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230619
Table 4.1B – Past Year Initiation of Marijuana Use: Among People Aged 12 or Older, among People Aged 12 or Older at Risk for Initiation of Marijuana Use, and among Past Year Marijuana Users Aged 12 or Older; by Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Number of Past Year
Initiates (1,000s)
Percentage of
Past Year Initiates among
People Aged 12 or Older
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among People at Risk
for Initiation
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among Past Year
Users
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 2,692b 3,730 1.0b 1.3 1.8b 2.4 5.1a 6.0
AGE GROUP                
12-20 1,577a 1,905 4.0a 4.9 5.0a 6.1 22.5 25.7
21 or Older 1,115b 1,824 0.5b 0.7 0.9b 1.5 2.4a 3.3
12-25 2,084a 2,418 3.5 4.0 5.1a 5.8 13.9 14.9
12-17 913b 1,224 3.5b 4.8 3.9b 5.2 32.1b 41.5
12-13 123 192 1.4 2.3 1.4 2.3 * *
14-15 317b 483 3.7a 5.3 4.0a 5.7 40.5a 51.3
16-17 473 549 5.5 6.7 7.0 8.2 25.7 31.6
18 or Older 1,779b 2,506 0.7b 1.0 1.4b 1.9 3.5 4.3
18-25 1,170 1,195 3.5 3.4 6.7 6.7 9.6 9.0
18-20 664 682 5.1 5.3 7.8 8.5 16.0 15.2
21-25 506 513 2.5 2.3 5.5 5.2 6.3 5.8
26 or Older 609b 1,311 0.3b 0.6 0.5b 1.2 1.6b 2.9
GENDER                
Male 1,132b 1,614 0.8b 1.2 1.6b 2.3 3.9 4.8
Female 1,560b 2,115 1.1b 1.5 1.9b 2.5 6.4 7.4
GENDER/AGE GROUP                
Male 12-17 402a 544 3.0a 4.1 3.3a 4.5 31.3a 41.2
Female 12-17 511a 680 4.0a 5.4 4.5a 6.0 32.8a 41.8
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230619
Table 4.2B – Past Year Initiation of Cigarette Use: Among People Aged 12 or Older, among People Aged 12 or Older at Risk for Initiation of Cigarette Use, and among Past Year Cigarette Users Aged 12 or Older; by Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Number of Past Year
Initiates (1,000s)
Percentage of
Past Year Initiates among
People Aged 12 or Older
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among People at
Risk for Initiation
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among Past Year
Users
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 1,234 1,350 0.4 0.5 0.9 1.0 2.3 2.7
AGE GROUP                
12-201 871 912 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.6 29.9 33.3
21 or Older1 362 439 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.9
12-25 1,129 1,228 1.9 2.0 2.4 2.6 15.2 17.0
12-17 393 437 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.8 38.6a 49.3
12-13 62 41 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.5 * *
14-15 131 149 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 * *
16-17 200 246 2.3 3.0 2.6 3.3 32.3a 48.7
18 or Older 841 913 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.8 1.6 1.9
18-25 736 791 2.2 2.3 3.3 3.4 11.5 12.5
18-20 478 475 3.7 3.7 4.7 4.7 25.2 25.7
21-25 257 317 1.3 1.4 2.2 2.4 5.7 7.0
26 or Older 105 122 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3
GENDER                
Male 667 692 0.5 0.5 1.1 1.1 2.3 2.5
Female 566 658 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 2.3 3.0
GENDER/AGE GROUP                
Male 12-17 177 205 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.6 * 48.3
Female 12-17 215 232 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 44.6 50.3
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The 12-20 and 21 or Older rows are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230619
Table 4.3B – Past Year Initiation of Nicotine Vaping: Among People Aged 12 or Older, among People Aged 12 or Older at Risk for Initiation of Nicotine Vaping, and among People Aged 12 or Older Who Vaped Nicotine in Past Year; by Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Number of Past Year
Initiates (1,000s)
Percentage of
Past Year Initiates among
People Aged 12 or Older
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among People at
Risk for Initiation
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among Past Year
Users
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL -- 5,991 -- 2.1 -- 2.7 -- 17.1
AGE GROUP                
12-201 -- 2,211 -- 5.7 -- 7.4 -- 28.2
21 or Older1 -- 3,780 -- 1.6 -- 2.0 -- 13.9
12-25 -- 2,909 -- 4.8 -- 7.0 -- 19.2
12-17 -- 1,458 -- 5.7 -- 6.5 -- 41.0
12-13 -- 228 -- 2.7 -- 2.8 -- 51.9
14-15 -- 606 -- 6.7 -- 7.6 -- 46.5
16-17 -- 624 -- 7.6 -- 9.9 -- 34.3
18 or Older -- 4,533 -- 1.8 -- 2.3 -- 14.4
18-25 -- 1,451 -- 4.2 -- 7.6 -- 12.5
18-20 -- 753 -- 5.8 -- 9.7 -- 17.6
21-25 -- 698 -- 3.2 -- 6.2 -- 9.5
26 or Older -- 3,082 -- 1.4 -- 1.7 -- 15.5
GENDER                
Male -- 2,624 -- 1.9 -- 2.5 -- 14.2
Female -- 3,367 -- 2.3 -- 2.9 -- 20.3
GENDER/AGE GROUP                
Male 12-17 -- 624 -- 4.7 -- 5.4 -- 42.7
Female 12-17 -- 834 -- 6.6 -- 7.8 -- 39.8
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
1 The 12-20 and 21 or Older rows are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
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Table 4.4B – Past Year Initiation of Alcohol Use: Among People Aged 12 or Older, among People Aged 12 or Older at Risk for Initiation of Alcohol Use, and among Past Year Alcohol Users Aged 12 or Older; by Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Number of Past Year
Initiates (1,000s)
Percentage of
Past Year Initiates among
People Aged 12 or Older
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among People at
Risk for Initiation
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among Past Year
Users
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 4,174 4,221 1.5 1.5 6.5 6.5 2.4 2.4
AGE GROUP                
12-201 3,006 3,022 7.7 7.8 10.6 10.6 26.2 27.6
21 or Older1 1,169 1,199 0.5 0.5 3.3 3.3 0.7 0.7
12-25 3,929 4,046 6.6 6.7 12.2 12.2 14.3 14.5
12-17 1,841 1,798 7.1 7.0 8.5 8.3 38.5 41.8
12-13 261 245 2.9 2.9 3.2 3.1 45.1 54.5
14-15 633 667 7.4 7.4 8.6 8.4 46.1 51.4
16-17 947 886 11.0 10.8 15.6 15.1 33.5 34.7
18 or Older 2,334 2,422 0.9 0.9 5.5 5.6 1.4 1.4
18-25 2,088 2,247 6.2 6.5 19.9 19.9 9.2 9.5
18-20 1,165 1,224 8.9 9.5 17.8 18.3 17.4 18.4
21-25 923 1,024 4.5 4.7 23.5 22.2 5.7 6.0
26 or Older 246 175 0.1 0.1 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.1
GENDER                
Male 2,006 2,102 1.5 1.5 6.9 7.0 2.3 2.4
Female 2,168 2,119 1.5 1.5 6.2 6.1 2.5 2.4
GENDER/AGE GROUP                
Male 12-17 791 875 6.0 6.6 7.0 7.7 38.6 45.3
Female 12-17 1,050 924 8.2 7.4 10.2 8.9 38.4 39.0
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The 12-20 and 21 or Older rows are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for alcohol.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
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Table 4.5B – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use: Among People Aged 12 or Older, among People Aged 12 or Older at Risk for Initiation of Substance Use, and among Past Year Substance Users Aged 12 or Older; Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Number of Past Year
Initiates (1,000s)
Percentage of
Past Year Initiates among
People Aged 12 or Older
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among People at
Risk for Initiation
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among Past Year
Users
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Marijuana 2,692b 3,730 1.0b 1.3 1.8b 2.4 5.1a 6.0
Cocaine 474 509 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 10.0 9.6
Crack 51 28 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 3.0
Heroin 24 73 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 6.9
Hallucinogens 1,337 1,411 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 17.7 16.6
LSD 731a 509 0.3a 0.2 0.3a 0.2 28.4 21.9
PCP 100 14 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * *
Ecstasy 547 380 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 24.6 18.0
Inhalants 388a 577 0.1a 0.2 0.2a 0.2 18.3a 25.6
Methamphetamine 98 176 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 3.7 6.5
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Pain Relievers 1,809a 1,322 0.6a 0.5 nr nr 20.4a 15.6
Stimulants 802 800 0.3 0.3 nr nr 20.5 18.6
Tranquilizers or Sedatives nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Tranquilizers 898 747 0.3 0.3 nr nr 21.0 18.0
Sedatives 176 144 0.1 0.1 nr nr * 15.0
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana1 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING2 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Cigarettes 1,234 1,350 0.4 0.5 0.9 1.0 2.3 2.7
Daily Cigarettes 319 274 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 -- --
Smokeless Tobacco 512 498 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 5.0 6.0
Cigars 1,413 1,564 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 7.4 8.2
Nicotine Vaping -- 5,991 -- 2.1 -- 2.7 -- 17.1
ALCOHOL 4,174 4,221 1.5 1.5 6.5 6.5 2.4 2.4
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Methodological limitations preclude the estimation of past year initiates for aggregate substance use categories having at least one prescription psychotherapeutic, including categories for overall illicit drugs, misuse of prescription psychotherapeutics, tranquilizers or sedatives, opioids, and illicit drugs other than marijuana (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
2 Because respondents were not asked initiation questions for pipe tobacco, initiation of the aggregate tobacco products or nicotine vaping measure cannot be determined (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
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Table 4.6B – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use: Among People Aged 12 to 17, among People Aged 12 to 17 at Risk for Initiation of Substance Use, and among Past Year Substance Users Aged 12 to 17; Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Number of Past Year
Initiates (1,000s)
Percentage of
Past Year Initiates among
People Aged 12 to 17
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among People at
Risk for Initiation
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among Past Year
Users
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Marijuana 913b 1,224 3.5b 4.8 3.9b 5.2 32.1b 41.5
Cocaine 15 29 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 * *
Crack 3 * 0.0 * 0.0 * * *
Heroin * * * * * * * *
Hallucinogens 202 220 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 * 61.5
LSD 153 127 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 * *
PCP 14 8 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 * *
Ecstasy 56 40 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 * *
Inhalants 163 185 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 25.3 33.5
Methamphetamine 26 9 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 * *
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Pain Relievers 148 191 0.6 0.7 nr nr 26.9b 47.1
Stimulants 157 108 0.6 0.4 nr nr * *
Tranquilizers or Sedatives nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Tranquilizers 73 51 0.3 0.2 nr nr * *
Sedatives 16 16 0.1 0.1 nr nr * *
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana1 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING2 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Cigarettes 393 437 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.8 38.6a 49.3
Daily Cigarettes 34 27 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 -- --
Smokeless Tobacco 126 101 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 * *
Cigars 294 237 1.1 0.9 1.2 0.9 49.4 57.7
Nicotine Vaping -- 1,458 -- 5.7 -- 6.5 -- 41.0
ALCOHOL 1,841 1,798 7.1 7.0 8.5 8.3 38.5 41.8
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Methodological limitations preclude the estimation of past year initiates for aggregate substance use categories having at least one prescription psychotherapeutic, including categories for overall illicit drugs, misuse of prescription psychotherapeutics, tranquilizers or sedatives, opioids, and illicit drugs other than marijuana (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
2 Because respondents were not asked initiation questions for pipe tobacco, initiation of the aggregate tobacco products or nicotine vaping measure cannot be determined (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
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Table 4.7B – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use: Among People Aged 18 or Older, among People Aged 18 or Older at Risk for Initiation of Substance Use, and among Past Year Substance Users Aged 18 or Older; Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Number of Past Year
Initiates (1,000s)
Percentage of
Past Year Initiates among
People Aged 18 or Older
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among People at
Risk for Initiation
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among Past Year
Users
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Marijuana 1,779b 2,506 0.7b 1.0 1.4b 1.9 3.5 4.3
Cocaine 459 479 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 9.7 9.2
Crack 48 27 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.8 3.0
Heroin 24 73 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 7.0
Hallucinogens 1,135 1,191 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 15.8 14.6
LSD 578a 383 0.2a 0.1 0.3a 0.2 25.1 17.8
PCP 87 * 0.0 * 0.0 * * *
Ecstasy 491 340 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 23.0 16.6
Inhalants 225a 392 0.1a 0.2 0.1a 0.2 15.2 23.0
Methamphetamine 72 166 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 2.8 6.2
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Pain Relievers 1,661a 1,131 0.7a 0.4 nr nr 19.9a 14.0
Stimulants 645 692 0.3 0.3 nr nr 17.9 17.0
Tranquilizers or Sedatives nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Tranquilizers 825 695 0.3 0.3 nr nr 20.3 17.2
Sedatives 160 128 0.1 0.0 nr nr * 13.7
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana1 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING2 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Cigarettes 841 913 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.8 1.6 1.9
Daily Cigarettes 285 247 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 -- --
Smokeless Tobacco 387 396 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 3.9 4.9
Cigars 1,119 1,327 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 6.1 7.1
Nicotine Vaping -- 4,533 -- 1.8 -- 2.3 -- 14.4
ALCOHOL 2,334 2,422 0.9 0.9 5.5 5.6 1.4 1.4
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Methodological limitations preclude the estimation of past year initiates for aggregate substance use categories having at least one prescription psychotherapeutic, including categories for overall illicit drugs, misuse of prescription psychotherapeutics, tranquilizers or sedatives, opioids, and illicit drugs other than marijuana (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
2 Because respondents were not asked initiation questions for pipe tobacco, initiation of the aggregate tobacco products or nicotine vaping measure cannot be determined (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
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Table 4.8B – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use: Among People Aged 18 to 25, among People Aged 18 to 25 at Risk for Initiation of Substance Use, and among Past Year Substance Users Aged 18 to 25; Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Number of Past Year
Initiates (1,000s)
Percentage of
Past Year Initiates among
People Aged 18 to 25
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among People at
Risk for Initiation
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among Past Year
Users
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Marijuana 1,170 1,195 3.5 3.4 6.7 6.7 9.6 9.0
Cocaine 280 369 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.2 22.8 28.5
Crack 18 11 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 * *
Heroin 11 28 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 * *
Hallucinogens 739 703 2.2 2.0 2.6 2.4 30.0 26.3
LSD 390b 219 1.2b 0.6 1.3b 0.7 36.2a 24.5
PCP 14 4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * *
Ecstasy 289a 175 0.9a 0.5 0.9a 0.5 40.7a 27.4
Inhalants 160 241 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.8 31.6 37.2
Methamphetamine 24 57 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 * *
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Pain Relievers 259 262 0.8 0.8 nr nr 24.7 23.8
Stimulants 325 294 1.0 0.8 nr nr 23.9 23.0
Tranquilizers or Sedatives nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Tranquilizers 220 174 0.7 0.5 nr nr 25.8 22.3
Sedatives 47 38 0.1 0.1 nr nr * *
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana1 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING2 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Cigarettes 736 791 2.2 2.3 3.3 3.4 11.5 12.5
Daily Cigarettes 141 171 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 -- --
Smokeless Tobacco 204 247 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 12.4 16.7
Cigars 804 824 2.4 2.4 3.1 3.0 20.2 21.0
Nicotine Vaping -- 1,451 -- 4.2 -- 7.6 -- 12.5
ALCOHOL 2,088 2,247 6.2 6.5 19.9 19.9 9.2 9.5
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Methodological limitations preclude the estimation of past year initiates for aggregate substance use categories having at least one prescription psychotherapeutic, including categories for overall illicit drugs, misuse of prescription psychotherapeutics, tranquilizers or sedatives, opioids, and illicit drugs other than marijuana (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
2 Because respondents were not asked initiation questions for pipe tobacco, initiation of the aggregate tobacco products or nicotine vaping measure cannot be determined (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
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Table 4.9B – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use: Among People Aged 26 or Older, among People Aged 26 or Older at Risk for Initiation of Substance Use, and among Past Year Substance Users Aged 26 or Older; Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Number of Past Year
Initiates (1,000s)
Percentage of
Past Year Initiates among
People Aged 26 or Older
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among People at
Risk for Initiation
Percentage of Past Year
Initiates among Past Year
Users
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Marijuana 609b 1,311 0.3b 0.6 0.5b 1.2 1.6b 2.9
Cocaine 179 110 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 5.1 2.8
Crack 29 16 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 1.9
Heroin 13 45 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 4.5
Hallucinogens 395 487 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 8.4 8.9
LSD 188 164 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 15.3 13.0
PCP 73 * 0.0 * 0.0 * * *
Ecstasy 203 165 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 14.2 11.7
Inhalants 65 151 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 6.7 14.3
Methamphetamine 48 109 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.0 4.3
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Pain Relievers 1,402a 869 0.6a 0.4 nr nr 19.2a 12.5
Stimulants 320 397 0.1 0.2 nr nr 14.2 14.2
Tranquilizers or Sedatives nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Tranquilizers 605 522 0.3 0.2 nr nr 18.9 16.0
Sedatives 113 89 0.1 0.0 nr nr * 10.7
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana1 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING2 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Cigarettes 105 122 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3
Daily Cigarettes 144 76 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 -- --
Smokeless Tobacco 183 149 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 2.2 2.3
Cigars 315 503 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 2.2 3.4
Nicotine Vaping -- 3,082 -- 1.4 -- 1.7 -- 15.5
ALCOHOL 246 175 0.1 0.1 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.1
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Methodological limitations preclude the estimation of past year initiates for aggregate substance use categories having at least one prescription psychotherapeutic, including categories for overall illicit drugs, misuse of prescription psychotherapeutics, tranquilizers or sedatives, opioids, and illicit drugs other than marijuana (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
2 Because respondents were not asked initiation questions for pipe tobacco, initiation of the aggregate tobacco products or nicotine vaping measure cannot be determined (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230619
Table 4.10A – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use: Among People Aged 12 or Older Who Initiated Use Prior to Age 18, Prior to Age 21, and at Age 21 or Older; Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance People Who Initiated Use
Prior to Age 18
People Who Initiated Use
Prior to Age 211
People Who Initiated Use
at Age 21 or Older1
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS nr nr nr nr nr nr
Marijuana 1,058a 1,327 1,650a 1,975 1,042b 1,754
Cocaine 19 30 147 144 327 365
Crack 3 0 7 0 44 27
Heroin 1 * 5 14 20 59
Hallucinogens 231 242 604 556 733 855
LSD 180 140 401b 236 330 273
PCP 16 8 21 8 79 *
Ecstasy 77 46 213a 122 335 258
Inhalants 165 187 238 289 150a 288
Methamphetamine 30 9 35 32 63 144
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics nr nr nr nr nr nr
Pain Relievers * 220 280 327 1,529a 995
Stimulants * * 328 248 473 551
Tranquilizers or Sedatives nr nr nr nr nr nr
Tranquilizers * * * * 714 636
Sedatives * * * * 132 98
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids nr nr nr nr nr nr
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana2 nr nr nr nr nr nr
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING3 nr nr nr nr nr nr
Cigarettes 436 534 934 965 300 386
Daily Cigarettes 41 33 95 140 224 134
Smokeless Tobacco 151 113 270 235 243 263
Cigars 324 267 753 671 660 893
Nicotine Vaping -- 1,575 -- 2,281 -- 3,710
ALCOHOL 2,010 2,047 3,073 3,110 1,102 1,111
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Methodological limitations preclude the estimation of past year initiates for aggregate substance use categories having at least one prescription psychotherapeutic, including categories for overall illicit drugs, misuse of prescription psychotherapeutics, tranquilizers or sedatives, opioids, and illicit drugs other than marijuana (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Prior to 21 and 21 or Older columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco and alcohol.
2 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
3 Because respondents were not asked initiation questions for pipe tobacco, initiation of the aggregate tobacco products or nicotine vaping measure cannot be determined (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230619
Table 4.11B – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use: Among People Aged 12 to 49; Mean Age at First Substance Use: Among Past Year Initiates Aged 12 to 49; by Gender, Numbers in Thousands and Averages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Number of Past Year
Initiates (1,000s)
Mean Age among Past Year
Initiates
Mean Age among Past Year
Male Initiates
Mean Age among Past Year
Female Initiates
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Marijuana 2,469b 3,203 20.3 21.6 20.1 21.2 20.5 21.9
Cocaine 443 509 25.2 22.6 25.5 23.2 24.9a 21.9
Crack 46 28 25.5 29.2 26.2 * 23.7 27.1
Heroin 24 53 26.3 27.9 * 23.8 25.1 32.5
Hallucinogens 1,259 1,319 22.8 23.7 21.8 23.4 23.6 24.0
LSD 731a 509 21.6 22.5 21.3 23.0 22.0 22.0
PCP 30 14 18.0 19.9 * * * *
Ecstasy 517 380 24.8 25.4 25.4 26.8 24.2 24.0
Inhalants 388a 577 19.6 21.1 20.0 21.1 19.1 21.2
Methamphetamine 96 176 24.3 26.9 25.2 26.9 23.5 26.7
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Pain Relievers 1,017 892 29.6a 26.5 30.6 26.6 28.7 26.4
Stimulants 754 701 25.3 25.8 23.9 24.8 26.3 26.6
Tranquilizers or Sedatives nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Tranquilizers 643 487 28.0 28.1 27.3 29.0 28.5 27.4
Sedatives 151 104 25.4 26.8 24.3 25.1 26.6 28.2
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana1 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING2 nr nr nr nr nr nr nr nr
Cigarettes 1,226 1,350 19.3 19.4 20.2 19.6 18.3 19.2
Daily Cigarettes 242 268 23.7 22.0 24.1 22.0 23.2 22.0
Smokeless Tobacco 444 498 23.0 23.3 19.3b 23.0 27.9 24.0
Cigars 1,353 1,463 21.6 23.4 20.7 21.6 23.0 26.2
Nicotine Vaping -- 5,106 -- 25.1 -- 24.9 -- 25.3
ALCOHOL 4,124 4,148 18.3 18.0 18.5 17.9 18.2 18.0
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Methodological limitations preclude the estimation of past year initiates for aggregate substance use categories having at least one prescription psychotherapeutic, including categories for overall illicit drugs, misuse of prescription psychotherapeutics, tranquilizers or sedatives, opioids, and illicit drugs other than marijuana (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
2 Because respondents were not asked initiation questions for pipe tobacco, initiation of the aggregate tobacco products or nicotine vaping measure cannot be determined (see Chapter 3 of the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions).
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.

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