Find SAMHSA publications and related resources about medication-assisted treatment (MAT).
SAMHSA Publications and Resources on Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT)
- In Brief: Adult Drug Courts and Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Dependence – 2014
- Know Your Rights: Rights for Individuals on Medication-Assisted Treatment – 2009
- Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction: 2010 State Profiles
- Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction: Facts for Family and Friends – 2009 (Spanish)
- Medication for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Brief Guide – 2015
- Opioid Overdose Toolkit: Safety Advice for Patients and Family Members – 2014
- SAMHSA Advisory bulletins provide opioid treatment professionals, public officials, and others with information on important issues impacting behavioral health.
- The SAMHSA Knowledge Application Program (KAP) provides MAT professionals with publications and resources that promote best treatment practices.
- TIP 43: Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction in Opioid Treatment Programs – 2008
- TIP 45: Detoxification and Substance Abuse Treatment Training Manual – 2008
- TIP 49: Incorporating Alcohol Pharmacotherapies Into Medical Practice – 2009
- TIP 63: Medications for Opioid Use Disorder – Full Document (Including Executive Summary and Parts 1-5)
Find more resources on MAT in the SAMHSA Store.
The SAMHSA Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) publishes Dear Colleague Letters, official SAMHSA guidance for physicians and other professionals on a variety of issues related to MAT.
SAMHSA Publications on Buprenorphine
- Diversion and Abuse of Buprenorphine: A Brief Assessment of Emerging Indicators – 2006 (PDF | 722 KB)
- The Facts About Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction – 2009 (also available in Spanish, Russian, Vietnamese, and Chinese.)
- TAP 30: Buprenorphine: A Guide for Nurses – 2009
- TIP 40: Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction – 2004
Other Government Publications on Buprenorphine
- Buprenorphine Prescribing Practices and Exposures Reported to a Poison Control Center – Utah, 2002-2011 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – 2012 (PDF | 491 KB)
- Notes from the Field: Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations for Buprenorphine Ingestion by Children – United States, 2010-2011 from the CDC – 2013
- Special Report: Methadone and Buprenorphine, 2003-2008 from the Drug Enforcement Administration National Forensic Laboratory Information System – 2009 (PDF | 3.7 MB)
Journal Articles on Opioid Treatment
The January-February 2010 issue of The American Journal on Addictions contains peer-reviewed articles authored by DPT staff members. The articles underscore the clinical consequences of drug interactions between opioid therapies and other medications as well as with other misused substances.
Journal Articles on Buprenorphine
- Initial Response as a Predictor of 12-Week Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment Response in a Prescription Opioid-Dependent Population from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry – 2015: This article presents a secondary analysis of data from the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS), which showed 56% of patients who were abstinent in the first two weeks of buprenorphine–naloxone treatment were abstinent in weeks 9 through 12. Conversely, only 6% of those who continued using during the first two weeks were abstinent at three months.
- Commentary: Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment of Prescription Opioid Abuse: Does Past Performance Predict Future Results? from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry – 2015: One immediate conclusion from this article is that 12 weeks of buprenorphine–naloxone treatment was insufficient to achieve a sustained remission in the POATS cohort.
- A Urinalysis-based Comparative Study of Treatment Adherence on Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine-Naloxone Combination Used as Opioid Substitution Therapy from Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience – 2012: This study’s findings suggest that buprenorphine combined with naloxone has a higher adherence rate compared to buprenorphine alone.
- Buprenorphine/Naloxone and Methadone Maintenance Treatment Outcomes for Opioid Analgesic, Heroin, and Combined Users: Findings from Starting Treatment with Agonist Replacement Therapies (START) from The Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs – 2013: Findings from this study indicate that substance use severity differentiates heroin users from opioid analgesic (OA) users and injectors from non-injectors. Irrespective of medication, heroin use and injecting are associated with treatment attrition and opioid misuse during treatment. These results have particular clinical interest, as there is no evidence of superiority of buprenorphine over methadone for treating OA users versus heroin users.
- Relationship Between Buprenorphine Adherence and Health Service Utilization and Costs Among Opioid Dependent Patients from The Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment – 2013: This article makes the case that people who adhere to buprenorphine therapy have higher pharmacy charges but lower outpatient, inpatient, emergency room, and total health care charges compared to those individuals who do not adhere to therapy.
- A Clinical Trial Comparing Tapering Doses of Buprenorphine with Steady Doses for Chronic Pain and Co-Existent Opioid Addiction from The Journal of Addiction Medicine – 2010: Over a period of six months, participants with chronic pain and opioid dependency were more likely to adhere to opioid replacement than an opioid weaning. Opioid replacement therapy with steady doses of buprenorphine-naloxone was also associated with improved pain control and physical functioning.
- Effect of Buprenorphine Dose on Treatment Outcome from the Journal of Addictive Diseases – 2012: A higher buprenorphine dose predicts better retention in treatment compared with a lower dose, according to evidence from 21 randomized clinical trials.
- Long-term Outcomes from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study from Drug and Alcohol Dependence Journal – 2015: This research examines outcomes over 42 months in the study known as POATS.
- Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Care Model for Buprenorphine-Maintained Opioid-Dependent Patients from the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association – 2015: This paper reports on a 12-patient pilot buprenorphine maintenance project that used pharmacists to monitor care, thus reducing physician burden.
- For Prescription Opioid Dependence, Relapses Associated With Shorter Treatment Course from the Medscape Perspectives on the American Psychiatric Association 2010 Annual Meeting (Medscape login required): This article makes the case that tapering with buprenorphine during a nine-month period—whether initially or after a period of substantial improvement—leads to nearly universal relapse in people dependent on prescription opioids.
- Predictive Factors for Relapse in Patients on Buprenorphine Maintenance from The American Journal on Addictions – 2014: This study identifies relapse risk factors during buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependency.
- A Randomized, Double-Blind Evaluation of Buprenorphine Taper Duration in Primary Prescription Opioid Abusers from The Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry – 2013: Results of this evaluation suggest that a meaningful subset of prescription opioid-dependent outpatients may respond positively to a four-week taper plus naltrexone maintenance intervention.
Use in Pregnancy
- Buprenorphine + Naloxone in the Treatment of Opioid Dependence During Pregnancy—Initial Patient Care and Outcome Data from the American Journal on Addictions – 2013: Findings from one study suggest no significant adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes arise from the use of buprenorphine plus naloxone for the treatment of opioid dependency during pregnancy.
- Buprenorphine Use in Pregnant Opioid Users: A Critical Review from CNS Drugs – 2013: Buprenorphine has the same clinical result as methadone for neonatal outcomes, though some newer studies suggest that buprenorphine causes fewer withdrawal symptoms. These findings suggest that buprenorphine is becoming a first-line treatment for pregnant opioid users.
- Cost-effectiveness of Extended Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment for Opioid-Dependent Youth: Data from a Randomized Trial - Addiction – 2010: This article makes the case that extended buprenorphine-naloxone treatment, relative to brief detoxification, is cost effective in the U.S. health care system for the outpatient treatment of opioid-dependent youth.
- Extended vs. Short-term Buprenorphine-Naloxone for Treatment of Opioid-Addicted Youth from the Journal of the American Medical Association – 2008: This clinical trial evaluates the effectiveness of continuing buprenorphine-naloxone for 12 weeks versus detoxification for opioid-addicted youth.
This list of MAT-related resources was developed by SAMHSA’s federal partners and partnering organizations:
- Informational Bulletin: Medication-Assisted Treatment for Substance Use Disorders at Medicaid.gov – 2014 (PDF | 163 KB)
- eSolutions: Medication Assisted Treatment: An Adjunct to Addictions Treatment at the SAMHSA-HRSA Center for Integrated Health Solutions
- In My Own Words: A Compilation of Essays by Individuals Supported by Medication-Assisted Treatment in Long-Term Recovery at the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network – 2012 (PDF | 5.63 MB)
- Opioid Abuse in the U.S. and HHS Actions to Address Opioid-Drug Related Overdoses and Deaths – 2015 (PDF | 148 KB)
Connect with federal agencies, patient groups, and other support organizations that provide educational and other resources for MAT professionals and patients. Learn more about medication and counseling treatment.