28a 7.58 0.000 3.64a 4.30 0.002
West 3.63a 5.03 0.000 3.66a 8.21 0.000 3.62a 4.53 0.001
Alabama 3.57a 5.64 0.001 3.44a 8.42 0.000 3.59a 5.20 0.021
Alaska 3.49a 5.86 0.000 3.11a 10.61 0.000 3.56a 5.12 0.023
Arizona 3.84a 5.56 0.009 3.72a 9.72 0.000 3.86 4.89 0.156
Arkansas 4.74 5.53 0.255 3.99a 9.14 0.000 4.86 4.95 0.902
California 3.20a 4.53 0.000 3.62a 7.11 0.000 3.12a 4.12 0.018
Colorado 4.65 5.53 0.208 3.67a 9.68 0.000 4.81 4.89 0.920
Connecticut 3.52b 4.50 0.084 3.53a 8.54 0.000 3.51 3.86 0.573
Delaware 3.55a 5.44 0.002 3.49a 7.85 0.000 3.56a 5.10 0.025
District of Columbia 3.06a 4.92 0.001 3.00a 6.75 0.000 3.07a 4.59 0.022
Florida 3.64b 4.34 0.077 3.39a 7.37 0.000 3.67 3.95 0.535
Georgia 3.39b 4.49 0.054 2.78a 6.87 0.000 3.49 4.11 0.329
Hawaii 3.11b 4.16 0.058 3.89a 7.69 0.000 2.98 3.70 0.233
Idaho 4.75 5.28 0.421 3.74a 9.54 0.000 4.93 4.58 0.627
Illinois 3.62a 4.51 0.030 3.51a 8.61 0.000 3.64 3.87 0.613
Indiana 4.71 5.42 0.304 4.02a 9.05 0.000 4.82 4.80 0.972
Iowa 3.83a 5.40 0.008 3.76a 9.12 0.000 3.84 4.75 0.160
Kansas 3.51a 5.74 0.000 3.78a 9.93 0.000 3.46a 5.00 0.027
Kentucky 4.18a 5.76 0.022 3.42a 8.39 0.000 4.30 5.34 0.169
Louisiana 3.59a 5.30 0.003 3.49a 8.23 0.000 3.61b 4.84 0.057
Maine 4.00a 6.03 0.003 4.33a 11.35 0.000 3.95b 5.36 0.058
Maryland 3.28a 4.48 0.026 3.46a 8.74 0.000 3.25 3.85 0.295
Massachusetts 3.73a 5.16 0.019 3.21a 8.88 0.000 3.82 4.54 0.285
Michigan 3.98a 5.00 0.018 4.12a 8.02 0.000 3.96 4.51 0.247
Minnesota 4.37 4.89 0.403 3.84a 9.09 0.000 4.46 4.24 0.758
Mississippi 3.43a 5.23 0.004 2.99a 6.89 0.000 3.51a 4.95 0.036
Missouri 4.09a 5.56 0.022 3.58a 9.09 0.000 4.18 5.00 0.237
Montana 3.95a 5.19 0.050 3.98a 8.83 0.000 3.95 4.63 0.327
Nebraska 3.57a 4.92 0.017 3.59a 8.86 0.000 3.57 4.24 0.280
Nevada 4.37b 5.63 0.081 3.81a 8.73 0.000 4.45 5.20 0.342
New Hampshire 3.75b 4.85 0.061 3.98a 9.14 0.000 3.72 4.22 0.425
New Jersey 3.35 4.08 0.160 3.77a 7.39 0.000 3.29 3.60 0.574
New Mexico 3.45a 5.31 0.003 3.61a 8.36 0.000 3.42a 4.82 0.043
New York 3.84 4.35 0.203 3.80a 7.41 0.000 3.85 3.88 0.943
North Carolina 3.63b 4.75 0.059 3.02a 7.01 0.000 3.73 4.39 0.307
North Dakota 3.25a 5.04 0.001 3.36a 8.84 0.000 3.23b 4.31 0.066
Ohio 4.10a 6.29 0.000 3.69a 10.27 0.000 4.17a 5.67 0.007
Oklahoma 3.97a 5.43 0.025 4.07a 8.52 0.000 3.95 4.92 0.180
Oregon 4.23a 5.72 0.031 3.82a 9.87 0.000 4.30 5.12 0.269
Pennsylvania 3.31a 4.94 0.000 3.43a 8.64 0.000 3.29a 4.39 0.019
Rhode Island 5.38 5.05 0.667 4.29a 8.64 0.000 5.58 4.43 0.166
South Carolina 3.57a 4.89 0.028 3.26a 7.25 0.000 3.62 4.53 0.164
South Dakota 3.19a 5.34 0.000 3.44a 9.47 0.000 3.14a 4.65 0.015
Tennessee 3.80a 5.42 0.012 3.25a 8.97 0.000 3.89 4.87 0.155
Texas 3.33a 4.32 0.008 3.08a 7.04 0.000 3.37 3.85 0.258
Utah 4.64a 6.31 0.015 3.78a 9.49 0.000 4.86 5.60 0.341
Vermont 3.78a 5.83 0.002 3.97a 10.19 0.000 3.75b 5.08 0.070
Virginia 3.34a 4.53 0.026 3.55a 7.60 0.000 3.30 4.05 0.202
Washington 3.78a 5.53 0.005 3.55a 9.09 0.000 3.82b 5.01 0.080
West Virginia 4.87 5.84 0.198 3.66a 9.44 0.000 5.04 5.34 0.720
Wisconsin 4.12b 5.26 0.078 4.16a 8.89 0.000 4.11 4.68 0.420
Wyoming 4.20a 5.51 0.048 3.49a 10.99 0.000 4.32 4.67 0.627
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Serious mental illness (SMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder, as assessed by the Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition—Research Version—Axis I Disorders (MHSS-SCID), which is based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). SMI includes individuals with diagnoses resulting in serious functional impairment. As such, these estimates are based on indicators of SMI rather than direct measures of diagnostic status. For details, see Section B of the "2018-2019 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012 and October 2013).
200920
Table 12 – Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
12-17
(2008-
2009)
12-17
(2018-
2019)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 6.53a 7.51 0.000 8.22a 15.08 0.000 8.21a 14.48 0.000 6.24 6.43 0.332
Northeast 6.42a 7.22 0.012 7.92a 13.62 0.000 8.06a 14.43 0.000 6.15 6.12 0.946
Midwest 6.72a 8.14 0.000 8.35a 15.74 0.000 8.50a 15.62 0.000 6.41b 6.94 0.072
South 6.44a 7.12 0.005 8.07a 14.59 0.000 7.79a 13.77 0.000 6.22 6.10 0.652
West 6.57a 7.81 0.000 8.53a 16.26 0.000 8.67a 14.61 0.000 6.19 6.73 0.119
Alabama 6.35a 8.13 0.033 7.99a 14.51 0.000 7.35a 13.33 0.000 6.19 7.32 0.219
Alaska 5.86a 8.51 0.002 7.70a 17.93 0.000 7.31a 16.31 0.000 5.59b 7.30 0.064
Arizona 6.94 7.81 0.311 8.99a 17.41 0.000 8.88a 15.58 0.000 6.61 6.56 0.961
Arkansas 7.86 7.90 0.964 9.03a 16.27 0.000 8.98a 14.33 0.000 7.67 6.87 0.421
California 6.05a 7.17 0.017 8.14a 15.22 0.000 8.50a 13.11 0.000 5.58 6.22 0.227
Colorado 7.56 8.46 0.314 9.16a 15.02 0.000 8.40a 17.25 0.000 7.41 7.10 0.751
Connecticut 5.95 7.06 0.149 8.03a 14.41 0.000 8.11a 15.26 0.000 5.61 5.77 0.848
Delaware 6.43a 8.50 0.019 7.86a 15.48 0.000 8.55a 15.09 0.000 6.08 7.58 0.120
District of Columbia 5.93a 8.29 0.003 6.93a 11.36 0.001 7.39a 13.57 0.000 5.60b 7.35 0.053
Florida 6.40 6.50 0.843 8.53a 13.25 0.000 7.93a 13.83 0.000 6.17 5.54 0.277
Georgia 6.26 6.91 0.381 7.88a 13.75 0.000 7.65a 13.63 0.000 6.02 5.81 0.795
Hawaii 6.15 5.83 0.688 8.08a 14.16 0.000 8.68a 12.86 0.007 5.74 4.93 0.332
Idaho 7.47 8.25 0.361 8.90a 17.44 0.000 9.19a 16.71 0.000 7.16 6.87 0.757
Illinois 6.17b 7.12 0.077 7.48a 15.15 0.000 7.93a 14.89 0.000 5.85 5.91 0.919
Indiana 8.14 8.28 0.881 9.25a 16.61 0.000 8.51a 14.85 0.000 8.08 7.16 0.348
Iowa 5.87a 7.82 0.010 8.07a 16.69 0.000 7.75a 14.11 0.000 5.54 6.74 0.149
Kansas 6.61 7.89 0.121 8.58a 16.53 0.000 8.38a 14.55 0.000 6.29 6.73 0.624
Kentucky 7.14 8.49 0.130 8.42a 15.15 0.000 7.98a 14.15 0.000 7.00 7.60 0.541
Louisiana 5.75a 7.81 0.008 7.67a 14.14 0.000 6.97a 14.16 0.000 5.51 6.82 0.130
Maine 6.81 8.19 0.113 8.08a 15.60 0.000 8.78a 16.30 0.000 6.53 7.18 0.495
Maryland 6.17 6.81 0.419 7.31a 14.93 0.000 8.18a 14.72 0.000 5.83 5.66 0.834
Massachusetts 6.77 8.08 0.110 8.03a 15.61 0.000 8.51a 15.53 0.000 6.47 6.83 0.681
Michigan 6.65a 8.23 0.006 8.21a 16.55 0.000 9.15a 15.33 0.000 6.23 7.09 0.172
Minnesota 7.55 7.98 0.614 8.60a 15.94 0.000 8.87a 16.80 0.000 7.33 6.63 0.449
Mississippi 5.80b 7.28 0.052 7.26a 12.64 0.000 6.60a 11.17 0.000 5.66 6.64 0.249
Missouri 7.03a 8.76 0.047 8.91a 15.54 0.000 9.15a 15.50 0.000 6.68 7.71 0.281
Montana 6.76 7.93 0.151 9.07a 15.11 0.000 8.85a 14.57 0.000 6.41 6.91 0.573
Nebraska 6.31b 7.59 0.092 8.20a 15.50 0.000 7.59a 15.64 0.000 6.07 6.20 0.879
Nevada 6.88 8.22 0.135 7.38a 17.93 0.000 8.89a 15.84 0.000 6.58 7.17 0.551
New Hampshire 7.61 8.27 0.470 8.80a 15.85 0.000 8.88a 16.71 0.000 7.41 7.02 0.689
New Jersey 5.98 6.19 0.773 7.35a 12.71 0.000 8.12a 13.48 0.000 5.65 5.14 0.515
New Mexico 6.47b 8.06 0.064 8.95a 18.60 0.000 8.56a 15.28 0.000 6.08 6.92 0.370
New York 6.64 6.82 0.724 8.22a 13.29 0.000 7.84a 13.30 0.000 6.42 5.83 0.311
North Carolina 6.85 7.60 0.338 8.43a 16.68 0.000 8.07a 13.71 0.000 6.65 6.65 0.994
North Dakota 6.26a 8.52 0.005 9.03a 15.07 0.000 7.21a 15.29 0.000 6.05 7.21 0.195
Ohio 6.18a 8.84 0.000 8.31a 14.73 0.000 8.16a 17.02 0.000 5.85a 7.57 0.007
Oklahoma 7.40 8.52 0.228 8.04a 17.01 0.000 9.47a 16.30 0.000 7.03 7.22 0.849
Oregon 7.44a 9.50 0.031 10.18a 18.62 0.000 9.83a 17.24 0.000 7.07 8.39 0.206
Pennsylvania 5.92a 7.69 0.003 7.54a 12.88 0.000 7.64a 15.23 0.000 5.64 6.57 0.142
Rhode Island 9.34 8.72 0.566 9.35a 14.64 0.000 10.87a 16.13 0.004 9.05 7.45 0.175
South Carolina 7.02 7.27 0.763 8.90a 13.82 0.000 8.43a 12.89 0.001 6.79 6.44 0.703
South Dakota 5.71a 7.37 0.029 8.47a 15.41 0.000 6.90a 15.06 0.000 5.50 6.11 0.460
Tennessee 6.83 7.76 0.264 8.53a 13.72 0.000 7.19a 15.33 0.000 6.78 6.61 0.853
Texas 5.97 6.42 0.348 7.49a 14.60 0.000 7.25a 13.06 0.000 5.73 5.27 0.375
Utah 7.51a 9.82 0.007 8.43a 17.77 0.000 8.37a 15.58 0.000 7.29 8.55 0.196
Vermont 6.52a 8.75 0.009 8.10a 16.36 0.000 9.43a 16.30 0.000 6.04 7.46 0.127
Virginia 6.30 6.98 0.358 8.78a 15.57 0.000 8.57a 13.56 0.000 5.92 5.96 0.963
Washington 7.19b 8.81 0.066 9.39a 18.22 0.000 9.07a 16.76 0.000 6.88 7.66 0.425
West Virginia 7.77 9.35 0.109 8.39a 16.62 0.000 8.81a 17.27 0.000 7.62 8.25 0.563
Wisconsin 7.28 8.63 0.117 8.83a 15.99 0.000 9.55a 16.38 0.000 6.89 7.40 0.593
Wyoming 7.37 7.96 0.489 8.50a 17.59 0.000 9.50a 16.68 0.000 6.99 6.64 0.701
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Major depressive episode (MDE) is defined as in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when an individual experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms. For details, see Section B of the "2018-2019 NSDUH: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
NOTE: There are minor wording differences in the questions in the adult and adolescent MDE modules. Therefore, data from youths aged 12 to 17 were not combined with data from adults aged 18 or older to produce an estimate for those aged 12 or older.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).
200920
Table 13 – Had Serious Thoughts of Suicide in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2008-
2009)
18+
(2018-
2019)
18+
(P Value)
18-25
(2008-
2009)
18-25
(2018-
2019)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2008-
2009)
26+
(2018-
2019)
26+
(P Value)
Total U.S. 3.73a 4.58 0.000 6.42a 11.39 0.000 3.26b 3.51 0.071
Northeast 3.73a 4.44 0.002 6.64a 11.34 0.000 3.24 3.39 0.542
Midwest 4.10a 4.95 0.000 6.79a 12.62 0.000 3.64 3.72 0.715
South 3.41a 4.24 0.000 5.91a 10.63 0.000 2.99 3.25 0.164
West 3.87a 4.89 0.000 6.66a 11.52 0.000 3.36b 3.84 0.066
Alabama 3.73b 4.83 0.076 6.42a 12.25 0.000 3.28 3.67 0.548
Alaska 3.76a 6.11 0.000 6.00a 14.95 0.000 3.34a 4.73 0.043
Arizona 3.98b 5.01 0.100 6.60a 12.11 0.000 3.54 3.87 0.617
Arkansas 4.11 4.71 0.304 6.67a 12.07 0.000 3.69 3.54 0.803
California 3.39a 4.55 0.001 6.53a 10.30 0.000 2.79a 3.62 0.029
Colorado 4.30b 5.54 0.063 6.14a 14.16 0.000 4.00 4.20 0.778
Connecticut 3.95 4.46 0.411 6.61a 12.36 0.000 3.53 3.21 0.618
Delaware 3.02a 5.18 0.000 6.09a 12.01 0.000 2.51a 4.23 0.008
District of Columbia 4.47 4.43 0.958 5.73a 9.22 0.002 4.18 3.58 0.412
Florida 3.54 4.04 0.184 6.10a 10.81 0.000 3.16 3.16 0.995
Georgia 2.80a 3.85 0.021 5.26a 10.09 0.000 2.38 2.83 0.340
Hawaii 3.81 4.74 0.151 7.53a 11.89 0.002 3.21 3.82 0.384
Idaho 4.76 5.30 0.403 7.07a 14.05 0.000 4.35 3.87 0.492
Illinois 4.28 4.00 0.520 6.31a 11.29 0.000 3.91a 2.87 0.025
Indiana 4.21a 5.62 0.031 6.56a 13.34 0.000 3.82 4.30 0.487
Iowa 4.01 4.94 0.117 6.44a 12.36 0.000 3.59 3.66 0.911
Kansas 3.60a 4.96 0.017 6.42a 12.31 0.000 3.07 3.68 0.323
Kentucky 3.96 4.68 0.232 6.28a 11.10 0.000 3.60 3.67 0.916
Louisiana 3.11a 4.72 0.003 5.84a 12.25 0.000 2.58b 3.54 0.090
Maine 4.56 5.44 0.201 7.07a 14.00 0.000 4.21 4.37 0.829
Maryland 3.41b 4.34 0.088 6.51a 12.70 0.000 2.89 3.11 0.690
Massachusetts 3.93 4.77 0.172 5.99a 12.00 0.000 3.57 3.56 0.985
Michigan 4.26 4.61 0.427 7.67a 11.44 0.000 3.69 3.51 0.703
Minnesota 3.67b 4.74 0.068 6.59a 13.13 0.000 3.18 3.45 0.649
Mississippi 3.29a 5.31 0.000 6.35a 12.43 0.000 2.72a 4.13 0.022
Missouri 3.87b 5.05 0.055 6.34a 13.27 0.000 3.47 3.77 0.633
Montana 4.35 4.63 0.654 6.85a 11.80 0.000 3.93 3.53 0.564
Nebraska 3.91b 4.88 0.094 6.04a 12.27 0.000 3.51 3.60 0.882
Nevada 4.41 4.94 0.456 6.71a 12.10 0.000 4.07 3.96 0.882
New Hampshire 3.40a 4.68 0.025 6.82a 12.89 0.000 2.88 3.47 0.319
New Jersey 3.28 3.79 0.294 6.97a 10.58 0.002 2.71 2.82 0.838
New Mexico 4.15 4.81 0.298 6.85a 11.43 0.000 3.65 3.76 0.867
New York 3.82 4.21 0.317 6.62a 10.14 0.000 3.32 3.30 0.978
North Carolina 3.55 3.87 0.527 5.80a 9.58 0.000 3.18 2.99 0.714
North Dakota 3.56a 5.28 0.003 5.39a 13.29 0.000 3.14 3.73 0.329
Ohio 4.25a 6.09 0.000 6.90a 14.76 0.000 3.82b 4.75 0.074
Oklahoma 3.53b 4.58 0.068 6.31a 11.21 0.000 3.02 3.48 0.460
Oregon 4.43b 5.65 0.079 6.64a 14.13 0.000 4.08 4.44 0.638
Pennsylvania 3.52a 4.83 0.002 6.73a 12.50 0.000 2.99 3.69 0.112
Rhode Island 5.11 4.59 0.452 6.79a 11.71 0.000 4.79b 3.37 0.056
South Carolina 3.51a 4.89 0.024 6.21a 11.29 0.000 3.07 3.95 0.180
South Dakota 4.23 4.62 0.497 7.18a 12.95 0.000 3.70 3.25 0.467
Tennessee 3.26a 4.68 0.009 5.64a 11.51 0.000 2.90 3.64 0.203
Texas 3.27b 3.86 0.089 5.42a 9.01 0.000 2.86 2.97 0.772
Utah 5.39 6.19 0.263 7.49a 13.03 0.000 4.85 4.67 0.819
Vermont 4.49b 5.66 0.096 7.04a 12.79 0.000 4.07 4.44 0.625
Virginia 3.31b 4.22 0.064 6.25a 11.33 0.000 2.80 3.12 0.548
Washington 4.56 4.92 0.589 7.18a 11.91 0.000 4.14 3.90 0.744
West Virginia 4.29b 5.44 0.095 7.28a 13.85 0.000 3.86 4.27 0.581
Wisconsin 4.05 4.66 0.293 7.90a 11.59 0.004 3.40 3.56 0.792
Wyoming 4.52b 5.74 0.078 6.32a 14.76 0.000 4.20 4.37 0.814
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes significance levels for the null hypothesis of no change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Respondents were asked, "At any time in the past 12 months, did you seriously think about trying to kill yourself?" If they answered "Yes," they were categorized as having serious thoughts of suicide in the past year.
a Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008, 2009, 2018, and 2019 (2008 and 2009 Data – Revised March 2012).

Methodology Used to Estimate the Bayes
Significance Level for the Null Hypothesis of
No Change between the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019
Population Percentages

Estimating P Values

To determine whether the differences between the 2008-20091 and 2018-2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) state population percentages are statistically significant, let pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a denote the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 population percentages, respectively, for state-s and age group-a. The difference between pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a is defined in terms of the log-odds ratio (lor sub s and a) as opposed to the simple difference because the posterior distribution of lor sub s and a is closer to Gaussian than the posterior distribution of the simple difference (Pi 2 sub s and a minus pi 1 sub s and a represents the simple difference between the 2018-2019 and 2008-2009 prevalence rates.). The lor sub s and a is defined as follows:

Equation 1.     D


In this equation, the ln denotes the natural logarithm. The p value given in each of the tables in this document (i.e., Tables 1 to 13) is computed to test the null hypothesis of no difference (i.e., Pi 2 sub s and a is equal to pi 1 sub s and a. or equivalently, Log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a, is equal to zero.). An estimate of lor sub s and a is given by

Equation 2,     D


where pi hat 1 sub s and a are the previously published 2008-2009 state estimates and pi hat 2 sub s and a are the 2018-2019 state estimates. Both the 2008-2009 and 2018-2019 state estimates are presented in Tables 1 to 13 above and elsewhere at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.

Let Theta 1 hat equal the ratio of pi hat 1 sub s and a and 1 minus pi hat 1 sub s and a and Theta 2 hat equal the ratio of pi hat 2 sub s and a and 1 minus pi hat 2 sub s and a, noting that subscript sa has been dropped from Theta 1 hat and Theta 2 hat in order to simplify the notation. An estimate of the posterior variance of lor sub s and a is given by the following formula:

Equation 3,     D

where the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation 4.     D

Note that the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat used here to calculate variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, are the same posterior variances used in calculating the previously published 2008-2009 Bayesian confidence intervals (CIs) and the 2018-2019 Bayesian CIs, respectively. The correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat is estimated using generalized correlations, which are described in detail in the next section.

To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference (Log-odds ratio lor sub s and a is equal to zero.), it is assumed that the posterior distribution of lor sub s and a is normal with estimated Mean is equal to the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a. and Variance is equal to the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a.. The Bayesian p value or significance level for the null hypothesis of no difference (Log-odds ratio lor sub s and a is equal to zero.) is The p value is equal to 2 times the probability of realizing a standard normal variate greater than or equal to the absolute value of a quantity z., where capital Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, divided by the square root of the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a., and absolute value of quantity z denotes the absolute value of quantity z. This Bayesian significance level (or p value) for the null value of lor sub s and a, say log-odds ratio lor sub zero, is defined following Rubin2 as the posterior probability for the collection of the lor sub s and a values that are less likely or have smaller posterior density d of the log-odds ratio lor sub s and a than the null (no change) value log-odds ratio lor sub zero. That is,

Equation 5,     D

With the posterior distribution of lor sub s and a approximately normal, the p value of log-odds ratio lor sub zero is given by the above expression.

Estimating Generalized Correlations

The correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat for each substance use outcome measure by state by age group combination was estimated by taking the average of seven correlations for each outcome measure by state by age group, as follows:

The average of these seven correlations is henceforth referred to as a "generalized correlation."

The generalized correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat for any mental illness (AMI), serious mental illness (SMI), and suicidal thoughts by state and age group was estimated by taking the average of six correlations for each outcome by state by age group, as follows:

The generalized correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat for the fourth mental health measure—major depressive episode (MDE)—was estimated by taking the average of eight correlations for each outcome by age group by state, as follows:

Each of these individual sets of correlations was produced by simultaneously fitting 4 years of NSDUH data separately for each outcome measure. For example, to produce correlations between the 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 state estimates for past month marijuana use, four age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 to 34, and 35 or older) by two time periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008), that is, eight subpopulation-specific models, were fitted each with its own set of fixed and random effects. In this case, the general covariance matrices for the state and within-state random effects were 8 × 8 matrices corresponding to the eight element (age group × time period) vectors of random effects.

An unpublished study was conducted using 2002-2003 versus 2007-2008 data and 2002-2003 versus 2008-2009 data. When the actual (modeled) correlation was replaced by an average correlation of those 2 years, the p values of testing differences between estimates from both sets of comparisons were fairly similar. In most cases, they had the same conclusion of whether the test between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 and the test between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 was statistically significant or not. Only a few tests changed their significance4 depending on which correlation (actual or the average) was used. For all of these cases where significance changed, the p values were close to 0.05 (i.e., borderline cases). Given these results, it was decided, starting in 2014-2015 and going forward, that generalized correlations could be used to estimate long-term change.

Endnotes

1 Note that in state small area estimation (SAE) documents prior to 2014-2015, the 2002-2003 aggregated data were used as the baseline against which long-term changes for state-level estimates were compared. However, starting with 2014-2015 documents, the 2008-2009 aggregated data are now used as the baseline so that mental health measures can also be included in long-term change testing.

2 See the following reference: Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys (Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics: Applied Probability and Statistics). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

3 Correlations were available for 2002-2003 versus 2009-2010 for NSDUH data that included falsified cases, as well as 2009-2010 data excluding falsified cases. For more details on falsification and the revision of 2006 to 2010 data, see Section A.7 of the "2010-2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/. Note that the correlations for 2002-2003 versus 2007-2008 and 2002-2003 versus 2008-2009 were also based on falsified data.

4 A total of 61 out of 9,632 tests across all outcomes, states, and age groups changed their conclusion from significant to nonsignificant and vice versa.

Long Descriptions for Equations

Long description, Equation 1: The log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is pi 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 2 sub s and a. The denominator of the ratio is pi 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 1 sub s and a.

Long description end. Return to Equation 1.

Long description, Equation 2: The estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of two quantities. The numerator of the ratio is pi hat 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi hat 2 sub s and a. The denominator of the ratio is pi hat 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi hat 1 sub s and a, where pi hat 1 sub s and a represents the 2008-2009 state estimates and pi hat 2 sub s and a represents the 2018-2019 state estimates.

Long description end. Return to Equation 2.

Long description, Equation 3: Variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, is a function of three quantities: q1, q2, and q3. It is expressed as the sum of q1 and q2 minus q3. Quantity q1 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat, quantity q2 is the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat, and quantity q3 is 2 times the covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.

Long description end. Return to Equation 3.

Long description, Equation 4: The covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat is equal to the correlation between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat multiplied by the square root of the product of the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat.

Long description end. Return to Equation 4.

Long description, Equation 5: The p value of log-odds ratio lor sub zero is equal to the probability of d of the log-odds ratio lor sub s and a when it is less than or equal to d of the log-odds ratio lor sub zero.

Long description end. Return to Equation 5.

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