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230705
Table 8.1B – Average Number of Days Used Specific Substances in Past Year: Among Past Year Users of Specific Substances Aged 12 or Older; By Age Group, Averages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
Marijuana 144.8 142.1 89.8 88.0 147.9 144.8 142.5 147.2 149.6 144.1 113.0 116.9 149.6 145.5
Cocaine 50.3 41.5 * * 50.2 41.7 25.8 22.0 58.7 48.1 45.0 22.8 50.6 42.5
Crack 105.3 98.8 * * 105.3 98.8 * 68.9 108.2 100.1 * 70.9 105.8 99.0
Heroin 157.9 173.8 * * 158.0 174.1 133.8 71.7 159.7 179.8 * 54.1 156.2 176.2
Hallucinogens 15.7 15.3 19.0 17.5 15.5 15.2 11.0 11.2 17.8 17.2 14.7 12.3 15.9 15.8
Inhalants 34.8 33.6 38.7 34.1 33.1 33.5 21.2 26.7 39.3 37.6 36.0 37.9 34.0 31.4
Methamphetamine 157.9 153.0 63.2 59.2 159.2 153.7 132.3 93.4 161.2 157.5 100.8 60.5 159.9 155.0
Alcohol 90.0 89.1 24.0 21.9 91.8 90.7 65.9 66.8 95.9 94.5 34.5 36.4 93.9 92.5
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for alcohol.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.2B – Average Number of Days Used Specific Substances in Past Month: Among Past Month Users of Specific Substances Aged 12 or Older; By Age Group, Averages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
Marijuana 16.1 16.2 11.4 11.6 16.3 16.4 15.6 16.5 16.5 16.3 13.4 14.4 16.5 16.4
Cocaine 7.4 6.4 * * 7.3 6.4 4.3 3.4 8.1 7.1 8.1a 3.2 7.3 6.5
Crack 12.9 11.4 * * 12.9 11.4 * 13.1 13.3 11.3 * * 13.0 11.4
Heroin 17.2 20.3 * * 17.2 20.3 20.4 13.9 17.1 20.4 * * 17.1 20.3
Hallucinogens 2.9 2.8 5.0 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.3 2.1 3.0 3.1 3.5 2.3 2.8 2.9
Inhalants 4.8 5.0 5.0 4.8 4.7 5.1 2.9 3.7 5.2 5.7 4.7 4.8 4.8 5.2
Methamphetamine 18.0 18.6 * * 18.0 18.6 11.6 18.8 18.5 18.6 17.1 11.5 18.0 18.6
Misuse of Prescription Pain Relievers 7.0 7.1 4.1 4.3 7.2 7.3 7.1 6.0 7.2 7.4 6.0 4.2 7.1 7.4
Misuse of Prescription Stimulants 5.3 5.7 6.8 3.4 5.2 5.8 3.9 5.3 5.7 5.9 4.9 3.4 5.4 6.0
Misuse of Prescription Tranquilizers 6.4 5.5 3.8 3.5 6.5 5.5 5.3 5.1 6.6 5.6 2.8 4.4 6.6 5.5
Misuse of Prescription Sedatives 8.6 9.1 3.9 * 9.1 9.2 5.4 3.5 9.8 10.0 4.1 4.0 9.4 9.4
Cigarettes 22.7b 21.6 8.8 5.9 22.8b 21.7 14.0 12.9 23.7b 22.6 10.7 10.1 23.0b 22.0
Smokeless Tobacco 19.3 19.1 6.5 9.7 19.6 19.2 15.6a 12.8 20.2 20.2 10.0 9.9 19.8 19.6
Cigars 9.0 8.8 6.3 7.6 9.1 8.8 7.9 9.2 9.3 8.7 6.6a 8.9 9.2 8.8
Nicotine Vaping -- 18.2 -- 12.8 -- 18.7 -- 18.8 -- 18.5 -- 16.6 -- 18.6
Alcohol 8.5b 8.1 3.5 2.9 8.6b 8.2 6.2 6.1 9.0b 8.5 4.3 4.2 8.7b 8.3
Binge Alcohol Use2 4.6a 4.3 2.9 2.1 4.6a 4.3 3.7 3.8 4.8a 4.4 3.4 3.3 4.7a 4.3
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for alcohol and tobacco.
2 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.3A – Daily or Almost Daily Use of Specific Substances in Past Year: Among People Aged 12 or Older and among Past Year Users of Specific Substances Aged 12 or Older; By Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
DAILY/ALMOST DAILY
USE IN PAST YEAR
AMONG TOTAL
POPULATION
                           
Marijuana 13,302b 15,073 278 285 13,025b 14,789 2,824b 3,402 10,200a 11,387 1,087 1,251 12,215a 13,822
Cocaine 244 116 4 * 240 115 24 7 216 108 15 * 229 114
Crack 137 61 * * 137 61 10 * 127 61 * * 137 61
Heroin 239 272 * * 239 272 14 4 225 269 13 * 226 272
Hallucinogens 44 37 8 6 36 31 9 8 27 23 11 6 34 31
Inhalants 15 * 13 7 * * * 6 * * 13 13 * *
Methamphetamine 613 604 2 2 610 603 24 16 586 586 4 2 609 602
Alcohol 12,098 11,747 14 14 12,084 11,733 604 533 11,481 11,200 91 127 12,007 11,619
DAILY/ALMOST DAILY
USE IN PAST YEAR
AMONG PAST YEAR
USERS
                           
Marijuana 13,302b 15,073 278 285 13,025b 14,789 2,824b 3,402 10,200 11,387 1,087 1,251 12,215a 13,822
Cocaine 244 116 * * 240 115 24 7 216 108 * 1 229 114
Crack * 61 * * * 61 * * * 61 * * * 61
Heroin * 272 * * * 272 * * * 269 * * * 272
Hallucinogens 44 37 * * 36 31 9 8 27 23 11 6 34 31
Inhalants 15 13 * 7 2 * 2 * 0 * * 13 2 *
Methamphetamine 613 604 * * 610 603 * * 586 586 * * 609 602
Alcohol 12,098 11,747 14 14 12,084 11,733 604 533 11,481 11,200 91 127 12,007 11,619
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for alcohol.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.3B – Daily or Almost Daily Use of Specific Substances in Past Year: Among People Aged 12 or Older and among Past Year Users of Specific Substances Aged 12 or Older; By Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
DAILY/ALMOST DAILY
USE IN PAST YEAR
AMONG TOTAL
POPULATION
                           
Marijuana 4.8b 5.3 1.1 1.1 5.1a 5.8 8.4a 9.8 4.6 5.1 2.8 3.2 5.1a 5.7
Cocaine 0.1 0.0 0.0 * 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 * 0.1 0.0
Crack 0.0 0.0 * * 0.1 0.0 0.0 * 0.1 0.0 * * 0.1 0.0
Heroin 0.1 0.1 * * 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 * 0.1 0.1
Hallucinogens 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Inhalants 0.0 * 0.1 0.0 * * * 0.0 * * 0.0 0.0 * *
Methamphetamine 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.2
Alcohol 4.3 4.2 0.1 0.1 4.8 4.6 1.8 1.5 5.2 5.1 0.2 0.3 5.0 4.8
DAILY/ALMOST DAILY
USE IN PAST YEAR
AMONG PAST YEAR
USERS
                           
Marijuana 25.0 24.4 9.8 9.7 25.9 25.1 23.3 25.6 26.7 24.9 15.5 16.9 26.4 25.4
Cocaine 5.1 2.2 * * 5.1 2.2 2.0 0.5 6.2 2.7 * 0.5 5.1 2.3
Crack * 6.6 * * * 6.6 * * * 6.9 * * * 6.6
Heroin * 26.0 * * * 26.0 * * * 27.1 * * * 26.5
Hallucinogens 0.6 0.4 * * 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.4
Inhalants 0.7 0.6 * 1.2 0.1 * 0.3 * 0.0 * * 1.7 0.1 *
Methamphetamine 23.2 22.3 * * 23.4 22.4 * * 24.2 23.2 * * 23.9 22.7
Alcohol 6.9 6.6 0.3 0.3 7.1 6.8 2.6 2.3 7.8 7.5 0.8 1.2 7.4 7.0
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for alcohol.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.4A – Daily or Almost Daily Use of Specific Substances in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older and among Past Month Users of Specific Substances Aged 12 or Older; By Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
DAILY/ALMOST DAILY USE IN
PAST MONTH AMONG TOTAL
POPULATION
                           
Marijuana 17,657b 20,487 458 488 17,199b 19,999 3,726b 4,497 13,473b 15,503 1,556a 1,862 16,101b 18,625
Cocaine 348 197 4 * 344 197 28 5 315 191 19 * 329 197
Crack 166 161 * * 166 161 * 4 165 157 * * 166 160
Heroin 343 436 * * 343 436 17 4 326 432 14 * 329 436
Hallucinogens 52 54 8 2 44 52 9 * 35 52 11 2 41 52
Inhalants 40 63 9 7 31 56 * 8 31 48 9 13 31 49
Methamphetamine 860 977 8 1 852 975 30 29 822 946 10 5 851 971
Misuse of Prescription Pain Relievers 293 308 * 3 292 305 24 13 267 292 14 6 279 303
Misuse of Prescription Stimulants 62 101 9 * 53 101 8 24 44 77 9 * 52 101
Misuse of Prescription Tranquilizers 73 127 * * 73 127 8 14 65 112 * * 73 125
Misuse of Prescription Sedatives 60 54 * * 60 54 * * 60 53 * * 60 54
Cigarettes (Daily Use)2 27,509b 24,103 70 10 27,439b 24,093 1,069 996 26,370b 23,097 272 200 27,238b 23,903
Smokeless Tobacco 4,506a 3,538 24 12 4,482a 3,527 461b 277 4,021a 3,250 98 63 4,408a 3,476
Cigars 2,218 2,183 20 30 2,199 2,153 304 411 1,894 1,742 80a 155 2,138 2,028
Nicotine Vaping -- 12,735 -- 594 -- 12,140 -- 4,743 -- 7,397 -- 2,263 -- 10,472
Alcohol 22,455a 20,732 41 23 22,415 20,709 1,200 1,098 21,215 19,611 194 161 22,262 20,571
Binge Alcohol Use3 3,683a 2,829 35 3 3,648a 2,825 232 216 3,416a 2,609 93 62 3,590a 2,766
DAILY/ALMOST DAILY USE IN
PAST MONTH AMONG PAST
MONTH USERS
                           
Marijuana 17,657b 20,487 458 488 17,199b 19,999 3,726b 4,497 13,473b 15,503 1,556a 1,862 16,101b 18,625
Cocaine 348 197 * * 344 197 * 5 315 191 * * 329 197
Crack * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Heroin * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Hallucinogens 52 54 * * 44 52 * * 35 52 * * 41 52
Inhalants 40 * 9 * * * * * * * 9 * * *
Methamphetamine 860 977 * * * 975 * * * 946 * * * 971
Misuse of Prescription Pain Relievers 293 308 * * 292 305 * 13 267 292 * 6 279 303
Misuse of Prescription Stimulants 62 101 * * 53 101 8 24 44 77 * * 52 101
Misuse of Prescription Tranquilizers * 127 * * * 127 * * * 112 * * * 125
Misuse of Prescription Sedatives * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Cigarettes (Daily Use)2 27,509b 24,103 * 10 27,439b 24,093 1,069 996 26,370b 23,097 272 200 27,238b 23,903
Smokeless Tobacco 4,506a 3,538 * * 4,482a 3,527 461b 277 4,021a 3,250 98 63 4,408a 3,476
Cigars 2,218 2,183 * * 2,199 2,153 304 411 1,894 1,742 80a 155 2,138 2,028
Nicotine Vaping -- 12,735 -- 594 -- 12,140 -- 4,743 -- 7,397 -- 2,263 -- 10,472
Alcohol 22,455 20,732 41 23 22,415 20,709 1,200 1,098 21,215 19,611 194 161 22,262 20,571
Binge Alcohol Use3 3,683a 2,829 * 3 3,648a 2,825 232 216 3,416a 2,609 93 62 3,590a 2,766
SMOKED 1+ PACKS OF
CIGARETTES PER DAY AMONG
DAILY CIGARETTE USERS4
11,649b 9,580 * * 11,643b 9,580 249 174 11,394b 9,406 30 * 11,619b 9,556
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for alcohol and tobacco.
2 Estimates of cigarettes (daily only) include only respondents who smoked cigarettes on each of the past 30 days.
3 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
4 Respondents with missing data for number of cigarettes smoked per day were excluded from the analysis.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.4B – Daily or Almost Daily Use of Specific Substances in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older and among Past Month Users of Specific Substances Aged 12 or Older; By Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
DAILY/ALMOST DAILY USE IN
PAST MONTH AMONG TOTAL
POPULATION
                           
Marijuana 6.3b 7.3 1.8 1.9 6.8b 7.8 11.1b 12.9 6.1b 7.0 4.0a 4.8 6.7b 7.7
Cocaine 0.1 0.1 0.0 * 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 * 0.1 0.1
Crack 0.1 0.1 * * 0.1 0.1 * 0.0 0.1 0.1 * * 0.1 0.1
Heroin 0.1 0.2 * * 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 * 0.1 0.2
Hallucinogens 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Inhalants 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Methamphetamine 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.4
Misuse of Prescription Pain Relievers 0.1 0.1 * 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
Misuse of Prescription Stimulants 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 0.0
Misuse of Prescription Tranquilizers 0.0 0.0 * * 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 * * 0.0 0.1
Misuse of Prescription Sedatives 0.0 0.0 * * 0.0 0.0 * * 0.0 0.0 * * 0.0 0.0
Cigarettes (Daily Use)2 9.8b 8.5 0.3 0.0 10.8b 9.4 3.2 2.9 12.0b 10.4 0.7 0.5 11.3b 9.8
Smokeless Tobacco 1.6b 1.3 0.1 0.0 1.8b 1.4 1.4b 0.8 1.8a 1.5 0.2 0.2 1.8a 1.4
Cigars 0.8 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.9 0.8 0.2a 0.4 0.9 0.8
Nicotine Vaping -- 4.5 -- 2.3 -- 4.7 -- 13.6 -- 3.3 -- 5.9 -- 4.3
Alcohol 8.0a 7.4 0.2 0.1 8.8a 8.1 3.6 3.2 9.6a 8.9 0.5 0.4 9.2a 8.5
Binge Alcohol Use3 1.3a 1.0 0.1 0.0 1.4a 1.1 0.7 0.6 1.6a 1.2 0.2 0.2 1.5a 1.1
DAILY/ALMOST DAILY USE IN
PAST MONTH AMONG PAST
MONTH USERS
                           
Marijuana 47.8 48.4 28.8 29.6 48.6 49.2 45.2a 49.9 49.7 49.0 36.9 40.9 49.2 49.3
Cocaine 18.8 9.8 * * 18.7 9.8 * 1.3 21.3 11.9 * * 18.5 10.1
Crack * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Heroin * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Hallucinogens 2.2 2.4 * * 2.0 2.4 * * 2.1 3.2 * * 2.0 2.6
Inhalants 5.1 * 4.1 * * * * * * * 3.4 * * *
Methamphetamine 52.8 58.0 * * * 58.0 * * * 58.1 * * * 58.2
Misuse of Prescription Pain Relievers 12.1 12.6 * * 12.7 13.1 * 6.0 13.0 13.9 * 2.8 12.6 13.5
Misuse of Prescription Stimulants 5.5 7.5 * * 5.1 7.7 2.7 6.3 6.0 8.2 * * 5.4 8.3
Misuse of Prescription Tranquilizers * 9.8 * * * 10.0 * * * 10.1 * * * 10.0
Misuse of Prescription Sedatives * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Cigarettes (Daily Use)2 61.5 58.7 * 3.1 61.9 59.1 27.0 26.7 65.3 62.4 19.4 16.5 62.8 60.0
Smokeless Tobacco 59.0 58.2 * * 59.9 58.5 45.9a 33.9 62.1 62.4 26.1 20.6 60.7 60.1
Cigars 21.3 21.0 * * 21.5 21.1 16.3 22.3 22.7 20.8 10.9a 21.2 22.1 21.0
Nicotine Vaping -- 54.2 -- 33.6 -- 55.9 -- 56.9 -- 55.2 -- 48.0 -- 55.7
Alcohol 16.9b 15.1 2.2 1.3 17.2b 15.3 7.0 6.3 18.7b 16.6 3.2 2.8 17.6b 15.6
Binge Alcohol Use3 6.1b 4.6 * 0.4 6.1b 4.7 2.3 2.1 6.9a 5.2 2.8 2.0 6.3b 4.8
SMOKED 1+ PACKS OF
CIGARETTES PER DAY AMONG
DAILY CIGARETTE USERS4
42.4 39.8 * * 42.5 39.8 23.3 17.5 43.3 40.8 11.0 * 42.7 40.1
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for alcohol and tobacco.
2 Estimates of cigarettes (daily only) include only respondents who smoked cigarettes on each of the past 30 days.
3 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
4 Respondents with missing data for number of cigarettes smoked per day were excluded from the analysis.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.5A – Select Illicit Drugs Used with Alcohol or within 2 Hours of Alcohol Use on Most Recent Use of Alcohol in Past Month: Among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Drug Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
Marijuana 13,089a 14,761 320 353 12,769a 14,408 3,121a 3,640 9,647 10,768 1,111 1,327 11,977a 13,434
Cocaine (Including Crack) 485 505 * 1 485 504 58 82 426 423 5 2 479 504
Heroin 114 84 * 0 114 84 7 * 107 84 * 1 114 84
Hallucinogens 167 151 9 1 158 150 21a 71 137 80 13 16 154 135
Inhalants 62 56 3 * 59 56 12 17 47 38 3 3 59 53
Methamphetamine 503 398 * * 503 398 27 12 476 386 * 1 503 397
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates are based on nonimputed responses to multiple questions; therefore, respondents with unknown responses to the questions about other select illicit drugs used with alcohol were excluded. Respondents could indicate using more than one of the select illicit drugs with alcohol; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for alcohol.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.5B – Select Illicit Drugs Used with Alcohol or within 2 Hours of Alcohol Use on Most Recent Use of Alcohol in Past Month: Among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Drug Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
Marijuana 10.0 10.8 18.2 21.0 9.9 10.7 18.6a 21.1 8.6 9.2 19.0a 23.3 9.5 10.3
Cocaine (Including Crack) 0.4 0.4 * 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.4
Heroin 0.1 0.1 * 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 * 0.1 0.1 * 0.0 0.1 0.1
Hallucinogens 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1a 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1
Inhalants 0.0 0.0 0.2 * 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Methamphetamine 0.4 0.3 * * 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.3 * 0.0 0.4 0.3
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates are based on nonimputed responses to multiple questions; therefore, respondents with unknown responses to the questions about other select illicit drugs used with alcohol were excluded. Respondents could indicate using more than one of the select illicit drugs with alcohol; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for alcohol.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.6A – Cigarette Use and Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Detailed Age Category, Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Age Category Cigarette Use in Past Month Nicotine Dependence in Past Month Percentage with Nicotine Dependence
among Past Month Cigarette Smokers
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 44,763b 41,062 29,140b 24,583 65.1b 59.9
12-201 1,399 1,211 588 439 42.0 36.3
21 or Older1 43,364a 39,852 28,553b 24,143 65.8b 60.6
12-17 432 319 172 94 * 29.5
12-13 36 43 28 8 * *
14-15 84 81 23 23 * *
16-17 313a 195 122 64 * *
18 or Older 44,331b 40,743 28,969b 24,488 65.3b 60.1
18-25 3,959 3,729 1,785a 1,460 45.1a 39.1
18-20 966 891 416 345 43.0 38.7
21-25 2,992 2,837 1,369a 1,115 45.8a 39.3
26 or Older 40,372b 37,014 27,183b 23,029 67.3b 62.2
26-49 21,325 20,309 13,478a 11,996 63.2a 59.1
26-29 3,210 2,885 1,910b 1,305 59.5b 45.2
30-34 4,786 4,457 2,817 2,376 58.9 53.3
35-39 4,884 4,402 3,241a 2,562 66.4a 58.2
40-44 4,479 4,590 2,795 3,041 62.4 66.3
45-49 3,966 3,975 2,716 2,711 68.5 68.2
50 or Older 19,047a 16,706 13,705b 11,033 72.0a 66.0
50-54 4,592 4,052 3,346 2,734 72.9 67.5
55-59 4,200 3,518 2,935 2,350 69.9 66.8
60-64 4,476 4,239 3,490 2,767 78.0b 65.3
65 or Older 5,779 4,896 3,934 3,181 68.1 65.0
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The 12-20 and 21 or Older rows are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.6B – Cigarette Use and Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Detailed Age Category, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Age Category Cigarette Use in Past Month Nicotine Dependence in Past Month Percentage with Nicotine Dependence
among Past Month Cigarette Smokers
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 16.0b 14.6 10.4b 8.7 65.1b 59.9
12-201 3.6 3.1 1.5 1.1 42.0 36.3
21 or Older1 18.0b 16.4 11.9b 9.9 65.8b 60.6
12-17 1.7 1.2 0.7 0.4 * 29.5
12-13 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.1 * *
14-15 1.0 0.9 0.3 0.3 * *
16-17 3.6 2.4 1.4 0.8 * *
18 or Older 17.5b 15.9 11.4b 9.6 65.3b 60.1
18-25 11.8 10.7 5.3b 4.2 45.1a 39.1
18-20 7.4 6.9 3.2 2.7 43.0 38.7
21-25 14.7 13.0 6.7b 5.1 45.8a 39.3
26 or Older 18.3b 16.7 12.3b 10.4 67.3b 62.2
26-49 20.8 19.8 13.2a 11.7 63.2a 59.1
26-29 18.4 16.9 10.9b 7.7 59.5b 45.2
30-34 21.1 19.2 12.4a 10.2 58.9 53.3
35-39 21.9 20.0 14.6a 11.6 66.4a 58.2
40-44 22.0 22.1 13.7 14.6 62.4 66.3
45-49 20.4 20.4 13.9 13.9 68.5 68.2
50 or Older 16.1b 14.0 11.6b 9.3 72.0a 66.0
50-54 23.4 20.5 17.0 13.8 72.9 67.5
55-59 19.7 17.6 13.8 11.8 69.9 66.8
60-64 20.1 18.7 15.7 12.2 78.0b 65.3
65 or Older 10.5a 8.7 7.2a 5.6 68.1 65.0
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The 12-20 and 21 or Older rows are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.7A – Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
TOTAL 29,140b 24,583 172 94 28,969b 24,488 1,785a 1,460 27,183b 23,029 588 439 28,553b 24,143
GENDER                            
Male 15,645b 13,470 113 50 15,532b 13,420 1,003 849 14,529a 12,572 353a 228 15,293a 13,243
Female 13,495b 11,112 59 44 13,437b 11,068 782a 611 12,654b 10,457 235 211 13,260b 10,901
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                            
Not Hispanic or Latino 26,571b 22,461 129 72 26,442b 22,389 1,538 1,296 24,904b 21,093 484 370 26,087b 22,091
AIAN 314 191 * * 313 187 * 17 273 170 8 13 306 178
Asian 729 441 * * 729 441 57 30 672 411 * 12 716 429
Black or African American 3,534 3,044 7 8 3,527 3,037 163 154 3,364 2,883 42 19 3,492 3,026
NHOPI 140 * * * * * * * * * * * * *
White 21,127b 17,614 118 61 21,010b 17,554 1,160 1,033 19,850b 16,521 396 301 20,731b 17,314
Two or More Races 727 870 4 * 723 870 103 60 620 811 24 26 703 845
Hispanic or Latino 2,569 2,122 43 22 2,527 2,099 247 164 2,280 1,935 103 69 2,466 2,052
FAMILY INCOME                            
Less Than $20,000 9,639b 7,306 14 24 9,625b 7,282 621 490 9,004b 6,792 187 138 9,453b 7,168
$20,000 - $49,999 10,548b 8,396 74 22 10,474b 8,374 700b 458 9,774b 7,916 198 120 10,350b 8,276
$50,000 - $74,999 3,977 3,371 37 11 3,940 3,361 190 220 3,750 3,141 68 65 3,909 3,306
$75,000 or More 4,976 5,509 46 37 4,929 5,472 275 292 4,655 5,180 134 115 4,841 5,394
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.7B – Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
TOTAL 10.4b 8.7 0.7 0.4 11.4b 9.6 5.3b 4.2 12.3b 10.4 1.5 1.1 11.9b 9.9
GENDER                            
Male 11.4b 9.7 0.9 0.4 12.6b 10.7 6.0 4.9 13.6b 11.7 1.8a 1.1 13.1b 11.2
Female 9.4b 7.7 0.5 0.4 10.3b 8.4 4.7a 3.5 11.1b 9.2 1.2 1.1 10.7b 8.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                            
Not Hispanic or Latino 11.5b 9.7 0.7 0.4 12.6b 10.6 6.0a 4.9 13.5b 11.4 1.7 1.3 13.0b 10.9
AIAN 17.3 13.1 * * 19.1 15.1 * 8.1 20.9 16.5 2.9 4.0 19.9 15.6
Asian 4.5 2.6 * * 4.9 2.9 2.9 1.3 5.2 3.1 * 0.5 5.1 2.9
Black or African American 10.4 8.8 0.2 0.2 11.5 9.8 3.6 3.3 12.9 11.0 0.8 0.4 12.1 10.4
NHOPI 11.9 * * * * * * * * * * * * *
White 12.3b 10.3 0.9 0.5 13.3b 11.1 6.5 5.7 14.2b 11.8 2.0 1.6 13.7b 11.4
Two or More Races 13.3 14.8 0.4 * 15.8 17.2 11.1a 5.9 17.0 20.0 1.8 2.0 17.0 18.4
Hispanic or Latino 5.2 4.2 0.6 0.3 5.9 4.7 3.2a 2.0 6.5 5.4 1.0 0.7 6.2 5.0
FAMILY INCOME                            
Less Than $20,000 20.8b 17.5 0.4 0.7 22.6b 19.0 7.4 6.4 26.4b 22.1 2.6 2.2 24.2b 20.1
$20,000 - $49,999 13.4b 11.2 1.1 0.4 14.6b 12.1 6.9b 4.4 15.8a 13.5 1.9 1.2 15.1b 12.6
$50,000 - $74,999 9.1 7.9 1.1 0.3 9.8 8.6 4.1 4.5 10.5 9.2 1.3 1.3 10.1 8.8
$75,000 or More 4.5 4.5 0.4 0.3 5.0 5.0 2.7 2.5 5.2 5.3 0.8 0.7 5.1 5.1
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.8A – Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group and Geographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Geographic/Socioeconomic
Characteristic
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
TOTAL 29,140b 24,583 172 94 28,969b 24,488 1,785a 1,460 27,183b 23,029 588 439 28,553b 24,143
GEOGRAPHIC REGION                            
Northeast 4,695 4,046 22 17 4,674 4,029 255 208 4,419 3,821 94 82 4,601 3,964
Midwest 7,136 6,278 25 29 7,112 6,249 504 414 6,608 5,835 141 129 6,996 6,148
South 11,915b 10,058 51 28 11,864b 10,030 715a 527 11,149a 9,503 194a 117 11,722a 9,941
West 5,393a 4,201 74 21 5,319a 4,180 311 311 5,008a 3,869 159 111 5,234a 4,090
COUNTY TYPE                            
Large Metro 11,800 10,142 54 46 11,747 10,096 688 581 11,059 9,515 234 159 11,566 9,982
Small Metro 9,794 9,050 63 24 9,731 9,026 576 549 9,156 8,477 168 172 9,626 8,878
Nonmetro 7,546b 5,391 55 24 7,491b 5,367 521a 329 6,969b 5,037 186 108 7,360b 5,283
Urbanized 2,360 2,199 9 19 2,351 2,179 222 136 2,129 2,044 70 44 2,291 2,155
Less Urbanized 4,249b 2,640 45a 5 4,204b 2,635 251 180 3,953b 2,455 107 60 4,142b 2,580
Completely Rural 937 552 1 * 935 552 48b 13 887 539 9 * 928 547
POVERTY LEVEL2                            
Less Than 100% 8,547b 6,513 34 30 8,513b 6,483 604 481 7,909b 6,003 206 142 8,341b 6,371
100-199% 8,078a 6,845 64 23 8,014a 6,822 585b 378 7,429 6,444 169 104 7,909a 6,742
200% or More 12,516 11,224 74 41 12,442 11,183 597 601 11,845 10,582 213 193 12,303 11,030
HEALTH INSURANCE3                            
Private 10,813a 9,064 47 40 10,766a 9,025 648 563 10,119a 8,462 209 163 10,605a 8,901
Medicaid/CHIP 10,488a 9,127 125 52 10,363 9,076 700 574 9,663 8,501 305 215 10,183 8,912
Other4 8,173a 6,991 6 1 8,167a 6,990 90 131 8,077a 6,859 26 30 8,147a 6,961
No Coverage 4,779b 3,615 0 7 4,779b 3,607 430a 269 4,349a 3,338 71 52 4,707b 3,563
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco.
2 Respondents aged 18 to 22 who were living in a college dormitory were excluded.
3 Respondents could indicate multiple types of health insurance; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
4 Other Health Insurance is defined as having Medicare, military-related health care, or any other type of health insurance.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.8B – Nicotine (Cigarette) Dependence in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group and Geographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Geographic/Socioeconomic
Characteristic
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
TOTAL 10.4b 8.7 0.7 0.4 11.4b 9.6 5.3b 4.2 12.3b 10.4 1.5 1.1 11.9b 9.9
GEOGRAPHIC REGION                            
Northeast 9.6 8.3 0.5 0.4 10.4 9.0 4.5 3.5 11.3 9.8 1.4 1.3 10.8 9.3
Midwest 12.3 10.8 0.5 0.5 13.5 11.8 7.1 5.7 14.5 12.8 1.7 1.6 14.0 12.3
South 11.2b 9.3 0.5 0.3 12.3b 10.2 5.6b 4.0 13.3b 11.2 1.3a 0.8 12.8b 10.7
West 8.1a 6.3 1.2 0.3 8.9a 6.9 3.9 3.8 9.6a 7.4 1.7 1.2 9.2a 7.1
COUNTY TYPE                            
Large Metro 7.8a 6.5 0.4 0.3 8.6a 7.2 3.9 3.0 9.3a 7.8 1.1 0.7 8.9a 7.4
Small Metro 11.4a 10.1 0.8 0.3 12.5a 11.1 5.3 4.7 13.7 12.2 1.4 1.4 13.1a 11.5
Nonmetro 17.4a 14.7 1.4 0.8 19.0a 15.9 10.8 8.3 20.2a 16.9 3.1 2.4 19.7a 16.4
Urbanized 14.6 14.2 0.6 1.6 16.1 15.3 11.0 7.7 16.9 16.4 3.0 2.3 16.6 15.9
Less Urbanized 18.8b 14.3 2.2a 0.3 20.5b 15.5 10.7 9.1 21.8b 16.3 3.5 2.7 21.2b 15.9
Completely Rural 20.5 19.4 0.3 * 22.5 21.4 10.4 5.4 24.0 23.2 1.5 * 23.2 22.1
POVERTY LEVEL2                            
Less Than 100% 19.7b 15.7 0.6 0.6 22.5b 17.9 7.1 6.0 26.9b 21.3 2.2 1.7 24.5b 19.3
100-199% 14.3a 12.3 1.1 0.4 15.8a 13.7 7.3b 4.5 17.4 15.6 2.0 1.2 16.6a 14.4
200% or More 7.0a 6.1 0.5 0.3 7.5a 6.6 3.5 3.3 8.0a 7.0 1.0 0.9 7.7a 6.7
HEALTH INSURANCE3                            
Private 6.4b 5.3 0.3 0.3 7.0b 5.8 3.4 2.8 7.5a 6.2 1.0 0.8 7.2b 6.0
Medicaid/CHIP 18.0a 15.5 1.2a 0.5 21.8a 18.9 8.0 6.2 24.9a 21.9 2.0 1.4 23.6a 20.3
Other4 10.7a 8.9 0.4 0.1 10.8a 9.1 3.6 4.7 11.1a 9.3 1.1 1.2 11.0a 9.2
No Coverage 18.3a 14.9 0.0 0.7 19.3a 15.5 9.0a 5.8 21.8a 17.9 2.5 2.0 20.3a 16.4
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco.
2 Respondents aged 18 to 22 who were living in a college dormitory were excluded.
3 Respondents could indicate multiple types of health insurance; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
4 Other Health Insurance is defined as having Medicare, military-related health care, or any other type of health insurance.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.9A – Source Where Prescription Pain Relievers Were Obtained for Most Recent Misuse: Among Past Year Misusers of Prescription Pain Relievers Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Source for Most Recent Misuse among Past Year
Misusers of Pain Relievers
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
3,400 3,250 155 111 3,245 3,140 280 350 2,965 2,790
Prescription from One Doctor 3,080 3,041 125 97 2,955 2,944 244 317 2,711 2,628
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 257 174 11 5 246 169 28 19 218 150
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy 63 35 * 8 44 26 8 14 36 13
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 3,656 3,510 * 127 3,421 3,383 438 557 2,983 2,826
From Friend or Relative for Free 2,768 2,544 * 86 2,615 2,458 322 353 2,293 2,105
Bought from Friend or Relative 581 712 38 20 543 692 71 108 472 584
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 307 254 44 20 263 234 45 96 218 138
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
691 669 41 20 650 650 189a 82 462 568
SOME OTHER WAY1 329 442 21 29 309 413 70 42 238 371
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.9B – Source Where Prescription Pain Relievers Were Obtained for Most Recent Misuse: Among Past Year Misusers of Prescription Pain Relievers Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Source for Most Recent Misuse among Past Year
Misusers of Pain Relievers
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
42.1 41.3 34.4 38.6 42.6 41.4 28.6 33.9 44.6 42.6
Prescription from One Doctor 38.1 38.6 27.6 33.9 38.8 38.8 25.0 30.7 40.8 40.1
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 3.2 2.2 2.5 1.8 3.2 2.2 2.9 1.9 3.3 2.3
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy 0.8 0.4 * 3.0 0.6 0.3 0.8 1.3 0.5 0.2
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 45.3 44.6 * 44.3 44.9 44.6 44.9 54.1 44.9 43.1
From Friend or Relative for Free 34.3 32.3 * 30.2 34.3 32.4 33.0 34.2 34.5 32.1
Bought from Friend or Relative 7.2 9.0 8.4 7.1 7.1 9.1 7.3 10.5 7.1 8.9
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 3.8 3.2 9.7 7.0 3.5 3.1 4.6 9.3 3.3 2.1
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
8.6 8.5 9.1 6.9 8.5 8.6 19.3b 7.9 6.9 8.7
SOME OTHER WAY1 4.1 5.6 4.6 10.1 4.0 5.4 7.2 4.1 3.6 5.7
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.10A – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Prescription Pain Relievers: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Misused Prescription Pain Relievers from a Friend or Relative for Free in Past Year; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Pain
Relievers
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
2,236 2,074 * * 2,133 2,031 * 274 1,878 1,757
Prescription from One Doctor 2,112 1,964 * * 2,061 1,936 * 256 1,824 1,680
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 64 98 * * 46 92 15 16 31 77
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy 59 12 * * 26 3 * * 23 0
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 293 250 * * 275 241 * 35 242 207
From Friend or Relative for Free 162 118 * * 159 114 * * 142 103
Bought from Friend or Relative 131 106 * * 116 106 17 24 100 82
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 0 26 * * 0 22 * * 0 22
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
94 49 * * 92 48 * 21 64 27
SOME OTHER WAY1 34 83 * * 27 76 1 * 27 63
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.10B – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Prescription Pain Relievers: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Misused Prescription Pain Relievers from a Friend or Relative for Free in Past Year; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Pain
Relievers
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
84.1 84.5 * * 84.4 84.7 * 79.8 85.0 85.6
Prescription from One Doctor 79.5 80.0 * * 81.5 80.8 * 74.5 82.5 81.8
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 2.4 4.0 * * 1.8 3.8 4.6 4.5 1.4 3.7
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy 2.2 0.5 * * 1.0 0.1 * * 1.0 0.0
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 11.0 10.2 * * 10.9 10.1 * 10.1 10.9 10.1
From Friend or Relative for Free 6.1 4.8 * * 6.3 4.7 * * 6.4 5.0
Bought from Friend or Relative 4.9 4.3 * * 4.6 4.4 5.3 7.0 4.5 4.0
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 0.0 1.0 * * 0.0 0.9 * * 0.0 1.1
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
3.5 2.0 * * 3.6 2.0 * 6.1 2.9 1.3
SOME OTHER WAY1 1.3 3.4 * * 1.1 3.2 0.2 * 1.2 3.1
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.11A – Source Where Prescription Stimulants Were Obtained for Most Recent Misuse: Among Past Year Misusers of Prescription Stimulants Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Source for Most Recent Misuse among Past Year
Misusers of Stimulants
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
760 1,002 * * 648 915 182 229 466 686
Prescription from One Doctor 663a 951 * * 581a 886 166 208 416 678
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 88 39 * * 58 27 16 19 42 8
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy 9 11 * * 9 2 0 2 9 *
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 2,734 2,802 * * 2,592 2,699 1,061 906 1,531 1,793
From Friend or Relative for Free 1,821 2,018 * * 1,706 1,942 670 607 1,036 1,336
Bought from Friend or Relative 843 671 18 * 825 654 371 247 454 407
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 71 114 9 11 62 103 20 53 * 50
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
106 198 6 7 100 191 51 50 48 142
SOME OTHER WAY1 156 191 5 6 151 185 34 60 116 125
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.11B – Source Where Prescription Stimulants Were Obtained for Most Recent Misuse: Among Past Year Misusers of Prescription Stimulants Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Source for Most Recent Misuse among Past Year
Misusers of Stimulants
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
20.2 23.9 * * 18.6 22.9 13.7 18.4 21.6 25.0
Prescription from One Doctor 17.7 22.7 * * 16.7 22.2 12.5 16.7 19.2 24.7
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 2.3 0.9 * * 1.7 0.7 1.2 1.6 1.9 0.3
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy 0.2 0.3 * * 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 *
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 72.8 66.8 * * 74.3 67.6 79.8 72.8 70.8 65.3
From Friend or Relative for Free 48.5 48.1 * * 48.9 48.7 50.4 48.7 47.9 48.7
Bought from Friend or Relative 22.4a 16.0 6.7 * 23.6a 16.4 27.9 19.8 21.0 14.8
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 1.9 2.7 3.3 5.3 1.8 2.6 1.5 4.2 * 1.8
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
2.8 4.7 2.4 3.4 2.9 4.8 3.9 4.0 2.2 5.2
SOME OTHER WAY1 4.1 4.6 1.9 3.0 4.3 4.6 2.6 4.9 5.4 4.5
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.12A – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Prescription Stimulants: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Misused Prescription Stimulants from a Friend or Relative for Free in Past Year; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Stimulants Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
1,404 1,626 * * 1,311 1,576 516 485 * 1,091
Prescription from One Doctor 1,369 1,562 * * 1,295 1,513 504 471 * 1,041
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 21 44 * * 16 43 11 11 * 32
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy * * * * * * * * * *
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 223 234 * * 219 223 97 87 * 136
From Friend or Relative for Free 119 113 * * 115 112 51 54 * 59
Bought from Friend or Relative 102 120 * * 102 109 46 32 * 77
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 2 1 * * 2 1 * 1 2 *
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
49 66 * * 42 60 23 16 19 *
SOME OTHER WAY1 0 18 * * 0 13 * 1 0 12
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.12B – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Prescription Stimulants: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Misused Prescription Stimulants from a Friend or Relative for Free in Past Year; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Stimulants Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
83.7 83.6 * * 83.4 84.2 81.1 82.4 * 85.0
Prescription from One Doctor 81.6 80.4 * * 82.4 80.8 79.3 80.1 * 81.2
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 1.3 2.3 * * 1.0 2.3 1.8 1.9 * 2.5
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy * * * * * * * * * *
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 13.3 12.0 * * 13.9 11.9 15.3 14.8 * 10.6
From Friend or Relative for Free 7.1 5.8 * * 7.3 6.0 7.9 9.1 * 4.6
Bought from Friend or Relative 6.1 6.2 * * 6.5 5.8 7.3 5.4 * 6.0
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 0.1 0.1 * * 0.1 0.1 * 0.2 0.2 *
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
2.9 3.4 * * 2.7 3.2 3.7 2.7 2.0 *
SOME OTHER WAY1 0.0 0.9 * * 0.0 0.7 * 0.1 0.0 1.0
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.13A – Source Where Prescription Tranquilizers Were Obtained for Most Recent Misuse: Among Past Year Misusers of Prescription Tranquilizers Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Source for Most Recent Misuse among Past Year
Misusers of Tranquilizers
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
837a 1,232 * * 825a 1,213 140 109 685a 1,103
Prescription from One Doctor 743a 1,131 * * 731a 1,114 127 100 604b 1,014
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 89 94 * * 89 92 12 6 78 87
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy 5 7 * * 5 6 1 4 3 2
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 2,612a 2,064 * * 2,502a 2,011 529 493 1,972a 1,518
From Friend or Relative for Free 1,878 1,615 * * 1,829 1,576 362 372 1,467 1,204
Bought from Friend or Relative 528a 306 * * 476a 304 115 86 361 218
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 207 143 * * 197 131 52 36 145 96
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
490 556 * * 432 527 157 110 274 416
SOME OTHER WAY1 192 128 * * 181 118 15 42 166 76
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.13B – Source Where Prescription Tranquilizers Were Obtained for Most Recent Misuse: Among Past Year Misusers of Prescription Tranquilizers Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Source for Most Recent Misuse among Past Year
Misusers of Tranquilizers
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
20.3b 31.0 * * 20.9b 31.3 16.7 14.5 22.1b 35.4
Prescription from One Doctor 18.0b 28.4 * * 18.6b 28.8 15.1 13.2 19.5b 32.6
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 2.2 2.4 * * 2.3 2.4 1.4 0.7 2.5 2.8
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy 0.1 0.2 * * 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.1
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 63.2b 51.9 * * 63.5b 52.0 62.9 65.4 63.7b 48.8
From Friend or Relative for Free 45.5 40.6 * * 46.4 40.7 43.0 49.3 47.3 38.7
Bought from Friend or Relative 12.8a 7.7 * * 12.1a 7.9 13.6 11.4 11.6 7.0
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 5.0 3.6 * * 5.0 3.4 6.2 4.7 4.7 3.1
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
11.9 14.0 * * 11.0 13.6 18.7 14.6 8.9 13.4
SOME OTHER WAY1 4.6 3.2 * * 4.6 3.0 1.8 5.5 5.4 2.4
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.14A – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Prescription Tranquilizers: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Misused Prescription Tranquilizers from a Friend or Relative for Free in Past Year; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Tranquilizers Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
1,522 1,289 * * 1,498 1,261 * * * 1,016
Prescription from One Doctor 1,493 1,250 * * 1,477 1,222 * * * 979
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 29 * * * 21 * * * 9 *
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy * * * * * * * * * *
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 155 147 * * 135 142 37 * 98 83
From Friend or Relative for Free 86 55 * * 76 55 22 * 54 23
Bought from Friend or Relative 60 79 * * 56 75 12 * * 53
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 8 14 * * 3 12 * 6 * 6
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
* 67 * * * 66 * * * 15
SOME OTHER WAY1 14 61 * * 14 61 * * 12 61
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.14B – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Prescription Tranquilizers: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Misused Prescription Tranquilizers from a Friend or Relative for Free in Past Year; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Tranquilizers Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
83.7 82.4 * * 84.6 82.4 * * * 86.4
Prescription from One Doctor 82.1 79.9 * * 83.4 79.9 * * * 83.3
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 1.6 * * * 1.2 * * * 0.6 *
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy * * * * * * * * * *
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 8.5 9.4 * * 7.6 9.3 11.0 * 6.8 7.0
From Friend or Relative for Free 4.7 3.5 * * 4.3 3.6 6.5 * 3.8 2.0
Bought from Friend or Relative 3.3 5.0 * * 3.2 4.9 3.7 * * 4.5
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 0.4 0.9 * * 0.2 0.8 * 1.7 * 0.5
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
* 4.3 * * * 4.3 * * * 1.3
SOME OTHER WAY1 0.8 3.9 * * 0.8 4.0 * * 0.8a 5.2
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.15A – Source Where Prescription Sedatives Were Obtained for Most Recent Misuse: Among Past Year Misusers of Prescription Sedatives Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Source for Most Recent Misuse among Past Year
Misusers of Sedatives
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
* * * * * * * * * *
Prescription from One Doctor * * * * * * * * * *
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 13 * * * 13 * * * 12 *
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy 9 1 * * 9 0 * * * 0
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE * * * * * * * * * *
From Friend or Relative for Free * * * * * * * * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative * 25 * * * 25 * * * 14
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 17 26 * * 16 25 * * * 21
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
13 48 * * 8 48 * * 0 *
SOME OTHER WAY1 * 2 * * * 2 * * * 2
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.15B – Source Where Prescription Sedatives Were Obtained for Most Recent Misuse: Among Past Year Misusers of Prescription Sedatives Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Source for Most Recent Misuse among Past Year
Misusers of Sedatives
Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
* * * * * * * * * *
Prescription from One Doctor * * * * * * * * * *
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 1.6 * * * 1.7 * * * 1.8 *
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy 1.1 0.1 * * 1.1 0.1 * * * 0.0
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE * * * * * * * * * *
From Friend or Relative for Free * * * * * * * * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative * 2.9 * * * 3.0 * * * 1.8
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 2.1 3.0 * * 2.1 2.9 * * * 2.8
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
1.6 5.5 * * 1.1 5.6 * * 0.1 *
SOME OTHER WAY1 * 0.3 * * * 0.3 * * * 0.3
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.16A – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Prescription Sedatives: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Misused Prescription Sedatives from a Friend or Relative for Free in Past Year; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Sedatives Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
* * * * * * * * * *
Prescription from One Doctor * * * * * * * * * *
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 1 * * * 1 * * * * *
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy * * * * * * * * * *
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 21 * * * * * * * * *
From Friend or Relative for Free * * * * * * * * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative * * * * * * * * * *
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 4 * * * * * * * * *
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
* * * * * * * * * *
SOME OTHER WAY1 * * * * * * * * * *
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.16B – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Prescription Sedatives: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Misused Prescription Sedatives from a Friend or Relative for Free in Past Year; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Sedatives Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
GOT THROUGH PRESCRIPTION(S) OR STOLE
FROM A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
* * * * * * * * * *
Prescription from One Doctor * * * * * * * * * *
Prescriptions from More Than One Doctor 0.1 * * * 0.1 * * * * *
Stole from Doctor’s Office, Clinic, Hospital, or Pharmacy * * * * * * * * * *
GOT FROM A FRIEND OR RELATIVE 4.9 * * * * * * * * *
From Friend or Relative for Free * * * * * * * * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative * * * * * * * * * *
Took from Friend or Relative without Asking 0.9 * * * * * * * * *
BOUGHT FROM DRUG DEALER OR OTHER
STRANGER
* * * * * * * * * *
SOME OTHER WAY1 * * * * * * * * * *
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked to choose only one source. Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Misuse and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding write-in questions were excluded from the analysis.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Some Other Way includes write-in responses not already listed in this table or responses with insufficient information that could allow them to be placed in another category.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.17A – Main Reasons for Last Episode of Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 12 or Older of Each Type of Prescription Psychotherapeutic; Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Main Reason for Last Episode of Misuse Past Year
Pain Reliever
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Pain Reliever
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Stimulant
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Stimulant
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Tranquilizer
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Tranquilizer
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Sedative
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Sedative
Misuse
(2022)
Relieve Physical Pain 5,171 5,419 -- -- -- -- -- --
Relax or Relieve Tension 605 543 -- -- 1,551 1,623 * *
Help with Sleep 400 445 -- -- 890 906 558 *
Help with Feelings or Emotion 227 348 -- -- 842 605 97 *
Experiment or See What It’s Like 236 122 256a 139 94 137 5 4
Feel Good or Get High 995 675 488 354 463 336 31 *
Increase or Decrease Effect of Other Drug 109 57 39 64 126 66 0 8
Because I Am Hooked or Have to Have It 352 322 20 23 35 38 1 *
Help Lose Weight -- -- 224 132 -- -- -- --
Help Concentrate -- -- 1,360 1,430 -- -- -- --
Help Be Alert or Stay Awake -- -- 934a 1,289 -- -- -- --
Help Study -- -- 428 562 -- -- -- --
Some Other Reason 99 120 90a 212 169 254 18 36
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Only a subset of reasons for misuse apply for each prescription psychotherapeutic. Inapplicable reasons are marked as “--” (i.e., not available). Respondents who wrote in an inapplicable reason as their “other reason” (e.g., pain relief as the reason for tranquilizer misuse) were retained in the “Some Other Reason” category.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown information for their reason for misuse were excluded from the analysis, including respondents who reported some other reason but had unknown data in their write-in responses.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.17B – Main Reasons for Last Episode of Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 12 or Older of Each Type of Prescription Psychotherapeutic; Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Main Reason for Last Episode of Misuse Past Year
Pain Reliever
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Pain Reliever
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Stimulant
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Stimulant
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Tranquilizer
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Tranquilizer
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Sedative
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Sedative
Misuse
(2022)
Relieve Physical Pain 63.1 67.3 -- -- -- -- -- --
Relax or Relieve Tension 7.4 6.7 -- -- 37.2 40.9 * *
Help with Sleep 4.9 5.5 -- -- 21.3 22.9 67.4 *
Help with Feelings or Emotion 2.8 4.3 -- -- 20.2 15.3 11.7 *
Experiment or See What It’s Like 2.9 1.5 6.7a 3.3 2.2 3.4 0.5 0.5
Feel Good or Get High 12.1 8.4 12.7 8.4 11.1 8.5 3.7 *
Increase or Decrease Effect of Other Drug 1.3 0.7 1.0 1.5 3.0 1.7 0.0 0.9
Because I Am Hooked or Have to Have It 4.3 4.0 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.1 *
Help Lose Weight -- -- 5.8 3.1 -- -- -- --
Help Concentrate -- -- 35.4 34.0 -- -- -- --
Help Be Alert or Stay Awake -- -- 24.3 30.6 -- -- -- --
Help Study -- -- 11.2 13.4 -- -- -- --
Some Other Reason 1.2 1.5 2.3 5.0 4.1 6.4 2.2 3.9
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Only a subset of reasons for misuse apply for each prescription psychotherapeutic. Inapplicable reasons are marked as “--” (i.e., not available). Respondents who wrote in an inapplicable reason as their “other reason” (e.g., pain relief as the reason for tranquilizer misuse) were retained in the “Some Other Reason” category.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown information for their reason for misuse were excluded from the analysis, including respondents who reported some other reason but had unknown data in their write-in responses.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.18A – Main Reasons for Last Episode of Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 18 or Older of Each Type of Prescription Psychotherapeutic; Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Main Reason for Last Episode of Misuse Past Year
Pain Reliever
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Pain Reliever
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Stimulant
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Stimulant
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Tranquilizer
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Tranquilizer
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Sedative
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Sedative
Misuse
(2022)
Relieve Physical Pain 4,898 5,226 -- -- -- -- -- --
Relax or Relieve Tension 563 521 -- -- 1,496 1,600 * *
Help with Sleep 362 408 -- -- 867 888 540 *
Help with Feelings or Emotion 167 316 -- -- 780 583 84 *
Experiment or See What It’s Like 212 111 206 123 71 130 3 4
Feel Good or Get High 959 628 465 325 424 308 30 *
Increase or Decrease Effect of Other Drug 109 57 39 64 122 66 0 8
Because I Am Hooked or Have to Have It 352 320 19 23 35 28 1 0
Help Lose Weight -- -- 187 121 -- -- -- --
Help Concentrate -- -- 1,263 1,347 -- -- -- --
Help Be Alert or Stay Awake -- -- 918a 1,270 -- -- -- --
Help Study -- -- 392 530 -- -- -- --
Some Other Reason 86 113 79 188 167 252 18 25
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Only a subset of reasons for misuse apply for each prescription psychotherapeutic. Inapplicable reasons are marked as “--” (i.e., not available). Respondents who wrote in an inapplicable reason as their “other reason” (e.g., pain relief as the reason for tranquilizer misuse) were retained in the “Some Other Reason” category.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown information for their reason for misuse were excluded from the analysis, including respondents who reported some other reason but had unknown data in their write-in responses.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.18B – Main Reasons for Last Episode of Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics: Among Past Year Misusers Aged 18 or Older of Each Type of Prescription Psychotherapeutic; Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Main Reason for Last Episode of Misuse Past Year
Pain Reliever
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Pain Reliever
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Stimulant
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Stimulant
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Tranquilizer
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Tranquilizer
Misuse
(2022)
Past Year
Sedative
Misuse
(2021)
Past Year
Sedative
Misuse
(2022)
Relieve Physical Pain 63.5 67.9 -- -- -- -- -- --
Relax or Relieve Tension 7.3 6.8 -- -- 37.7 41.5 * *
Help with Sleep 4.7 5.3 -- -- 21.9 23.0 68.3 *
Help with Feelings or Emotion 2.2 4.1 -- -- 19.7 15.1 10.6 *
Experiment or See What It’s Like 2.8 1.4 5.8a 3.1 1.8 3.4 0.3 0.4
Feel Good or Get High 12.4a 8.2 13.0a 8.1 10.7 8.0 3.8 *
Increase or Decrease Effect of Other Drug 1.4 0.7 1.1 1.6 3.1 1.7 0.0 1.0
Because I Am Hooked or Have to Have It 4.6 4.2 0.5 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.1 0.0
Help Lose Weight -- -- 5.2 3.0 -- -- -- --
Help Concentrate -- -- 35.4 33.8 -- -- -- --
Help Be Alert or Stay Awake -- -- 25.7 31.8 -- -- -- --
Help Study -- -- 11.0 13.3 -- -- -- --
Some Other Reason 1.1 1.5 2.2 4.7 4.2 6.5 2.3 2.8
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Only a subset of reasons for misuse apply for each prescription psychotherapeutic. Inapplicable reasons are marked as “--” (i.e., not available). Respondents who wrote in an inapplicable reason as their “other reason” (e.g., pain relief as the reason for tranquilizer misuse) were retained in the “Some Other Reason” category.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown information for their reason for misuse were excluded from the analysis, including respondents who reported some other reason but had unknown data in their write-in responses.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.19A – Social Context and Location of Most Recent Alcohol Use in Past Month: Among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20; by Age Group and Gender, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Social Context and Location
of Most Recent Alcohol Use
Aged 12-20
(2021)
Aged 12-20
(2022)
Aged 12-14
(2021)
Aged 12-14
(2022)
Aged 15-17
(2021)
Aged 15-17
(2022)
Aged 18-20
(2021)
Aged 18-20
(2022)
Male
(2021)
Male
(2022)
Female
(2021)
Female
(2022)
SOCIAL CONTEXT OF MOST
RECENT UNDERAGE ALCOHOL
USE1
                       
Drank Alone 699 606 * 43 249 161 384 402 357 346 342 260
Drank with One Other Person 1,091 1,057 * * 254 259 775 735 487 486 604 571
Drank with More than One Person 4,042 3,934 * * 929 964 2,910 2,849 1,932 1,809 2,111 2,126
LOCATION OF MOST RECENT
UNDERAGE ALCOHOL USE1,2
                       
Car or Other Vehicle 205 209 * 7 46 60 142 143 89 82 116 127
Home 2,741 2,621 * * 633 613 1,927 1,896 1,367 1,258 1,373 1,363
Someone Else’s Home 2,389 2,359 * * 619 621 1,675 1,640 1,091 1,039 1,298 1,319
Park, Beach, or Parking Lot 243 338 12 * 53b 120 178 208 119 201 124 137
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 354a 554 2 7 34 35 318a 512 170 245 184a 308
Concert or Sports Game 69 105 * * 2a 13 61 92 51 75 18 30
School 32 47 * * 15 16 15 30 13 16 19 31
Some Other Place3 314 237 * 9 106 57 184 172 110 118 204 120
Party, Wedding, or Celebration 117 62 0 3 39 19 78 40 23 26 94a 35
Outside (Location not Specified) 37 33 1 3 30 18 6 12 32 18 5 16
Hotel, Motel, or Resort 24 36 * * 4 2 20 34 8 11 16 25
Camping, Hunting, or Fishing 21 28 5 * 7 7 9 21 5 22 16 6
Cabin, Cottage, Vacation Home, etc. 6 13 * * 3 * * 13 6 10 * 2
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded from the respective analyses.
2 Respondents could indicate multiple locations for the most recent time they used alcohol; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
3 Respondents could specify other locations for “Some Other Place.” The “other” locations listed are frequently among the most common write-in responses. Invalid write-in responses were excluded from this analysis.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.19B – Social Context and Location of Most Recent Alcohol Use in Past Month: Among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20; by Age Group and Gender, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Social Context and Location
of Most Recent Alcohol Use
Aged 12-20
(2021)
Aged 12-20
(2022)
Aged 12-14
(2021)
Aged 12-14
(2022)
Aged 15-17
(2021)
Aged 15-17
(2022)
Aged 18-20
(2021)
Aged 18-20
(2022)
Male
(2021)
Male
(2022)
Female
(2021)
Female
(2022)
SOCIAL CONTEXT OF MOST
RECENT UNDERAGE ALCOHOL
USE1
                       
Drank Alone 12.0 10.8 * 18.8 17.4 11.7 9.4 10.1 12.9 13.1 11.2 8.8
Drank with One Other Person 18.7 18.9 * * 17.8 18.7 19.1 18.4 17.5 18.4 19.8 19.3
Drank with More than One Person 69.3 70.3 * * 64.9 69.7 71.5 71.5 69.6 68.5 69.1 71.9
LOCATION OF MOST RECENT
UNDERAGE ALCOHOL USE1,2
                       
Car or Other Vehicle 3.5 3.8 * 3.1 3.3 4.3 3.5 3.6 3.3 3.1 3.8 4.3
Home 47.4 47.1 * * 45.1 44.7 47.4 47.7 49.8 47.9 45.2 46.3
Someone Else’s Home 41.3 42.3 * * 44.1 45.3 41.2 41.3 39.7 39.6 42.7 44.8
Park, Beach, or Parking Lot 4.2 6.1 3.9 * 3.8b 8.7 4.4 5.2 4.3 7.7 4.1 4.7
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 6.1b 9.9 0.7 3.0 2.4 2.6 7.8b 12.9 6.2 9.3 6.1a 10.5
Concert or Sports Game 1.2 1.9 * * 0.1a 0.9 1.5 2.3 1.9 2.9 0.6 1.0
School 0.5 0.8 * * 1.0 1.2 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.6 1.0
Some Other Place3 5.5 4.3 * 4.1 7.7 4.2 4.6 4.4 4.1 4.5 6.8 4.1
Party, Wedding, or Celebration 2.0 1.1 0.0 1.5 2.8 1.4 1.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 3.1a 1.2
Outside (Location not Specified) 0.6 0.6 0.2 1.5 2.2 1.3 0.2 0.3 1.2 0.7 0.2 0.5
Hotel, Motel, or Resort 0.4 0.7 * * 0.3 0.1 0.5 0.9 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.9
Camping, Hunting, or Fishing 0.4 0.5 1.7 * 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.9 0.5 0.2
Cabin, Cottage, Vacation Home, etc. 0.1 0.2 * * 0.2 * * 0.3 0.2 0.4 * 0.1
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded from the respective analyses.
2 Respondents could indicate multiple locations for the most recent time they used alcohol; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
3 Respondents could specify other locations for “Some Other Place.” The “other” locations listed are frequently among the most common write-in responses. Invalid write-in responses were excluded from this analysis.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.20A – Source Where Alcohol Was Obtained for Most Recent Use in Past Month: Among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20; by Age Group and Gender, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Source of Most Recent Alcohol Use
in the Past Month
Aged 12-20
(2021)
Aged 12-20
(2022)
Aged 12-14
(2021)
Aged 12-14
(2022)
Aged 15-17
(2021)
Aged 15-17
(2022)
Aged 18-20
(2021)
Aged 18-20
(2022)
Male
(2021)
Male
(2022)
Female
(2021)
Female
(2022)
UNDERAGE DRINKER PAID1 1,471 1,553 * 5 212 213 1,257 1,334 831 823 640 730
Purchased It Himself or Herself 519a 716 * 3 74 56 446a 657 320 399 200a 317
From Store, Restaurant, Bar, Club, or Event 445a 641 * * 44 42 401a 598 265 346 180a 295
Liquor, Convenience, or Grocery Store 344 448 * * 43 31 301 416 218 235 126 212
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 93a 176 * * 0a 10 93 166 39a 103 54 73
Concert, Sports, or Other Event 5 15 * * 1 1 5 14 5 6 * 9
From Another Person 74 76 * 3 30 14 44 59 54 53 20 22
From Person under Age 21 20 18 * * 9 6 12 10 19 11 1 7
From Person Aged 21 or Older 54 57 * * 21 8 33 48 35 41 19 16
Purchased by Someone Else 936 824 * 3 133 156 801 665 505 413 432 411
Parent or Guardian 46 55 * 1 3 18 43 36 28 28 19 27
Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 174 82 * * * 9 133 73 91 23 83 59
Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 603 516 * 2 67 92 536 422 334 256 269 260
Someone under Age 21 93 129 * * 17 26 74 103 39 100 55 29
UNDERAGE DRINKER DID NOT PAY1 4,354 4,035 * 222 1,214 1,175 2,812 2,638 1,939 1,803 2,415 2,232
Got It from Parent or Guardian 828 691 * * 203 201 566 441 384 327 444 365
Got It from Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 734 660 * * 174 145 506 489 304 253 430 407
Got It from Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 1,136 1,123 18 12 183 178 935 933 496 473 640 650
Got It from Someone under Age 21 573 587 * * 237 238 298 303 260 220 313 367
Took It from Own Home 336 449 * * 148 217 132 198 151 227 185 221
Took It from Someone Else’s Home 105 81 * 4 35 32 45 46 29 55 75 26
Got It Some Other Way 294 203 * 8 115 85 145 110 165 122 129 80
From Friend or Acquaintance, Unspecified Age
   and Method2
62 48 4 * 20 27 38 19 29 24 34 24
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded from the respective analyses.
2 Respondents could specify other sources for “Some Other Way.” The source listed is the most common write-in response. Invalid write-in responses were excluded from this analysis.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.20B – Source Where Alcohol Was Obtained for Most Recent Use in Past Month: Among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20; by Age Group and Gender, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Source of Most Recent Alcohol Use
in the Past Month
Aged 12-20
(2021)
Aged 12-20
(2022)
Aged 12-14
(2021)
Aged 12-14
(2022)
Aged 15-17
(2021)
Aged 15-17
(2022)
Aged 18-20
(2021)
Aged 18-20
(2022)
Male
(2021)
Male
(2022)
Female
(2021)
Female
(2022)
UNDERAGE DRINKER PAID1 25.2 27.8 * 2.3 14.9 15.4 30.9 33.6 30.0 31.4 20.9 24.6
Purchased It Himself or Herself 8.9b 12.8 * 1.2 5.2 4.1 11.0b 16.6 11.6 15.3 6.6a 10.7
From Store, Restaurant, Bar, Club, or Event 7.7b 11.5 * * 3.1 3.1 9.9b 15.1 9.6 13.2 5.9a 9.9
Liquor, Convenience, or Grocery Store 5.9 8.0 * * 3.0 2.3 7.4 10.5 7.9 9.0 4.1a 7.2
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 1.6a 3.2 * * 0.0a 0.7 2.3a 4.2 1.4a 3.9 1.8 2.5
Concert, Sports, or Other Event 0.1 0.3 * * 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.2 * 0.3
From Another Person 1.3 1.4 * 1.2 2.1 1.0 1.1 1.5 2.0 2.0 0.7 0.8
From Person under Age 21 0.3 0.3 * * 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.0 0.2
From Person Aged 21 or Older 0.9 1.0 * * 1.5 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.3 1.6 0.6 0.5
Purchased by Someone Else 16.1 14.8 * 1.2 9.4 11.2 19.7 16.8 18.3 15.8 14.2 13.9
Parent or Guardian 0.8 1.0 * 0.3 0.2 1.3 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.1 0.6 0.9
Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 3.0 1.5 * * * 0.7 3.3 1.8 3.3 0.9 2.7 2.0
Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 10.4 9.3 * 0.9 4.7 6.7 13.2 10.7 12.2 9.8 8.8 8.9
Someone under Age 21 1.6 2.3 * * 1.2 1.9 1.8 2.6 1.4a 3.8 1.8 1.0
UNDERAGE DRINKER DID NOT PAY1 74.8 72.2 * 97.7 85.1 84.6 69.1 66.4 70.0 68.6 79.1 75.4
Got It from Parent or Guardian 15.1 12.9 * * 15.5 15.4 14.6 11.5 14.6 13.1 15.6 12.8
Got It from Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 13.4 12.3 * * 13.3 11.1 13.0 12.7 11.6 10.1 15.0 14.3
Got It from Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 20.8 21.0 6.3 6.6 14.0 13.6 24.1 24.2 18.9 18.9 22.4 22.8
Got It from Someone under Age 21 10.5 11.0 * * 18.1 18.2 7.7 7.9 9.9 8.8 11.0 12.9
Took It from Own Home 6.1 8.4 * * 11.3 16.6 3.4 5.1 5.8 9.1 6.5 7.8
Took It from Someone Else’s Home 1.9 1.5 * 2.3 2.6 2.4 1.1 1.2 1.1 2.2 2.6 0.9
Got It Some Other Way 5.4 3.8 * 4.3 8.8 6.5 3.7 2.9 6.3 4.9 4.5 2.8
From Friend or Acquaintance, Unspecified Age
   and Method2
1.1 0.9 1.3 * 1.5 2.0 1.0 0.5 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.9
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded from the respective analyses.
2 Respondents could specify other sources for “Some Other Way.” The source listed is the most common write-in response. Invalid write-in responses were excluded from this analysis.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.21A – Illicit Drug, Illegally Made Fentanyl, or Other Substance Use in Lifetime: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
ILLICIT DRUGS, ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL,
OR OTHER SUBTANCES
-- 158,124 -- 6,840 -- 151,284 -- 20,821 -- 130,463
Illicit Drugs 139,677a 143,116 5,738 5,377 133,939a 137,739 18,275a 19,121 115,664 118,618
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 1,607 -- 33 -- 1,575 -- 135 -- 1,440
OTHER SUBSTANCES                    
GHB 1,610 1,678 19 7 1,591 1,671 53 78 1,538 1,593
Nonprescription Cough or Cold Medicine 10,580 11,315 506 445 10,074 10,871 1,199a 1,463 8,875 9,408
Kratom 4,454 4,902 98 45 4,356 4,857 702a 913 3,654 3,945
Synthetic Marijuana (Fake Weed, K2, Spice) 6,588 7,216 156 159 6,432 7,057 779 783 5,653 6,273
Synthetic Stimulants (“Bath Salts,” Flakka) 669 855 19a 52 651 803 75 73 575 730
CBD -- 91,641 -- 3,651 -- 87,991 -- 14,302 -- 73,688
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.21B – Illicit Drug, Illegally Made Fentanyl, or Other Substance Use in Lifetime: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
ILLICIT DRUGS, ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL,
OR OTHER SUBTANCES
-- 56.1 -- 26.6 -- 59.0 -- 59.9 -- 58.9
Illicit Drugs 49.9 50.7 22.1 20.9 52.8 53.7 54.6 55.0 52.5 53.6
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 0.6 -- 0.1 -- 0.6 -- 0.4 -- 0.7
OTHER SUBSTANCES                    
GHB 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.7
Nonprescription Cough or Cold Medicine 3.8 4.0 1.9 1.7 4.0 4.2 3.6 4.2 4.0 4.2
Kratom 1.6 1.7 0.4 0.2 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.6 1.7 1.8
Synthetic Marijuana (Fake Weed, K2, Spice) 2.4 2.6 0.6 0.6 2.5 2.8 2.3 2.3 2.6 2.8
Synthetic Stimulants (“Bath Salts,” Flakka) 0.2 0.3 0.1a 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3
CBD -- 32.5 -- 14.2 -- 34.3 -- 41.1 -- 33.3
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.22A – Illicit Drug, Illegally Made Fentanyl, or Other Substance Use in Past Year: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
ILLICIT DRUGS, ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL,
OR OTHER SUBTANCES
-- 90,934 -- 4,821 -- 86,114 -- 15,970 -- 70,143
Illicit Drugs 61,995b 70,338 3,802 3,688 58,192b 66,650 13,036b 14,221 45,156b 52,429
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 686 -- 20 -- 666 -- 48 -- 617
OTHER SUBSTANCES                    
GHB 318 211 6 4 312 207 14 3 298 204
Nonprescription Cough or Cold Medicine 1,566b 2,209 176 162 1,390b 2,047 242 296 1,149b 1,750
Kratom 1,754 1,852 47 26 1,707 1,826 313 371 1,394 1,455
Synthetic Marijuana (Fake Weed, K2, Spice) 492a 786 108 105 385b 681 171 220 214a 462
Synthetic Stimulants (“Bath Salts,” Flakka) 103a 216 18 37 85 179 44 50 41 129
CBD -- 55,722 -- 2,702 -- 53,020 -- 9,481 -- 43,539
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.22B – Illicit Drug, Illegally Made Fentanyl, or Other Substance Use in Past Year: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
ILLICIT DRUGS, ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL,
OR OTHER SUBTANCES
-- 32.2 -- 18.7 -- 33.6 -- 45.9 -- 31.7
Illicit Drugs 22.2b 24.9 14.6 14.3 22.9b 26.0 39.0 40.9 20.5b 23.7
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 0.2 -- 0.1 -- 0.3 -- 0.1 -- 0.3
OTHER SUBSTANCES                    
GHB 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
Nonprescription Cough or Cold Medicine 0.6b 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5b 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.5b 0.8
Kratom 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.1 0.6 0.7
Synthetic Marijuana (Fake Weed, K2, Spice) 0.2a 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.2b 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.1a 0.2
Synthetic Stimulants (“Bath Salts,” Flakka) 0.0a 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1
CBD -- 19.8 -- 10.5 -- 20.7 -- 27.3 -- 19.7
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.23A – Illicit Drug, Illegally Made Fentanyl, or Other Substance Use in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
ILLICIT DRUGS, ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL,
OR OTHER SUBTANCES
-- 59,290 -- 2,570 -- 56,720 -- 10,692 -- 46,028
Illicit Drugs 40,564b 46,603 1,964 1,884 38,600b 44,719 8,648b 9,478 29,952b 35,241
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 330 -- 11 -- 319 -- 28 -- 291
OTHER SUBSTANCES                    
GHB 186 108 * * 186 107 11 * 175 107
Nonprescription Cough or Cold Medicine 546a 877 37 69 509 808 70 92 439 716
Kratom 817 1,027 13 10 804 1,016 125 133 679 884
Synthetic Marijuana (Fake Weed, K2, Spice) 147b 331 24 52 123a 279 66 83 57a 196
Synthetic Stimulants (“Bath Salts,” Flakka) 83 167 16 24 66 144 34 28 32 116
CBD -- 29,695 -- 1,376 -- 28,319 -- 5,011 -- 23,308
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.23B – Illicit Drug, Illegally Made Fentanyl, or Other Substance Use in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
ILLICIT DRUGS, ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL,
OR OTHER SUBTANCES
-- 21.0 -- 10.0 -- 22.1 -- 30.7 -- 20.8
Illicit Drugs 14.5b 16.5 7.5 7.3 15.2b 17.4 25.8 27.2 13.6b 15.9
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 0.1 -- 0.0 -- 0.1 -- 0.1 -- 0.1
OTHER SUBSTANCES                    
GHB 0.1 0.0 * * 0.1 0.0 0.0 * 0.1 0.0
Nonprescription Cough or Cold Medicine 0.2a 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3
Kratom 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4
Synthetic Marijuana (Fake Weed, K2, Spice) 0.1b 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0a 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.0a 0.1
Synthetic Stimulants (“Bath Salts,” Flakka) 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1
CBD -- 10.5 -- 5.3 -- 11.0 -- 14.4 -- 10.5
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.24A – Vaping in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
LIFETIME                            
Nicotine -- 67,445 -- 4,872 -- 62,574 -- 17,268 -- 45,306 -- 10,799 -- 56,646
Marijuana -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavoring (No Other Substance) -- 20,415 -- 1,681 -- 18,734 -- 6,246 -- 12,488 -- 3,769 -- 16,646
PAST YEAR                            
Nicotine -- 35,101 -- 3,559 -- 31,542 -- 11,608 -- 19,934 -- 7,846 -- 27,255
Marijuana -- 22,714 -- 1,761 -- 20,953 -- 6,653 -- 14,300 -- 4,254 -- 18,460
Flavoring (No Other Substance) -- 7,852 -- 1,057 -- 6,795 -- 2,472 -- 4,322 -- 1,997 -- 5,855
PAST MONTH                            
Nicotine -- 23,503 -- 1,769 -- 21,733 -- 8,335 -- 13,399 -- 4,719 -- 18,784
Marijuana -- 14,704 -- 903 -- 13,801 -- 4,333 -- 9,468 -- 2,426 -- 12,278
Flavoring (No Other Substance) -- 4,240 -- 458 -- 3,782 -- 1,346 -- 2,436 -- 899 -- 3,341
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.24B – Vaping in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
Aged 12-201
(2021)
Aged 12-201
(2022)
Aged 21+1
(2021)
Aged 21+1
(2022)
LIFETIME                            
Nicotine -- 23.9 -- 18.9 -- 24.4 -- 49.6 -- 20.5 -- 27.9 -- 23.3
Marijuana -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavoring (No Other Substance) -- 7.2 -- 6.5 -- 7.3 -- 18.0 -- 5.6 -- 9.7 -- 6.8
PAST YEAR                            
Nicotine -- 12.4 -- 13.8 -- 12.3 -- 33.4 -- 9.0 -- 20.3 -- 11.2
Marijuana -- 8.1 -- 6.8 -- 8.2 -- 19.1 -- 6.5 -- 11.0 -- 7.6
Flavoring (No Other Substance) -- 2.8 -- 4.1 -- 2.7 -- 7.1 -- 2.0 -- 5.2 -- 2.4
PAST MONTH                            
Nicotine -- 8.3 -- 6.9 -- 8.5 -- 24.0 -- 6.0 -- 12.2 -- 7.7
Marijuana -- 5.2 -- 3.5 -- 5.4 -- 12.5 -- 4.3 -- 6.3 -- 5.0
Flavoring (No Other Substance) -- 1.5 -- 1.8 -- 1.5 -- 3.9 -- 1.1 -- 2.3 -- 1.4
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
1 The Aged 12-20 and Aged 21+ columns are included because they are the underage and legal age groups for tobacco.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.25A – Modes of Marijuana Use in Past Year: Among Past Year Marijuana Users Aged 12 or Older; Modes of Marijuana Use in Past Month: Among Past Month Marijuana Users Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Mode of Marijuana Use1 Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
PAST YEAR                    
Smoking2 -- 48,289 -- 2,166 -- 46,123 -- 11,356 -- 34,766
Vaping -- 22,714 -- 1,761 -- 20,953 -- 6,653 -- 14,300
Dabbing waxes, shatter, or concentrates2 -- 10,783 -- 657 -- 10,126 -- 3,903 -- 6,223
Eating or drinking2 -- 29,012 -- 1,021 -- 27,991 -- 6,632 -- 21,358
Other2,3 -- 9,440 -- 338 -- 9,101 -- 1,405 -- 7,697
PAST MONTH                    
Smoking2 -- 32,944 -- 1,279 -- 31,665 -- 7,409 -- 24,256
Vaping -- 14,704 -- 903 -- 13,801 -- 4,333 -- 9,468
Dabbing waxes, shatter, or concentrates2 -- 6,837 -- 377 -- 6,460 -- 2,425 -- 4,035
Eating or drinking2 -- 15,194 -- 416 -- 14,778 -- 3,210 -- 11,568
Other2,3 -- 4,882 -- 123 -- 4,759 -- 640 -- 4,119
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
1 Respondents could indicate multiple modes of marijuana use; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
2 Respondents with unknown modes of marijuana use information were excluded from the respective analyses.
3 Other modes include applying lotion, cream, or patches to skin; putting drops, strips, lozenges, or sprays in mouth or under tongue; taking pills; or some other way.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.25B – Modes of Marijuana Use in Past Year: Among Past Year Marijuana Users Aged 12 or Older; Modes of Marijuana Use in Past Month: Among Past Month Marijuana Users Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Mode of Marijuana Use1 Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
PAST YEAR                    
Smoking2 -- 78.4 -- 76.6 -- 78.5 -- 85.9 -- 76.3
Vaping -- 36.7 -- 59.7 -- 35.5 -- 50.0 -- 31.3
Dabbing waxes, shatter, or concentrates2 -- 17.5 -- 23.3 -- 17.2 -- 29.5 -- 13.7
Eating or drinking2 -- 47.1 -- 36.1 -- 47.6 -- 50.2 -- 46.9
Other2,3 -- 15.4 -- 12.1 -- 15.6 -- 10.7 -- 17.0
PAST MONTH                    
Smoking2 -- 78.6 -- 81.9 -- 78.5 -- 83.5 -- 77.1
Vaping -- 34.7 -- 54.9 -- 33.9 -- 48.1 -- 29.9
Dabbing waxes, shatter, or concentrates2 -- 16.2 -- 24.0 -- 15.9 -- 27.2 -- 12.8
Eating or drinking2 -- 36.1 -- 26.5 -- 36.5 -- 36.1 -- 36.7
Other2,3 -- 11.7 -- 7.9 -- 11.8 -- 7.2 -- 13.1
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
1 Respondents could indicate multiple modes of marijuana use; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
2 Respondents with unknown modes of marijuana use information were excluded from the respective analyses.
3 Other modes include applying lotion, cream, or patches to skin; putting drops, strips, lozenges, or sprays in mouth or under tongue; taking pills; or some other way.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.26A – Marijuana Vaping in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
TOTAL -- 14,704 -- 903 -- 13,801 -- 4,333 -- 9,468
GENDER                    
Male -- 8,313 -- 384 -- 7,928 -- 2,336 -- 5,592
Female -- 6,392 -- 519 -- 5,873 -- 1,997 -- 3,876
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino -- 11,985 -- 642 -- 11,344 -- 3,320 -- 8,024
AIAN -- 82 -- 9 -- 73 -- * -- 45
Asian -- 321 -- 7 -- 314 -- 140 -- 174
Black or African American -- 1,065 -- 87 -- 978 -- 292 -- 686
NHOPI -- 64 -- * -- 59 -- * -- 31
White -- 9,971 -- 499 -- 9,473 -- 2,665 -- 6,808
Two or More Races -- 481 -- 34 -- 447 -- 167 -- 280
Hispanic or Latino -- 2,719 -- 262 -- 2,457 -- 1,013 -- 1,444
EDUCATION LEVEL                    
< High School da da da da -- 965 -- 425 -- 540
High School Graduate da da da da -- 3,673 -- 1,396 -- 2,277
Some College/Associate’s Degree da da da da -- 5,236 -- 1,850 -- 3,386
College Graduate da da da da -- 3,928 -- 663 -- 3,265
EMPLOYMENT STATUS                    
Full-Time da da da da -- 7,590 -- 1,992 -- 5,597
Part-Time da da da da -- 2,481 -- 1,250 -- 1,230
Unemployed da da da da -- 714 -- 293 -- 421
Other1 da da da da -- 3,017 -- 797 -- 2,220
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
1 Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.26B – Marijuana Vaping in Past Month: Among People Aged 12 or Older; by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Aged 12+
(2021)
Aged 12+
(2022)
Aged 12-17
(2021)
Aged 12-17
(2022)
Aged 18+
(2021)
Aged 18+
(2022)
Aged 18-25
(2021)
Aged 18-25
(2022)
Aged 26+
(2021)
Aged 26+
(2022)
TOTAL -- 5.2 -- 3.5 -- 5.4 -- 12.5 -- 4.3
GENDER                    
Male -- 6.0 -- 2.9 -- 6.3 -- 13.4 -- 5.2
Female -- 4.4 -- 4.1 -- 4.5 -- 11.5 -- 3.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino -- 5.2 -- 3.4 -- 5.4 -- 12.5 -- 4.3
AIAN -- 5.6 -- 4.2 -- 5.8 -- * -- 4.4
Asian -- 1.9 -- 0.5 -- 2.0 -- 6.2 -- 1.3
Black or African American -- 3.1 -- 2.5 -- 3.2 -- 6.3 -- 2.6
NHOPI -- 5.0 -- * -- 4.9 -- * -- 2.8
White -- 5.8 -- 3.9 -- 6.0 -- 14.6 -- 4.9
Two or More Races -- 8.2 -- 4.1 -- 8.9 -- 16.6 -- 6.9
Hispanic or Latino -- 5.3 -- 3.9 -- 5.6 -- 12.3 -- 4.0
EDUCATION LEVEL                    
< High School da da da da -- 4.0 -- 11.8 -- 2.6
High School Graduate da da da da -- 5.3 -- 12.0 -- 4.0
Some College/Associate’s Degree da da da da -- 6.7 -- 13.3 -- 5.3
College Graduate da da da da -- 4.6 -- 11.6 -- 4.1
EMPLOYMENT STATUS                    
Full-Time da da da da -- 6.4 -- 14.2 -- 5.4
Part-Time da da da da -- 7.6 -- 14.2 -- 5.1
Unemployed da da da da -- 6.5 -- 9.1 -- 5.4
Other1 da da da da -- 3.2 -- 9.1 -- 2.6
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
1 Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.27A – Substance Use in Past Month: Among Females Aged 15 to 44; by Pregnancy Status, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance Females Aged 15-441 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS2 12,420 13,496 158 204 11,986 12,927
Marijuana 11,349a 12,571 143 168 10,957a 12,064
Cocaine 551 421 4 0 545 415
Crack 91 44 * * 90 42
Heroin 197 127 6 1 187 120
Hallucinogens 781 668 4 10 761 651
LSD 130 133 4 0 125 133
PCP 4 10 4 0 * 9
Ecstasy 261 137 4 8 252 126
Inhalants 125 146 0 * 123 141
Methamphetamine 392 387 18 1 363 372
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics 1,351 1,310 32 57 1,282 1,230
Pain Relievers 694 599 18 16 657 577
Stimulants 408 492 21 * 384 472
Tranquilizers or Sedatives 424 462 27 24 378 425
Tranquilizers 335 399 13 24 302 361
Sedatives 100 99 * * 87 99
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids2 825 698 20 16 784 668
Central Nervous System Stimulants 1,244 1,123 35 * 1,194 1,085
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana2,3 2,684 2,380 47 68 2,577 2,271
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING -- 15,062 -- 180 -- 14,568
Tobacco Products 11,155b 9,557 241a 118 10,608b 9,196
Cigarettes 9,884b 8,450 224a 103 9,400b 8,116
Daily Cigarettes 5,519b 4,527 149a 37 5,205b 4,334
Smokeless Tobacco 636b 363 * 10 552a 353
Cigars 1,742 1,814 16 33 1,663 1,726
Pipe Tobacco 237 184 * 8 201 172
Nicotine Vaping -- 8,655 -- 93 -- 8,430
ALCOHOL 32,657 33,401 199 233 31,881 32,604
Binge Alcohol Use4 17,196 17,555 94 113 16,715 17,088
Heavy Alcohol Use 3,736 3,683 23 35 3,564 3,525
OPIOIDS INCLUDING ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL -- 736 -- 16 -- 707
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 81 -- 1 -- 80
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Females Aged 15-44 column includes respondents with unknown pregnancy status.
2 For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, these estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
3 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
4 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.27B – Substance Use in Past Month: Among Females Aged 15 to 44; by Pregnancy Status, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Females Aged 15-441 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS2 19.1a 20.8 7.9 9.6 19.4a 21.0
Marijuana 17.5b 19.4 7.1 7.9 17.7a 19.6
Cocaine 0.8 0.7 0.2 0.0 0.9 0.7
Crack 0.1 0.1 * * 0.1 0.1
Heroin 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.2
Hallucinogens 1.2 1.0 0.2 0.4 1.2 1.1
LSD 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2
PCP 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 * 0.0
Ecstasy 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.2
Inhalants 0.2 0.2 0.0 * 0.2 0.2
Methamphetamine 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.1 0.6 0.6
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics 2.1 2.0 1.6 2.7 2.1 2.0
Pain Relievers 1.1 0.9 0.9 0.7 1.1 0.9
Stimulants 0.6 0.8 1.0 * 0.6 0.8
Tranquilizers or Sedatives 0.7 0.7 1.3 1.1 0.6 0.7
Tranquilizers 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.1 0.5 0.6
Sedatives 0.2 0.2 * * 0.1 0.2
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids2 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.8 1.3 1.1
Central Nervous System Stimulants 1.9 1.7 1.7 * 1.9 1.8
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana2,3 4.1 3.7 2.3 3.2 4.2 3.7
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING -- 23.3 -- 8.4 -- 23.6
Tobacco Products 17.2b 14.8 12.0a 5.5 17.1b 14.9
Cigarettes 15.2b 13.0 11.1a 4.8 15.2b 13.2
Daily Cigarettes 8.5b 7.0 7.4a 1.7 8.4b 7.0
Smokeless Tobacco 1.0b 0.6 * 0.5 0.9a 0.6
Cigars 2.7 2.8 0.8 1.6 2.7 2.8
Pipe Tobacco 0.4 0.3 * 0.4 0.3 0.3
Nicotine Vaping -- 13.4 -- 4.3 -- 13.7
ALCOHOL 50.3 51.6 9.9 11.0 51.5 52.9
Binge Alcohol Use4 26.5 27.1 4.7 5.3 27.0 27.7
Heavy Alcohol Use 5.8 5.7 1.1 1.7 5.8 5.7
OPIOIDS INCLUDING ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL -- 1.1 -- 0.8 -- 1.1
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 0.1 -- 0.0 -- 0.1
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Females Aged 15-44 column includes respondents with unknown pregnancy status.
2 For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, these estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
3 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
4 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.28A – Illicit Drug Use, Marijuana Use, and Opioid Misuse in Past Month: Among Females Aged 15 to 44; by Pregnancy Status, Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic PAST MONTH ILLICIT DRUG USE1 PAST MONTH MARIJUANA USE PAST MONTH OPIOID MISUSE1
Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status
Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 12,420 13,496 158 204 11,986 12,927 11,349a 12,571 143 168 10,957a 12,064 825 698 20 16 784 668
AGE GROUP                                    
15-17 844 799 * * 826 778 730 763 * * 716 742 56 43 * * 55 43
18-25 4,044 4,431 54 80 3,918 4,270 3,780a 4,235 54 80 3,655 4,079 134 117 5 5 128 109
26-44 7,532 8,266 98 113 7,242 7,879 6,838 7,573 88 77 6,586 7,243 635 538 * 12 601 517
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 10,356 10,947 93a 172 10,059 10,478 9,563 10,210 89 137 9,282 9,799 633 576 6 16 616 547
AIAN * 89 * * * 85 * 87 * * * 83 * * * * * *
Asian 353 343 * * 343 337 313 306 * * 304 304 37 13 * * 37 8
Black or African American 1,734 1,921 * * 1,615 1,777 1,698 1,784 * 33 1,580 1,658 46a 136 * * 42a 128
NHOPI * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
White 7,697 8,024 62 111 7,542 7,733 7,028 7,477 58 93 6,889 7,223 485 390 5 8 475 373
Two or More Races 411 528 * * 403 503 380 519 * * 372 494 45 19 * * 44 19
Hispanic or Latino 2,064a 2,549 * * 1,927a 2,449 1,786a 2,361 * * 1,675b 2,265 193 122 * 0 168 122
POVERTY LEVEL3                                    
Less Than 100% 2,694 2,817 26a 76 2,598 2,654 2,384 2,599 26 57 2,293 2,462 234 218 1 * 233 198
100-199% 2,912 3,106 * * 2,805 2,971 2,655 2,894 * * 2,569 2,768 238 172 2 * 223 172
200% or More 6,808 7,572 * 69 6,577 7,301 6,304a 7,077 * 52 6,090 6,833 353 307 * 4 328 298
HEALTH INSURANCE4                                    
Private 6,358a 7,337 * 60 6,149a 7,053 5,913b 6,967 * 48 5,723a 6,707 299 219 2 * 285 214
Medicaid/CHIP 4,345 4,570 89 137 4,173 4,350 3,877 4,184 83 112 3,720 4,002 425 349 * 12 403 330
Other5 953 986 * * 928 967 856 907 * * 833 888 73 46 * * 70 45
No Coverage 1,312 1,392 * * 1,272 1,326 1,194 1,254 * * 1,163 1,190 82 106 * * 79 102
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, these estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
2 The Females Aged 15-44 column includes respondents with unknown pregnancy status.
3 Respondents aged 18 to 22 who were living in a college dormitory were excluded.
4 Respondents could indicate multiple types of health insurance; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
5 Other Health Insurance is defined as having Medicare, military-related health care, or any other type of health insurance.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.28B – Illicit Drug Use, Marijuana Use, and Opioid Misuse in Past Month: Among Females Aged 15 to 44; by Pregnancy Status, Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic PAST MONTH ILLICIT DRUG USE1 PAST MONTH MARIJUANA USE PAST MONTH OPIOID MISUSE1
Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status
Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 19.1a 20.8 7.9 9.6 19.4a 21.0 17.5b 19.4 7.1 7.9 17.7a 19.6 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.8 1.3 1.1
AGE GROUP                                    
15-17 13.0 12.9 * * 12.9 12.7 11.3 12.3 * * 11.2 12.1 0.9 0.7 * * 0.9 0.7
18-25 24.2 25.6 11.6 15.4 24.5 25.8 22.6 24.5 11.6 15.3 22.8 24.7 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7
26-44 18.1a 20.0 6.5 7.2 18.3 20.2 16.4a 18.3 5.8 4.9 16.7 18.6 1.5 1.3 * 0.7 1.5 1.3
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 20.4 21.7 5.8 9.6 20.8 21.9 18.9 20.2 5.6 7.7 19.2 20.5 1.2 1.1 0.4 0.9 1.3 1.1
AIAN * 29.5 * * * 29.6 * 28.9 * * * 29.0 * * * * * *
Asian 8.1 7.4 * * 8.3 7.6 7.2 6.6 * * 7.4 6.8 0.9 0.3 * * 0.9 0.2
Black or African American 19.2 21.3 * * 18.9 21.1 18.8 19.8 * 10.3 18.5 19.6 0.5a 1.5 * * 0.5a 1.5
NHOPI * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
White 22.1 23.2 5.9 9.1 22.6 23.5 20.2 21.6 5.5 7.6 20.6 22.0 1.4 1.1 0.5 0.7 1.4 1.1
Two or More Races 24.6 31.1 * * 25.7 31.1 22.8a 30.5 * * 23.8 30.5 2.7 1.1 * * 2.8 1.2
Hispanic or Latino 14.5a 17.9 * * 14.2a 17.8 12.5b 16.6 * * 12.3b 16.5 1.3 0.9 * 0.1 1.2 0.9
POVERTY LEVEL3                                    
Less Than 100% 20.1 21.8 5.5b 16.7 20.5 21.7 17.8 20.1 5.5 12.5 18.1 20.1 1.7 1.7 0.1 * 1.8 1.6
100-199% 19.8 21.6 * * 19.9 21.6 18.1 20.1 * * 18.2 20.1 1.6 1.2 0.5 * 1.6 1.3
200% or More 18.5 20.2 * 5.4 18.7 20.5 17.2 18.9 * 4.1 17.4 19.2 1.0 0.8 * 0.3 0.9 0.8
HEALTH INSURANCE4                                    
Private 17.0b 19.3 * 5.0 17.1a 19.5 15.8b 18.4 * 4.0 15.9b 18.5 0.8 0.6 0.2 * 0.8 0.6
Medicaid/CHIP 23.4 24.2 10.8 16.7 23.9 24.4 20.8 22.2 10.1 13.7 21.3 22.5 2.3 1.9 * 1.5 2.3 1.9
Other5 20.4 19.8 * * 20.9 20.5 18.3 18.2 * * 18.7 18.8 1.6 0.9 * * 1.6 1.0
No Coverage 18.1 21.0 * * 18.2 20.8 16.5 18.9 * * 16.7 18.7 1.1 1.6 * * 1.1 1.6
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, these estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
2 The Females Aged 15-44 column includes respondents with unknown pregnancy status.
3 Respondents aged 18 to 22 who were living in a college dormitory were excluded.
4 Respondents could indicate multiple types of health insurance; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
5 Other Health Insurance is defined as having Medicare, military-related health care, or any other type of health insurance.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.29A – Tobacco Product, Cigarette, and Daily Cigarette Use in Past Month: Among Females Aged 15 to 44; by Pregnancy Status, Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic PAST MONTH TOBACCO PRODUCT USE PAST MONTH CIGARETTE USE PAST MONTH DAILY CIGARETTE USE
Females Aged
15-441
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-441
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-441
Pregnancy Status
Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 11,155b 9,557 241a 118 10,608b 9,196 9,884b 8,450 224a 103 9,400b 8,116 5,519b 4,527 149a 37 5,205b 4,334
AGE GROUP                                    
15-17 286 193 * * 284 192 151 137 * * 150 137 2 3 * * 1 3
18-25 2,236 1,980 68 46 2,110 1,880 1,749 1,543 59 37 1,646 1,457 517 475 18 30 487 422
26-44 8,634b 7,384 171 72 8,213a 7,125 7,984b 6,770 163 66 7,604b 6,522 5,000b 4,049 131b 7 4,717a 3,910
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 9,733b 8,151 221a 115 9,270b 7,813 8,645b 7,240 206a 101 8,238b 6,927 5,035b 4,063 133a 35 4,773b 3,884
AIAN * 93 * * * 89 * 86 * * * 82 * 27 * * * 27
Asian 219 183 * * 218 182 213 171 * * 213 170 76 43 * * 76 43
Black or African American 1,646 1,700 * * 1,533 1,590 1,203 1,334 * * 1,123 1,238 547 632 * * 517 572
NHOPI * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
White 7,299b 5,705 167 80 6,996b 5,502 6,753b 5,226 158 72 6,474b 5,033 4,100b 3,089 114a 30 3,901b 2,982
Two or More Races 381 407 * * 344 387 324 360 * * 288 341 196 232 * * 169 221
Hispanic or Latino 1,422 1,406 * 2 1,338 1,383 1,239 1,211 * 2 1,162 1,189 484 464 * 2 432 451
POVERTY LEVEL2                                    
Less Than 100% 3,308 3,024 * 85 3,094 2,858 2,969 2,727 * 77 2,794 2,573 1,795 1,512 * 24 1,690 1,435
100-199% 3,055b 2,426 * 15 2,934a 2,344 2,760a 2,177 * 11 2,656a 2,104 1,521 1,252 * 7 1,466 1,217
200% or More 4,792a 4,107 76a 17 4,579 3,993 4,154a 3,546 73a 15 3,950 3,439 2,203a 1,764 49 6 2,049 1,682
HEALTH INSURANCE3                                    
Private 4,248 4,018 27 9 4,109 3,899 3,601 3,472 21 7 3,489 3,365 1,625 1,550 1 5 1,557 1,480
Medicaid/CHIP 4,821a 4,130 206 102 4,493 3,943 4,396a 3,727 194a 90 4,089 3,554 2,788a 2,211 * 27 2,575 2,131
Other4 868 711 * * 832 706 777 621 * * 744 616 519 382 * * 493 380
No Coverage 1,786b 1,315 * * 1,722b 1,261 1,623b 1,173 * * 1,571b 1,119 910 680 * * 885a 638
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Females Aged 15-44 column includes respondents with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Respondents aged 18 to 22 who were living in a college dormitory were excluded.
3 Respondents could indicate multiple types of health insurance; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
4 Other Health Insurance is defined as having Medicare, military-related health care, or any other type of health insurance.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
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Table 8.29B – Tobacco Product, Cigarette, and Daily Cigarette Use in Past Month: Among Females Aged 15 to 44; by Pregnancy Status, Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic PAST MONTH TOBACCO PRODUCT USE PAST MONTH CIGARETTE USE PAST MONTH DAILY CIGARETTE USE
Females Aged
15-441
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-441
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-441
Pregnancy Status
Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 17.2b 14.8 12.0a 5.5 17.1b 14.9 15.2b 13.0 11.1a 4.8 15.2b 13.2 8.5b 7.0 7.4a 1.7 8.4b 7.0
AGE GROUP                                    
15-17 4.4 3.1 * * 4.4 3.1 2.3 2.2 * * 2.3 2.2 0.0 0.0 * * 0.0 0.0
18-25 13.4a 11.4 14.7 8.8 13.2a 11.4 10.5 8.9 12.6 7.1 10.3 8.8 3.1 2.7 3.8 5.7 3.0 2.6
26-44 20.7b 17.9 11.3a 4.6 20.8b 18.3 19.1b 16.4 10.8a 4.2 19.3b 16.7 12.0b 9.8 8.7b 0.4 11.9a 10.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 19.2b 16.1 13.8a 6.5 19.2b 16.3 17.1b 14.3 12.8a 5.7 17.0b 14.5 9.9b 8.0 8.3a 2.0 9.9b 8.1
AIAN * 30.9 * * * 31.0 * 28.7 * * * 28.7 * 9.0 * * * 9.4
Asian 5.0 3.9 * * 5.3 4.1 4.9 3.7 * * 5.2 3.8 1.7 0.9 * * 1.8 1.0
Black or African American 18.2 18.9 * * 18.0 18.8 13.3 14.8 * * 13.2 14.7 6.0 7.0 * * 6.1 6.8
NHOPI * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
White 20.9b 16.5 15.8a 6.6 20.9b 16.7 19.4b 15.1 14.9a 5.9 19.4b 15.3 11.8b 8.9 10.8a 2.4 11.7b 9.1
Two or More Races 22.8 24.0 * * 22.0 23.9 19.4 21.2 * * 18.4 21.1 11.7 13.6 * * 10.8 13.7
Hispanic or Latino 10.0 9.9 * 0.6 9.9 10.1 8.7 8.5 * 0.5 8.6 8.6 3.4 3.3 * 0.5 3.2 3.3
POVERTY LEVEL2                                    
Less Than 100% 24.6 23.4 * 18.6 24.4 23.4 22.1 21.1 * 16.9 22.1 21.0 13.4 11.7 * 5.2 13.3 11.7
100-199% 20.8b 16.9 * 4.0 20.8b 17.0 18.8b 15.1 * 2.8 18.8a 15.3 10.3 8.7 * 1.8 10.4 8.8
200% or More 13.0b 11.0 6.6a 1.4 13.0a 11.2 11.3a 9.5 6.4a 1.2 11.3a 9.6 6.0a 4.7 4.3 0.5 5.8a 4.7
HEALTH INSURANCE3                                    
Private 11.3 10.6 2.6 0.8 11.4 10.8 9.6 9.2 2.0 0.6 9.7 9.3 4.3 4.1 0.1 0.4 4.3 4.1
Medicaid/CHIP 25.9b 21.9 24.9a 12.5 25.7a 22.2 23.6b 19.8 23.5a 10.9 23.4a 20.0 15.0b 11.7 * 3.2 14.8a 12.0
Other4 18.6a 14.2 * * 18.7 15.0 16.7a 12.4 * * 16.7 13.1 11.1 7.7 * * 11.1 8.1
No Coverage 24.6a 19.9 * * 24.7a 19.8 22.4a 17.7 * * 22.5a 17.6 12.6 10.3 * * 12.7 10.0
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Females Aged 15-44 column includes respondents with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Respondents aged 18 to 22 who were living in a college dormitory were excluded.
3 Respondents could indicate multiple types of health insurance; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
4 Other Health Insurance is defined as having Medicare, military-related health care, or any other type of health insurance.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.30A – Alcohol, Binge Alcohol, and Heavy Alcohol Use in Past Month: Among Females Aged 15 to 44; by Pregnancy Status, Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic PAST MONTH ALCOHOL USE PAST MONTH BINGE ALCOHOL USE1 PAST MONTH HEAVY ALCOHOL USE
Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status
Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 32,657 33,401 199 233 31,881 32,604 17,196 17,555 94 113 16,715 17,088 3,736 3,683 23 35 3,564 3,525
AGE GROUP                                    
15-17 872 880 * * 853 874 492 432 * * 473 426 43 29 * * 42 29
18-25 8,771 8,960 53 41 8,581 8,760 5,199 5,278 34 28 5,085 5,144 1,073 1,132 8 5 1,052 1,096
26-44 23,015 23,561 141 193 22,448 22,970 11,506 11,845 56 85 11,158 11,518 2,620 2,521 * 30 2,470 2,399
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 26,330 26,774 132 205 25,792 26,079 13,758 13,706 67 107 13,420 13,280 3,198 3,055 10 33 3,107 2,901
AIAN * 142 * * * 142 * 113 * * * 113 30 37 * * 30 37
Asian 1,447 1,642 * * 1,421 1,624 518 581 * * 499 572 121 62 * * 117 60
Black or African American 3,921 4,267 * * 3,751 4,058 2,224 2,335 * * 2,121 2,219 444 444 * * 405 437
NHOPI * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
White 19,770 19,781 86 128 19,475 19,346 10,224 10,179 46 57 10,052 9,900 2,462 2,390 8 * 2,430 2,250
Two or More Races 846 882 * * 803 850 556 452 * * 517 430 120 111 * * 106 108
Hispanic or Latino 6,327 6,627 * * 6,089 6,524 3,438 3,850 * 5 3,295 3,807 538 628 * * 457 624
POVERTY LEVEL3                                    
Less Than 100% 4,993 4,912 * * 4,837 4,733 3,274 3,091 * 33 3,153 2,984 718 655 * 0 659 647
100-199% 6,556 6,240 * 34 6,407 6,083 3,705 3,576 * 23 3,621 3,492 623 759 * 3 604 742
200% or More 21,095 22,244 133 128 20,626 21,784 10,206 10,885 55 57 9,933 10,608 2,395 2,267 * 32 2,301 2,134
HEALTH INSURANCE4                                    
Private 21,465 22,250 111 148 21,058 21,748 10,230 11,126 31 62 10,022 10,838 2,265 2,215 1 * 2,187 2,073
Medicaid/CHIP 7,027 7,220 83 74 6,791 7,021 4,389 4,100 60 44 4,203 3,979 898 962 * 1 812 954
Other5 2,093 2,388 * * 2,043 2,336 1,098 1,313 * * 1,076 1,283 311 334 * * 303 327
No Coverage 3,219 3,061 * * 3,110 2,972 2,090 1,862 * * 2,019 1,801 421 385 * * 420 380
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
2 The Females Aged 15-44 column includes respondents with unknown pregnancy status.
3 Respondents aged 18 to 22 who were living in a college dormitory were excluded.
4 Respondents could indicate multiple types of health insurance; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
5 Other Health Insurance is defined as having Medicare, military-related health care, or any other type of health insurance.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.30B – Alcohol, Binge Alcohol, and Heavy Alcohol Use in Past Month: Among Females Aged 15 to 44; by Pregnancy Status, Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic PAST MONTH ALCOHOL USE PAST MONTH BINGE ALCOHOL USE1 PAST MONTH HEAVY ALCOHOL USE
Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status Females Aged
15-442
Pregnancy Status
Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant Pregnant Not Pregnant
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 50.3 51.6 9.9 11.0 51.5 52.9 26.5 27.1 4.7 5.3 27.0 27.7 5.8 5.7 1.1 1.7 5.8 5.7
AGE GROUP                                    
15-17 13.5 14.2 * * 13.3 14.3 7.6 7.0 * * 7.4 7.0 0.7 0.5 * * 0.7 0.5
18-25 52.4 51.8 11.5 7.8 53.6 53.0 31.1 30.5 7.2 5.3 31.7 31.1 6.4 6.5 1.7 1.0 6.6 6.6
26-44 55.2 57.1 9.3 12.3 56.9 58.9 27.6 28.7 3.7 5.4 28.3 29.5 6.3 6.1 * 1.9 6.3 6.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 52.0 53.0 8.2 11.5 53.4 54.4 27.2 27.1 4.2 6.0 27.8 27.7 6.3 6.0 0.6 1.8 6.4 6.1
AIAN * 47.2 * * * 49.4 * 37.6 * * * 39.4 6.5 12.4 * * 6.9 13.0
Asian 33.2 35.3 * * 34.5 36.5 11.9 12.5 * * 12.1 12.9 2.8 1.3 * * 2.8 1.3
Black or African American 43.3 47.4 * * 44.0 48.1 24.6 25.9 * * 24.9 26.3 4.9 4.9 * * 4.7 5.2
NHOPI * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
White 56.7 57.3 8.1 10.5 58.3 58.8 29.3 29.5 4.3 4.7 30.1 30.1 7.1 6.9 0.8 * 7.3 6.8
Two or More Races 50.7 51.9 * * 51.3 52.5 33.3 26.6 * * 33.0 26.5 7.2 6.5 * * 6.8 6.7
Hispanic or Latino 44.3 46.5 * * 44.9 47.4 24.1 27.0 * 1.5 24.3 27.7 3.8 4.4 * * 3.4 4.5
POVERTY LEVEL3                                    
Less Than 100% 37.2 38.1 * * 38.2 38.7 24.4 24.0 * 7.2 24.9 24.4 5.3 5.1 * 0.1 5.2 5.3
100-199% 44.6 43.3 * 8.8 45.4 44.2 25.2 24.8 * 5.9 25.7 25.4 4.2 5.3 * 0.8 4.3 5.4
200% or More 57.4 59.4 11.6 9.9 58.8a 61.1 27.8 29.1 4.8 4.4 28.3 29.7 6.5 6.1 * 2.5 6.6 6.0
HEALTH INSURANCE4                                    
Private 57.3 58.7 10.7 12.4 58.6 60.1 27.3 29.3 3.0 5.2 27.9a 30.0 6.0 5.8 0.1 * 6.1 5.7
Medicaid/CHIP 37.8 38.3 10.1 9.0 38.9 39.5 23.6 21.7 7.2 5.4 24.1 22.4 4.8 5.1 * 0.1 4.7 5.4
Other5 44.9 47.8 * * 46.0 49.5 23.6 26.3 * * 24.2 27.2 6.7 6.7 * * 6.8 6.9
No Coverage 44.4 46.3 * * 44.6 46.7 28.9 28.1 * * 28.9 28.3 5.8 5.8 * * 6.0 6.0
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
2 The Females Aged 15-44 column includes respondents with unknown pregnancy status.
3 Respondents aged 18 to 22 who were living in a college dormitory were excluded.
4 Respondents could indicate multiple types of health insurance; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
5 Other Health Insurance is defined as having Medicare, military-related health care, or any other type of health insurance.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.31A – Substance Use in Past Month: Among People Aged 18 to 22; by College Enrollment Status and Gender, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance Full-Time College Students Other People Aged 18-221
Male Female Male Female
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS2 765 761 873 854 1,901a 2,290 1,561 1,787
Marijuana 750 711 840 823 1,860 2,175 1,434a 1,708
Cocaine 35 46 45 22 50 75 53 40
Crack * * * * * 3 2 *
Heroin * * * * 2 * 19 1
Hallucinogens 37 57 64 34 139 135 84 71
LSD 6 15 14 7 57 21 31 15
PCP * * * * 5 1 * 1
Ecstasy 16 6 28 4 26 36 23 22
Inhalants 14 30 1 15 29 58 32 33
Methamphetamine * * * 3 4 7 18 7
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics 78 41 65 45 113 160 112 154
Pain Relievers 3 13 19 12 42 50 74 58
Stimulants 74 22 37 23 38a 98 31 72
Tranquilizers or Sedatives 6 6 12 18 56 49 24 57
Tranquilizers 6 5 4 9 56 48 16 48
Sedatives 0 0 8 9 * 2 9 8
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids2 3 13 19 12 43 50 77 59
Central Nervous System Stimulants 94 61 72 36 86a 168 101 118
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana2,3 136 140 135 90 277 350 271 262
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING -- 815 -- 905 -- 2,636 -- 1,899
Tobacco Products 476 379 333 316 1,542 1,478 888 761
Cigarettes 256 230 248 239 972 905 686 566
Daily Cigarettes 18 10 33 13 250 196 172 161
Smokeless Tobacco 127 91 33 14 248 317 110 70
Cigars 187 176 83 75 604 473 277 272
Pipe Tobacco 40 28 3 10 139 130 37 33
Nicotine Vaping -- 692 -- 836 -- 2,164 -- 1,660
ALCOHOL 1,750 1,546 2,157 2,134 2,886 3,132 2,642 2,693
Binge Alcohol Use4 1,005 906 1,226 1,206 1,658 1,862 1,585 1,636
Heavy Alcohol Use 288 314 237 255 372a 569 322 379
OPIOIDS INCLUDING ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL -- 13 -- 12 -- 67 -- 59
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- * -- 1 -- 17 -- 3
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Other People include respondents not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
2 For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, these estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
3 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
4 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.31B – Substance Use in Past Month: Among People Aged 18 to 22; by College Enrollment Status and Gender, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Full-Time College Students Other People Aged 18-221
Male Female Male Female
2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022 2021 2022
ILLICIT DRUGS2 21.5 22.5 20.8 20.8 26.2 29.4 24.8a 28.5
Marijuana 21.1 21.0 20.0 20.0 25.6 27.9 22.8a 27.2
Cocaine 1.0 1.3 1.1 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.6
Crack * * * * * 0.0 0.0 *
Heroin * * * * 0.0 * 0.3 0.0
Hallucinogens 1.0 1.7 1.5 0.8 1.9 1.7 1.3 1.1
LSD 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.8 0.3 0.5 0.2
PCP * * * * 0.1 0.0 * 0.0
Ecstasy 0.5 0.2 0.7 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3
Inhalants 0.4 0.9 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.5
Methamphetamine * * * 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics 2.2 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.6 2.1 1.8 2.5
Pain Relievers 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.6 1.2 0.9
Stimulants 2.1 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.5 1.3 0.5 1.2
Tranquilizers or Sedatives 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.9
Tranquilizers 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.8
Sedatives 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 * 0.0 0.1 0.1
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids2 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.6 1.2 0.9
Central Nervous System Stimulants 2.7 1.8 1.7 0.9 1.2 2.2 1.6 1.9
Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana2,3 3.8 4.1 3.2 2.2 3.8 4.5 4.3 4.2
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING -- 24.1 -- 22.0 -- 33.9 -- 30.3
Tobacco Products 13.4 11.2 7.9 7.7 21.2 19.0 14.1 12.1
Cigarettes 7.2 6.8 5.9 5.8 13.4 11.6 10.9 9.0
Daily Cigarettes 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.3 3.4 2.5 2.7 2.6
Smokeless Tobacco 3.6 2.7 0.8 0.3 3.4 4.1 1.7 1.1
Cigars 5.3 5.2 2.0 1.8 8.3a 6.1 4.4 4.3
Pipe Tobacco 1.1 0.8 0.1 0.2 1.9 1.7 0.6 0.5
Nicotine Vaping -- 20.4 -- 20.3 -- 27.8 -- 26.5
ALCOHOL 49.3 45.7 51.3 51.8 39.7 40.2 42.1 42.9
Binge Alcohol Use4 28.3 26.8 29.2 29.3 22.8 23.9 25.2 26.1
Heavy Alcohol Use 8.1 9.3 5.6 6.2 5.1a 7.3 5.1 6.0
OPIOIDS INCLUDING ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL -- 0.4 -- 0.3 -- 0.9 -- 0.9
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- * -- 0.0 -- 0.2 -- 0.1
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Other People include respondents not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
2 For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, these estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
3 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
4 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.32A – Drug Use Disorder in Past Year: Among People Aged 18 to 22; by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other People Aged 18-221
2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 957 1,059 2,593 2,902
AGE        
18 103 192 434 494
19 217 166 475 572
20 267 201 477 588
21 191 265 600 588
22 180 235 606 660
GENDER        
Male 465 494 1,431 1,594
Female 492 564 1,162 1,308
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 801 833 2,020 2,171
AIAN * * * *
Asian 52 51 51 55
Black or African American 153 102 327 398
NHOPI * * * *
White 578 621 1,425 1,569
Two or More Races * * 122 102
Hispanic or Latino 156 226 573 731
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 174 220 1,021a 1,263
Part-Time 359 435 621 784
Unemployed * 49 411 357
Other2 327 354 539 499
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Drug use disorder estimates are based on DSM-5 criteria. Beginning with the 2021 NSDUH, questions on prescription drug use disorder were asked of all past year users of prescription drugs, regardless of whether they misused prescription drugs. The estimates in this table include prescription drug use disorder data from all past year users of prescription drugs. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details on these changes.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Other People include respondents not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
2 Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.32B – Drug Use Disorder in Past Year: Among People Aged 18 to 22; by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other People Aged 18-221
2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 12.4 14.1 19.1 20.6
AGE        
18 7.7a 14.4 14.7 16.8
19 13.1 10.0 19.2 23.7
20 12.9 11.6 19.4 21.7
21 12.4 16.8 22.7 21.8
22 15.5 19.4 20.1 20.0
GENDER        
Male 13.1 14.6 19.7 20.5
Female 11.7 13.7 18.5 20.9
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 12.9 13.9 20.3 20.9
AIAN * * * *
Asian 7.4 7.0 9.3 7.5
Black or African American 14.9 11.0 16.2 20.6
NHOPI * * * *
White 13.4 15.3 21.5 22.2
Two or More Races * * 24.2 21.2
Hispanic or Latino 10.2 14.8 15.9 20.0
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 12.4 16.1 20.8 22.3
Part-Time 11.8 13.8 20.5 22.6
Unemployed * 10.8 23.6 23.0
Other2 11.5 14.0 14.0 14.8
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Drug use disorder estimates are based on DSM-5 criteria. Beginning with the 2021 NSDUH, questions on prescription drug use disorder were asked of all past year users of prescription drugs, regardless of whether they misused prescription drugs. The estimates in this table include prescription drug use disorder data from all past year users of prescription drugs. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details on these changes.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Other People include respondents not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
2 Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.33A – Alcohol Use Disorder in Past Year: Among People Aged 18 to 22; by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other People Aged 18-221
2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 1,062 1,090 1,788 2,102
AGE        
18 90 101 250 224
19 167 168 268 290
20 224 279 250a 410
21 324 313 406 527
22 257 229 614 650
GENDER        
Male 463 535 883a 1,157
Female 599 555 905 945
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 914 909 1,386 1,564
AIAN * * * *
Asian 82 50 45 63
Black or African American 126 62 197 225
NHOPI * * * *
White 680 748 1,017 1,192
Two or More Races * * 73 57
Hispanic or Latino 148 180 403 538
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 282 262 793a 1,066
Part-Time 381 523 371 523
Unemployed * 33 283 208
Other2 333 271 341 305
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) estimates are based on DSM-5 criteria.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Other People include respondents not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
2 Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.33B – Alcohol Use Disorder in Past Year: Among People Aged 18 to 22; by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other People Aged 18-221
2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 13.7 14.5 13.2 14.9
AGE        
18 6.7 7.6 8.5 7.6
19 10.1 10.1 10.8 12.0
20 10.9 16.2 10.2a 15.1
21 21.1 19.8 15.3 19.6
22 22.1 18.9 20.4 19.7
GENDER        
Male 13.0 15.8 12.2 14.9
Female 14.3 13.5 14.4 15.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 14.7 15.2 13.9 15.0
AIAN * * * *
Asian 11.6 6.8 8.2 8.5
Black or African American 12.3 6.7 9.8 11.7
NHOPI * * * *
White 15.8 18.5 15.3 16.8
Two or More Races * * 14.5 11.8
Hispanic or Latino 9.7 11.8 11.2 14.7
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 20.2 19.2 16.1 18.8
Part-Time 12.5 16.6 12.2 15.0
Unemployed * 7.2 16.3 13.4
Other2 11.7 10.7 8.8 9.1
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) estimates are based on DSM-5 criteria.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Other People include respondents not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
2 Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.34A – Substance Use Disorder in Past Year: Among People Aged 18 to 22; by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other People Aged 18-221
2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 1,601 1,713 3,536 3,899
AGE        
18 158 225 545 569
19 291 280 564 690
20 378 390 607 788
21 443 442 828 864
22 332 375 991 988
GENDER        
Male 734 786 1,921 2,163
Female 868 927 1,614 1,737
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 1,349 1,384 2,730 2,906
AIAN * * * *
Asian 104 85 * 110
Black or African American 221 147 431 492
NHOPI * * * *
White 987 1,075 1,927 2,119
Two or More Races * * 175 126
Hispanic or Latino 253 328 805 993
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 369 361 1,482a 1,771
Part-Time 620 776 782 1,018
Unemployed * 76 537 447
Other2 511 499 734 662
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Substance use disorder estimates are based on DSM-5 criteria. Beginning with the 2021 NSDUH, questions on prescription drug use disorder were asked of all past year users of prescription drugs, regardless of whether they misused prescription drugs. The estimates in this table include prescription drug use disorder data from all past year users of prescription drugs. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details on these changes.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Other People include respondents not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
2 Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.34B – Substance Use Disorder in Past Year: Among People Aged 18 to 22; by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other People Aged 18-221
2021 2022 2021 2022
TOTAL 20.7 22.8 26.1 27.7
AGE        
18 11.8 16.9 18.5 19.3
19 17.5 16.9 22.8 28.6
20 18.3 22.7 24.7 29.1
21 28.8 28.0 31.3 32.1
22 28.6 31.0 32.9 30.0
GENDER        
Male 20.7 23.2 26.5 27.8
Female 20.6 22.5 25.7 27.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 21.7 23.2 27.5 27.9
AIAN * * * *
Asian 14.7 11.7 * 15.0
Black or African American 21.6 15.8 21.5 25.4
NHOPI * * * *
White 23.0 26.5 29.0 29.9
Two or More Races * * 34.5 26.1
Hispanic or Latino 16.4 21.5 22.3a 27.2
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 26.4 26.5 30.2 31.3
Part-Time 20.3 24.6 25.8 29.3
Unemployed * 16.7 30.9 28.8
Other2 17.9 19.7 19.0 19.7
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Substance use disorder estimates are based on DSM-5 criteria. Beginning with the 2021 NSDUH, questions on prescription drug use disorder were asked of all past year users of prescription drugs, regardless of whether they misused prescription drugs. The estimates in this table include prescription drug use disorder data from all past year users of prescription drugs. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details on these changes.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Other People include respondents not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
2 Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.35A – Drove Under Influence of Alcohol or Select Illicit Drugs in Past Year: Among People Aged 16 or Older; by Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Alcohol
(2021)
Alcohol
(2022)
Marijuana
(2021)
Marijuana
(2022)
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2021)
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2022)
Select Illicit
Drugs
Other Than
Marijuana2
(2021)
Select Illicit
Drugs
Other Than
Marijuana2
(2022)
Alcohol or
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2021)
Alcohol or
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2022)
TOTAL 13,381b 15,569 10,876b 12,491 11,887b 13,600 2,241 2,343 21,408b 24,336
AGE GROUP                    
16-25 2,277 2,414 3,429 3,868 3,524 3,966 403 431 4,653 5,015
16-20 567 572 1,339 1,331 1,370 1,358 103 148 1,572 1,589
21-25 1,710 1,842 2,091a 2,537 2,154a 2,607 300 283 3,081 3,426
26 or Older 11,104b 13,154 7,447a 8,623 8,364a 9,635 1,838 1,912 16,755b 19,320
GENDER                    
Male 8,421a 9,558 6,644a 7,714 7,220a 8,431 1,300 1,463 13,069b 14,922
Female 4,960b 6,010 4,232 4,777 4,667 5,169 941 881 8,339a 9,413
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 11,679a 13,293 9,349a 10,479 10,211a 11,461 1,848 2,007 18,721a 20,796
AIAN 34 68 88 55 91 61 23 10 108 111
Asian 239 334 217 203 246 261 60 96 420 520
Black or African American 1,242 1,172 1,367 1,428 1,430 1,519 177 160 2,206 2,153
NHOPI 1a 34 21 48 27 52 12 29 28 68
White 9,803b 11,526 7,211a 8,411 7,938a 9,207 1,511 1,658 15,282b 17,493
Two or More Races 360a 158 446 334 479 361 65 55 677 451
Hispanic or Latino 1,702 2,276 1,526 2,012 1,676 2,139 393 336 2,687a 3,540
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked about driving a vehicle while under the influence of specific substances. Respondents with unknown driving under the influence information were excluded.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Select Illicit Drugs include the use of marijuana, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or methamphetamine.
2 Select Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include the use of cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or methamphetamine.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.35B – Drove Under Influence of Alcohol or Select Illicit Drugs in Past Year: Among People Aged 16 or Older; by Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Alcohol
(2021)
Alcohol
(2022)
Marijuana
(2021)
Marijuana
(2022)
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2021)
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2022)
Select Illicit
Drugs
Other Than
Marijuana2
(2021)
Select Illicit
Drugs
Other Than
Marijuana2
(2022)
Alcohol or
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2021)
Alcohol or
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2022)
TOTAL 5.1b 5.9 4.2b 4.7 4.6b 5.2 0.9 0.9 8.3b 9.4
AGE GROUP                    
16-25 5.5 5.7 8.3 9.1 8.6 9.4 1.0 1.0 11.4 11.9
16-20 2.6 2.7 6.3 6.3 6.5 6.6 0.5 0.7 7.5 7.7
21-25 8.5 8.5 10.4 11.7 10.8 12.1 1.5 1.3 15.5 16.0
26 or Older 5.1b 6.0 3.4a 3.9 3.8a 4.4 0.8 0.9 7.7b 8.9
GENDER                    
Male 6.7a 7.5 5.2a 6.0 5.7a 6.6 1.0 1.1 10.5a 11.7
Female 3.7b 4.5 3.2 3.5 3.5 3.9 0.7 0.7 6.3a 7.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 5.4a 6.1 4.3a 4.8 4.8a 5.3 0.9 0.9 8.8a 9.7
AIAN 2.0 5.4 5.3 4.3 5.5 4.9 1.4 0.8 6.6 8.8
Asian 1.6 2.1 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.7 0.4 0.6 2.8 3.4
Black or African American 4.0 3.7 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.8 0.6 0.5 7.1 6.8
NHOPI 0.1a 2.8 2.0 3.9 2.6 4.4 1.1 2.4 2.7 5.7
White 6.1b 7.2 4.5b 5.2 4.9b 5.7 0.9 1.0 9.6b 10.9
Two or More Races 7.5a 3.0 9.4 6.3 10.1 6.9 1.4 1.0 14.3a 8.6
Hispanic or Latino 3.8 4.9 3.4 4.3 3.8 4.7 0.9 0.7 6.1a 7.8
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked about driving a vehicle while under the influence of specific substances. Respondents with unknown driving under the influence information were excluded.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Select Illicit Drugs include the use of marijuana, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or methamphetamine.
2 Select Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include the use of cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or methamphetamine.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.36A – Drove Under Influence of Alcohol or Select Illicit Drugs in Past Year: Among People Aged 16 or Older; by Geographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Geographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic Alcohol
(2021)
Alcohol
(2022)
Marijuana
(2021)
Marijuana
(2022)
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2021)
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2022)
Select Illicit
Drugs
Other Than
Marijuana2
(2021)
Select Illicit
Drugs
Other Than
Marijuana2
(2022)
Alcohol or
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2021)
Alcohol or
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2022)
TOTAL 13,381b 15,569 10,876b 12,491 11,887b 13,600 2,241 2,343 21,408b 24,336
GEOGRAPHIC REGION                    
Northeast 2,296 2,496 1,760 1,979 1,900 2,041 428a 202 3,640 3,884
Midwest 3,366 3,895 2,747 2,833 2,986 3,102 488 481 5,452 5,878
South 4,937 4,779 3,767 4,258 4,067 4,633 725 798 7,451 7,899
West 2,782b 4,398 2,601a 3,421 2,935a 3,825 600 862 4,866b 6,675
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 7,397b 8,968 5,875 6,586 6,456 7,245 1,262 1,343 11,758a 13,422
Small Metro 4,301a 5,157 3,582a 4,363 3,867a 4,715 659 776 6,802b 8,261
Nonmetro 1,683 1,443 1,419 1,542 1,564 1,641 319 225 2,848 2,653
Urbanized 803 657 557 796 630 835 126 92 1,217 1,257
Less Urbanized 732 690 738 600 803 661 147 95 1,379 1,189
Completely Rural 148 96 123 145 132 145 47 * 253 207
POVERTY LEVEL3                    
Less Than 100% 960 770 1,464 1,620 1,703 1,793 520 393 2,203 2,175
100-199% 1,813 1,819 2,493 2,714 2,834 2,975 616 564 3,765 3,907
200% or More 10,608b 12,978 6,916b 8,155 7,347b 8,831 1,105 1,387 15,437b 18,251
HEALTH INSURANCE4                    
Private 9,629b 11,596 6,084a 7,207 6,366b 7,673 695 961 13,618b 16,217
Medicaid/CHIP 1,569 1,670 2,498 2,920 2,951 3,390 928 999 3,759 4,177
Other5 2,352 2,644 1,484 1,598 1,740 1,791 443 383 3,613 3,928
No Coverage 1,281 1,251 1,498 1,756 1,633 1,870 421a 244 2,356 2,446
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked about driving a vehicle while under the influence of specific substances. Respondents with unknown driving under the influence information were excluded.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Select Illicit Drugs include the use of marijuana, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or methamphetamine.
2 Select Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include the use of cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or methamphetamine.
3 Respondents aged 18 to 22 who were living in a college dormitory were excluded.
4 Respondents could indicate multiple types of health insurance; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
5 Other Health Insurance is defined as having Medicare, military-related health care, or any other type of health insurance.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.36B – Drove Under Influence of Alcohol or Select Illicit Drugs in Past Year: Among People Aged 16 or Older; by Geographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Geographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic Alcohol
(2021)
Alcohol
(2022)
Marijuana
(2021)
Marijuana
(2022)
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2021)
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2022)
Select Illicit
Drugs
Other Than
Marijuana2
(2021)
Select Illicit
Drugs
Other Than
Marijuana2
(2022)
Alcohol or
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2021)
Alcohol or
Select Illicit
Drugs1
(2022)
TOTAL 5.1b 5.9 4.2b 4.7 4.6b 5.2 0.9 0.9 8.3b 9.4
GEOGRAPHIC REGION                    
Northeast 5.0 5.4 3.9 4.3 4.2 4.5 0.9a 0.4 8.0 8.5
Midwest 6.2 7.2 5.1 5.2 5.6 5.7 0.9 0.9 10.2 10.9
South 5.0 4.8 3.8 4.2 4.1 4.6 0.7 0.8 7.6 7.9
West 4.5b 7.1 4.2a 5.5 4.8b 6.2 1.0 1.4 8.0b 10.8
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 5.3a 6.2 4.2 4.5 4.6 5.0 0.9 0.9 8.5 9.3
Small Metro 5.4 6.2 4.5a 5.2 4.9a 5.7 0.8 0.9 8.6b 10.0
Nonmetro 4.2 4.2 3.5 4.5 3.9 4.8 0.8 0.7 7.1 7.8
Urbanized 5.3 4.5 3.7 5.5 4.2 5.8 0.8 0.6 8.1 8.8
Less Urbanized 3.5 4.0 3.5 3.4 3.8 3.8 0.7 0.6 6.5 7.0
Completely Rural 3.5 3.6 2.9 5.5 3.2 5.5 1.1 * 6.1 7.9
POVERTY LEVEL3                    
Less Than 100% 2.4 2.1 3.7 4.3 4.4 4.8 1.3 1.0 5.7 5.9
100-199% 3.5 3.5 4.8 5.3 5.5 5.8 1.2 1.1 7.3 7.7
200% or More 6.3b 7.5 4.1a 4.7 4.4b 5.1 0.7 0.8 9.2b 10.6
HEALTH INSURANCE4                    
Private 6.1b 7.3 3.9a 4.5 4.0b 4.8 0.4 0.6 8.7b 10.2
Medicaid/CHIP 3.1 3.3 4.9 5.7 5.9 6.7 1.8 2.0 7.6 8.3
Other5 3.1 3.4 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.3 0.6 0.5 4.8 5.2
No Coverage 5.1 5.4 6.0 7.5 6.6 8.0 1.7 1.0 9.6 10.6
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Respondents were asked about driving a vehicle while under the influence of specific substances. Respondents with unknown driving under the influence information were excluded.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Select Illicit Drugs include the use of marijuana, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or methamphetamine.
2 Select Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include the use of cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or methamphetamine.
3 Respondents aged 18 to 22 who were living in a college dormitory were excluded.
4 Respondents could indicate multiple types of health insurance; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
5 Other Health Insurance is defined as having Medicare, military-related health care, or any other type of health insurance.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.37A – Substance Use in Past Month: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Past Year Probation and Parole/Supervised Release Statuses, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 18+1
(2021)
Aged 18+1
(2022)
On Probation
(2021)
On Probation
(2022)
Not on
Probation
(2021)
Not on
Probation
(2022)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
ILLICIT DRUGS2 38,600b 44,719 1,256 1,407 36,748b 42,554 599 653 37,415b 43,324
Marijuana 35,364b 40,670 1,022 1,199 33,817b 38,863 * 522 34,371b 39,555
Cocaine 1,841 2,010 190 161 1,618 1,795 76 40 1,733 1,916
Crack 519 572 86 78 415 456 * 27 463 507
Heroin 590 708 106 46 461 613 41 48 527 612
Hallucinogens 2,210 2,190 164 103 2,005 2,044 * * 2,094 2,071
LSD 516 384 63 9 444 367 24 0 484 376
PCP 102 87 16 1 86 85 * 2 86 85
Ecstasy 593 379 40 22 541 336 5 9 576a 349
Inhalants 565 672 30 20 497 632 * 20 512 632
Methamphetamine 1,614 1,682 308 175 1,260 1,383 * * 1,315 1,399
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics 4,062 4,456 228 321 3,743 4,043 * 231 3,817 4,132
Pain Relievers 2,294 2,323 140 198 2,100 2,072 * * 2,104 2,109
Stimulants 1,044 1,315 52 43 980 1,267 16 26 1,016 1,284
Tranquilizers or Sedatives 1,289 1,492 107 166 1,143 1,266 32 94 1,218 1,337
Tranquilizers 1,109 1,270 87 141 986 1,092 25 69 1,048 1,163
Sedatives 205 271 22 * 180 216 7 * 196 222
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids2 2,685 2,827 221 215 2,387 2,537 * * 2,457 2,566
Central Nervous System Stimulants 4,073 4,429 463 336 3,533 3,920 * * 3,692 4,064
Illicit Drugs Other than Marijuana2,3 8,581 9,161 662 589 7,708 8,306 * 389 7,982 8,508
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING -- 62,019 -- 1,976 -- 59,011 -- 901 -- 60,093
Tobacco Products 55,436b 50,443 2,009 1,791 52,561b 47,707 * 771 53,733b 48,719
Cigarettes 44,331b 40,743 1,761 1,581 41,778a 38,285 791 695 42,824a 39,162
Daily Cigarettes 27,439b 24,093 1,153 1,064 25,860b 22,449 * 468 26,584b 23,038
Smokeless Tobacco 7,478b 6,026 293 256 7,094b 5,617 * 150 7,201b 5,723
Cigars 10,232 10,223 370 356 9,646 9,686 * 205 9,900 9,838
Pipe Tobacco 1,814 1,741 * 160 1,588 1,567 * 65 1,598 1,662
Nicotine Vaping -- 21,733 -- 773 -- 20,667 -- 450 -- 21,007
ALCOHOL 130,627b 135,694 1,503 1,436 127,505 132,975 * 612 128,381 133,780
Binge Alcohol Use4 59,578 60,323 1,082 1,126 57,619 58,490 * 495 58,238 59,116
Heavy Alcohol Use 15,965 16,025 493 524 15,130 15,235 * * 15,411 15,542
OPIOIDS INCLUDING ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL -- 2,925 -- 218 -- 2,628 -- 197 -- 2,651
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 319 -- 33 -- 281 -- 28 -- 286
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 18+ column includes respondents with unknown past year probation or parole/supervised release status.
2 For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, these estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
3 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
4 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.37B – Substance Use in Past Month: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Past Year Probation and Parole/Supervised Release Statuses, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 18+1
(2021)
Aged 18+1
(2022)
On Probation
(2021)
On Probation
(2022)
Not on
Probation
(2021)
Not on
Probation
(2022)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
ILLICIT DRUGS2 15.2b 17.4 40.4 46.2 14.9b 17.0 43.3 42.4 15.0b 17.2
Marijuana 13.9b 15.9 32.9 39.4 13.7b 15.5 * 34.0 13.8b 15.7
Cocaine 0.7 0.8 6.1 5.3 0.7 0.7 5.5 2.6 0.7 0.8
Crack 0.2 0.2 2.8 2.6 0.2 0.2 * 1.8 0.2 0.2
Heroin 0.2 0.3 3.4 1.5 0.2 0.2 3.0 3.2 0.2 0.2
Hallucinogens 0.9 0.9 5.3 3.4 0.8 0.8 * * 0.8 0.8
LSD 0.2 0.1 2.0 0.3 0.2 0.1 1.7 0.0 0.2 0.1
PCP 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.1 0.0 0.0
Ecstasy 0.2 0.1 1.3 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.2a 0.1
Inhalants 0.2 0.3 1.0 0.6 0.2 0.3 * 1.3 0.2 0.3
Methamphetamine 0.6 0.7 9.9 5.8 0.5 0.6 * * 0.5 0.6
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics 1.6 1.7 7.3 10.5 1.5 1.6 * 15.0 1.5 1.6
Pain Relievers 0.9 0.9 4.5 6.5 0.8 0.8 * * 0.8 0.8
Stimulants 0.4 0.5 1.7 1.4 0.4 0.5 1.1 1.7 0.4 0.5
Tranquilizers or Sedatives 0.5 0.6 3.4 5.4 0.5 0.5 2.3 6.1 0.5 0.5
Tranquilizers 0.4 0.5 2.8 4.6 0.4 0.4 1.8 4.5 0.4 0.5
Sedatives 0.1 0.1 0.7 * 0.1 0.1 0.5 * 0.1 0.1
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids2 1.1 1.1 7.1 7.1 1.0 1.0 * * 1.0 1.0
Central Nervous System Stimulants 1.6 1.7 14.9 11.0 1.4 1.6 * * 1.5 1.6
Illicit Drugs Other than Marijuana2,3 3.4 3.6 21.3 19.3 3.1 3.3 * 25.3 3.2 3.4
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING -- 24.2 -- 64.9 -- 23.6 -- 58.6 -- 23.8
Tobacco Products 21.8b 19.7 64.6 58.8 21.2b 19.0 * 50.1 21.6b 19.3
Cigarettes 17.5b 15.9 56.6 51.9 16.9b 15.3 57.2 45.2 17.2b 15.5
Daily Cigarettes 10.8b 9.4 37.1 34.9 10.5b 9.0 * 30.5 10.7b 9.1
Smokeless Tobacco 2.9b 2.4 9.4 8.4 2.9b 2.2 * 9.7 2.9b 2.3
Cigars 4.0 4.0 11.9 11.7 3.9 3.9 * 13.3 4.0 3.9
Pipe Tobacco 0.7 0.7 * 5.3 0.6 0.6 * 4.2 0.6 0.7
Nicotine Vaping -- 8.5 -- 25.4 -- 8.3 -- 29.2 -- 8.3
ALCOHOL 51.5a 52.9 48.4 47.2 51.5a 53.1 * 39.8 51.5a 53.1
Binge Alcohol Use4 23.5 23.5 34.8 37.0 23.3 23.4 * 32.2 23.4 23.5
Heavy Alcohol Use 6.3 6.3 15.8 17.2 6.1 6.1 * * 6.2 6.2
OPIOIDS INCLUDING ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL -- 1.1 -- 7.2 -- 1.0 -- 12.8 -- 1.1
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 0.1 -- 1.1 -- 0.1 -- 1.8 -- 0.1
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 18+ column includes respondents with unknown past year probation or parole/supervised release status.
2 For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, these estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
3 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
4 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.38A – Substance Use in Past Month: Among People Aged 18 to 49; by Past Year Probation and Parole/Supervised Release Statuses, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 18-491
(2021)
Aged 18-491
(2022)
On Probation
(2021)
On Probation
(2022)
Not on
Probation
(2021)
Not on
Probation
(2022)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
ILLICIT DRUGS2 28,230b 32,134 992 1,011 26,754b 30,586 * 508 27,346b 31,106
Marijuana 26,358b 29,739 845 881 25,089b 28,381 * 408 25,575b 28,870
Cocaine 1,380 1,447 134 113 1,216 1,301 46 25 1,306 1,389
Crack 225 267 30 30 181 219 7 12 204 237
Heroin 364 478 106 46 235a 403 41 48 300 402
Hallucinogens 1,938 1,862 93 65 1,806 1,757 38 38 1,869 1,784
LSD 490 335 63 * 418 318 24 0 458 327
PCP 31 14 16 1 15 12 * 2 15 12
Ecstasy 560a 341 40 22 510a 301 5 9 545a 313
Inhalants 459 542 30 20 390 502 * 20 406 502
Methamphetamine 906 1,066 157 157 714 838 * * 743 884
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics 2,678 3,080 186 230 2,440 2,802 * * 2,505 2,851
Pain Relievers 1,260 1,475 98 168 1,136 1,276 * * 1,132 1,292
Stimulants 940 1,191 52 43 876 1,144 16 26 912 1,161
Tranquilizers or Sedatives 798 960 105 105 666 837 32 53 739 889
Tranquilizers 699 849 85 105 589 726 25 53 649 777
Sedatives 124 151 22 5 99 145 7 * 114 150
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids2 1,533 1,793 179 185 1,306 1,554 * * 1,367 1,563
Central Nervous System Stimulants 2,878 3,210 256 285 2,558 2,825 * * 2,667 2,968
Illicit Drugs Other than Marijuana2,3 6,005 6,388 444 410 5,397 5,813 * 253 5,611 5,972
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING -- 40,602 -- 1,512 -- 38,439 -- 736 -- 39,223
Tobacco Products 32,299a 30,295 1,441 1,339 30,284 28,393 * 610 31,051 29,114
Cigarettes 25,284 24,037 1,217 1,247 23,556 22,271 * 574 24,196 22,937
Daily Cigarettes 13,954a 12,619 815 791 12,853a 11,521 304 365 13,354a 11,940
Smokeless Tobacco 4,844b 3,798 270 195 4,495b 3,517 * 113 4,594b 3,600
Cigars 7,309 7,208 342 293 6,838 6,805 * 197 7,002 6,903
Pipe Tobacco 1,131 1,130 37 79 1,044 1,037 25 60 1,056 1,056
Nicotine Vaping -- 19,233 -- 737 -- 18,235 -- 421 -- 18,567
ALCOHOL 75,852a 78,047 1,101 1,161 73,790 76,084 * 515 74,490 76,711
Binge Alcohol Use4 40,107 41,212 834 864 38,636 39,825 * 422 39,160 40,262
Heavy Alcohol Use 10,554 10,771 342 406 9,946 10,136 * * 10,163 10,362
OPIOIDS INCLUDING ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL -- 1,891 -- 188 -- 1,646 -- * -- 1,648
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 260 -- 33 -- 222 -- 28 -- 227
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 18-49 column includes respondents with unknown past year probation or parole/supervised release status.
2 For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, these estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
3 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
4 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.38B – Substance Use in Past Month: Among People Aged 18 to 49; by Past Year Probation and Parole/Supervised Release Statuses, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Substance Aged 18-491
(2021)
Aged 18-491
(2022)
On Probation
(2021)
On Probation
(2022)
Not on
Probation
(2021)
Not on
Probation
(2022)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
ILLICIT DRUGS2 20.8b 23.4 43.8 44.4 20.3b 22.9 * 45.6 20.6b 23.1
Marijuana 19.4b 21.7 37.3 38.7 19.0b 21.3 * 36.7 19.2b 21.4
Cocaine 1.0 1.1 5.9 5.0 0.9 1.0 5.0 2.2 1.0 1.0
Crack 0.2 0.2 1.3 1.3 0.1 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.2
Heroin 0.3 0.3 4.7 2.0 0.2 0.3 4.5 4.4 0.2 0.3
Hallucinogens 1.4 1.4 4.1 2.8 1.4 1.3 4.2 3.4 1.4 1.3
LSD 0.4 0.2 2.8 * 0.3 0.2 2.6 0.0 0.3 0.2
PCP 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 * 0.2 0.0 0.0
Ecstasy 0.4a 0.2 1.8 1.0 0.4a 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.4a 0.2
Inhalants 0.3 0.4 1.3 0.9 0.3 0.4 * 1.8 0.3 0.4
Methamphetamine 0.7 0.8 6.9 6.9 0.5 0.6 * * 0.6 0.7
Misuse of Prescription Psychotherapeutics 2.0 2.2 8.2 10.1 1.9 2.1 * * 1.9 2.1
Pain Relievers 0.9 1.1 4.3 7.4 0.9 1.0 * * 0.9 1.0
Stimulants 0.7 0.9 2.3 1.9 0.7 0.9 1.7 2.3 0.7 0.9
Tranquilizers or Sedatives 0.6 0.7 4.6 4.6 0.5 0.6 3.5 4.8 0.6 0.7
Tranquilizers 0.5 0.6 3.8 4.6 0.4 0.5 2.7 4.8 0.5 0.6
Sedatives 0.1 0.1 1.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.8 * 0.1 0.1
Benzodiazepines -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Opioids2 1.1 1.3 7.9 8.1 1.0 1.2 * * 1.0 1.2
Central Nervous System Stimulants 2.1 2.3 11.3 12.5 1.9 2.1 * * 2.0 2.2
Illicit Drugs Other than Marijuana2,3 4.4 4.7 19.6 18.0 4.1 4.4 * 22.7 4.2 4.4
TOBACCO PRODUCT USE OR NICOTINE VAPING -- 29.6 -- 66.4 -- 28.8 -- 66.1 -- 29.1
Tobacco Products 23.8b 22.1 63.6 58.8 23.0b 21.3 * 54.8 23.3b 21.6
Cigarettes 18.6a 17.5 53.7 54.8 17.9a 16.7 * 51.6 18.2a 17.0
Daily Cigarettes 10.3a 9.2 36.0 34.7 9.8a 8.6 33.3 32.8 10.0b 8.9
Smokeless Tobacco 3.6b 2.8 11.9 8.6 3.4b 2.6 * 10.1 3.5b 2.7
Cigars 5.4 5.2 15.1 12.9 5.2 5.1 * 17.7 5.3 5.1
Pipe Tobacco 0.8 0.8 1.6 3.5 0.8 0.8 2.8 5.4 0.8 0.8
Nicotine Vaping -- 14.0 -- 32.3 -- 13.7 -- 37.8 -- 13.8
ALCOHOL 55.9 56.8 48.6 51.0 56.0 57.0 * 46.3 56.0 56.9
Binge Alcohol Use4 29.5 30.0 36.8 38.0 29.3 29.8 * 37.9 29.4 29.9
Heavy Alcohol Use 7.8 7.8 15.1 17.8 7.6 7.6 * * 7.6 7.7
OPIOIDS INCLUDING ILLEGALLY MADE FENTANYL -- 1.4 -- 8.3 -- 1.2 -- * -- 1.2
Illegally Made Fentanyl -- 0.2 -- 1.5 -- 0.2 -- 2.5 -- 0.2
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 18-49 column includes respondents with unknown past year probation or parole/supervised release status.
2 For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, these estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
3 Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana excludes respondents who used only marijuana but includes those who used marijuana in addition to other illicit drugs.
4 Estimates of binge alcohol use include use by those who were heavy alcohol users.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.39A – Illicit Drug Use in Past Month: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Past Year Probation and Parole/Supervised Release Statuses and Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Aged 18+1
(2021)
Aged 18+1
(2022)
On Probation
(2021)
On Probation
(2022)
Not on
Probation
(2021)
Not on
Probation
(2022)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 38,600b 44,719 1,256 1,407 36,748b 42,554 599 653 37,415b 43,324
AGE GROUP                    
18-49 28,230b 32,134 992 1,011 26,754b 30,586 * 508 27,346b 31,106
18-25 8,648b 9,478 285 193 8,245a 9,191 * * 8,446a 9,307
26-34 9,620b 10,860 381 * 9,078a 10,273 * * 9,292a 10,498
35-49 9,962b 11,795 326 402 9,432b 11,122 * * 9,607b 11,301
GENDER/AGE GROUP                    
Male 18 or Older 21,582b 25,254 869 1,072 20,374b 23,779 * 493 20,816b 24,374
Male 18-49 15,598b 17,932 715 716 14,611b 16,942 * * 15,010b 17,307
Female 18 or Older 17,019b 19,465 387 335 16,374b 18,775 * * 16,599b 18,950
Female 18-49 12,632b 14,202 277 295 12,144b 13,644 * * 12,336a 13,799
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, illicit drug use estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 18+ column includes respondents with unknown past year probation or parole/supervised release status.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.39B – Illicit Drug Use in Past Month: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Past Year Probation and Parole/Supervised Release Statuses and Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Aged 18+1
(2021)
Aged 18+1
(2022)
On Probation
(2021)
On Probation
(2022)
Not on
Probation
(2021)
Not on
Probation
(2022)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 15.2b 17.4 40.4 46.2 14.9b 17.0 43.3 42.4 15.0b 17.2
AGE GROUP                    
18-49 20.8b 23.4 43.8 44.4 20.3b 22.9 * 45.6 20.6b 23.1
18-25 25.8 27.2 59.8 50.2 25.3 27.0 * * 25.6 27.1
26-34 24.0b 27.0 43.4 * 23.5b 26.5 * * 23.7b 26.7
35-49 16.0b 18.9 35.8 38.8 15.6b 18.4 * * 15.8b 18.5
GENDER/AGE GROUP                    
Male 18 or Older 17.5b 20.2 41.3 50.3 17.1b 19.6 * 40.9 17.2b 19.9
Male 18-49 23.1b 26.1 46.3 47.1 22.5b 25.5 * * 22.8b 25.8
Female 18 or Older 13.1b 14.8 38.5 36.6 12.8b 14.6 * * 12.9b 14.6
Female 18-49 18.5b 20.7 38.4 39.0 18.2b 20.3 * * 18.3b 20.4
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: For comparison of estimates between 2021 and 2022, illicit drug use estimates do not include illegally made fentanyl (IMF).
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 18+ column includes respondents with unknown past year probation or parole/supervised release status.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.40A – Drug Use Disorder in Past Year: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Past Year Probation and Parole/Supervised Release Statuses and Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Aged 18+1
(2021)
Aged 18+1
(2022)
On Probation
(2021)
On Probation
(2022)
Not on
Probation
(2021)
Not on
Probation
(2022)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 22,571b 25,417 1,200 1,137 20,905b 23,729 * 632 21,487b 24,269
AGE GROUP                    
18-49 16,858b 19,079 978 893 15,544b 17,785 * 497 16,131b 18,215
18-25 5,569b 6,482 232 154 5,253b 6,243 * * 5,418b 6,355
26-34 5,666 6,174 353 * 5,222 5,671 * * 5,411 5,864
35-49 5,623a 6,423 394 368 5,069a 5,871 * * 5,302 5,996
GENDER/AGE GROUP                    
Male 18 or Older 12,703a 14,277 802 859 11,623a 13,091 * 485 11,996a 13,499
Male 18-49 9,605b 11,012 668 674 8,731b 10,118 * * 9,119a 10,462
Female 18 or Older 9,868a 11,140 397 278 9,282a 10,639 * * 9,490a 10,770
Female 18-49 7,252a 8,067 311 219 6,813a 7,667 * * 7,012 7,753
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Drug use disorder estimates are based on DSM-5 criteria. Beginning with the 2021 NSDUH, questions on prescription drug use disorder were asked of all past year users of prescription drugs, regardless of whether they misused prescription drugs. The estimates in this table include prescription drug use disorder data from all past year users of prescription drugs. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details on these changes.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 18+ column includes respondents with unknown past year probation or parole/supervised release status.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.40B – Drug Use Disorder in Past Year: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Past Year Probation and Parole/Supervised Release Statuses and Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Aged 18+1
(2021)
Aged 18+1
(2022)
On Probation
(2021)
On Probation
(2022)
Not on
Probation
(2021)
Not on
Probation
(2022)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 8.9b 9.9 38.6 37.3 8.4b 9.5 * 41.1 8.6b 9.6
AGE GROUP                    
18-49 12.4b 13.9 43.2 39.2 11.8b 13.3 * 44.6 12.1b 13.5
18-25 16.6b 18.6 48.6 40.0 16.1b 18.3 * * 16.4b 18.5
26-34 14.1 15.4 40.2 * 13.5 14.6 * * 13.8 14.9
35-49 9.0a 10.3 43.2 35.5 8.4a 9.7 * * 8.7 9.8
GENDER/AGE GROUP                    
Male 18 or Older 10.3a 11.4 38.1 40.3 9.7a 10.8 * 40.3 9.9a 11.0
Male 18-49 14.2a 16.0 43.2 44.4 13.5a 15.2 * * 13.9a 15.6
Female 18 or Older 7.6a 8.5 39.6 30.4 7.3a 8.2 * * 7.4a 8.3
Female 18-49 10.6a 11.8 43.1a 28.8 10.2a 11.4 * * 10.4a 11.5
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Drug use disorder estimates are based on DSM-5 criteria. Beginning with the 2021 NSDUH, questions on prescription drug use disorder were asked of all past year users of prescription drugs, regardless of whether they misused prescription drugs. The estimates in this table include prescription drug use disorder data from all past year users of prescription drugs. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details on these changes.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 18+ column includes respondents with unknown past year probation or parole/supervised release status.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.41A – Substance Use Disorder in Past Year: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Past Year Probation and Parole/Supervised Release Statuses and Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Aged 18+1
(2021)
Aged 18+1
(2022)
On Probation
(2021)
On Probation
(2022)
Not on
Probation
(2021)
Not on
Probation
(2022)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 44,383 46,494 1,469 1,610 42,192 44,049 * 739 42,945 44,948
AGE GROUP                    
18-49 30,970a 32,855 1,193 1,205 29,232 31,048 * 588 29,936 31,693
18-25 8,764b 9,669 284 228 8,361a 9,317 * * 8,565a 9,491
26-34 10,277 10,568 441 503 9,636 9,843 * * 9,847 10,123
35-49 11,929 12,618 468 475 11,234 11,888 * * 11,524 12,079
GENDER/AGE GROUP                    
Male 18 or Older 25,039 26,678 991 1,229 23,605 24,917 * 576 24,065 25,606
Male 18-49 17,416a 18,783 814 884 16,257 17,531 * * 16,691 18,011
Female 18 or Older 19,344 19,816 479 381 18,587 19,132 * * 18,880 19,342
Female 18-49 13,554 14,072 379 321 12,975 13,516 * * 13,245 13,682
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Substance use disorder estimates are based on DSM-5 criteria. Beginning with the 2021 NSDUH, questions on prescription drug use disorder were asked of all past year users of prescription drugs, regardless of whether they misused prescription drugs. The estimates in this table include prescription drug use disorder data from all past year users of prescription drugs. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details on these changes.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 18+ column includes respondents with unknown past year probation or parole/supervised release status.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.41B – Substance Use Disorder in Past Year: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Past Year Probation and Parole/Supervised Release Statuses and Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Aged 18+1
(2021)
Aged 18+1
(2022)
On Probation
(2021)
On Probation
(2022)
Not on
Probation
(2021)
Not on
Probation
(2022)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
On Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2021)
Not on Parole/
Supervised
Release
(2022)
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 17.5 18.1 47.3 52.9 17.1 17.6 * 48.0 17.2 17.8
AGE GROUP                    
18-49 22.8a 23.9 52.6 52.9 22.2 23.3 * 52.8 22.5 23.5
18-25 26.2 27.8 59.5 59.1 25.6 27.3 * * 26.0 27.6
26-34 25.6 26.3 50.3 58.7 24.9 25.3 * * 25.1 25.7
35-49 19.2 20.2 51.4 45.8 18.6 19.6 * * 18.9 19.8
GENDER/AGE GROUP                    
Male 18 or Older 20.3 21.3 47.1 57.7 19.8 20.5 * 47.9 19.9 20.9
Male 18-49 25.8 27.3 52.7 58.2 25.0 26.4 * * 25.4 26.8
Female 18 or Older 14.8 15.1 47.7 41.6 14.5 14.8 * * 14.7 14.9
Female 18-49 19.9 20.5 52.5 42.4 19.4 20.1 * * 19.7 20.3
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Substance use disorder estimates are based on DSM-5 criteria. Beginning with the 2021 NSDUH, questions on prescription drug use disorder were asked of all past year users of prescription drugs, regardless of whether they misused prescription drugs. The estimates in this table include prescription drug use disorder data from all past year users of prescription drugs. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details on these changes.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 The Aged 18+ column includes respondents with unknown past year probation or parole/supervised release status.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.42A – Perceived Ever Having Had a Substance Use Problem or Mental Health Issue: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Ever Had a
Substance Use Problem1
(2021)
Ever Had a
Substance Use Problem1
(2022)
Ever Had a
Mental Health Issue2
(2021)
Ever Had a
Mental Health Issue2
(2022)
TOTAL 29,430 30,054 59,170a 62,279
AGE GROUP        
18-25 2,466b 2,989 12,720b 14,257
26 or Older 26,964 27,065 46,450 48,022
26-49 14,396 15,068 28,922a 30,671
50 or Older 12,568 11,998 17,528 17,350
GENDER        
Male 17,533 17,955 23,989a 25,648
Female 11,897 12,099 35,181 36,630
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 25,936 26,067 51,796a 54,118
AIAN 274 221 363 244
Asian 614 569 1,941 2,411
Black or African American 2,311 2,215 5,291 4,905
NHOPI * 99 * *
White 21,822 22,225 42,295 44,699
Two or More Races 814 738 1,762 1,694
Hispanic or Latino 3,494 3,987 7,375 8,161
EDUCATION LEVEL        
< High School 3,002 2,607 4,178 3,512
High School Graduate 7,601 7,574 12,080a 13,191
Some College/Associate’s Degree 10,362 11,099 21,631 22,169
College Graduate 8,464 8,774 21,282b 23,407
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 13,487a 15,006 26,575b 30,270
Part-Time 3,703 4,172 9,927 10,606
Unemployed 2,213 1,882 3,863a 3,143
Other3 10,026 8,994 18,806 18,260
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a problem with their drug or alcohol use.
2 Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a problem with their mental health.
3
Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.42B – Perceived Ever Having Had a Substance Use Problem or Mental Health Issue: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic Ever Had a
Substance Use Problem1
(2021)
Ever Had a
Substance Use Problem1
(2022)
Ever Had a
Mental Health Issue2
(2021)
Ever Had a
Mental Health Issue2
(2022)
TOTAL 11.7 11.8 23.5 24.5
AGE GROUP        
18-25 7.4a 8.7 38.3b 41.4
26 or Older 12.3 12.3 21.2 21.8
26-49 14.2 14.8 28.4a 30.1
50 or Older 10.7 10.2 15.0 14.7
GENDER        
Male 14.3 14.5 19.6 20.7
Female 9.2 9.3 27.2 28.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 12.4 12.4 24.7 25.7
AIAN 16.7 17.6 21.8 19.6
Asian 4.2 3.7 13.1 15.8
Black or African American 7.6 7.2 17.5 16.0
NHOPI * 8.2 * *
White 13.9 14.1 26.9a 28.4
Two or More Races 18.0 14.7 38.9 33.9
Hispanic or Latino 8.2 9.1 17.3 18.6
EDUCATION LEVEL        
< High School 10.7 10.8 14.9 14.5
High School Graduate 11.0 11.1 17.6a 19.3
Some College/Associate’s Degree 13.5 14.4 28.2 28.7
College Graduate 10.8 10.4 27.1 27.7
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 11.8 12.7 23.3b 25.7
Part-Time 12.3 12.8 33.1 32.7
Unemployed 16.8 17.2 29.4 28.7
Other3 10.6 9.7 19.8 19.6
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a problem with their drug or alcohol use.
2 Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a problem with their mental health.
3
Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.43A – Perceived Recovery from a Substance Use Problem or Mental Health Issue: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic In Recovery from a
Substance Use Problem1
(2021)
In Recovery from a
Substance Use Problem1
(2022)
In Recovery from a
Mental Health Issue2
(2021)
In Recovery from a
Mental Health Issue2
(2022)
TOTAL 21,415 21,262 39,253 40,793
AGE GROUP        
18-25 1,647 1,835 7,886b 8,903
26 or Older 19,768 19,427 31,367 31,890
26-49 10,248 10,368 18,883 19,289
50 or Older 9,520 9,059 12,484 12,601
GENDER        
Male 12,735 12,770 15,709 16,459
Female 8,680 8,492 23,544 24,334
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 19,050 18,491 34,455 35,440
AIAN 174 165 227 176
Asian 402 320 1,388 1,625
Black or African American 1,621 1,505 3,321 3,211
NHOPI * 90 * *
White 16,179 15,916 28,322 29,285
Two or More Races 587 495 1,092 1,049
Hispanic or Latino 2,365 2,771 4,798 5,353
EDUCATION LEVEL        
< High School 2,366 1,916 2,485 2,259
High School Graduate 5,516 5,480 7,653 8,076
Some College/Associate’s Degree 7,788 8,119 14,095 14,449
College Graduate 5,745 5,748 15,019 16,009
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 9,626 10,211 17,970b 20,107
Part-Time 2,536 3,099 6,703 7,000
Unemployed 1,591 1,241 2,302 1,833
Other3 7,663 6,711 12,278 11,853
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents were asked if they perceived themselves to be in recovery or recovered from a substance use problem only if they reported ever having a drug or alcohol use problem. Respondents who perceived themselves never having had a substance use problem were classified in this analysis as not being in recovery or having recovered from a substance use problem. Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a substance use problem or for perceived recovery from their substance use problem.
2 Respondents were asked if they perceived themselves to be in recovery or recovered from a mental health issue only if they reported ever having a mental health issue. Respondents who perceived themselves never having had a mental health issue were classified in this analysis as not being in recovery or having recovered from a mental health issue. Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a mental health issue or for perceived recovery from their mental health issue.
3
Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.43B – Perceived Recovery from a Substance Use Problem or Mental Health Issue: Among People Aged 18 or Older; by Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic In Recovery from a
Substance Use Problem1
(2021)
In Recovery from a
Substance Use Problem1
(2022)
In Recovery from a
Mental Health Issue2
(2021)
In Recovery from a
Mental Health Issue2
(2022)
TOTAL 8.5 8.4 15.6 16.1
AGE GROUP        
18-25 5.0 5.3 23.9a 25.9
26 or Older 9.0 8.8 14.4 14.5
26-49 10.1 10.2 18.6 19.0
50 or Older 8.1 7.7 10.7 10.7
GENDER        
Male 10.4 10.3 12.8 13.3
Female 6.7 6.5 18.2 18.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 9.1 8.8 16.5 16.8
AIAN 10.6 13.2 13.6 14.2
Asian 2.7 2.1 9.4 10.6
Black or African American 5.3 4.9 11.0 10.5
NHOPI * 7.4 * *
White 10.3 10.1 18.1 18.7
Two or More Races 13.0 9.9 24.2 21.0
Hispanic or Latino 5.5 6.3 11.3 12.2
EDUCATION LEVEL        
< High School 8.5 8.0 8.9 9.4
High School Graduate 8.0 8.0 11.2 11.8
Some College/Associate’s Degree 10.2 10.5 18.4 18.7
College Graduate 7.3 6.8 19.1 19.0
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 8.5 8.7 15.8a 17.1
Part-Time 8.5 9.5 22.4 21.6
Unemployed 12.1 11.3 17.5 16.7
Other3 8.1 7.2 13.0 12.8
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents were asked if they perceived themselves to be in recovery or recovered from a substance use problem only if they reported ever having a drug or alcohol use problem. Respondents who perceived themselves never having had a substance use problem were classified in this analysis as not being in recovery or having recovered from a substance use problem. Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a substance use problem or for perceived recovery from their substance use problem.
2 Respondents were asked if they perceived themselves to be in recovery or recovered from a mental health issue only if they reported ever having a mental health issue. Respondents who perceived themselves never having had a mental health issue were classified in this analysis as not being in recovery or having recovered from a mental health issue. Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a mental health issue or for perceived recovery from their mental health issue.
3
Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.44A – Perceived Recovery from a Substance Use Problem: Among People Aged 18 or Older Who Perceived Ever Having a Substance Use Problem; Perceived Recovery from a Mental Health Issue: Among People Aged 18 or Older Who Perceived Ever Having a Mental Health Issue; by Demographic Characteristics, Numbers in Thousands, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic In Recovery from a
Substance Use Problem1
(2021)
In Recovery from a
Substance Use Problem1
(2022)
In Recovery from a
Mental Health Issue2
(2021)
In Recovery from a
Mental Health Issue2
(2022)
TOTAL 21,415 21,262 39,253 40,793
AGE GROUP        
18-25 1,647 1,835 7,886a 8,903
26 or Older 19,768 19,427 31,367 31,890
26-49 10,248 10,368 18,883 19,289
50 or Older 9,520 9,059 12,484 12,601
GENDER        
Male 12,735 12,770 15,709 16,459
Female 8,680 8,492 23,544 24,334
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 19,050 18,491 34,455 35,440
AIAN * * * *
Asian * * 1,388 1,625
Black or African American 1,621 1,505 3,321 3,211
NHOPI * * * *
White 16,179 15,916 28,322 29,285
Two or More Races * * 1,092 1,049
Hispanic or Latino 2,365 2,771 4,798 5,353
EDUCATION LEVEL        
< High School 2,366 1,916 2,485 2,259
High School Graduate 5,516 5,480 7,653 8,076
Some College/Associate’s Degree 7,788 8,119 14,095 14,449
College Graduate 5,745 5,748 15,019 16,009
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 9,626 10,211 17,970b 20,107
Part-Time 2,536 3,099 6,703 7,000
Unemployed 1,591 1,241 2,302 1,833
Other3 7,663 6,711 12,278 11,853
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents were asked if they perceived themselves to be in recovery or recovered from a substance use problem only if they reported ever having a drug or alcohol use problem. Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a substance use problem or for perceived recovery from their substance use problem.
2 Respondents were asked if they perceived themselves to be in recovery or recovered from a mental health issue only if they reported ever having a mental health issue. Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a mental health issue or for perceived recovery from their mental health issue.
3
Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.
230705
Table 8.44B – Perceived Recovery from a Substance Use Problem: Among People Aged 18 or Older Who Perceived Ever Having a Substance Use Problem; Perceived Recovery from a Mental Health Issue: Among People Aged 18 or Older Who Perceived Ever Having a Mental Health Issue; by Demographic Characteristics, Percentages, 2021 and 2022
Demographic Characteristic In Recovery from a
Substance Use Problem1
(2021)
In Recovery from a
Substance Use Problem1
(2022)
In Recovery from a
Mental Health Issue2
(2021)
In Recovery from a
Mental Health Issue2
(2022)
TOTAL 72.8 71.0 66.8 65.8
AGE GROUP        
18-25 67.1 61.6 62.6 63.0
26 or Older 73.4 72.0 67.9 66.6
26-49 71.3 69.1 65.6 63.1
50 or Older 75.8 75.7 71.9 72.9
GENDER        
Male 72.7 71.4 66.0 64.5
Female 73.0 70.5 67.3 66.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 73.5 71.2 67.0 65.8
AIAN * * * *
Asian * * 71.9 67.6
Black or African American 70.5 68.7 63.4 65.9
NHOPI * * * *
White 74.2 71.9 67.4 65.8
Two or More Races * * 62.1 62.4
Hispanic or Latino 67.7 69.6 65.4 66.1
EDUCATION LEVEL        
< High School 78.8 73.6 60.2 65.1
High School Graduate 72.6 72.8 64.1 61.6
Some College/Associate’s Degree 75.3 73.3 65.5 65.4
College Graduate 68.0 65.8 70.9 68.7
EMPLOYMENT STATUS        
Full-Time 71.4 68.4 67.8 66.7
Part-Time 68.5 74.5 68.0 66.3
Unemployed 72.3 66.2 60.1 58.3
Other3 76.5 74.7 66.0 65.3
* = low precision; -- = not available or not comparable due to methodological changes; da = does not apply; nr = not reported due to measurement issues.
NOTE: Estimates for 2021 may differ from previously published estimates because the 2021 analysis weights were updated to facilitate between-year comparisons. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
NOTE: Estimates in this table exclude a subset of respondents who did not complete the questionnaire. The analysis weights and estimates were adjusted for the reduced sample size. See the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): Methodological Summary and Definitions for details.
a,b The difference between this estimate and the 2022 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level (a) or .01 level (b). Rounding may make the estimates appear identical.
1 Respondents were asked if they perceived themselves to be in recovery or recovered from a substance use problem only if they reported ever having a drug or alcohol use problem. Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a substance use problem or for perceived recovery from their substance use problem.
2 Respondents were asked if they perceived themselves to be in recovery or recovered from a mental health issue only if they reported ever having a mental health issue. Excluded were respondents with unknown information for ever having a mental health issue or for perceived recovery from their mental health issue.
3
Other Employment includes students, people keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled people, or other people not in the labor force.
Definitions: Measures and terms are defined in Appendix A.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2021 and 2022.

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